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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1848 19 - 20 Jul The Women's Rights Convention was held in the Wesleyan Chapel at Seneca Falls, NY. The principle organizer was Lucretia Mott, with Elizabeth Cady Stanton as its driving intellect. A significant role was played by an African-American man, an abolitionist and a recently freed slave, Frederick Douglass. The convention adopted a Declaration of Rights and Sentiments that consisted of 11 resolutions including the right for women to vote. The signatories were the 68 women and 32 men in attendance. The right for women to vote became part of the United States Constitution in 1920. [The Calling: Tahirih of Persia and her American Contemporaries p114-160, "Seneca Falls First Woman's Rights Convention of 1848: The Sacred Rites of the Nation" by Bradford W. Miller (Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8.3, 1998)]
  • This conference has been compared to the Conference of Badasht with respect to the emancipation of women and entrenched prejudices.
Seneca Falls; New York; United States; Badasht; Iran Womens rights; Human rights; African Americans; Women; Gender; Equality; Conference of Badasht; Tahirih
1852. 21 Feb Birth of Isabella Brittingham, prominent American Bahá'í teacher, in New York City. New York; United States Isabella Brittingham; Births and deaths
1892. 20 Dec Ibrahim Kheiralla arrives in New York. [BBD129; BFA1:26; SSBH1:88]
  • See BFA1 for Kheiralla's life, work for the Bahá'í Faith and defection.
New York; United States Ibrahim George Kheiralla
1895. 23 Jun Birth of Leonora Stirling Armstrong, pioneer American Bahá'í, regarded as the Mother of South America, in upstate New York. New York; United States Leonora Holsapple Armstrong; Names and titles
1898. Feb Kheiralla arrives in New York and begins classes on the Bahá'í Faith. [BFA1:XXVIII, 116] New York Ibrahim George Kheiralla
1898. Jun In New York City, 141 people become Bahá'ís in the five months since Kheiralla's arrival. [BFA1:XXVIII, 125] New York; United States Ibrahim George Kheiralla
1898. 22 Sep The first Western pilgrims depart for `Akká, travelling via New York and Paris. [BFA1:XXVIII, 140–1, 230]
  • It is arranged by Phoebe Hearst, who had already planned a journey to Egypt for the autumn. [BFA1:140]
  • There are 15 pilgrims in all. [AB68]
New York Pilgrimage; Phoebe Hearst; Lua Getsinger; Edward Getsinger; Robert Turner
1899 Miss Olive Jackson of Manhattan becomes the first black American woman Bahá'í. [BFA1:126–7] Manhattan; New York; United States Race (general); Firsts, Other
1900 26 Apr Hájí `Abdu'l-Karím-i-Tihrání arrives in New York, the first Persian Bahá'í to visit North America, to try to bring Kheiralla back into the Faith and to explain the basic teachings of the Faith to the American believers. He is accompanied by Mirza Sinore Raffie, his translator. [BFA173–6; BFA2:17–29] New York Haji Abdul-Karim-i-Tihrani; Ibrahim George Kheiralla; Mirza Sinore Raffie
1900 5 Aug Hájí `Abdu'l-Karím-i-Tihrání leaves the United States, his efforts to win Kheiralla back to the Faith having failed. [BFA176] New York Haji Abdul-Karim-i-Tihrani; Ibrahim George Kheiralla
1900. 4 Nov The arrival Persian teachers in America. Mírzá Asadu'lláh (1826-1930) and Hájí Hasan-i-Khurásání. Their task was to consolidate the American community and to address the effects of Kheiralla's disaffection.
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá provided them with two translators, Mírzá Husayn Rúhí, a young Persian Bahá'í who has learned English in Egypt and Mírzá Burzurg.
  • Mírzá Asadu'lláh spent three weeks in New York then relocated to Chicago where he stayed for eighteen months. [BFA2p35-37]
New York; United States Mirza Asadullah-i-Isfahani; Haji Hasan-i-Khurasani; Mirza Husayn Ruhi; Mirza Burzurg
1900 29 Nov Hájí Hasan-i-Khurásání and Mírzá Asadu'lláh-i-Isfahání arrive in the United States to assist the Bahá'ís to deepen their knowledge of their Faith. [BFA2:VI, 35–43ff]
  • Mírzá Asadu'lláh-i-Isfahání remained in the country for a while then returned to the Holy Land. He did not accompany 'Abdu'l-Bahá to America however shortly after His return, Mírzá Asadu'lláh and his son insisted on going to the West and did so against 'Abdu'l-Bahá's wishes. Both he and his son were expelled from the Faith. [APD143]
New York; United States Haji Hasan-i-Khurasani; Mirza Asadullah-i-Isfahani
1900 7 Dec In New York, nine men were selected to govern the affairs of the Faith. Those serving were Arthur Dodge, Hooper Harris, William Hoar, Andrew Hutchinson, Howard MacNutt, Frank Osborne, Edwin Putnam, Charles Sprague and Orosco Woolson. Among the problems that they had to face was the affect of the disaffection of Kheiralla. [BFA2p36] New York; United States Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; Ibrahim George Kheiralla
1901 Mid-Jul Hájí Hasan-i-Khurásání leaves the United States. [BFA2:38] New York Haji Hasan-i-Khurasani
1901 Aug Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl arrives in North America. [BFA2:XV]
  • See BFA2:80–7 and BW9:855–60 for accounts of his visit.
  • Mirza Ahmad Sohrab. is sent to assist Mírzá Abú'l-Fadl Gulpaygání. He remains and works at the Iranian Consulate until 1912 and during this time he translates much of the correspondence between 'Abdu'l-Bahâ and the Western believers. After the American tour he returns to the Holy Land. After the passing of 'Abdu'l-Bahá he rejects the authority of Shoghi Effendi and is expelled. [APD155]
New York Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani Green Acre Bahá'í School (Wikipedia); Mary Hanford Ford (Wikipedia)
1901 26 Nov The Day of the Covenant The Day of the Covenant is a Bahá'í holy day honouring the Covenant of Bahá’u’lláh, in particular, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá as the “Centre of the Covenant" and as such, the successor, the interpreter and the exemplar of the Bahá'í Faith. Bahá'u'lláh's Covenant also provided for the extension of this covenant to the Guardian and to the Universal House of Justice.
The first celebration of the Day of the Covenant in North America was marked on this day.
  • Prior to this time some of the believers celebrated the birth of 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the 22nd of May. Others marked the 29th of May, the anniversary of the passing of Bahá'u'lláh and thusly, the day on which He acceded to the leadership of the Bahá'í community.
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá chose the day November 26th, as reckoned by the Gregorian calendar, as approximately half a year away from this date, to commemorate His appointment of the Centre of the Covenant.
  • The day was know as Jashn-i-A'zam (The Greatest Festival) in the East because He was Ghusn-i-A'zam, the Greatest Branch or the "Most Might Branch" [GPB238, BFA2:XV, 56; SA247, Day of the Covenant by Christopher Buck, AB523]
New York; United States Day of the Covenant; Firsts, Other; Covenant (general); Holy Days; Abdul-Baha, Birth of; Bahaullah, Ascension of; Bab, Declaration of
1904 A compilation of Bahá'í writings in English is published by the Board of Counsel of New York. [BW10:179] New York; United States Compilations; Publications
1905 23 May The first Nineteen Day Feast celebrated in the West is held in New York City, the first known to have been held in North America. [BFA2:XVI, 245]
  • It consists of a devotional portion and a social part. The administrative aspect of the Feast is developed in the 1930s. [BFA2:245; SA208]
  • Howard and Mary MacNutt, along with Julia Grundy, had been on pilgrimage early in the year and had been encouraged to hold Feasts by 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
New York Nineteen Day Feast
1908 25 Apr Charles Mason Remey and Sidney Sprague sail from New York for Iran and Russia. [BFA2:289]
  • For details of their journey see BFA2:289–95.
  • In Tihrán Tá`irih Khánum, a Bahá'í woman with advanced ideas, hosts them at a meeting at which the women remove their veils. [BFA2:292–4]
  • They give Tá`irih Khánum the address of Isabella Brittingham and the two women begin a correspondence. [BFA2:294]
New York; Tihran Charles Mason Remey; Sidney Sprague; Tairih Khanum; Isabella Brittingham; Women; Gender; Equality
1910 The publication of The Oriental Rose, or, The teachings of 'Abdu'l-Bahá which trace the chart of "The Shining Pathway" by Mary Hanford Finney Ford.
  • See page 158-159 for her pen portrait of 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
New York; United States Mary Hanford Ford; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Introductory; Abdul-Baha, Pen portraits; Pen portraits; Portraits; Publications
1910 8 Aug Birth of Mary Sutherland Maxwell, Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, Hand of the Cause of God, in New York City. New York; United States Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
1911 22 Aug - 3 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá took up residence at Thonon-les-Bains on Lake Leman (Lake Geneva). [AB140; GPB280; SBR219]
  • While there He encountered Zillu's-Sultán, the eldest son of the Sháh of the time, Násirid-Dín Sháh. It was he who had ratified the execution of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs and at least 100 others. The whole family was in exile in Geneva at this time. 'Abdu'l-Bahá was very courteous to this man who had been such an inveterate enemy of the Cause. [DJT172] .
  • The Master sent for Juliet Thompson who had been waiting in London for His permission to join Him.
  • During His stay he had a visit from Annie Boylan, a member of the New York community that was experiencing disharmony. Unaware of Bahá'í election procedures, a group that was unhappy with the disunity and ineffectiveness of the Council had organized a vote to be rid of several of its Council members. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had written to the community a short time before recommending that the Council be expanded from 9 to 27 members so that all factions could be represented. He also recommended that women be included on the Council and that the name be changed to "the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of New York". This apparently addressed the problem of disunity because the New York community went on to contribute significantly to the progress of the Faith on a national level. [DJT181, BFA2p338]
  • Horace Holley, who lived at Quattro Torri, Siena, Italy at the time, along with his wife Bertha Herbert and baby daughter Hertha, visited 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the 29th and 30th of August. Please see his Religion for Mankind p 232-237 for a pen portrait of 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • He met with Elizabeth Stewart and Lillian Kappes who were on their way to Tehran. [find reference]
  • It would appear that He returned to Marseilles and travelled to London by sea. [SCU22-23]
Thonon-les-Bains; Lake Leman; Marseilles; France; Switzerland; Italy; London; United Kingdom; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; Unity; Zillus-Sultan; Persecution; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Juliet Thompson; Horace Holley; Elizabeth Stewart; Lillian Kappes; Ships
1912 29 or 30 Mar The S. S. Cedric leaves Naples for New York. [BHC93] Naples; New York Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; S. S. Cedric; Ships
1912 11 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in New York. [AB172; GPB281, APD3-5]
  • During His tour `Abdu'l-Bahá visits 32 cities and makes numerous addresses of which 185 are recorded. [SBBH1:110]
  • For a chronological list of talks given by `Abdu'l-Bahá while in North America see PUP473–8.
  • For details of His journey see AB171–339.
  • Ward, 239 Days; Balyuzi, `Abdu'l-Bahá; The Diary of Juliet Thompson; many editions of Star of the West and numerous biographies of Bahá'ís of the time as well as other books carry information about `Abdu'l-Bahá travels and talks.
  • Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP3]
  • He was accompanied by:

    -Sayyid Asadu'lláh Qumí,

    -Dr Fareed Amin Ullah, He was a nephew of 'Abdu'l-Bahá and served as his translator during His tour of the West. Because of his disobedience he and his father were both expelled from the Faith.

    -Mírza Mahmúd-i Zarqání. He was a member of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's entourage for both the Western and European tours. He wrote an account of the travels in a book entitled Kitáb-i Badáyi'u'l-Áthár and called "Mahmúd's Diary" in the English translation. [APD151]

    -Mirza Ahmad Sohrab. He had originally come to the West to assist Mírzá Abú'l-Fadl Gulpaygání in 1901. He remained and worked at the Iranian Consulate until 1912 and during this time he translated much of the correspondence between 'Abdu'l-Bahâ and the Western believers. After the American tour he returned to the Holy Land. After the passing of 'Abdu'l-Bahá he rejected the authority of Shoghi Effendi and was expelled. [APD155]

New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other; Edward Kinney; Mahmuds Diary; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of
1912 12 Apr Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Howard MacNutt, 935 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, New York, [PUP4]
  • Talk at Studio of Miss Phillips, 39 West Sixty-seventh Street, New York. [PUP7]
New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Howard MacNutt; Phillips, Miss
1912 13 Apr Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Alexander Morten, 141 East Twenty-first Street, New York [PUP9] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
1912 14 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá speaks from the pulpit of the Church of the Ascension, Fifth Avenue and Tenth Street, New York. [239D:22–3, PUP11]
  • Talk at Union Meeting of Advanced Thought Centers, Carnegie Lyceum, West Fifty-seventh Street, New York. [PUP14]
New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; ; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches; ; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
1912 15 Apr Talk at Home of Mountfort Mills, 327 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP16] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
1912 16 Apr Talk at Hotel Ansonia to Baha’i’ Friends of New Jersey, Broadway and Seventy-third Street, New York. [PUP18] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Hotels
1912 17 Apr Talk at Hotel Ansonia, Broadway and Seventy-third Street, New York. [PUP20] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
1912 17 Apr Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York, [PUP23] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Edward Kinney
1912 18 Apr Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Marshall L. Emery, 273 West Ninetieth Street, New York. [PUP25] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
1912 19 Apr Talk at Earl Hall, Columbia University, New York. [PUP29]

'Abdu'l-Bahá visits The Bowery accompanied by Edward Getsinger and Juliet Thompson as noted in her unpublished Diary. They arrived with two heavy bags of quarters to distribute to the poor. [OPOP165-168, PUP32]

Bowery; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Columbia University; Abdul-Baha, Talks at universities; Charity and relief work
1912 20 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in Washington DC from New York by train. He is accompanied by Dr Getsinger, Dr Fareed, Mírzá Valiyu'lláh Nakhjavání and Mahmúd-i-Zarqání. [239D:37–8; AB178; SBR78, APD9]
  • Talk at Orient-Occident-Unity Conference, Public Library Hall, Washington, D.C. [PUP35]
Washington DC; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places; Trains
1912 11 May `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Washington for New York City, arriving the same day. [239D:64–5, AB190, APD66-67]

Talk at the Hudson Apartment House at 227 Riverside Drive, New York. [PUP111, DJT282]

Washington; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at other places
1912 12 May `Abdu'l-Bahá takes a ferry to New Jersey. He takes a train for Montclair where He addresses the congregation of the Unity Church before returning to New York to speak to the International Peace Forum at the Grace Methodist Episcopal Church West 104th Street, New York. [239D:66; AB191, PUP113, PUP116] Montclair; New Jersey; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches; Conferences, Peace; Peace; Trains
1912 13 May `Abdu'l-Bahá, very unwell, attends a reception and gives a talk to the New York Peace Society at the Hotel Astor. [239D:67; AB192, PUP123, APD67] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Hotel Astor; Abdul-Baha, Talks other; Peace
1912 14–16 May `Abdu'l-Bahá attends the Conference on International Peace and Arbitration at Lake Mohonk, delivering an address on the first evening. [239D:67–9; AB193] Lake Mohonk; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Conferences, Peace; Conferences, International; Peace; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
1912 19 May In the morning He spoke at the Church of the Divine Paternity, Central Park West, New York. [PUP126]

`Abdu'l-Bahá travels to Jersey City to speak in the Unitarian Church, the Brotherhood Church, Bergen and Fairview Avenues, of which Howard Colby Ives is the pastor. [239D:70–1; AB194, PUP129] ]

Jersey City; New Jersey; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Howard Colby Ives; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches
1912 20 May Talk at Woman’s Suffrage Meeting, Metropolitan Temple, Seventh Avenue and Fourteenth Street, New York. [PUP133] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
1912 22 May `Abdu'l-Bahá travels to Boston, arriving the same day. [239D:71; AB198] New York; Boston; Massachusetts; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
1912 26 May `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Boston and returns to New York, arriving in the evening. [239D:73; AB201]

Talk at Mount Morris Baptist Church, Fifth Avenue and 126th Street, New York. [PUP147]

Boston; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches
1912 28 May `Abdu'l-Bahá and His party are evicted from their hotel because of the `coming and going of diverse people' and the `additional labours and troubles' caused to the staff. [239D:74]

Talk at Reception at Metropolitan Temple, Seventh Avenue and Fourteenth Street, New York. [PUP150]

New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches
1912 25 May Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP154] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Edward Kinney
1912 30 May Talk at Theosophical Lodge, Broadway and Seventy-ninth Street, New York. [PUP156] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Theosophical Society; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
1912 1 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá returns to New York. [AB206]
  • He has His first sitting for the portrait painted by Juliet Thompson. [DJT299]
New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Juliet Thompson; Abdul-Baha, Pictures and portraits; Portraits
1912 6 Jun Talk at Church of the Ascension, Fifth Avenue and Tenth Street, New York. [PUP163] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches
1912 4 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá returns to New York. [AB208] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
1912 8 Jun Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York, [PUP171]

`Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in Philadelphia. [239D:88; AB209]

New York; Philadelphia; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
1912 10 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Philadelphia and returns to New York, arriving the same day. [239D:88; AB211] Philadelphia; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
1912 11 Jun Talk at Open Committee Meeting, Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP183]

Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP183]

Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP186]

New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; ; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Edward Kinney
1912 12 Jun Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP187] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
1912 15 Jun Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP189] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
1912 16 Jun Talk at Fourth Unitarian Church, Beverly Road, Flatbush, Brooklyn, New York. [PUP190]

Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Howard MacNutt, 935 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, New York. [PUP194]

Talk at Central Congregational Church, Hancock Street, Brooklyn, New York. [PUP197]

New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Churches; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Howard MacNutt
1912 17 Jun Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP204] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
1912 18 Jun Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP205] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
1912 19 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá names New York the `City of the Covenant'. [239D:93; AB220; BBD55, ABNY51; DJT315-316]
  • See 239D:92–93 for a description of this event.
New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Covenant, City of; Covenant (general)
1912 20 Jun Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP206] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
1912 30 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá returns to New York after visiting Mr Topakyan, the Persian Consul General, in Morristown. [239D:103; AB225–6] New York; Morristown; New Jersey; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Topakyan, Mr; Consuls
1912 1 Jul Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP216]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke on the subject of poverty and the alleviation of the discrepancy between the rich and the poor.
Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP218]
New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Wealth and poverty
1912 5 Jul Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York, the home of Howard MacNutt. [PUP218]

Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP220]

On this occasion 'Abdu'l-Bahá assigned Howard the task of deepening a group of Chicago Bahá’ís on the importance of the Covenant and instructing them not to associate with Covenant-breakers. Howard failed to complete this task and continued correspondence with associates of Kheiralla. For more information see this date.

New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Covenant (general); Covenant-breakers
1912 6 Jul Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP225] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
1912 14 Jul Talk at All Souls Unitarian Church, Fourth Avenue and Twentieth Street, New York. [PUP228] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; ; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches
1912 15 Jul Talk at Home of Dr. and Mrs. Florian Krug, 830 Park Avenue, New York. [PUP236] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
1912 23 Jul `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves New York, arriving in Boston the same day for His second visit. [239D:117; AB233]

Talk at Hotel Victoria, corner of Newbury and Dartmouth Sts, Boston, Massachusetts. [PUP238]

  • For an interesting story about Nancy Douglas Bowditch see Wikipedia.
  • Also see The Artist's Daughter: Memoirs, 1890 - 1979 the autobiography of Nancy Douglas Bowditch.
New York; Boston; Massachusetts; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; ; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places; Nancy Douglas Bowditch
1912 27 Sep Louisa Mathew and Louis Gregory, an interracial Bahá'í couple, are married in New York City. [239D:169] New York; United States Louisa Mathew Gregory; Louis Gregory; Firsts, Other; Race (general); Unity; Interracial marriage
1912 12 Nov `Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in New York at 1:00 a.m. [AB329] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
1912 15 Nov Talk at Home of Miss Juliet Thompson, 48 West Tenth Street, New York. [PUP431] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Juliet Thompson
1912 16 Nov Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP437] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
1912 17 Nov Talk at Genealogical Hall, 252 West Fifty-eighth Street, New York. [PUP437] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
1912 18 Nov `Abdu'l-Bahá visits the library of J. Pierpont Morgan and inscribes his album with a blessing for his philanthropy. [239D:186–7]

Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Frank K. Moxey, 575 Riverside Drive, New York. [PUP422]

New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; J. P. Morgan; J. P. Morgan Library; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
1912 18 Nov `Abdu'l-Bahá had instructed MacNutt to meet with a group of potential Covenant-breakers in Chicago and warn them of the danger. He also ordered MacNutt to break all communication with Ibrahim Kheiralla and other Covenant-breakers. He had failed to do as directed. They met in the Kenny's home for the first time since his trip where`Abdu'l-Bahá advised him that he had violated the Covenant himself and commanded him to repent before a group of New York Bahá'ís gathered there, which he did, reluctantly. [DJT371] New York; United States Howard MacNutt; Covenant-Breakers
1912 23 Nov A farewell banquet is held for `Abdu'l-Bahá at the Great Northern Hotel, 118 West Fifty-seventh Street, in New York. [239D:187; AB331, PUP447]
  • The hotel does not allow the black Bahá'ís to attend. [239D:187]
New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
1912 24 Nov `Abdu'l-Bahá and the white Bahá'ís serve the black Bahá'ís at a dinner at the Kinney's. [239D:187] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Kinney
1912 29 Nov Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP449] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Edward Kinney
1912 2 Dec Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP452]

Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP453]

New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Edward Kinney
1912 3 Dec Talk at Home of Dr. and Mrs. Florian Krug, 830 Park Avenue, New York. [PUP457]

Talk to Mr. Kinney’s Bible Class, 780 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP458]

Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP460]

New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
1912 4 Dec `Abdu'l-Bahá addresses His last meeting in North America with a talk to Theosophical Society, 2228 Broadway, New York. [239D:193, PUP462] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Theosophical Society; ; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
1912 5 Dec `Abdu'l-Bahá sails on the S. S. Celtic from New York to Liverpool. [239D:193–4; AB337; GPB281]
  • For `Abdu'l-Bahá's final words to the Bahá'ís, spoken while on board ship, see PUP468.
  • For Ahmad Sohrab's account of the sea crossing see SW3, 16:2.
New York; United States; Liverpool; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Ships; S. S. Celtic; Ahmad Sohrab; Abdul-Baha, Life of
1915 11 Oct Arthur Pillsbury Dodge, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, passes away in Freeport, New York. [sBR15]
  • For biographies see BFA1:116-17, SBR1-16 and SW6, 13:100-1.
  • For his obituary see SW6, 19:161-7.
  • Dodge's books include The Truth of It (1901) [SW6, 13:101] and Whence? Why? Wither? (1907). [SW6, 13:101]
Freeport; New York; United States Arthur Pillsbury Dodge; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam
1919 26 Apr-1 May The 14 Tablets of the Divine Plan are unveiled in a dramatic ceremony at the Hotel McAlpin in New York, during the `Convention of the Covenant'. [ABNYP172Note24, BBD219; PP437; SBBH1:134; SBBH2:135; SBR86; AB220TDPXI]
  • For details of the convention programme, Tablets and talks given see SW10, 4:54-72; SW10, 5:83-94; SW10, 6:99-103, 111-12 SW10, 7:122-7, 138; SW10, 10:197-203; and SW10, 12:2279.
  • Mary Maxwell (Rúhíyyih Khánum) is among the young people who unveil the Tablets. [PP437]
  • Hyde and Clara Dunn and Martha Root respond immediately to the appeal, the Dunns going to Australia where they open 700 towns to the Faith, and Martha Root embarking on the first of her journeys which are to extend over 20 years. [GPB308; MR88]
  • See also CT138-9.
  • Agnes Parsons arrives from her pilgrimage just before the close of the convention and is able to convey the instructions from `Abdu'l-Bahá to arrange a Convention for `the unity of the coloured and white races'. [BW5:413; SBR87]
  • New York; United States Tablets of the Divine Plan; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Charters; Conventions, National; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Agnes Parsons; Hyde Dunn; Clara Dunn; Martha Root; Race (general); Race amity; Race unity
    1919 22 Jul Martha Root leaves New York on the first of her teaching journeys for the Bahá'í Faith. [MR90] New York Martha Root
    1920 27 Apr The design for the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar at Wilmette, Illinois, was finally chosen by the forty-nine delegates present at the Twelfth Annual Convention of Bahá'í Temple Unity, being held at the Hotel McAlpin, New York. Excavation at the site began on the 24th of September and construction commenced on the 20th of December. New York; United States; Wilmette Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architecture find reference
    1922 in the year The publication of The Promulgation of Universal Peace: Talks Delivered by ‘Abdu’l‑Bahá during His Visit to the United States and Canada in 1912. Compiled by Howard MacNutt.
    • From the preface to the 1922 edition..."This treasury of His words is a compilation of informal talks and extemporary discourses delivered in Persian and Arabic, interpreted by proficient linguists who accompanied Him, and taken stenographically in both Oriental and Occidental tongue."
    • From the same preface is a letter from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to Howard MacNutt dated 13 April, 1919 approving his idea to publish the compilation of His talks in America and urging him to be most careful to reproduce the exact text as well as promising an "effulgent face" in the Abhá Kingdom as well as the praise and gratitude of the friends.
    • And again from the same source is a letter from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to Albert Windust written on the 20th of July, 1919 asking him to name the book The Promulgation of Universal Peace and to direct that the Introduction must be written by Howard MacNutt. Prior to His coming to America the friends were unclear about His station and their differences in understanding was a major source of disunity. On one extreme were those that believed that 'Abdu'l-Baha was a man who, through the application and complete obedience to the Faith, had earned a high station, like the Christ's disciple Peter, implying that others could do the same. In the other camp were those who insisted that He was the return of Christ. Little wonder that they were confused because never in religious history had there been someone like 'Abdu'l-Bahá, one Who held the station of "The Mystery of God". Howard's failure to understand 'Abdu'l-Bahá's station and disobedience to Him and taken him precariously close to the company of Covenant-breakers but through 'Abdu'l-Bahá's unfailing love and guidance he was able to come to a true understanding. The Introduction to the 1922 edition was his testament to the station of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [DJT369-372]
    • The Promulgation of Universal Peace, although not "scripture", could be compared to Some Answered Questions in that it is a carefully transcribed record of His talks. Unlike that publication where He answered questions, in The Promulgation of Universal Peace it was 'Abdu'l-Bahá who chose the subject. Upon arrival in New York He said, "It is my purpose to set forth in America the fundamental principles of the revelation and teachings of Bahá'u'lláh." [PUPxii]
    Chicago; New York; United States Promulgation of Universal Peace (book); Howard MacNutt; Publications
    1924 28-30 Mar The third Convention for Race Unity is held in New York City. [BW2:282-3; SBR93; TMW1467] New York; United States Race (general); Race amity; Race unity; Conferences, Race amity
    1924 24 Dec The first Bahá'í News Letter, forerunner of Bahá'í News, is published in New York by the National Assembly of the United States and Canada with Horace Holley as the editor. [BBRSM122; BW10:180; BW13:856; SBR232]
    • For links to the publications see entry at 1990-10-00.
    New York; United States Newsletters; Bahai News; Horace Holley; Publications
    1929 Apr The New History Society is founded in New York by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s former secretary and interpreter Ahmad Sohrab. [BRRSM124, LDG2p134]
    • It comes into conflict with the local Bahá’í Assembly, which sees the organization as a threat to the unity of the Bahá’í Faith. [BBRSM124]
    New York; United States New History Society; Ahmad Sohrab
    1930 Aug The National Spiritual Assembly published a statement in the Bahá'í News entitled The Case of Ahmad Sohrab and the New History Society. Summarized, the article stated that the “New History Society was begun in New York early in 1929 by Sohrab and "one of its avowed purposes being to spread the Bahá'í teachings. Neither the local nor the National Assembly was consulted in the matter, and the meetings and activities of the New History Society have been maintained apart from the principles of consultation which today, under the Will and Testament of 'Abdu’l-Bahá, form the basis of Bahá'í unity and the protection of the Cause."

    "Both the local and National Assembly on several occasions attempted, through oral and written communications, to bring about full and frank consultation with the leaders of the New History Society, but without success.

    "Under these conditions it becomes the obvious responsibility of the National Spiritual Assembly to inform the friends that activities conducted by Ahmad Sohrab through the New History Society are to be considered as entirely independent of the Cause, as outside the jurisdiction of the local and National Assembly, and hence in no wise entitled to the cooperation of Bahá'ís."

    This statement also quoted from a letter written on behalf of the Guardian by his Secretary to the National Spiritual Assembly on May 30, 1930: "To accept the Cause without the administration is like accepting the teachings without acknowledging the divine station of Bahá’u’lláh. To be a Bahá'í is to accept the Cause in its entirety...." "The administration is the social order of Bahá'u'lláh. Without it all the principles of the Cause will remain abortive. To take exception to this, therefore, is to take exception to the fabric that Bahá'u'lláh has prescribed, it is to disobey His law." [Ahmad Sohrab and the New History Society]

    New York; United States Covenant-breakers; Ahmad Sohrab; New History Society
    1930 Nov The National Assembly published a detailed supplementary statement in the Bahá’í News, quoting passages from the Aqdas, from the Master's Will and Testament, and from the Guardian's letters published in Bahá’í Administration, followed by a reprint of the exchange of correspondence and cables with Mrs. Chanler, and with the Guardian, including the Guardian's cable to New York believers: "True unity can only be preserved by maintenance paramount position National Spiritual Assembly," and his cable approving the statement published in August, 1930, Bahá'í News. Further, in a letter from Haifa to the Yonkers Assembly, “The Guardian pointed out the difference between the freedom defined by Bahá'u'lláh ("To have liberty is to observe My commandments") and that advocated by Sohrab ("The other kind of freedom which is in defiance of law He (Bahá'u'lláh) considers to be animal, and far from being of any good to man"). [Ahmad Sohrab and the New History Society] New York; United States Covenant-breakers; Ahmad Sohrab; New History Society
    1931 Nov The New York Bahá’í community drafts the by-laws of a Bahá’í local assembly. [GPB335]
    • These become the pattern for all local Bahá’í constitutions throughout the world. [BBRSM122; GPB335; PP303]
    New York; United States By-laws
    1944 Apr The first Bahá’í shortwave radio broadcast is beamed from New York towards South America. [BW9:44–5]
    • VV76 says this was 1943.
    New York; United States Bahai radio; Firsts, Other
    1947 1 Feb Reflecting the unity in diversity highly valued by the Baha'i community, Amin Banani, Mildred Mottahedeh, Hilda Yen, and Matthew Bullock presented the statement "A Baha'i Declaration of Human Obligations and Rights" to the UN, which ended by quoting a well-known passage by Baha'u'llah: "The earth is but one country, and mankind its citizens."

    Amin Banani was an influential scholar; Mildred Mottahedeh was a member of the International Baha'i Council from 1961-63 and later a representative of the BIC for many years; Hilda Yen was a leading figure in Chinese-American society who worked as a diplomat for many years; and Matthew Bullock was a Knight of Baha'u'llah for the Dutch West Indies, on this day was also a Knight for the Netherlands Antilles, and later a representative of the BIC. [BWNS1172]

    New York; United States United Nations; Matthew Bullock; Bahai International Community; Firsts, Other; BWNS
    1948 Mar The name ‘Bahá’í International Community’ is first used to refer to the eight existing National Spiritual Assemblies recognized collectively as a non-governmental organization. [BBRSM149; BW11:43; BW12:597]
    • The Bahá’í International Community evolved to become an international non-governmental organization with affiliates in over 180 countries and territories, which together represent over 5-6 million members of the Bahá’í Faith. As an international NGO, the Office interacts and cooperates with the United Nations, its specialized agencies, with governments, as well as with inter-governmental and non-governmental organizations. The BIC seeks to promote and apply principles — derived from the teachings of the Bahá’í Faith — which contribute to the resolution of current day challenges facing humanity and the development of a united, peaceful, just, and sustainable civilization. The work of the BIC focuses on the promotion of a universal standard for human rights, the advancement of women, and the promotion of just and equitable means of global prosperity.
    • Mildred Mottahedeh is appointed to serve as the accredited Bahá’í International Observer, a post she holds as a volunteer for almost 20 years. [BW12:601]
    • The following is a list of UN agencies with whom the BIC has representation: United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF), United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and World Health Organization (WHO).
    New York; United States Bahai International Community (general); Mildred Mottahedeh; UNICEF; UNIFEM; UNEP; Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC); World Health Organization (WHO); Firsts, Other
    1955 23 May The Bahá’í International Community submits its Proposals for Charter Revision to the United Nations for the Conference for Revision of the UN Charter. [BW13:788, 795–802] New York; United States Bahai International Community; United Nations Charter; United Nations
    1955 Aug Appeals are made by National Spiritual Assemblies around the world through the Bahá’í International Community to the UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld to ask the Iranian government to halt the attacks on the Bahá’ís. [BW13:789–91; BW16:329; MBW88–9; PP304, 311]
    • The intervention of the Secretary-General of the UN, along with the efforts of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States, bring an end to the physical persecution of the Bahá’ís, although their human rights are still denied. [BW13:790; BW16:329]
    • This marks the first time the Faith is able to defend itself with its newly born administrative agencies. An “Aid the Persecuted Fund” was established.
    • Historian Mohamad Tavakoli-Targhi noted that the 1955 anti-Bahá'í campaign was both the apogee and the point of separation of the state-clergy co-operation. The Shah succumbing to international pressure to provide human rights, withdrew support. The result was that the period from the late fifties until 1977-1978 was a period of relative safety. [Towards a History of Iran’s Baha’i Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.]
    New York; United States; Iran Bahai International Community; Dag Hammarskjöld; United Nations, Secretary-Generals; United Nations; NSA; Human rights; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1956 9 Dec The passing of Juliet Thompson (b. Washington, DC 1873 - d. December 9th, 1956 New York). [BW13:862-864]
    • For her memorial service at the House of Worship see Bahá'í News p475, 493.
    • After learning of the Bahá'í Faith in Washington DC near 1898 she traveled to Paris at the invitation of Laura Dreyfus-Barney's mother. Later in 1901 in Paris she met Thomas Breakwell, who gave her Arthur de Gobineau's description in French of the Execution of the Báb which confirmed her faith. In Paris she took classes on the religion from Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl. [Wiki]
    • She published her book I, Mary Magdalene in 1940. It is available at bahai-library.com/.
    • The Diary of Juliet Thompson was published by Kalimat Press in1983 from her 1947 typescript.
    • The restoration of Juliet's grave took place on December 5, 2010. After a 54 year delay, the new gravestone, commissioned by the NSA, was unveiled in the Beechwood Cemetery in New Rochelle, New York, engraved with this moving tribute from Shoghi Effendi:

      "Deplore loss of much-loved, greatly admired Juliet Thompson, outstanding, exemplary handmaid of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. Over half-century record of manifold, meritorious services, embracing the concluding years of Heroic and opening decades of Formative Ages of Bahá'í Dispensation, won her enviable position in the glorious company of triumphant disciples of the beloved Master in the Abha Kingdom. Advise hold memorial gathering in Mashriqu'l-Adhkar to pay befitting tribute to the imperishable memory of one so wholly consecrated to the Faith of Bahá'u'lláh, and fired with such consuming devotion to the Center of His Covenant."

      [December 6, 1956] (Shoghi Effendi, Citadel of Faith, p. 170)

    New Rochelle; New York; Juliet Thompson; In Memoriam
    1958 20 Apr Mírzá Ahmad (Esphahani) Sohrab, the Covenant-breaker who rebelled against Shoghi Effendi, dies. [MC90]
    • For the story of his defection from the Faith see CB343–7.
    • He is buried in the Saint Paul Episcopal Church Cemetery, Glen Cove, Nassau County, New York.
    Glen Cove; Nassau County; New York; United States Ahmad Sohrab; Covenant-breakers; New History Society
    1959 10 Apr Representatives of the Bahá’í International Community present to the President of the Human Rights Commission, Ambassador Gunewardene of Ceylon, a statement endorsing the Genocide Convention. [BW13:791–4] New York; United States BIC; Human Rights Commission; Genocide; BIC statements
    1965 18 Mar The Bahá’í International Community establishes its own offices in the United Nations Plaza Building in New York. [BW14:90, BIC-History] New York BIC; United Nations
    1967 Victor de Araujo is appointed by the Universal House of Justice as the full-time Accredited Representative of the Bahá’í International Community to the United Nations; Mildred Mottahedeh appointed Alternate Representative. [BW14:88–9; BW15:364]
    • For picture see BW15:365.
    New York; United States Victor de Araujo; Mildred Mottahedeh; Bahai International Community; United Nations
    1967 21 Feb The Universal House of Justice establishes the International Bahá’í Audio-Visual Centre in Victor, New York. [BW14:91–2] Victor; New York; United States Audio-Visual Centres; Universal House of Justice
    1970. 27 May The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) of the United Nations approves the recommendation by the Committee on Non-Governmental Organisations of February 12 1970, that the Baha'i International Community be granted consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council. New York; NY United Nations Economic and Social Council find reference
    1970 27 May The Bahá’í International Community is granted consultative status, category II, by the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) of the United Nations [BBRSM149; BW15:178, 366; BW16:333; BW19:30; VV54]
    • As a result, the Bahá’í International Community begins to be represented at sessions of UN bodies addressing a wide range of issues of particular interest to Bahá’ís, including human rights, social development, status of women, environment, human settlements, agriculture, science and technology, new and renewable resources, population, law of the sea, crime prevention, narcotic drugs, children, youth, the family, disabled persons, the ageing, the United Nations University and disarmament.
    • At such sessions the Bahá’í International Community offers statements on the Bahá’í position on the subject under discussion.
    • Prior to this date individuals were accredited as "observer" representatives of the "Bahá'í International Community" which originally had been established in 1947 under the auspices of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States. Individuals who served as observer representatives on a part-time basis were Mildred Mottahedeh, Dr Ugo Giachery, John Ferraby, 'Azíz Navidi and Dr Amin Banáni among others. In 1963 the responsibility for the BIC was transferred to the Universal House of Justice and in 1965 permanent offices were established in New York with a full-time representative appointed. The first representative was Mildred Mottahedeh who soon asked to be replaced. Dr Victor de Arujo served for 23 years until his retirement in January, 1991. [BW15p358-367]
    New York; United States Bahai International Community; United Nations; Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC); Mildred Mottahedeh; Ugo Giachery; John Ferraby; Aziz Navidi; Amin Banani; Victor de Araujo
    1987 Sep The United Nations Secretary-General designates the Bahá’í International Community and the National Spiritual Assemblies of Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Kenya and Lesotho as Peace Messengers, an honour given to only 300 organizations worldwide for their support of the UN Year of Peace 1986. [BINS173:4] New York; United States; Australia; Belgium; Brazil; Kenya; Lesotho United Nations; Bahai International Community; International Year of Peace; Peace
    1988 30 Nov The Bahá’í International Community is elected Secretary of the Board of the ‘Conference on Non-Governmental Organizations in consultative status with the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations’ (CONGO) for the period 1988–91. [BINS189:2] New York Bahai International Community; United Nations; Social and economic development
    1989 The establishment of the Bahá'í International Community's Office of the Environment in New York. Ridván Message 1992 [AWH75; VV54 106] New York; United States Bahai International Community; Environment
    1989 Feb The inaugural publication of One Country, the newsletter of the Bahá'í International Community. It is a publication of the Office of Public Information of the Bahá'í International Community in New York. The periodical reports mainly on activities of the worldwide Bahá'í community in relation to issues of sustainable development, peace and world order, human rights, and the advancement of women. [BW'86-‘92 p.539] New York; United States One Country; Newsletters; Bahai International Community; Publications Find date
    1989 Sep The Bahá’í Office of the Environment is established as part of the Bahá’í International Community in New York. [AWH75; VV54, 106] New York; United States Bahai Office of the Environment; Environment; Bahai International Community
    1991 Jan Dr. Victor de Araujo, Bahá'í representative to the United Nations for 23 years and the first full-time representative, retired from his duties. He had represented the BIC at innumerable conferences and seminars throughout the world as well as at the UN headquarters in New York, often serving as chairman on the UN committees. [VV54]
    • Mr. Techeste Ahderom of Eritrea succeeded him. [VV54]
    New York; United States Victor de Araujo; Bahai International Community; United States; Techeste Ahderom; Firsts, Other
    1992 The Universal House of Justice announces its decision to establish an Office for the Advancement of Women at the headquarters of the Bahá'í International Community in New York. [VV29, 54] New York; United States Bahai International Community; Women; Office for the Advancement of Women Find ref
    1992 The Bahá'í International Community's Office for the Advancement of Women established in New York. [VV54] New York; United States Bahai International Community; Women; Office for the Advancement of Women
    1992 23 – 26 Nov The Second World Congress was held in New York City to commemorate the centenary of the passing of Bahá'u'lláh and the completion of the Six Year Plan. It was attended by some 28,000 Bahá'ís from some 180 countries. [BBD240] [VV136-141] [BW92-3p98-101, 136]
    • Nine auxiliary conferences were held in Buenos Aires, Sydney, New Delhi, Nairobi, Panama City, Bucharest, Moscow, Apia and Singapore. [BINS283:3-4]
    • For pictures see [BINS283:9-10], [BW92-3p100] and [VV136-141]
    • "New York will become a blessed spot from which the call to steadfastness in the Covenant and Testament of God will go forth to every part of the world." - 'Abdu'l-Bahá [AWH77-8 90-1 105-6]
    • On the 25th of November a concert was held in Carnegie Hall as a birthday tribute to Dizzy Gillespie called "Celebrating the Bahá'í Vision of World Peace". [VV141]
    • On the 26th of November Bahá'ís around the world are linked together by a live satellite broadcast serving the second Bahá'í World Congress, the nine auxiliary conferences and the Bahá'í World Centre and is received by those with access to satellite dish antennas. [BINS283:1–5, 8; BINS286:10; BINS287:4]
    • For the message of the Universal House of Justice read on the satellite link see BW92–3:37–4.
    • For accounts of personal experiences by some of the attendees see In the Eyes of His Beloved Servants: The Second Bahá'í World Congress and Holy Year by J. Michael Kafes.
    New York; United States; Buenos Aires; Argentina; Sydney; Australia; New Delhi; India; Nairobi; Kenya; Panama; Bucharest; Romania; Moscow; Russia; Apia; Samoa; Singapore Dizzy Gillespie; World Congresses; Carnegie Hall; Centenaries; Bahaullah, Ascension of
    1992 Dec The Universal House of Justice announces the establishment of the Office for the Advancement of Women in New York. [BW92–3:136; VV29] New York; United States Bahai International Community; Women; Office for the Advancement of Women
    1993 26 May The Office for the Advancement of Women officially opens at the headquarters of the Bahá'í International Community in New York. [BINS296:2; BW93–4:83–9; VV29]
    • For pictures see BW93–4:83, 86.
    New York; United States Bahai International Community; Women; Office for the Advancement of Women
    1994 Jan 30 The first worldwide fireside on the Internet, ‘Pioneering in Cyberspace the Bahá'í Faith and the Internet', is held, with a live audience in the Bahá'í Centre in New York City communicating electronically with people all over the United States and in two other countries. New York Find ref
    1994 19 Oct The publication of In the Eyes of His Beloved Servants: The Second Bahá'í World Congress and Holy Year by J. Michael Kafes. This book captures the firsthand experiences of Baha'is from all around the world, who participated in the Baha'i World Congress at Jacob Javits Convention Center in November 1992, as well as experiences Baha'is had during the Baha'i Holy Year. [from the book] New York; United States World congresses; Holy years
    1995 Oct The publication of Turning Point For All Nations by the Bahá'í International Community, United Nations Office, in New York in commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the United Nations. It was a call for world leaders to define a role for the UN. [Turning Point for all Nations, en français] New York; United States Turning Point For All Nations (statement); Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications; United Nations
    2000 17 Feb The passing of Mildred Mottahedeh in New York. She had been elected to the International Bahá’í Council, the first globally elected Bahá’í body and was the first Bahá'í International Community representative to the United Nations. She was born in Seabright, New Jersey, on 7 August 1908 and was 91. [One Country Jan-Mar 2000 Vol 11 Issue 4, TP705-706] New York; Seabright; New Jersey; United States International Bahai Council; Bahai International Community; Mildred Mottahedeh; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Firsts, Other
    2000 22 - 26 May The United Nations Millennium Forum was held at United Nations Headquarters in New York. It attracted 1,350 participants from more than 106 countries and many others participated remotely via Internet. The purpose was to give organizations of civil society an opportunity to formulate views and recommendations on global issues to be taken up at the subsequent Millennium Summit in September to be attended by heads of state and government. Convened by the UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan, the Forum's overarching theme - "The United Nations for the 21st Century" - encompassed six main sub-themes in its declaration: 1) Peace, security and disarmament; 2) Eradication of poverty, including debt cancellation and social development; 3) Human rights; 4) Sustainable development and environment; 5) Facing the challenges of globalization: achieving equity, justice and diversity; and, 6) Strengthening and democratizing the United Nations and international organizations. The document was divided into three main areas: recommendations for governmental action; proposals for the United Nations; and actions to be undertaken by civil society itself. The Bahá’í International Community as an NGO representing a cross-section of humankind acted as a unifying agent in major discussions. Our principal representative at the United Nations, Techeste Ahderrom, was appointed to cochair a committee of non-governmental organizations. Lawrence Arturo and Diane 'Alá'í represented the Bahá'í International Community. [BW00-01p87-89, Letter from the Universal House of Justice dated 24 September 2000] New York; United States United Nations Millennium Forum and Summit; United Nations; United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; Conferences; Millennium; Bahai International Community; Peace; Security; Disarmament; Poverty; Social and economic development; Human rights; Sustainable development; environment; Globalization; Justice; Diversity; Prosperity; Equality; Solidarity; Tolerance; Nature; Cooperation; Interfaith dialogue; Techeste Ahderom; Lawrence Arturo; Diane Alai
    2000 28 - 31 Aug The Millennium Peace Summit of Religious and Spiritual Leaders was held in New York and involved more than 1,000 attendees. The “very specific purpose” of this meeting was “to further the prospects for peace among peoples and nations, and within every individual.” The outcome of this Peace Summit was the adoption and signing of a declaration committing the participants to global peace. Noting that “the United Nations and the religions of the world have a common concern for human dignity, justice and peace,” accepting that “men and women are equal partners in all aspects of life and children are the hope of the future,” and acknowledging that “religions have contributed to the peace of the world but have also been used to create division and fuel hostilities,” the declaration resolved to “collaborate with the United Nations and all men and women of goodwill locally, regionally and globally in the pursuit of peace in all its dimensions.” The Baha'i' International Community was represented by its Secretary-General, Mr Albert Lincoln. Laurence Arturo and Bani Dugal-Gujral also attended as BIC representatives. [BW00-01p89, Letter from the Universal House of Justice dated 24 September 2000] New York; United States United Nations Millennium Forum and Summit; United Nations; United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; Conferences; Millennium; Bahai International Community; Peace; World Peace Summit of Religious and Spiritual Leaders; Interfaith dialogue; Albert Lincoln; Laurence Arturo; Bani Dugal-Gujral
    2000 6 - 8 Sep The General Assembly Millennium Summit was held at the United Nations Headquarters in New York and was attended by leaders of more than 150 nations. UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan presented a report entitled, "We The Peoples: The Role of the United Nations in the 21st Century". In which was presented an overview of the challenges facing humankind and suggested practical solutions. Some of the key themes addressed include health, environment, human rights and other social issues, international law, peace and rejuvenating the United Nations. It is striking that called upon by the Secretary-General of the United Nations to address so historic a gathering was Mr. Techeste Ahderom, the principal representative of the Bahá’í International Community to the United Nations, addressed the gathering as the spokesman of civil society. He was accorded this honour because he had presided as cochair at the earlier United Nations Millennium Forum. After all the national leaders had spoken and before the Summit had adopted its declaration on 8 September, Mr. Ahderom made a speech in which he conveyed to that unprecedented assemblage a report of the Forum. The text of his speech is enclosed herewith. On the last day a declaration was unanimously adopted that began by asserting: “We, Heads of State and Government, have gathered at United Nations Headquarters in New York from 6 to 8 September 2000, at the dawn of a new Millennium, to reaffirm our faith in the Organization and its Charter as indispensable foundations of a more peaceful, prosperous and just world.” [BW00-01p91-93, Letter from the Universal House of Justice dated 24 September 2000]
    • The text of Ahderom's speech can be found on the BIC's website and at BW00-01p243-247.
    New York; United States United Nations Millennium Forum and Summit; United Nations; United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; Conferences; Millennium; Bahai International Community; Peace; Security; Disarmament; Poverty; Social and economic development; Human rights; Sustainable development; environment; Globalization; Justice; Diversity; Prosperity; Equality; Solidarity; Tolerance; Nature; Cooperation; Interfaith dialogue; Techeste Ahderom
    2001 4 Jan The passing of Dr. Victor de Araujo of Vista, NY at the age of 78 years. He was born near London, England and spent his childhood and youth in Brazil. He came to the United Stated in 1946 as a vice consul to the Brazilian Consulate in Chicago. From 1967-1990, Dr. de Araujo served as a Representative of the Bahá'í International Community to the United Nations. In his years in this position he represented the Bahá'í International Community both at the United Nations headquarters and at numerous conferences around the world. He also participated in the preparation of Bahá'í statements on human rights, the environment, and the equality of men and women, which were presented to the United Nations. [Baha’i Announce 5Jan2001] London; United Kingdom; Brazil; New York; United States Bahai International Community; United Nations; In Memoriam; Victor de Araujo
    2001 30 Apr – 2 May The Bahá'í International Community today issued a statement, entitled Sustainable Development: the Spiritual Dimension, for the first session of the United Nations Preparatory Committee of the World Summit on Sustainable Development at the UN in New York. [BWNS93]

    For the complete text with footnotes see: Statement.

    New York; NY Bahai International Community; Sustainable Development; United Nations; United Nations Summits; BWNS
    2001 25 - 27 Jun The Baha'i International Community issued this statement for the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS in New York entitled HIV/AIDS and Gender Equality: Transforming Attitudes and Behaviours". [Text] New York Bahai International Community; United Nations; HIV/AIDS; Gender; Equality Find ref
    2001 23 Dec National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States published a full-page advertisement in The New York Times, the statement, entitled The Destiny of America and The Promise of World Peace," stated that Bahá'ís believe the American nation will evolve, through tests and trials to become a land of spiritual distinction and leadership, a champion of justice and unity among all peoples and nations, and a powerful servant of the cause of everlasting peace. The 645-word document identified six prerequisites for world peace: universal acceptance of the oneness of humanity; the eradication of racism; the full emancipation of women; the elimination of inordinate disparity between the rich and the poor; an end to unbridled nationalism; and harmony between religious leaders. [BWNS147, Includes text of the statement] New York; United States Promise of World Peace (statement); Statements; NSA of US; Peace; BWNS
    2002 26 Jun – 2 Jul In commemoration of the Second Bahá'í World Congress 23-26 November in 1992 in New York, a Festival of the Arts is celebrated in that same city. The project is an independent initiative of Global Music, Inc., a Bahá'í-owned company, and associated individuals. It is not under the sponsorship of any Bahá'í institution. The centerpiece event is held at Carnegie Hall featuring a 550-voice choir under the direction of Mr. Tom Price and known as the Voices of Baha. It is composed of Bahá'ís from some 24 countries. [BWNS162] New York; United States World Congresses; Arts; Music; Carnegie Hall; Tom Price; Voice of Baha; Choirs; BWNS
    2003 11 Mar Bani Dugal Gujral was appointed Principal Representative of the Bahá'í International Community to the United Nations.
    • Ms. Dugal Gujral had been serving as interim Principal Representative since the resignation of Techeste Ahderom in 2001.
    • Ms. Dugal Gujral came to the Bahá'í International Community in 1994 and served as Director of the Community's Office for the Advancement of Women. A native of India, where she practiced law before coming to the United States, Ms. Dugal Gujral holds a Master's degree in Environmental Law from Pace University School of Law in New York. [One Country Vol.14 Issue4]
    New York; United States Bani Dugal Gujral; Bahai International Community; Women; Techeste Ahderom; United Nations
    2004 20 Dec United Nations General Assembly has passed a resolution expressing "serious concern" over the human rights situation in Iran, making specific mention of the ongoing persecution of the Baha'i community there.
    • It called on Iran to "eliminate all forms of discrimination based on religious grounds" and took note of the recent upsurge of human rights violations against the Baha'is of Iran.
    • Specifically, the resolution noted the "continuing discrimination against persons belonging to minorities, including Christians, Jews, and Sunnis, and the increased discrimination against the Baha'is, including cases of arbitrary arrest and detention, the denial of free worship or of publicly carrying out communal affairs, the disregard of property rights, the destruction of sites of religious importance, the suspension of social, educational, and community-related activities, and the denial of access to higher education, employment, pensions, and other benefits." [BWNS341]
    Iran; New York; United States UN General Assembly; United Nations; Human rights; BWNS
    2007 13 Sep The General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the resolution entitled United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. [United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples]
    • The vote was passed by a majority of 144 states in favour, 4 votes against (Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States) and 11 abstentions (Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burundi, Colombia, Georgia, Kenya, Nigeria, Russian Federation, Samoa and Ukraine). Since that time, the four countries voting against have reversed their position and now support the Declaration. [Division for Social Policy and Development Indigenous Peoples website]
      • In November 2010, Canada issued a Statement of Support endorsing the principles of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.
      • In November 2015, the Prime Minister of Canada asked the Minister of Indigenous and Northern Affairs and other ministers, in the mandate letters, to implement the declaration.
      • In May 2016, the Minister of Indigenous and Northern Affairs announced Canada is now a full supporter, without qualification, of the declaration.
    • For an Historical Overview of the resolution see Division for Social Policy and Development Indigenous Peoples website.
    • The text of the Resolution A/RES/61/295 has been published in a number of languages and is also available in an "Adolescent-Friendly Version of the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples".
    New York UN; United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples
    2008 14 Feb The publication of a new statement from the Bahá'í International Community entitled Eradicating Poverty: Moving Forward as One. In English [Moving Forward as One, In Farsi] New York; United States Poverty; Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications
    2010 May The publication of Rethinking Prosperity: Forging Alternatives to a Culture of Consumerism," for the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. The statement can be read at BIC10-0503. [BWNS770] New York; United States Sustainable Development; Prosperity; Consumerism; Materialism; Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications; United Nations; BWNS
    2011. 21 Oct Launch of Inciting Hatred: Iran's media campaign to demonize Baha'is. The Baha'i International Community prepared and launched a report that documents and analyses more than 400 press and media items over a 16-month period that typify an insidious state-sponsored effort to demonize and vilify Baha'is, using false accusations.
    • The report is available in English and in Persian.
    New York; United States Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Bahai International Community
    2015 14 May A global campaign called "Seven Days in Remembrance of Seven Years in Prison for the Seven Baha'i Leaders" to call attention to the long and unjust imprisonment of seven Iranian Baha'i leaders is launched on the seventh anniversary of their arrest. Each day of the week-long campaign, starting 14 May 2015, was dedicated to one member of the seven: Mahvash Sabet, Fariba Kamalabadi, Jamaloddin Khanjani, Afif Naeimi, Saeid Rezaie, Behrouz Tavakkoli, and Vahid Tizfahm. [7 Days] Tihran; Iran; New York; United States; Worldwide Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Bahai International Community
    2016. 6 Sep In a letter the BIC calls on Iranian President Rouhani to end systematic economic oppression. The letter signed by Bani Dugal, Principal Representative of the Baha'i International Community to the United Nations, draws attention to the stark contradiction between statements espoused by the Iranian government regarding economic justice, equality for all and reducing unemployment on one hand, and the unrelenting efforts to impoverish a section of its own citizens on the other. New York; United States Bani Dugal Gujral; Bahai International Community; Persecution, Iran; Persecution
    2016 26 Oct The report from the offices of the Bahá'í International Community entitled The Bahá'í Question Revisited: Persecution and Resilience in Iran was formally released.
    • The full report can be read on-line here.
    • A list of resolutions by the United Nations and United Nations bodies that reference the situation of Baha’is in Iran since 1980 can be found at this location.
    • An annex to The Bahá'í Question Revisited is the report called "Inciting Hatred". It is an analysis of approximately 400 anti-Baha'i articles, broadcasts, and webpages from late December 2009 through May 2011 and can be found here.
    • A list of the 222 Baha’is who have been killed in Iran since 1978 can be read here.
    Iran; New York; United States Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Bahai International Community; Human rights; United Nations
    2017. 3 Mar The publication of Toward Prosperity The Role of Women and Men in Building a Flourishing World Civilization, the Bahá’í International Community’s contribution to the 61st United Nations Commission on the Status of Women which took place at the United Nations Headquarters in New York from 13 to 24 March 2017 as a follow-up to the Fourth World Conference on Women and to the twenty-third special session of the General Assembly entitled “Women 2000: gender equality, development and peace for the twenty-first century”. [BIC Statements] New York; NY Toward Prosperity
    2017 5 May The film Changing the World, One Wall at a Time was premiered in Harlem on the 5th of May and in Los Angeles on the 5th of June. The film evolved from shorter videos that were posted from the "Education is not a Crime" campaign and was made by Iranian-Canadian filmmaker Maziar Baharie. [BWNS1173] Harlem; New York; Los Angeles; California; United States Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Education; Persecution; Documentaries; Education is not a Crime; BWNS
    2017. 17 Nov A committee of the United Nations General Assembly condemned Iran by a vote of 83 to 30 with 68 abstentions for its continuing violations of human rights, the 30th such resolution since 1985. The Third Committee of the General Assembly approved a five-page resolution expressing concern over illegal practices ranging from torture, poor prison conditions, arbitrary detention, and curbs on freedom of religion or belief to state-endorsed discrimination against ethnic and religious minorities as well as women. The resolution expressed specific concern over Iran’s treatment of members of the Baha’i Faith and highlighted the economic and educational discrimination against them and called on Iran to release the more than 90 Baha’is who were unjustly held in Iranian prisons. The resolution follows a strongly worded document from the UN Special Rapporteur on human rights in Iran, Asma Jahangir. Her 23-page report, released earlier this session, catalogued a broad range of rights violations by Iran. [BWNS1221] New York; United States United Nations; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; BWNS
    2018 12 Mar The Bahá'í International Community in New York released the statement "Beyond Mere Economics: A Moral Inquiry into the Roots of Empowerment" to the 62nd session of the Commission on the Status of Women (12 to 23 March 2018). [BWNS1243] New York; United States Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Women; Empowerment; Economics; United Nations; BWNS
     
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