||The sacking of the holy city of Karbalá at the hands of the Turks. Thousands of its citizens were killed even those taking refuge in the Shrines of Imám Husayn or 'Abbás. [BBRSM55, HotD10, DB36]
||Ottoman Empire; War (general); History (general)
|1845. 27 Feb
||The Báb leaves Jiddah. [MS2]
- He disembarks at Muscat and remains there for two months, awaiting news of the outcome of Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí's trial. [MS2]
- He sends a letter to the Imám of Muscat. [MS2]
- SBBH23 says the Báb left Jiddah on 4 March.
|Jeddah; Saudi Arabia; Muscat; Oman
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Mulla Ali Bastami; Trials; Bab, Writings of; Imam of Muscat; Court cases; Persecution, Court cases
|1861. 25 Jun
||Death of Sultán ‘Abdu'l-Majíd and accession of Sultán ‘Abdu'l-‘Azíz to the Ottoman throne. He ruled until 1876. [BBR485]
- Note: BKG139 says this was 14 August.
||Sultan Abdul-Majid; Sultan Abdul-Aziz; Ottoman Empire
|1863. 27 Mar
||Bahá'u'lláh meets the deputy governor in a mosque opposite the Government House where the Farmán which had been sent by the Sultán was announced to Him that He and His family were to be exiled to an unknown destination. Námiq Páshá could not bring himself to meet Bahá'u'lláh and give Him this news. At first he summons Him to the courthouse but when He refused to attend he asked Him to meet in the mosque. [CH81-82,BKG154–5; GPB147–8; RB1:229]
See BKG155–6 and GPB148 for the effect of this news on the believers.
Bahá'u'lláh and His family had been given Ottoman citizenship by this time. [BBRSM66]
See BKG156–8 for a list of those chosen by Bahá'u'lláh to migrate with Him.
See TN50–3 for the story of the sedition behind Bahá'u'lláh's removal from Baghdád.
Fearful of Bahá'u'lláh's growing influence in Baghdád, the Persian Consul had made representation to the Sultan to have Him delivered to the Persian authorities. The Sultan, although the Caliph of Sunni Islam, considered himself a mystical seeker and was no doubt intrigued with Bahá'u'lláh from the reports of the Governor of 'Akká, Námiq Páshá, and his own Prime Minister, 'Alí Páshá. This combination of sympathy and interest led the Ottoman government to invite Him to the capital rather than send Him to a remote location or return Him to Persia. [BBD196; BBIC13, 57note 68]
||Baghdad; Iraq; Istanbul; Turkey
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Governors; Namiq Pasha; Ottoman citizenship
|1867. c. Aug
||Bahá'u'lláh refuses to draw the allowance granted Him by the Ottoman government. [RB2:327]
- Mírzá Yahyá twice petitions the government to convince it that he ought to be the recipient of the allowance. [RB2:327]
- Bahá'u'lláh sells some of His belongings to provide the necessities for Himself and His dependents. [RB2:327]
||Bahaullah, Life of; Ottoman government; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal)
|1876. 30 May
||Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz is deposed. He had ruled from 1861. [BBR485]
||Sultan Abdul-Aziz; Sultans; History (General); Ottoman Empire
|1909 27 Apr
||`Abdu'l-Hamid II is deposed. [BBR486]
Sultan 'Abdu'l-Hamid II lived from 1842 to 1918) and reigned from 1876 to 1909. During his reign large portions of the Ottoman Empire were lost. Following his defeat in the war with Russia in 1878, Tunisia was occupied by France (1881), and Egypt was controlled by Britain (1882). In 1897, the Empire was forced by the Europeans to recognize the autonomy of Crete. The Sultán ruled as a despot, and brutally repressed the Armenians between 1894-6. In 1908, due to the lack of support among the army and the rise of the Young Turks, 'Abdu'l-Hamid was forced re-enact the Constitution of 1876 which he had earlier suspended, and which, for the first time in an Islámic state, defined the rights of both the ruler and his subjects. He was ultimately deposed when he attempted to plot a counterrevolution against the Young Turks and was exiled to Salonika, where he died in disgrace.
See AY189-191 for a description of his riches and his last years. He died in January of 1918.
Accession of Muhammad (-Rishád) V [BBR486]
The last Ottoman Sultán, Muhammad VI, was deposed and was succeeded briefly by a cousin, but in 1924, the caliphate was abolished by Ataturk.
||Abdul-Hamid II; Sultans; Muhammad-Rishad VI; Armenian genocide; Caliphate; Ottoman Empire; History (general)
||Louisa Gregory is the first Bahá’í to visit Romania.
||Louisa Mathew Gregory
|1926 28 Jan
||Martha Root sends a note and a copy of Bahá’u’lláh and the New Era to Queen Marie of Romania. [GBF42; GPB390; MR242]
||Martha Root; Queen Marie of Romania; Esslemont
|1926 30 Jan
||Martha Root meets with Queen Marie of Romania for the first time. [BBR59; GBF42; GPB390; PP107, HEC49]
- For the details of the meeting and the acceptance of the Faith by Queen Marie see GBP389–96, BW6p580 and MR240–6.
- This was the first of eight meetings between Martha Root and Queen Marie.
||Martha Root; Queen Marie of Romania; Bahai royalty
|1926 4 May
||Queen Marie of Romania writes three articles as a testimonial to the Bahá’í Faith for a syndicated series entitled ‘Queen’s Counsel’, which appears in over 200 newspapers in the United States and Canada. [BBR61, HEC57-58, MR245, BW2p174-6]
- For text of the articles see BBR60–1.
- For Shoghi Effendi’s response see BA110–13 and UD56–8.
|United States; Romania
||Queen Marie of Romania; Newspaper articles
||The intended pilgrimage of Queen Marie of Romania to the Bahá’í Shrines is thwarted. [GBF49; GPBXVIII; PP114]
- For details of this episode see GBF49–50 and PP113–16.
- In addition to visiting the Shrines Queen Marie had anticipated visiting her childhood friend, Lillian McNeill. She and her husband were resident in Mazra'ih at this time. [BW19p779-782]
||Queen Marie of Romania; Pilgrimage; House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Lilian Barron McNeill
|1934 23 Jan
||Shoghi Effendi gives Queen Marie of Romania the gift of a Tablet in the handwriting of Bahá’u’lláh. [GBF50; PP116]
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Queen Marie of Romania; Gifts; Manuscripts; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
||Martha Root meets with Queen Marie of Romania for the eighth and last time. [MRHK413]
||Martha Root; Queen Marie of Romania
|1938 25 Jul
||The passing of Queen Marie of Romania. [BBD144; GPB395]
- For her services to the Bahá’í Faith see GPB389–96.
- For tributes paid by her to the Bahá’í Faith see BW8:269–71.
- For her relationship with the Bahá’í Faith see BW8:271–6.
- For tributes to her see BW8276–82.
||Queen Marie of Romania; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
|1949 16 Aug
||The passing of Lilian Vaughan McNeill (b.1 December, 1879). In May, 1931 she and her husband, Brigadier General Angus McNeill took a lease on the abandoned property at Mazra'ih where they lived until her passing. They restored the house and property respecting the fact that Bahá'u'lláh and His family had lived there from June 1877 until September, 1879. In 1981 the staff at the Bahá'í World Centre discovered her simple grave in the Commonwealth Cemetery in Haifa and, with the permission of her family, erected a befitting and dignified memorial.
She had been a childhood friend of Marie Alexandra Victoria (Queen Marie of Romania).
During her latter years at Maza'ih she wrote a series of short stories, some of which were published in the local English-language newspaper. [BW19p779-782]
||In Memoriam; Lilian Barron McNeill; Angus McNeill; House of Bahaullah (Mazraih); Cemeteries and graves; Queen Marie of Romania
||Munír Vakíl, a former general in the Iraqi army, settles on one of the Kuria-Muria Islands in the Arabian Sea and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:453]
- For the story of the hardships of his pioneering post see ZK99–101.
|Kuria-Muria Islands; Oman
||Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
||Thirteen Romanies become Bahá’ís in northern Spain. [BINS186:7]
||The election of the Local Spiritual Assembly of Cluj in Romania, the first new Assembly in the "East Bloc". [AWH73]
|1990 21 Mar
||The first local spiritual assembly formed in Eastern Europe since the Second World War is elected in Cluj, Romania. [AWH73; BINS221:4]
||Cluj; Romania; Eastern Europe
||LSA; Firsts, Other
|1990 30 Nov - 2 Dec
||The First National Teaching Conference of the Bahá'ís of Romania was held near Poiana Brasov, in the Carpathian mountains. [CBN Feb 91p14]
||Poiana Brasov; Romania
||Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, teaching; First conferences
||The Faith became officially recognized as a "religious association" in Romania. [CBNJun91pg12]
|1991 8 - 14 Feb
||The first Bahá'í Winter School of Romania is held in Felix, attended by 80 Bahá'ís. [BINS241:3]
||First summer and winter schools
||The National Spiritual Assembly of Romania is formed with its seat in Bucharest. About 200 believers were present at the inaugural National Convention.
[AWH86; BINS246:1; VV113]
||The formation of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Romania. [AWH86] [VV113]
|1991 15 – 21 Jul
||The first European Bahá'í Youth Conference of Romania is held in Neptune. [BINS253:9; VV74]
||Neptune; Romania; Europe
||Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International
||The first Bahá'í Youth School of Romania is held in Curtea de Arges, attended by 60 Bahá'ís. [BINS269:5]
||Curtea de Arges; Romania
|1992 23 – 26 Nov
||The Second World Congress was held in New York City to commemorate the centenary of the passing of Bahá'u'lláh and the completion of the Six Year Plan. It was attended by some 28,000 Bahá'ís from some 180 countries. [BBD240] [VV136-141] [BW92-3p98-101, 136]
- Nine auxiliary conferences were held in Buenos Aires, Sydney, New Delhi, Nairobi, Panama City, Bucharest, Moscow, Apia and Singapore. [BINS283:3-4]
- For pictures see [BINS283:9-10], [BW92-3p100] and [VV136-141]
- "New York will become a blessed spot from which the call to steadfastness in the Covenant and Testament of God will go forth to every part of the world." - 'Abdu'l-Bahá [AWH77-8 90-1 105-6]
- On the 25th of November a concert was held in Carnegie Hall as a birthday tribute to Dizzy Gillespie called "Celebrating the Bahá'í Vision of World Peace". [VV141]
- On the 26th of November Bahá'ís around the world are linked together by a live satellite broadcast serving the second Bahá'í World Congress, the nine auxiliary conferences and the Bahá'í World Centre and is received by those with access to satellite dish antennas. [BINS283:1–5, 8; BINS286:10; BINS287:4]
- For the message of the Universal House of Justice read on the satellite link see BW92–3:37–4.
- For accounts of personal experiences by some of the attendees see In the Eyes of His Beloved Servants: The Second Bahá'í World Congress and Holy Year by J. Michael Kafes.
|New York; United States; Buenos Aires; Argentina; Sydney; Australia; New Delhi; India; Nairobi; Kenya; Panama; Bucharest; Romania; Moscow; Russia; Apia; Samoa; Singapore
||World Congresses; Carnegie Hall; Centenaries; Bahaullah, Ascension of; Dizzy Gillespie; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1994 Jul 20 – 25
||The European Bahá'í Youth Council sponsors five regional ‘Shaping Europe' conferences, in Berlin, Bucharest, St Petersburg, Barcelona and Wolverhampton, United Kingdom. [BINS323:3–5; BW94–5:177–8, 189]
||Berlin; Germany; Bucharest; Romania; St Petersburg; Russia; Barcelona; Portugal; Wolverhampton; United Kingdom; Europe
||Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth
||In Romania a law was passed that imposed restrictive requirements on religious communities that wished to be recognized by the government, which Bahá'ís and adherents of other minority religions could not meet. [Form 18 News Service]
||religious persecution; Z****