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Search for tag "Persecution, Arrests"

from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1844. 11 Aug The Báb sent Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí to Najaf and Karbalá to proclaim His Cause among the Shaykhís. In Najaf Mullá `Alí delivered a letter from the Báb to Shaykh Muhammad-Hasan Najafí, the leading Shí`í divine and the keeper of the shrines in Iraq. [BBRSM15; DB87-91; SBBH20–1, HotD46]
  • The Shaykh's rejection of the claim led to a violent debate. Mullá `Alí was taken to Baghdád and imprisoned there. After a public trial, a joint tribunal of Sunní and Shí`í `ulamá, he was sent to Istanbul. He was the first martyr of the Bábí Dispensation. It is significant that Mullá Hasan Gawhar, a leading figure of the Shaykhí school, participated in the condemnation as it marks the first major challenge to Bábism from a Shaykhí leader. [B27, 37–8, 58; BBR83–90; BBRSM17; BKG31; DB90–2; MMBA, BBR2p17, GPB10]
  • Istanbul; Turkey; Iraq; Baghdad; Najaf; Karbala Bab, Life of; Mulla Ali Bastami; Ulama; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Shaykhism; Firsts, Other; Trials; Court cases; Persecution, Court cases; Letters of the Living
    1845. c. 16 Apr Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí was removed from his prison cell in Baghdád and taken to Istanbul, where he was sentenced to hard labour in the imperial naval dockyard. Istanbul; Turkey; Baghdad; Iraq Mulla Ali Bastami; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Turkey; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1845. c. Jun After expelling Mullá Husayn and Mullá Sádiq the governor of Fárs, Hasayn Khán ordered that the Báb, the instigator of the commotion, be arrested and brought to Shíráz. [B84; BW18:380; DB148–50; GPB11]
    Bushihr; Shiraz; Iran Governors; Husayn Khan; Quddus; Ismullahul-Asdaq (Mulla Sadiq Khurasani); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Bab, Life of; Persecution
    1845. 30 Jun At Dálakí, some 40 miles northeast of the Búshíhr, the Báb met the soldiers of the governor of Fárs who had been sent to arrest Him. He was escorted to Shíráz. [Bab84, 105; BBR170; BBRSM216; DB148–9; GPB11; TN6, SBBH1pxxv111]
  • DB150 says the Báb travelled `free and unfettered', `before His escort'.
  • BBRSM16 implies the Báb returned to Shíráz by Himself in July and that He was placed under house arrest upon arrival.
  • Dalaki; Fars; Shiraz; Iran Bab, Life of; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1845. 30 Dec The Báb's birthday fell on the first day of the mourning observance for the Imám Husayn. Táhirih, who was in Karbalá with the widow of Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí, instructed her relatives and the Bábís to dress in bright clothing and joyously celebrate the Báb's birth. This caused a considerable disturbance, even among the Bábís. Táhirih was arrested and expelled from the city. [RR305, SA217] Karbala; Iraq Tahirih; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1846. 23 Jun Quddús met Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas in Shíráz to whom he entrusted a copy of Khasá'il-i-Sab`ih (`the Seven Qualifications'). Following instructions received in a Tablet from the Báb, Mullá Sádiq sounded the call to prayer using the additional words provided by the Báb. This, along with their teaching of the Cause, provoked a public commotion. [Bab78; DB144-145; BBRSM16]
  • The governor of Fárs, Husayn Khán Nizámu'd-Dawlih, had Quddús, Mullá Sádiq-i-Khurásání, Mullá `Alí-Akbar-i-Ardistání and Mullá Abú-Tálib arrested, tortured and expelled from Shíráz. [Bab78; BBR69; BW18:380; DB145–148; GPB11, BBR1pxxviii]
  • The governor's punishment was particularly cruel. He commanded that the beards of both Quddús and Mullá Sádiq be burned, their noses pierced and that a cord should be passed which and used to led them through the city. The men were then beaten. Mullá Sádiq was a frail man of about 50 years but in spite of this took some 900 strokes and still remained calm and serene. When questioned later he said the first seven lashes were severely painful but then he became indifferent to the rest. It was as though the strokes were not being applied to his own body. [DB146-148]
  • The London Times of November 1st and November 19, 1845 reported that this took place on the 23rd of June. [Bab76, BBR1p69, 82]
  • Note: Bab78 says that Mullá Abú-Tálib was not among the group. DB145 says that only Mulla Husayn and Mulla Sádiq were arrested.
  • Note: DB146 note2 says "According to A. L. M. Nicolas’ “Siyyid ‘Alí-Muhammad dit le Báb” (footnote 175, p. 225), this meeting took place on August 6, 1845 A.D."
  • Upon departing Shíráz Quddús made his way to Kirmán to interview Hájí Mírzá Karím Khán. The ambitious and seditious Karím Khán remained unconvinced buy Quddús had earned an ally in his host during his stay in Kirmán, Hájí Siyyid Javád, someone he had known from his day in Karbilá. From Kirmán Quddús travelled to Yazd and then to Ardikán, Náyin, Ardistán, Isfáhán, Káshán, Qum and to Tihrán. There he met with Bahá'u'lláh and after which proceeded to Mázindarán and to his native town of Bárfurúsh where he lived in the home of his father for two years. [DB180-183]
  • Mullá Sádiq travelled to Yazd with the intention of spreading news of the Cause among the 'ulamás of that province. There they encountered opposition from Hájí Mírzá Karím Khán. [DB180, 183-187]
  • Mullá Sádiq and Mullá Yúsuf-i-Ardibílí moved on to Kirmán where they received the same treatment then they travelled to Khurásán {DB187-188]
  • Fars; Shiraz; Iran Governors; Husayn Khan; Quddus; Ismullahul-Asdaq (Mulla Sadiq Khurasani); Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Ardistani; Mulla Abu-Talib; Husayn Khan; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1846 (Summer) The Chief Constable, 'Abdu'l-Hamíd Khán, was instructed by order of the governor, Hasayn Khán, to break into the house of Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'Alí where the Báb had been confined and to arrest Him. He and a follower were taken away along with His books and Writings. It was widely rumoured that He would be executed. He was allowed to return some time later. [LTDT14] Shiraz; Iran Bab, Life of; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1847. Oct - Nov Táhirih was accused of instigating the assassination of her uncle, Muhammad Taqí Baraghání, and was confined to her father's house while about 30 Bábís were arrested. Four, including the assassin, were taken to Tihrán and held in the house of Khusraw Khán. [BKG41; BW18:380; DB276–8] Tihran; Iran Assassinations; Mulla Abdullah; Haji Mulla Muhammad Taqi; Tahirih; Khusraw Khan; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1847. Nov - Dec Bahá'u'lláh, who was living in Tihrán, visited the detainees and gave them money. [BKG41; DB278–9; GPB68]
  • Mullá `Abdu'lláh confessed to the murder of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí and was helped to escape. [BKG41–2; DB278]
  • See BKG42 for why Bahá'u'lláh was thought to have engineered his escape. Bahá'u'lláh was imprisoned for a few days for having assisted in Mullá `Abdu'lláh's escape.
  • This was Bahá'u'lláh's first imprisonment. [BKG41; BW18:380; DB585]
  • Shaykh Salib-i-Karímí, one of the imprisoned Bábís, was publicly executed in Tihrán.
  • He was the first to suffer martyrdom on Persian soil. His remains were interred in the courtyard of the shrine of the Imám-Zádih Zayd in Tihrán. [B166; BW18:380; DB280]
  • The remaining captives were returned to Qazvín. Hájí Asadu'lláh-i-Farhádí was secretly put to death in prison. Mullá Táhir-i-Shírází and Mullá Ibrahím-i-Maballátí were also put to death. [B166; BW18:380; DB280–3]
  • DB280–3 says `the rest of' the detainees were put to death by the relatives of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí.
  • Tihran; Qazvin; Iran Bahaullah, Life of; Assassinations; Mulla Abdullah; Tahirih; Haji Mulla Muhammad Taqi; Cemeteries and graves; Firsts, Other; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1848. 4 Sep The death of the chronically Muhammad Sháh whom Shoghi Effendi described as bigoted, sickly and vacillating. [BBR153–4; GPB4; Encyclopædia Iranica]
  • This precipitated the downfall of the Grand Vizier, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí because many of Tehran's elite arose against him. [Bab147; BBD19; BBR156]
  • For details of his life, fall and death in Karbila on the 1st of August, 1849, see BBR154–6 and BKG52–5.
  • The edict for Bahá'u'lláh's arrest was rendered null. [BKG50; BW18:381]
  • Iran Muhammad Shah; Grand Viziers; Prime Ministers of Iran; Prime Ministers; Haji Mirza Aqasi; Antichrist; Bahaullah, Life of; Iran, General history; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1850 19 - 20 Feb The Bábi group in Tehran had been infiltrated by an informer who betrayed about fifty of its members to the authorities. Fearing a plot the government had seven of the leading members of the group executed including the Báb's uncle and guardian. These men were of high social status, three merchants, two prominent ulama, a Sufi spiritual guide and a government official. [BBRSM28] Tehran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1852 16 – 22 Aug A large number of Bábís were arrested in Tihrán and its environs following the attempt on the life of the Sháh. A number were executed. [BBR134–5; BW18:382]
  • Eighty–one, of whom 38 were leading members of the Bábí community, were thrown into the Síyáh-Chál. [BKG77]
  • Tihran; Iran Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1852. Aug In Mílán, Iran, 15 Bábís were arrested and imprisoned. [BW18:382]

    Many Bábís were tortured and killed in the weeks following the attempt on the life of the Sháh. [BKG84]

  • See BBR171 for the story of Mahmud Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, and his role in the arrest and execution of the Bábís.
  • See BKG84–93 for a description of the tortures and executions of Bábís. Thirty–eight Bábís were martyred.
  • See BKG86–7 and DB616–21 for the torture and martyrdom of Sulaymán Khán. Holes were gouged in his body and nine lighted candles were inserted. He joyfully danced to the place of his execution. His body was hacked in two, each half is then suspended on either side of the gate.
  • The persecutions were so severe that the community was nearly annihilated. The Bábí remnant virtually disappeared from view until the 1870s. [BBRSM:30; EB269]
  • Milan; Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Shah; Mahmud Khan; Kalantar; Sulayman Khan
    1853. Oct Second Nayríz upheaval. [BBR147–51; BBRSM:217; BW18:382; DB642–5]
  • The new governor of Nayríz, Mírzá Na‘ím-i-Núrí, arrests a large number of Bábís and pillages their properties. The Bábís take to the hills. [BW18:382]
  • See BW18:382 for a chronicle of events.
  • See BBR147–51 for Western accounts.
  • Nayriz; Iran Nayriz upheaval; Upheavals; Mirza Naim-i-Nuri; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1853. 31 Oct Some 600 female and 80 to 180 male Bábís are taken prisoner at Nayríz and marched to Shíráz, along with the heads of' some 180 martyrs. This fulfils an Islamic prophecy concerning the appearance of the Qá'im indicating that the heads of the followers would be used as gifts. [BW18:382; KI245] Nayriz; Shiraz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Prophecies
    1862 - 1863 Hájí Mírzá Haydar-`Alí and six other prominent Bahá'ís were arrested in Cairo for being Bahá'ís at the instigation of the corrupt Persian consul, Mírzá Husayn Khán. They were banished to Khartoum, where Haydar-`Alí spent the next 9 years in confinement. [BBR257; BKG250; GBP178, SDH32-66] Egypt Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali; Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1866. Dec About a hundred Bahá'ís were arrested in Tabríz following a disturbance in which a Bábí is killed. [BBR251–3; BW18:382] Tabriz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1867. 11 Jan Three Bahá'ís were executed in Tabríz. Their arrest was precipitated by conflict and rivalry between the Azalís and the Bahá'ís. [BBR252–3; BKG237–8; BW18:382–3; RB2:61]
  • BW18:382 says this was 8 January.
  • Tabriz; Iran Azali Babis; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1868. Apr Seven Bahá'ís in Constantinople were arrested and interrogated by a commission of inquiry whose mandate it was to verify the claims of Bahá'u'lláh and Mírzá Yahyá. [BKG250–2; GPB179; MF99–100 RB2:3289]
  • See RB2:329–32 for the conduct of the interrogations.
  • Among those arrested was Mishkín-Qalam, the calligrapher. He was particularly distraught because he is not allowed pen or paper. Eventually these were given to him. [BKG252]
  • Istanbul; Turkey Mishkin-Qalam; Calligraphy; Persecution; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Turkey
    1868. c. Jul Principal Bahá'ís in Baghdád were arrested by the Turkish authorities and exiled to Mosul and other places. [BBR265; BKG247; CH129–30; RB2:333]
  • RB2:333 indicates this took place towards the end of Bahá'u'lláh's stay in Adrianople.
  • About 70 people were exiled. [GPB178; RB2:334] Estimate given by Hájí Mirzá Haydar-;Alí is 80. (DOH12]
  • See BKG184 for an illustration of Mosul.
  • See BKG183 for a description of the city.
  • See RB2:334 for the hardships suffered by the exiles.
  • They remained in Mosul for some 20 years until Bahá'u'lláh advised the community to disband (1885-1886). Their hardship was lessened by generous contributions from the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs. A charity fund was established, the first fund of that kind in any Bahá'í community. [RB2:334–6]
  • Baghdad; Mosul; Iraq Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Charity and relief work; Funds; Firsts, Other; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1868. c. 21 Jul Mírzá Abu'l-Qásim-i-Shírází was arrested in Egypt and money extorted from him. [BBR257–8; BKG243; GPB178] Egypt Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1870 (In the year) Násiri'd-Dín Sháh maded a pilgrimage to the shrines in Iraq. In preparation for his visit the Bahá'ís were rounded up, arrested and exiled. [BBR267; BBRSM90; BKG441]
  • See BKG441–3 for details of the exile.
  • Iraq; Iran Nasirid-Din Shah; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1870 (In the year) In Zanján, Áqá Siyyid Ashraf was arrested, condemned to death as a Bábí and executed. [BWG470]
  • He was the son of Mír Jalíl, one of the companions of Hujjat who was martyred in Tihrán at the end of the Zanján episode. [BKG470]
  • He was born during the siege at Zanján. [BKG470]
  • His mother was brought to prison to persuade him to recant his faith but she threatened to disown him if he did so. [BBD25; BKG470; ESW73–4; GPB199–200]
  • See G135–6 for Bahá'u'lláh's Tablet concerning Ashraf and his mother.
  • Zanjan; Iran Ashraf, Aqa Siyyid; Mir Jalil; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1875 (In the year) The `ulamá arouse the rabble against the Bahá'ís in Sidih, Isfahán. Several Bahá'ís were imprisoned, including Nayyir and Síná. [BW18:383] Sidih; Isfahan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1876 (In the year) Six Bahá'ís were arrested in Tihrán and imprisoned for three months and 17 days. [BW18:383] Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1880 In the year Martyrdom of seven Bahá'ís in Sultánábád. [BW18:383]
  • Three Bahá'ís were killed on the orders of Siyyid Muhammad-Báqir-i-Mujtahid and a large number of Bahá'ís were thrown into prison. [BW18:383]
  • Sayyidih Khánum Bíbí, an old lady, was sent to Tihrán and was strangled in prison. [BW18:383]
  • Sultanabad; Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1882 (In the year) Mírzá `Alí-Muhammad Varqá was arrested in Yazd. He is sent to Isfahán where he was imprisoned for a year. [BW18:383] Yazd; Isfahan; Iran Varqa, Mirza Ali-Muhammad; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Varqa
    1882 – 1883 The Tihrán Upheaval.
  • A number of leading members of the Tihrán Bahá'í community were arrested and subsequently condemned to death. Some were confined for a period of 19 months in severe circumstances but the death sentences were not carried out. [BBR292–5; BW18:383]
  • This was occasioned by the release of Bahá'u'lláh from strict confinement and the subsequent increase in the number of pilgrims from Iran causing an upsurge of Bahá'í activities, particularly in Tihrán. [BBR292–5]
  • Tihran; Iran Tihran upheaval; Upheavals; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1883 (In the year) Six Bahá'ís were arrested in Yazd and sent to Isfahán in chains. BW18:383]

    Four Bahá'ís were arrested in Sarvistán, Fárs, and sent to Shíráz where they are bastinadoed. [BW18:383]

    Yazd; Isfahan; Sarvistan; Fars; Shiraz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1883. 19 Mar Sixteen Bahá'í traders of the bazaar were arrested in Rasht; three others are brought from Láhíján. [BW18:383] Rasht; Lahijan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1885. 27 Mar 1885 Martyrdom of Mullá `Alíy-i-Námiqí in Námiq, Turbat-i-Haydarí, Khurásán. [BW18:383] Namiq; Turbat-i-Haydari; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1887 (In the year) Karbalá'í Hasan Khán and Karbalá'í Sádiq were arrested in Sarvistán, Fárs, and imprisoned for two years before being killed in prison. [BW18:383] Sarvistan; Fars; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1888. c. Jul-Aug Two Bahá'ís were arrested in Sarvistán, Fárs, and were sent to Shíráz, where one was imprisoned. [BW18:383] Sarvistan; Fars; Shiraz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1890. Aug-Sep Mullá Hasan and his two brothers were arrested and beaten in Sarcháh, Bírjand. [BW18:383] Sarchah; Birjand; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1894 (In the year) Green Acre was founded by Sarah J. Farmer in the aftermath of the World Parliament of Religions. [BBRSM:104; BFA2:142–7; BW5:29; GPB261; SBBH1:125] Eliot; Maine; United States; Nishapur; Hamadan; Dastjirdan; Khurasan; Faran; Khurasan Sarah Farmer; Green Acre; Haji Yari; Aqa Abdul-Vahhab Mukhtari; World Parliament of Religions; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution Green Acre Bahá'í School (Wikipedia)
    1896 (In the year) Bahá'ís in Hisár, Khurásán were persecuted and imprisoned. [BW18:384] Hisar; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1896 (In the year) Mullá Hasan Khazá'í was arrested in Khúzistán. [BW18:384] Khuzistan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1896. Jun - Jul Several Bahá'ís were beaten and four were imprisoned in Turbat-i-Haydarí when two mujtahids stirred up the townspeople against them. [BW18:384] Turbat-i-Haydari; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1897 (In the year) Fifteen Bahá'ís were arrested in Saysán, Ádharbáyján. They were taken to Tabríz, imprisoned and fined. [BW18:384]
  • Three Bahá'ís were arrested in Nayríz on the orders of Áqá Najafí, the `Son of the Wolf'. [BW18:384]
  • The homes of several Bahá'ís in Hamadán were looted and ransacked after complaints by Jews of the town against Bahá'ís of Jewish background. [BW18:384]
  • Saysan; Adharbayjan; Tabriz; Nayriz; Hamadan; Iran Aqa Najafi (Son of the Wolf); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1897. Feb Six Bahá'ís were arrested in Mamaqán, Ádharbáyján. Three were bastinadoed and three were imprisoned in Tabríz. [BW18:384] Mamaqan; Adharbayjan; Tabriz; Iran Persecution, Adharbayjan; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1898 (In the year) Several Bahá'ís were arrested and imprisoned in Qazvín. [BW18:384]

    Hájí Muhammad was set upon and killed in Hisár, Khurásán. BW18:384]

    Qazvin; Hisar; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1898. Apr Nine Bahá'ís attending a Ridván meeting were arrested, beaten and imprisoned in Hamadán. [BW18:384] Hamadan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1903 8 Jun Bahá'ís in Maláyir, Hamadán, are attacked, beaten and imprisoned. Two are killed. [BW18:385] Malayir; Hamadan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1906 Oct-Nov Several Bahá'ís in Sangsar and Shahmírzád were killed or injured by bullets; six Bahá'ís were arrested. [BW18:386] Sangsar; Shahmirzad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1917 17 Feb A mob in Najafábád disintered the bodies from two Bahá'í graves. A general agitation against Bahá'ís followed. The Bahá'ís were boycotted in the bazaar and public baths and 32 are arrested. [BW18:387] Najafabad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution; Persecution, Mobs
    1920 Oct Mírzá Mustafá was killed at Farúgh, Fárs, and other Bahá'ís were imprisoned. [BW18:387] Farugh; Fars; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1924 9 Mar Two Bahá'ís were imprisoned for several months in Marághih, Iran, after two mullás stirred up trouble against the Bahá'ís. [BW18:388] Maraghih; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1924 2 Apr Bahá'ís in Turbat-i-Haydarí, Iran, were attacked; some were arrested and imprisoned and others were forced to leave the town permanently. [BW18:388] Turbat-i-Haydari; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1928 Oct A newspaper campaign of opposition to the Bahá’ís began in Turkey. [BBR474]
  • Several Bahá’ís were arrested as a result and a close investigation of Bahá’í affairs in Turkey was made by the judiciary and the police. [BBR474]
  • Turkey Persecution, Turkey; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1932 Nov A number of Bahá’ís were arrested in Adana, Turkey. [BBR474] Adana; Turkey Persecution, Turkey; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1932 2 Dec By this time there were 15 Bahá’ís under arrest in Adana, Turkey. [BBR474] Adana; Turkey Persecution, Turkey; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1933 6 Feb By this date there were about 50 Bahá’ís under arrest in Adana, Turkey. [BBR475; PP317] Adana; Turkey Persecution, Turkey; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1933 End Mar The 50 Bahá’ís imprisoned in Adana were released. [BBR475] Adana; Turkey Persecution, Turkey; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1935 (In the year) The persecution against the Bahá’ís in Iran continued. [BW18:389]
  • Meetings in the Bahá’í Centre in Tihrán were banned.
  • A number of Bahá’ís in Bandar Sháh were arrested and imprisoned.
  • The secretary of the Local Spiritual Assembly of Arák was arrested.
  • Bahá’ís in Qazvín were arrested and harassed.
  • A Bahá’í in Záhidán was arrested.
  • Iran; Tihran; Bandar Shah; Arak; Qazvin; Zahidan Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; LSA
    1937 (In the year) The persecution of the Bahá’ís in Iran continued throughout the country. [BW18:389]
  • Many Bahá’ís employed in the police force, army and government departments were dismissed.
  • Six members of the Local Spiritual Assembly of Ahváz were arrested.
  • Bahá’ís who closed their shops on Bahá’í holy days in Bandar Sháh were arrested.
  • All Bahá’í meetings in Kirmánsháh, Bírjand, Arák and other towns were prohibited by police order.
  • Five Bahá’í families were attacked in their homes in Cham-tang, near Hindíyán. They were severely beaten and forced to leave the village.
  • Iran; Ahvaz; Bandar Shah; Kirmanshah; Birjand; Arak; Cham-tang Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; LSA; Holy days
    1937 May Several prominent Bahá’ís were arrested in Yazd. [BW18:389]
  • They were imprisoned in Tihrán for four years; one died in prison. [BW18:389]
  • Yazd; Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1937 21 May All Bahá’í activities and institutions were banned in Germany by a special order of the Reichsführer SS and the Gestapo Chief of Staff Heinrich Himmler when he banned the Bahá'í Faith in Germany. He blamed it on the religion’s “international and pacifist tendencies.” The Nazi government increasingly targeted the Bahá'ís after Himmler’s edict, first by tearing down the public memorial to 'Abdu’l-Bahá in Bad Mergntheim and then, in 1939, making mass arrests of the former members of the National Spiritual Assembly. Bahá'ís went to jail, some for very long periods, without charges. In 1942, more mass arrests occurred. Many of the Bahá'ís from Germany and the surrounding countries disappeared in the Nazi concentration camp system. [BBRSM185; Bahá'í Teachings; German Bahá'í website archives] Germany Persecution, Germany; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Bans; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Court cases; World War II; Z****
    1937 Jul Nine Bahá’ís were imprisoned in Sangsar, Khurásán, Iran, for closing their shops on Bahá’í holy days. [BW18:389]
  • They were imprisoned for two months. [BW18:389]
  • Sangsar; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Holy days
    1938 (In the year) Persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continued throughout the country. [BW18:389]
  • Bahá’ís marrying without a Muslim ceremony were investigated, including several hundred in Tihrán alone. Most were imprisoned pending trial and were imprisoned for six to eight months afterwards and fined.
  • Bahá’í meetings in Kirmánsháh, Záhidán, Mashhad and other towns were harassed by the police.
  • Iran; Tihran; Kirmanshah; Zahidan; Mashhad Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1938 5 Feb Bahá'ís in the Soviet Union were persecuted by the authorities. [BBR473, BW8p87-90, 179-81, BW14p479-481, SETPE1p155]
  • Five hundred Bahá'í men were imprisoned in Turkistán. [Bw8p89]
  • Many Persian Bahá'ís living in various cities of the Soviet Union were arrested, some are sent to Siberia, others to Pavladar in northern Kazakhstan and yet others to Iran. [BW8p87, 179, 184]
  • Six hundred Bahá'í refugees-women, girls, children and a few old men, went to Iran, most to Mashhad. [BW8p89]
  • The Bahá'í Temple in Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) was confiscated and turned into an art gallery. [BDD122, BW8p89]
  • The Bahá'í schools were ordered closed. [BW8p89]
  • Spiritual Assemblies and all other administrative institutions in the Caucasus were ordered dissolved. [BW8p89]
  • Soviet Union; Russia; Caucasus; Turkistan; Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Kazakhstan; Iran; Mashhad Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Persecution, Russia; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Bahai schools; LSA
    1941 Jan Nine Bahá’ís were arrested in Sangsar, Khurásán, Iran, and banished to other towns for closing their shops on Bahá’í holy days. BW18:389] Sangsar; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Holy days
    1950 Sep - Oct Four Bahá’ís in Iran were arrested on trumped-up charges. The trial lasted until 1954, when the accused were given prison sentences. [BW18:390] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases
    1953 25 Mar Enayat Sohaili, an Iranian, arrived in Mozambique from India, the first Bahá’í pioneer to the country. [BW13:290]
  • He was imprisoned and deported in June 1953. [BW13:290]
  • Mozambique Enayat Sohaili; Pioneers; Persecution, Mozambique; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; First travel teachers and pioneers
    1955 18–22 Jan Five Bahá’ís were arrested and beaten in Hisár, Khurásán, Iran; four of these are dragged around the town; Bahá’í houses were attacked, looted and set on fire. [BW18:390] Hisar; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution
    1957 (In the year) Bahá’í activity in Czechoslovakia was banned by the authorities, several members of the Prague community were arrested and Vuk Echtner was imprisoned for two years. Prague; Czechoslovakia Persecution, Czechoslovakia; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1959 Mar A number of Bahá’ís, members of the local spiritual assembly, were arrested in Ankara, Turkey. [MC306]
  • The incident received wide coverage in the press and the Bahá’ís were eventually released from prison. [MC306]
  • A court case was subsequently brought against the Bahá’ís by the public prosecutor, who claimed that the Faith is a ‘Tarighat’, a sect forbidden by the law of the land, and lengthy litigation followed. [MC306–7]
  • Ankara; Turkey Persecution, Turkey; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; LSA; Court cases
    1960 Aug All Bahá’í activity in Egypt was prohibited by Presidential Decree No 263 issued by President Nasser of the United Arab Republic (Egypt and Syria).
  • Bahá’ís were interrogated, arrested, fined and imprisoned and their property confiscated. [BBRSM174; MC228]
  • See message from the Universal House of Justice to the Bahá'ís of Egypt dated 21 December 2006.
  • Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1961 17 Jan Following the arrest of Bahá’ís in Turkey in March 1959 and the subsequent court case, the Turkish court received the findings of three outstanding religious scholars that the Bahá’í Faith was an independent religion. [MoC308]
  • For details of the history of the case see MoC306–8.
  • Turkey Persecution, Turkey; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Human rights
    1961 15 Jul The Turkish court declared the Bahá’í Faith to be a ‘Tarighat’, a sect forbidden by the law of the land.<
  • The Bahá’ís were ‘forgiven’, released and the case against them dropped. [MoC308]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly decided to appeal the decision to a higher court and national spiritual assemblies were asked to make representations to the Turkish ambassadors in their respective countries. [MoC308]
  • Turkey Persecution, Turkey; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Human rights; NSA
    1962 12 Apr Four Bahá’ís were arrested in Nador, Morocco. [BW13:289; BW14:97]
  • Eventually 14 Bahá’ís in total were arrested: 7 in Nador, 2 in Fez and 5 in Tetuan. [MoC17]
  • For an outline of the situation as it developed over 20 months see MC16–19.
  • Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1963 (In the year) In Angola, Antonio Francesco Ebo and seven other Bahá’ís were arrested and imprisoned in a penal colony off the coast of southern Angola.
  • They remained in confinement for eight years.
  • Angola Persecution, Angola; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1964 (In the year) Four new believers in Cambodia were arrested and imprisoned as the Bahá’í Faith was not formally recognized and the Bahá’ís did not have permission to teach.
  • See Servants of the Glory page 26.
  • Cambodia Persecution, Cambodia; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution: Z****
    1966 11 Mar Eduardo Duarte Vieira was arrested in Portuguese Guinea on a charge of subversive political activity following a period of increasing pressure and harassment instigated by the clergy. He had been detained, maltreated and brutally beaten on several occasions since becoming a Bahá’í. [BW14:390] Portuguese Guinea (Guinea Bissau); Guinea Bissau Eduardo Duarte Vieira; Persecution, Guinea Bissau; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1968 26 Jan A Moroccan Bahá’í was arrested, tried and convicted on the charges of having abused the sacredness of Islám and using deceptive methods to convert people to another religion; he was sentenced to three years’ imprisonment. [BW15:172] Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases
    1968 9 Oct The widowed mother of seven children was sentenced to six months’ imprisonment in Morocco for refusing to deny her faith. [BW15:172]
  • Despite the efforts of national spiritual assemblies to secure justice for her through their embassies and cables to the King of Morocco, she was made to serve the entire sentence. [BW15:172]
  • Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Human rights
    1970 12 Nov Bahá’ís in the Central African Republic were arrested at a meeting to commemorate the anniversary of the birth of Bahá’u’lláh and Bahá’í activities were banned when a disaffected Bahá’í denounced the Faith as a political movement to the authorities. [BW15:207] Central African Republic Persecution, Central African Republic; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1973 Dec A teenaged Muslim student defended the Bahá’í Faith in a school in Baghdád, causing her arrest and the arrest of three Bahá’í girl students. [BW16:138]
  • Over the next months nearly 50 Bahá’ís were arrested. [BW16:138]
  • Baghdad; Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1974 4 Mar Following the arrest of more than 50 Bahá’ís in Iraq, their trial opened and the Bahá’ís were exonerated. [BW16:138]
  • The Revolutionary Council was dissatisfied with this result and the case was ordered to be reopened in a military court with the death sentence requested for all the detainees. [BW16:138]
  • Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution
    1975 (In the year) In Indonesia several Bahá’ís were arrested, given light sentences and released for violating the 1962 and 1972 bans on Bahá’í activity. [BW19:41]
  • A few months later four Bahá’ís were sentenced to five years’ imprisonment; they remained in prison for the full five years. [BW19:41]
  • Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1975 Jan A Bahá’í was arrested in Iraq and sentenced to ten years’ imprisonment. [BW16:138] Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution
    1975 Sep c. In Iraq, a young Bahá’í was detained, interrogated, beaten and asked to recant his faith when he specified his religion on a form. [BW16:138]
  • When he refused to recant his faith he was tried by a revolutionary court and sentenced to ten years’ imprisonment. [BW16.138]
  • Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution
    1979 Mar Yúsif Subhání, a well-known Bahá’í businessman, was imprisoned in Tihrán. [BW18:278] Iran; Tihran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1979 24 May Shaykh Muhammad Muvahhid, a well-known Bahá’í, was kidnapped in Tihrán. [BW18:254, 294] Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1979 Sep Revolutionary committees in Shahsavár, ‘Ábádán and Tabríz, Iran, ordered the arrest of Bahá’ís. [BW18:255]
  • Among those arrested were members of local spiritual assemblies. [BW18:255]
  • Bahá’í homes in Tabríz were raided and literature seized. [BW18:255]
  • Shahsavar; Abadan; Tabriz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1980 Feb The persecution of the Bahá’ís in Iran entered a new, more dangerous phase. [BW18:255]
  • Prominent Bahá’ís were abducted. [BW18:256]
  • The homes of members of the National Spiritual Assembly were raided. [BW18:256]
  • Iran NSA; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1980 Apr Eight Bahá’ís were arrested in Tabríz; five were released after signing an agreement not to take part in Bahá’í administrative activities. [BW18:256]
  • Two of the others, members of the local assembly, were put on trial and executed on 14 July 1982. [BW18:256]
  • Tabriz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1980 21 Aug The members of the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran were arrested. They disappeared without trace and were presumed dead. [BW19:43, 235]
  • See photo.
  • Iran NSA Iran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths
    1981 5 Dec The Bahá'í cemetery in Tehran was seized "by order of the Revolutionary Court". Five caretakers and eight temporary workers were arrested and the cemetery was closed. [Mess63-86p510]

    The Baha’i cemetery, known as “Golestan-i-Javid” – the Eternal Garden – was confiscated. Ten years later, the City of Tehran demolished the cemetery in order to build the Khavaran Cultural Complex. In accordance with Shi’a jurisprudence, the conversion for the purpose of so-called “improvement” of a cemetery is only permissible after 30 years, but in this case only ten years had passed. The construction of the Khavaran Cultural Centre required deep excavation and the disinterment of more than 1,000 bodies. The design for the sunken yard and the vast basement of this complex was in reality a modern solution to the doctrinal problem of cleansing the soil of the “contamination” of the “unclean” remains of Bahá'ís. During the excavation and recycling of the soil, the remains of the “non-believer” Bahá'ís were apparently used in the foundation for the road and a new overpass. [Iran Press Watch 11 June 2018]

  • For the historical background of the mistreatment of the dead in Iran see Iran Press Watch 19288.iiiii
  • Since the Bahá'ís have always been prohibited from burying their dead in Muslim cemeteries, the acquisition of burial grounds has been a major goal of the Bahá'í communities. From the earliest days, Bahá'í dead have been buried in their own private properties, in plots of land donated by individual Bahá'ís to the community as local endowments, or, where possible, in the community-owned cemeteries obtained by collective financial contributions of individual Bahais. A systematic process of acquiring separate Bahá'í cemeteries, however, was inaugurated in most Bahá'í communities in the 1920s and continued in later decades. Prior to the 1979 revolution, most of the principal Bahá'í centers had their own cemeteries run under the supervision of the local Spiritual Assembly. After the revolution most of them have been destroyed and desecrated. [BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati]
  • Tihran; Iran Cemeteries and graves; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Golestan-i-Javid; Eternal Garden; Khavaran Cultural Complex; Persecution, denial of burial; Z****
    1982 23 Oct Authorities arrested 45 Bahá'ís in Shiraz on the order of the prosecutor. On October 30th another 40 Baha’is were arrested. In all cases, they were arrested simply because of their religious beliefs. Some were later released but many of those arrested were subjected to interrogation and excruciating torture. The interrogations and torture were carried out to extract information about Bahá'í organizations and to force prisoners to renounce their faith and convert to Islam.
  • The Revolutionary Court of Shiraz sent 22 of those arrested to the gallows. The executions began on January 1, 1983, with the killing of Hedayatollah Siavoshi.
  • The last of the group to die was Soheil Houshmand on June 28, 1983.
  • The oldest among the executed Bahá'ís was Abdolhossein Azadi, 66, and the youngest was Mona Mahmoudinejad, a high school student of 17.
  • The entire Eshraghi family — father, mother and daughter — were executed. Also executed were a mother and son, Nosrat and Bahram Yaldaie, and a young couple, Jamshid and Tahereh Siavoshi. Yadollah, the father of 17-year-old Mona Mahmoudinejad, was also killed.
  • Ahmad Sabet Sarvestani was the only one among them who died in prison as a result of torture before he could be hanged. [Iran Press Watch 19466]
  • Shiraz; Iran Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Deaths; Persecution, Iran; Persecution; Mona Mahmudnizhad; Youth
    1983 Mar Five local and two pioneer Bahá’ís were arrested, interrogated and held briefly in prison in Mauritania. [BW19:49]
  • The National Assembly was dissolved. [BW19:49]
  • Mauritania NSA; Persecution, Mauritania; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1983 Dec Bahá’ís were arrested in Mohammadieh and Casablanca, Morocco. [BW19:49]
  • The Bahá’ís in Mohammadieh were convicted of violating the ban on Bahá’í meetings, were sentenced to two years’ imprisonment but were released. [BW19:49]
  • Mohammadieh; Casablanca; Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1984 (In the year) Four Bahá’ís, one of whom had already spent five years in prison, were imprisoned in Indonesia, convicted of membership in a banned religious organization, with teaching the Bahá’í Faith and with insulting Islám. [BW19:42]
  • The prison terms ranged from one to five years. [BW19:42]
  • Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Court cases; Persecution
    1984 Jun A Bahá’í in Tetuan, Morocco, was arrested and sentenced to three years imprisonment for violating the 1983 ban on Bahá’í meetings. [BW19:49]
  • An appeal to the Supreme Court was unsuccessful. [BW19:49]
  • Tetuan; Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1985 23 Feb Forty–one Bahá’ís from various parts of Egypt were arrested, charged with offences against laws introduced in 1960 banning activities of Bahá’í institutions. [BW19:41, 283]
  • For an account of the event, its aftermath and the press campaign surrounding it see BW19:283–7.
  • Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1985 7 May The court hearings open on the cases of the Bahá’ís arrested in Egypt in February on charges of disregarding the 1960 ban on Bahá’í activity. [BW,9:285]
  • The cases were adjourned until 7 October to allow time for the defence lawyer to study the files numbering about a thousand pages. [BW19:285]
  • Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Bans; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases
    1987 23 Sep Three members of the Yaran-e Iran, Mr. Jamaluddin Khanjani, Mr. Hasan Mahboobi and Mr. Changeez Fanaeyan, along with two other Bahá'í citizens, were arrested. After spending 59 days in jail, they were released on November 11th. One of the two Bahá'ís arrested with the members of the Yaran, Mr. Bahman Samandari, was jailed and later executed in March of 1991. Authorities announced that his incarceration and execution was in connection to the 1987 case. Mr. Hasan Mahboobi was killed in a hit-and-run accident as he was heading to a meeting of the Yaran in August 1992. After the release of the Yaran-e Iran until their next arrest in May 2008, the Iranian government was in close contact with them and had complete and detailed knowledge of all Bahá'í activities. On that basisBahá'ís were able to refute the charges of “illegal activities” or “illegal organization” against the security of the nation. [Iran Press Watch 10561] Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1995 Sep The arrest and imprisonment of Mr. Zabihullah Mahrami in Yazd because of his adherence to the Bahá'í. He was given a life sentence. [Planet Bahá'í] Yazd; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1997 4 Jul Masha'llah Enayati, a 63-year-old man, died in custody while in prison in Isfahan after being severely beaten. [One Country Jul-Sep 1998 Vol 10 Issue 2] Isfahan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1998 21 Jul Mr. Ruhu'llah Rawhani, a 52-year-old medical supplies salesman was hanged in Mashhad solely for religious reasons. Later that morning, Mr. Rawhani's family was summoned to collect his body and required, despite their protests, to complete the burial within one hour, under the supervision of Government intelligence agents.
  • In 1984, Mr. Rawhani was arrested and imprisoned for more than a year. According to an account given by Mr. Rawhani's relatives in the Australian Bahá'í News, Mr. Rawhani was tortured during his first imprisonment. He was arrested a second time about four years previous. The charge was apparently related to his work in the conduct of purely religious activities, such as prayer meetings and children's classes. He was released after 24 hours.
  • Mr. Rawhani was arrested for a third time in September 1997 and placed in solitary confinement in Mashhad. He had been accused of "converting" a woman from Islam to the Bahá'í Faith. The woman, however, denied that she had converted; she explained that her mother was a Bahá'í and that she herself had been raised as a Bahá'í. She was not arrested.
  • The killing of Mr. Rawhani was the first government execution of a Bahá'í in Iran in six years, and was coupled with the widespread arrest of some 32 Bahá'í educators in fourteen different cities throughout Iran in late September and early October. From the Daily Telegraph, August 2nd 1998. [One Country Jul-Sep 1998 Vol 10 Issue 2, One Country Oct-Dec 1998 Vol 10 Issue 3, Archives of Bahá'í Persecution in Iran]
  • See the message from the Universal House of Justice dated 29 September, 1998.
  • Mashhad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; persecution, Persecution, Education
    2001 14 Jan Sixteen Bahá'ís were arrested in the southern Egyptian city of Sohag. The charges brought against them concerned their membership in the Bahá’í Faith. [Message from the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Canada dated the 19th of January, 2001] Sohag; Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    2006 19 May Iranian security officials arrested 54 Bahá'ís in the city of Shiraz who were involved in a community service project, many of them in their teens and early 20's. They were not charged and all but three were released within six days. It was the largest mass arrest of Bahá'ís since the 1980's. [New York Times 1 June, 2006] Shiraz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Youth
    2008 5 Mar Mahvash Sabet – a schoolteacher and mother of two and a member of the national-level administrative group for Iran, the Yaran – was arrested after having been summoned to Mashhad to discuss some matters regarding a Bahá'í burial. She subsequently spent 175 days in solitary confinement. On the 26th of May she was moved to Evin prison in Tehran. [BWNS Special Report]
  • This arrest marked a new wave of persecution of the Bahá'í Faith in Iran.
  • See Iran Press Watch 10561 for the background story to her arrest.
  • Mashhad; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Evin prison; BWNS; Mahvash Sabet
    2008 14 May The six men and a women, Mr. Jamaloddin Khanjani, Mr. Afif Naeimi, Mr. Saeid Rezaie, Mr. Behrouz Tavakkoli, Mr. Vahid Tizfahm. and Mrs. Fariba Kamalabadi, all members of the national-level group that helped see to the minimum needs of Bahá’ís in Iran, were arrested in their homes in Tehran. Mrs. Kamalabadi, Mr. Khanjani, and Mr. Tavakkoli had been arrested previously and then released after periods ranging from five days to four months. [BWNS632, Report] Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; BWNS
    2008 The arrest of the Bahá'í leadership took place in the context of a severely and rapidly escalating systemic campaign of attacks against the Bahá'í community that included the creation and circulation of lists of Bahá'ís with instructions that the activities of the members of the community be secretly monitored; dawn raids on Bahá'í homes and the confiscation of personal property; a dramatic increase over the previous two months in the number of Bahá'ís arrested; daily incitement to hatred of the Bahá'ís in all forms of government-sponsored mass media; the holding of anti-Bahá'í symposia and seminars organized by clerics and followed by orchestrated attacks on Bahá'í homes and properties in the cities and towns where such events were held; destruction of Bahá'í cemeteries throughout the country and demolition of Bahá'í holy places and shrines; acts of arson against Bahá'í homes and properties; debarring of Bahá'ís from access to higher education and, increasingly, vilification of Bahá'í children in their classrooms by their teachers; the designation of numerous occupations and businesses from which Bahá'ís were debarred; refusal to extend bank loans to Bahá'ís; sealing Bahá'í shops; refusing to issue or renew business licenses to Bahá'ís; harassment of landlords of Bahá'í business premises to get them to evict their tenants; and threats against Muslims who associated with Bahá'ís. [Iran Press Watch 1109] Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Human rights; Persecution; Human rights
    2008 3 Jun Mrs. Mahvash Sabet and Mrs. Fariba Kamalabadi were permitted to make short phone calls to their families. Later it was confirmed that Mr. Jamaloddin Khanjani, Mr. Afif Naeimi, Mr. Saeid Rezaie, Mr. Behrouz Tavakkoli, and Mr. Vahid Tizfahm also have made brief phone calls to their families. [BIC Report] Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    2008 20 Jun Four Bahá'ís were arrested in Sana'a on the accusation of proselytizing. The three Bahá’is of Iranian origin who were arrested are Mr. Zia'u'llah Pourahmari, Mr. Keyvan Qadari, and Mr. Mr. Behrooz Rohani . A fourth Bahá’i, Mr. Sayfi Ibrahim Sayfi, was also arrested and faced the possibility of deportation to Iraq.
  • The Bahá’is had been persecuted on account of their faith prior to the armed conflict under the regime of President Ali Abdullah Saleh. [BWNS651]
  • Sanaa; Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; BWNS
    2013 Mar The publication of the report entitled Violence with Impunity: Acts of Aggression Against Iran's Bahá'í Community published by the Bahá'í International Community. The report documents a rising tide of violence directed against the Iranian Bahá'í community - and the degree to which attackers enjoy complete impunity from prosecution or punishment.
  • From 2005 through 2012, for example, there were 52 cases where Bahá'ís have been held in solitary confinement, and another 52 incidents where Bahá'ís have been physically assaulted. Some 49 incidents of arson against Bahá'í homes and shops, more than 30 cases of vandalism, and at least 42 incidents of cemetery desecration were also documented. [BWNS972]
  • Report in English.
  • Report in Farsi.
  • Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Justice; Bahai International Community; BWNS
    2013 28 Oct The release of the video Violence with Impunity: Acts of Aggression Against Iran's Bahá'í Community based on the report of the same name. [BWNS972]
  • Engish
  • Farsi
  • Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Justice; Bahai International Community; BWNS; film; Violence with Impunity
    2013 3 Dec Mr. Hamed Kamal Muhammad bin Haydara (sometimes referred to in the media as "Hamed Merza Kamali Serostani ") was arrested in al-Mukalla, capital of Hadramout province in eastern Yemen. It was suggested that he was arrested on the orders of Mr. Khaled al-Mawari, the Chief Prosecutor who was involved in the unwarranted arrest and detention of another member of the Yemeni Bahá'í community.
  • The family of Hamed bin Haydara had lived in Socotra since 1945, when his father arrived on the Yemeni island from Iran as a doctor under British colonial rule and was granted Yemeni citizenship.
  • The National security Office raided his home and seized laptops and documents. Reports indicated that he has been tortured (beaten and electrocuted).
  • According to Bahá'í estimates, there were about 2,000 Bahá'ís in Yemen [BIC website, Reuters]
  • Sanaa; Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    2014 3 Oct Hamed bin Haydara had been held at an undisclosed location since his arrest by National Security Forces on the 3rd of December, 2013. During this time he was held in prolonged solitary confinement, severely tortured and electrocuted, and forced to sign documents while blindfolded. In September of 2014 NGOs discovered where he was being detained so the National Security was forced to relocate him to the Criminal Investigation Detention Centre in the Central Prison in Sana'a. [Defending Bahá'í Rights facebook page] Sanaa; Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Hamed bin Haydara
    2016 10 Aug Armed officers, masked in balaclavas from Yemen’s National Security Bureau (NSB) intelligence agency, which worked hand in hand with the armed Houthi authorities, (also knowns as Ansar Allah) stormed a Bahá’í youth educational workshop in Sana’a. The event was part of a nine day, cross country moral and educational program for Bahá’í youth organized by the Bahá'í -run Nida Foundation for Development. Sixty-five people were arrested including 14 women and six people under 18 without an arrest warrant. Half were Bahá'ís and, at the time of this writing, it was believed some fourteen remained in prison, including young mothers. Further arrests were carried out later and within a week all but 10 of those who had been incarcerated had been released.
  • Among those detained are Nadim Tawfiq Al-Sakkaf, (British Council’s country manager in Yemen), his brother Nader Tawfiq Al-Sakkaf and Kaiwan Mohamed Ali Qadri. [UN Human Rights 4 Oct 2016, BWNS1118, publicaffairs.bahai.us, UN Human Rights, Defending Bahá'í Rights facebook page]
  • Sanaa; Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Youth; BWNS
    2016. 27 Nov In Yemen, Nadim al-Sakkaf and his brother Nader, who were detained from August 10th, were unexpectedly released from prison in Sana'a. Their release, it was believed, was in no small part due to the relentless advocacy of their wives Ruhiyeh al-Sakkaf and Nafheh al-Sakkaf. Their friend Kaiwan Mohamed Ali Qadri, who was arrested in the same raid, remained in custody. [Religion News Service 20161129]
  • Photos of the four can be found on the same page.
  • Sanaa; Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    2017 19 Apr Houthi-Saleh political security officers arrested Walid Ayyash, Mahmood Humaid, and Badi'u'llah Sanai, all members of the Bahá'í community, at a checkpoint near the city border of Hudiedah. Sanai was released one week later, but was re-arrested in May. All three remain detained, their whereabouts unknown. [UN News Centre 22 May 2017]
  • In total over 25 Bahá'ís, including many prominent members of the Bahá'í community who assisted with organization of community affairs at the national level were arrested around the time. In October it was reported that eight Bahá'ís were still detained but the place of detention was not known. [BWNS1215]
  • Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; BWNS
    2017 Sep Arrests of Bahá'ís in Yemen drew international censure which led to a United Nations resolution, titled “Human Rights, Technical Assistance and Capacity-building in Yemen”. It was introduced by Egypt on behalf of the Arab Group and supported by the entire UN Human Rights Council—calling for the immediate release of all Bahá'í detainees. The Council was the principal human rights body at the UN and was composed of 47 members who are elected by the General Assembly based on equitable geographic distribution.
  • At the time of the resolution there were seven Bahá'ís in prison in Yemen, most of whom are held in undisclosed locations and one of which has been detained for nearly four years due to repeatedly postponement court-hearings. Arrest warrants had been issued for over a dozen others, while a number of families had been forced to leave their homes. Developments in Yemen indicated that the authorities’ prosecution of individuals had broadened in scope to be against the Bahá'í community in general and that efforts were being made to turn public opinion against all of the Bahá'ís under the premise that they are secretly plotting to stir unrest in Yemen.
  • The resolution established a Group of Eminent International and Regional Experts tasked with monitoring and reporting on the situation on human rights in Yemen. It was also mandated to carry out a comprehensive examination of all alleged violations and abuses of international human rights in the country. [BIC News 3 October 2017, UN Human Rights Council – 36th Session, Agenda Item 10]
  • Geneva; Switzerland; Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; United Nations; Human Rights
    2017 18 - 22 Oct The Iranian Bahá'í community was targeted during the bicentenary period. Between 18 and 21 October, some 19 individuals were arrested in Kermanshah, Tehran, and Birjand, and the homes 25 Baha’is were raided. Twenty-six Bahá'í-owned shops around the country were sealed off by authorities because the owners observed the Holy Day on 21 October. These closures occurred in Shiraz, Marvdasht, Gorgan, and Gonbad. [BWNS1215] Iran; Kermanshah; Tihran; Birjand; Shiraz; Marvdasht; Gorgan; Gonbad Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Bahaullah, Birth of; BWNS
    2017 22 Oct Yemeni security forces raided a Bahá'í gathering in Sana’a opening fire on the small group of people assembled to commemorate the bicentenary of the birth of Bahá'u'lláh. The attack occurred in the family home of prominent tribal leader Walid Ayyash, who had been abducted in April and whose whereabouts were unknown. The attackers were reportedly in four cars and an armored vehicle which they used to break down the front door of the house. They arrested Mr. Ayyash’s brother, Akram Ayyash.
  • This event proved unequivocally the extent of Iran’s role in the persecution of the Bahá'ís in Yemen, especially in Sana’a, which was under the control of Iranian-backed militias. Similar attacks occurred in Iran during the period of celebration of the bicentennial of the birth of Bahá'úlláh. [BWNS1215]
  • Sanaa; Yemen; Iran Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Bahaullah, Birth of; BWNS; Walid Ayyash
    2018 19 Mar The release of Mr. Vahid Tizfahm from the Rajaee Shahr Prison in Karaj after having completed his 10-year sentence. He was the sixth of the seven Bahá'í leaders to be released from prison.
  • At this time the 10 year term of the remaining prisoner, Mr Afif Naeimi, had two months yet to serve. Due to a serious illness he was released to the custody of his family while receiving medical treatment under the proviso that he would return to prison when deemed medically fit. [BWNS1245, Iran Press Watch, 29 March, 2018, Iran Press Watch 30 March, 2018]
  • For his personal history see Iran Watch 11557.
  • According to BIC, there were 97 Bahá'ís in prison as of 1 March. [Middle East Eye Tuesday 20 March 2018 12:39 UTC]
  • Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Human rights; Court cases; BWNS
    2018 20 Dec The last imprisoned member of the former leadership body of the Bahá'í community in Iran was released from prison after serving a 10-year prison sentence. He was arrested on 14 May 2008 and charged with, among other false claims, espionage, propaganda against Iran, and the establishment of an illegal administration. Mr. Naeimi and the other six former members of the Yaran faced those charges more than a year after their arrest in a sham trial without any semblance of legal process. Authorities sentenced Mr. Naeimi and the other former members of the Yaran to 10 years in prison. While detained, Mr. Naeimi experienced severe health problems, often receiving inadequate treatment. Authorities made a cruel determination that the brief time Mr. Naeimi, a father of two from Tehran, spent in a hospital recovering would not be counted as part of his sentence. [BWNS1302] Tehran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Human rights; Persecution; Human rights

    from the main catalogue

    1. Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
    2. Significance of some Sites Mentioned in Memorials of the Faithful, by Foad Seddigh, in Lights of Irfan, 17 (2016). Abdu'l-Baha cited many villages and cities: the Most Great House in Baghdád; the ruins of Madaen which Baha'u'llah visited many times; Sheikh Tabarsi's tomb; the city of Mosul which is built on the ruins of the ancient city of Nineveh. [about]
     
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