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Search for tag "Persecution, Bans"

from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1932 (In the year) The Iranian government introduced measures against the Bahá’ís throughout Iran. Restrictions were placed on the import of Bahá’í books and periodicals by post and on the publication of Bahá’í literature. Bahá’í marriages were not recognized. [BW18:388] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
1932 10 Jun The American National Spiritual Assembly addresseed a petition to the Sháh of Iran requesting that the ban on Bahá’í literature be removed and asking that its representative, Mrs Keith Ransom-Kehler, be recognized to present in person the appeal. [BW5:390–1] United States; Iran NSA; Petitions; Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Keith Ransom-Kehler; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
1932 15 Aug Keith Ransom-Kehler met the Iranian Court Minister Taymur Tash. [BW5:392]
  • She presented the American petition to him asking that the ban on Bahá’í literature in Iran be lifted and received assurances from him that this would be affected. [BW5:392]
  • She made seven successive petitions addressed to the Sháh of Persia. [GPB345]
  • For the history and unsuccessful outcome of this effort see BW5:391–8.
  • Iran; United States Keith Ransom-Kehler; NSA; Petitions; Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Keith Ransom-Kehler; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1937 21 May All Bahá’í activities and institutions were banned in Germany by a special order of the Reichsführer SS and the Gestapo Chief of Staff Heinrich Himmler when he banned the Bahá'í Faith in Germany. He blamed it on the religion’s “international and pacifist tendencies.” The Nazi government increasingly targeted the Bahá'ís after Himmler’s edict, first by tearing down the public memorial to 'Abdu’l-Bahá in Bad Mergntheim and then, in 1939, making mass arrests of the former members of the National Spiritual Assembly. Bahá'ís went to jail, some for very long periods, without charges. In 1942, more mass arrests occurred. Many of the Bahá'ís from Germany and the surrounding countries disappeared in the Nazi concentration camp system. [BBRSM185; Bahá'í Teachings; German Bahá'í website archives] Germany Persecution, Germany; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Bans; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Court cases; World War II; Z****
    1958 14 Sep A week before the fifth Intercontinental conference is due to convene in Djakarta, Indonesia, the government withdrew the permit to hold the conference. [BW13:331]
  • For the story of why the permit was revoked see DM83–5.
  • The cancellation of the conference in Djakarta began a period of severe repression of the Faith in Indonesia which eventually led to the Faith being banned in 1962. [DM85, 88]
  • Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade
    1969 Apr The Bahá’í Faith was banned in Algeria by official decree, all Bahá’í institutions were disbanded and the National Spiritual Assembly dissolved. [BW15:189; BW19:41] Algeria Persecution, Algeria; Persecution, Other; Persecution; NSA; Persecution, Bans
    1970 May In Iraq the Baathist Revolutionary Command Council issued Decree No. 105 to ban Bahá’í activities and disbanding all Bahá’í institutions. [BBRSM174; BW15:173; BW16:137] Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1970 12 Nov Bahá’ís in the Central African Republic were arrested at a meeting to commemorate the anniversary of the birth of Bahá’u’lláh and Bahá’í activities were banned when a disaffected Bahá’í denounced the Faith as a political movement to the authorities. [BW15:207] Central African Republic Persecution, Central African Republic; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1971 (In the year) Following the prohibition of Bahá’í activity in Egypt in 1960, Egyptian Bahá’ís put forward a petition to the Supreme Constitutional Court seeking to overturn the presidential decree as unconstitutional. Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; Petitions
    1971 13 Feb Following the ban imposed by the government of the Central African Republic on Bahá’í activities in November 1970 and subsequent representations made by the international Bahá’í lawyer Dr Aziz Navidi, the ban was lifted and the Bahá’í Faith officially recognized.
  • This was broadcast in every news bulletin on government radio for the next 24 hours, the first public proclamation of the Bahá’í Faith in the country.
  • Central African Republic Persecution, Central African Republic; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; Firsts, Other; Recognition
    1971 13 Oct Following the banning of Bahá’í activities in Egypt in 1960, Egyptian Bahá’ís submitted a petition to the Supreme Constitutional Court asking for redress and for justice to be upheld. [BW15:173]
  • The opinion of one Mandatory of the government is that the 1960 decree was unconstitutional. [BW15:173]
  • Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; Court cases
    1972 (In the year) In Indonesia the Attorney-General confirmed the 1962 ban on Bahá’í administrative institutions and added a further prohibition against organized Bahá’í teaching activities. [BW19:41] Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1972 19 Jun The government of Indonesia re-affirmed the ban on the Bahá’í Faith.
  • Following this a number of Bahá’ís lost their jobs.
  • Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1974 (In the year) As a result of an intervention by the Egyptian chargé d’affaires, Bahá’í activities in Burundi were banned. [BW16:137] Burundi Persecution, Burundi; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1974 (In the year) Owing to the failure of the Indonesian Bahá’ís to obtain religious liberty, the Universal House of Justice instructed that the national convention not be held. Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; Conventions, National
    1975 (In the year) Owing to the continuing ban on Bahá’í activities and institutions, the national spiritual assembly and all local spiritual assemblies were disbanded in Indonesia. Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1975 (In the year) The ban imposed on the Bahá’í Faith in Burundi in 1974 was lifted. [BW16:137]
  • Bahá’í activities continue to be restricted, particularly in provincial areas. [BW16:137]
  • Burundi Persecution, Burundi; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1975 (In the year) The Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt decided that the 1960 decree of President Nasser banning all Bahá’í activities was constitutional and the application of the Bahá’ís for annulment of the decree was dismissed. [BW16:137]
  • Though nominally they have been guaranteed equal rights and religious freedoms under the 1971 Constitution, Bahá'ís, in practice, have retained a secondary legal status due to ongoing religious discrimination. Issues pertaining to personal status in Egypt were informed by religious rather than civil law and recognition pertained only to Islam, Christianity and Judaism. Aspects of religious life such as marriage, divorce and family relationships were not recognized by the state.
  • Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; Human rights
    1975 (In the year) In Indonesia several Bahá’ís were arrested, given light sentences and released for violating the 1962 and 1972 bans on Bahá’í activity. [BW19:41]
  • A few months later four Bahá’ís were sentenced to five years’ imprisonment; they remained in prison for the full five years. [BW19:41]
  • Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1975 25 Apr A revolution in Portugal removed the ban on Bahá’í meetings and teaching activities. Portugal Persecution, Portugal; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1976 (In the year) Following the conquest of South Vietnam by North Vietnam, an anti-religion policy was implemented and the Bahá’í Faith, along with all other religions, were banned. Vietnam Persecution, Vietnam; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1976 (In the year) The government of Equatorial Guinea outlawed all religions and the national spiritual assembly was dissolved.
  • It was re-formed in 1984.
  • Equatorial Guinea Persecution, Equatorial Guinea; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1976 May Bahá’í activities in Mali were restricted by order of the government and the decree of recognition of the Faith suspended. [BW17:81] Mali Persecution, Mali; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1977 (In the year) The Bahá'í Faith, along with many other religious groups, were banned in Uganda. [BWNS135] Uganda Persecution, Uganda; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; BWNS
    1977 16 Sep In Uganda, 27 religious organizations were banned, including the Bahá’í Faith, and the Bahá’í House of Worship was closed. [BW17:81]
  • The national spiritual assembly and all 1,550 local assemblies were dissolved. [BW17:141]
  • Uganda Persecution, Uganda; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; NSA; LSA; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Kampala
    1978 (In the year) The Bahá’ís of Vietnam were prohibited by the government from meeting and practising their religion. [BW17:81; BW19:50]
  • Bahá’í centres throughout the country were closed or confiscated;
  • The national Hazíratu’l-Quds in Ho Chi Minh City was seized and made into an orphanage;
  • Two members of the national spiritual assembly were arrested and sent to ‘re-education’ camps.
  • One was released in 1982, owing to ill health.
  • Vietnam Persecution, Vietnam; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; NSA; Haziratul-Quds
    1978 Feb The government of the Congo banned the majority of smaller religious groups, including the Bahá’í Faith. [BW17:141]
  • The national Hazíratu’l-Quds was confiscated and the assemblies dissolved.
  • Congo Persecution, Congo; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; Haziratul-Quds
    1978 Jul In Niger, an announcement was made on the national radio banning ‘the Baha’ist sect and the Nineteen Day Feast’ throughout the country; immediately, all Bahá’í administrative activities were suspended and the national spiritual assembly was dissolved. [BW17:147]
  • Mr Djoneidi was called into police-headquarters in Niger for questioning and was held for three days; then released unharmed. Other Bahá’ís were also called in.
  • Niger Persecution, Niger; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; NSA; Mr Djoneidi
    1979 Apr The ban against the Bahá’í Faith in Uganda was lifted and the House of Worship in Kampala was re-opened for worship. [BW17:141] Kampala; Uganda Mashriqul-Adhkar, Kampala; Persecution, Uganda; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1983 (In the year) The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continued throughout the year. [BW18:92; BW19:177–226]
  • Twenty–nine Bahá’ís were executed or otherwise killed. [BW19:232–3]
  • All Bahá'í elected and appointed institutions were banned by the government in this year; most of the members of the previous three national governing councils having successively been executed. In the absence of a national governing council (known as a “National Spiritual Assembly”), the ad hoc leadership group, called the “Friends in Iran,” (Yaran) was formed with the full knowledge of the government. The various governments in power in Iran since 1983 had always been aware of this group. In fact, over the years government officials have routinely had dealings with the members of the Yaran, albeit often informally. [BWNS694]
  • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
  • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments, and other actions taken, see BW18:92–6 and BW19:44–6.
  • For a list of the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community, Bahá’í institutions and others see BW18:352–6, 424–5.
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Human rights; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; United Nations; Bahai International Community; Human rights; Yaran; BWNS
    1983 Apr The Government of Morocco prohibited all Bahá’í meetings. [BW19:49] Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1983 23 Aug Seyyed Hussein Musavi Tabrizi, the Attorney General of Iran, declared all Bahá'í administrative activities illegal, thus requiring the dissolution of the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran, along with some 400 Local Assemblies which operated under its jurisdiction. [Iran Press Watch] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1983 29 Aug The Bahá’í Faith was banned in Iran and membership of Bahá’í institutions made a criminal offence. [BW19:43]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly was dissolved as well all Bahá’í institutions throughout the country. [BW19:43]
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; NSA
    1984 Oct In Tunisia, the activities of the Faith were curtailed and Bahá’ís were interrogated. [BW19:50] Tunisia Persecution, Tunisia; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1985 23 Feb Forty–one Bahá’ís from various parts of Egypt were arrested, charged with offences against laws introduced in 1960 banning activities of Bahá’í institutions. [BW19:41, 283]
  • For an account of the event, its aftermath and the press campaign surrounding it see BW19:283–7.
  • Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1985 7 May The court hearings open on the cases of the Bahá’ís arrested in Egypt in February on charges of disregarding the 1960 ban on Bahá’í activity. [BW,9:285]
  • The cases were adjourned until 7 October to allow time for the defence lawyer to study the files numbering about a thousand pages. [BW19:285]
  • Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Bans; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases
    2002 (In the year) The Indonesian Ulema Council (MUI) issued a fatwa (edict) that banned Bahá'ís from burying their dead relatives in public cemeteries. Religious violence targeting the Indonesian Bahá'í community began during the Suharto regime that restricted the official religions to only five. Bans on the Faith had been issued earlier in the 1960s and the 1970s. [The Jakarta Post August 8, 2014] Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    2003 (In the year) A fatwa was issued against the Bahá'í Faith in Egypt by Al-Azhar, the prominent religious institution supporting the continued ban as apostates. Cairo; Egypt Fatwa; Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    2008 21 Mar The re-election of the National Spiritual Assembly of Vietnam after a lapse of some 33 years.
  • A major step towards official recognition of the Faith had been taken a year previous when authorities issued a certificate recognizing Bahá'í activities.
  • The Bahá'í Faith had been established in Vietnam in 1954. In 1957 Bahá'ís there joined with a number of other countries in southeast Asia to form a Regional Spiritual Assembly, and in 1964 the first National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Vietnam had been formed. [BWNS617]
  • Vietnam Persecution, Bans; BWNS
    2014 8 Aug The official ban on the Bahá'í Faith in Indonesia was lifted. [The Jakarta Post August 8, 2014] Jakarta; Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    2017. 30 Nov Bahá'ís celebrated the bicentennial of the birth of Bahá'u'lláh in a ceremony in Baghdad attended by representatives from the Iraqi parliament, the Iraqi High Commission for Human Rights (IHCHR), the United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq, civil society as well as media activists.
  • This was considered the most prominent ceremony where Bahá'ís officially announced themselves for the first time in 47 years, as the Baathist Revolutionary Command Council issued Decree No. 105 in 1970 to ban Bahá'í activities. As a consequence, Bahá'í administrative institutions in Iraq were dissolved and any activity where Bahá'ís declared their religious identity was punishable by imprisonment.
  • During the proceedings they asked for support to rescind the law on prohibiting Bahá'í activity, which was still in effect despite the fact that the law contradicted the 2005 constitution, which guaranteed freedom of belief to all citizens.
  • Millions of Bahá'ís around the world celebrated the honorary bicentennial of the birth of Bahá'u'lláh on Oct. 21-22. Bahá'ís in Baghdad celebrated after one month of postponements given the security difficulties and challenges surrounding the ceremony. [Al-Monitor.com]
  • Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Birth of; Twin Holy days; Holy days; Centenaries; Websites; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
     
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