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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1844. 11 Aug The Báb sends Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí to Najaf and Karbalá to proclaim His Cause among the Shaykhís. In Najaf Mullá `Alí delivers a letter from the Báb to Shaykh Muhammad-Hasan Najafí, the leading Shí`í divine and the keeper of the shrines in Iraq. [BBRSM15; DB87-91; SBBH20–1, HotD46]
  • The Shaykh's rejection of the claim leads to violent debate. Mullá `Alí is taken to Baghdád and imprisoned there. After a public trial, a joint tribunal of Sunní and Shí`í `ulamá, he is sent to Istanbul. He is the first martyr of the Bábí Dispensation. It is significant that Mullá Hasan Gawhar, a leading figure of the Shaykhí school, participated in the condemnation as it marks the first major challenge to Babism from a Shaykhí leader. [B27, 37–8, 58; BBR83–90; BBRSM17; BKG31; DB90–2; MMBA, BBR2p17, GPB10]
Istanbul; Turkey; Iraq; Baghdad; Najaf; Karbala Bab, Life of; Mulla Ali Bastami; Ulama; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Shaykhism; Firsts, Other; Trials; Court cases; Persecution, Court cases; Letters of the Living
1945 Feb - Mar The Báb returns to Búshihr. He sends Quddús to Shíráz with a letter addressed to His uncle Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Alí who embraces his Nephew's Cause, the first, after the Letters of the Living, to do so. The Báb also entrusts Quddús with a treatise for him entitled dhasá'il-i-Sab`ih (`the Seven Qualifications') and promises him his impending martyrdom. (He gave his life as on of the Seven Martyrs of Tehran, see 1850 19 or 20 Feb.) [B77–8; DB142–3; MS2, GPB9-10]
  • B77 and GPB10 say the Báb arrived in Búshihr in February - March.
  • SSBH1p23 and BBRSM216 say 15 May, 1845.
  • Before leaving on pilgrimage the Báb had stated that He would return to Karbalá and asked His followers to congregate there. An explanation in part for the large following that have gathered there is the messianic expectation associated with the year 1261, a thousand years after the Twelfth Imám's disappearance in 260 A.H.. This gathering is perceived as a threat by the authorities. [BBRSM15, 45, 216; DB157–8; SBBH1p23, 32]
  • The Báb changes His plan to meet His followers in Karbalá and instructs them to go to Isfahán instead. A number abandon Him, regarding this as badá', `alteration of divine will'. [BBRSM16; DB158; MH125; SBBH23]
  • Some speculate that He did not go to Karbalá to avoid conflict and sedition. Many Bábís had gone to Karbalá armed in preparation for holy war, `jihád'. [BBRSM21–2; SBBH1:23]
Bushihr; Iran; Shiraz Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Bab, Family of; Bab, Uncles of; Uncles; Quddus; Haji Mirza Siyyid Ali; Dhasail-i-Sabih (Seven Qualifications); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; First believers
1846. Dec Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí dies in Istanbul naval dockyards. He is the first martyr of the Bábí Dispensation. Istanbul; Turkey Mulla Ali Bastami; Persecution, Turkey; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Firsts, Other; Letters of the Living
1847. Nov - Dec Bahá'u'lláh, who is living in Tihrán, visits the detainees and gives them money. [BKG41; DB278–9; GPB68]

Mullá `Abdu'lláh confesses to the murder of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí and is helped to escape. [BKG41–2; DB278]

  • See BKG42 for why Bahá'u'lláh was thought to have engineered his escape. Bahá'u'lláh is imprisoned for a few days for having assisted in Mullá `Abdu'lláh's escape.
  • This was Bahá'u'lláh's first imprisonment. [BKG41; BW18:380; DB585]
  • Shaykh Salib-i-Karímí, one of the imprisoned Bábís, is publicly executed in Tihrán.
  • He is the first to suffer martyrdom on Persian soil. His remains are interred in the courtyard of the shrine of the Imám-Zádih Zayd in Tihrán. [B166; BW18:380; DB280]
  • The remaining captives are returned to Qazvín. Hájí Asadu'lláh-i-Farhádí is secretly put to death in prison. Mullá Táhir-i-Shírází and Mullá Ibrahím-i-Maballátí are also put to death. [B166; BW18:380; DB280–3]
  • DB280–3 says `the rest of' the detainees were put to death by the relatives of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí.
Tihran; Qazvin; Iran Bahaullah, Life of; Assassinations; Mulla Abdullah; Tahirih; Haji Mulla Muhammad Taqi; Cemeteries and graves; Firsts, Other; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
1849. 2 Feb Soon after midnight, Mullá Husayn leads a charge of 313 men that again routs the king's army. He is struck in the chest by a bullet and dies. His body is carried back to the fort and buried. Ninety other Bábís are also wounded, about 40 of whom die. [B174; BW18:381; DB379–82; MH266–70]

  • Mullá Husayn is 36 years old at the time of his death. [DB383; MH272]
  • See DB382–3 for an account of his life.
  • See DB415–16 for an account of the heroics of Mullá Husayn.
  • See DB381–2 and MH265–70 for an account of the death and burial of Mullá Husayn.
  • See SDH13–14 for an account of his death by Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá.
  • Seventy–two of the original 313 inhabitants of the fort had been martyred by this time. [DB382]
  • It takes the army 45 days to reassemble its forces. [DB384; MH277]
Iran Mulla Husayn; Mihdi-Quli Mirza; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Shaykh Tabarsi; Letters of the Living
1849. 10 May The end of the siege of the fort at Shaykh Tabarsí. Two hundred and two Bábís are tricked into leaving the shrine. [BW18:381]
  • DB400 says they accompanied Quddús.

  • They are not conducted to their homes as promised but are set upon by the Prince's soldiers. Some are killed, others sold into slavery. The fortifications around the shrine are razed to the ground. [DB403–4; MH283]
  • See DB414–29 for a list of the martyrs of Tabarsí.
  • Among those who gave their lives at Fort Tabarsi was Mullá Ja'far, the sifter of wheat and the first to embrace the Faith in Isfahan. [AY58]
Iran Shaykh Tabarsi; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Martyrs; Quddus; Mulla Jafar (sifter of wheat); - Basic timeline, Expanded
1849. 16 May Quddús is tortured and, in the public square, he is struck down with an axe, dismembered and burnt. [B176; BBD191; BW18:381; DB409–13; MH283–4]

  • As he dies he begs God's forgiveness for his foes. [DB411; MH284]
  • His remains are gathered and buried by a friend. [B176; DB413]
  • See GPB49–50 for the rank and titles of Quddús.
Barfurush; Iran Quddus; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Letters of the Living
1849. c. Jun - Jul The Báb, in prison in the castle of Chihríq, learns of the massacre at Shaykh Tabarsí and the martyrdom of Quddús. He is so overcome with grief that He is unable to write or dictate for a period of six months. [DB411, 430] Chihriq; Iran Bab, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Prison; Shaykh Tabarsi; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Quddus; Tablets of Visitation; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
1850. 19 or 20 Feb Martyrdom of the Seven Martyrs of Tihrán. Seven of the Bábís are executed in Tihrán on the false charge of having plotted to kill the Grand Vizier. [B182–5; BBD225; BBR100–5; BBRSM28, 216; BKG71; BW18:381; DB462; GPB47–8]

  • See BBD225, BBR100 and BW18:381 for a list of their names.
  • Three of the victims are so eager to be martyrs that they ask the executioner if they can be the first to die. [B183; BBD225; GPB47]
  • Their bodies are left in the public square for three days. [BBD225; GPB47]
  • See GPB478 for the chief features of the episode.
  • The martyrs are the ‘Seven Goats' referred to in Islamic traditions that were to ‘walk in front' of the promised Qá'im. [GPB47–8]
  • See B206–7 and BBR100–5 for the accounts of the event and responses of Prince Dolgorukov and Lt-Col Sheil.
Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Seven martyrs; Seven goats; Qaim; Grand Viziers; Prince Dolgorukov; Sheil
1850. 16 May Martyrdom of Shaykh Muhammad-i-Túb-Chí in Zanján, the first of the martyrs. [BBR115; DB542–3] Zanjan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Firsts, Other
1850. 24 Jun The severed heads of 13 Bábís arrive in Shíráz from Nayríz. They are raised on lances and paraded through the town. [B182; BW18:381] Shiraz; Nayriz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Nayriz upheaval; Upheavals
1850. 29 Jun Vahíd is martyred in Nayríz. [B182; BW18:381; DB495, 499; GPB42; RB1:265]

  • See DB494 for details of his martyrdom.
  • His body is dragged through the streets to the accompaniment of drums and cymbals. [RB1:265]
  • See SDH13 for a respectful opinion of Vahíd expressed by an enemy of the Cause, one of the army chiefs who had fought against Vahíd.
Nayriz; Tabriz; Iran Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
1850. 8 Jul The Báb, divested of His turban and sash, is taken on foot to the barracks in Tabríz. Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alíy-i-Zunúzí, Anís, throws himself at the feet of the Báb and asks to go with Him. [B153; DB507]

  • That night the Báb asks that one of His companions kill Him, rather than let Him die at the hands of His enemies. Anís offers to do this but is restrained by the others. The Báb promises that Anís will be martyred with Him. [B154–5; DB507–8]
Tabriz; Iran Bab, Life of; Bab, Martyrdom of; Turbans; Barracks; Anis (Mirza Muhammad-Aliy-i-Zunuzi); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
1850. 9 Jul Martyrdom of the Báb

In the morning the Báb is taken to the homes of the leading clerics to obtain the death-warrants. [B155; DB508]

  • The warrants are already prepared. [B155–6; DB510]
  • Anís's stepfather tries to persuade him to change his mind. Anís's young son is also brought to ‘soften his heart' but Anís's resolve remains unshaken. [B156–7; DB509–10]
At noon the Báb and Mirza Muhammad-Ali Zunuzi, known as Anis are suspended on a wall in the square in front of the citadel of Tabríz in Sarbazkhaneh Square. They are shot by 750 soldiers in three ranks of 250 men in succession. [B157; DB512]
  • When the smoke clears the Báb is gone and Anís is standing, unharmed, under the nail from which they were suspended. The Báb, also unhurt, is found back in his cell completing His dictation to His secretary. [B157–8; DB512–13]
  • See BBD200–1 and DB510–12, 514 for the story of Sám Khán, the Christian colonel of the Armenian regiment which was ordered to execute the Báb.
The Báb and Anís are suspended a second time. A new regiment, the Násirí, has been found to undertake the execution. After the volleys, the bodies of the Báb and Anís are shattered and melded together. [B158; DB514]
  • See BBR77–82 for Western accounts of the event.
  • The face of the Báb is untouched. [B158]
  • At the moment the shots are fired a gale sweeps the city, stirring up so much dust that the city remains dark from noon until night. [B158; DB515]
  • See CH239 and DH197 for the story of the phenomenon of the two sunsets.
At night, the bodies are thrown onto the edge of the moat surrounding the city. Soldiers stand guard over them and, nearby; two Bábís, feigning madness, keep vigil. The bodies were removed and hidden under cover of darkness. [B159; TN27]
Tabriz; Iran Bab, Martyrdom of; Bab, Life of; Bab, Remains of; Holy days; Anis (Mirza Muhammad-Aliy-i-Zunuzi); Sam Khan; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bab, Basic timeline; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; - Basic timeline, Expanded
1850. 25 Aug The arrival of ‘Azíz Khán-i-Mukrí, commander-in-chief of Iran's army, in Zanján where the fighting begun in May continues. He takes charge of the operation. [BBR119; BW18:382; DB556]

  • For the story of Ashraf and his mother see DB562–3.
Zanjan; Iran Aziz Khan-i-Mukri; Commander-in-chief; Zanjan upheaval; Upheavals; Ashraf; Mothers; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
1850. 3 Oct Two of Vahíd's companions are executed in Shíráz. Shiraz; Iran Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
1851. 2 Mar Four Bábís brought from Zanján are executed in Tihrán. [BW18:382] Tihran; Zanjan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
1851. 30 Apr Mullá Hasan-i-Fadíl is executed in Yazd when he refuses to recant. [BW18:382] Yazd; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
1851. 1 May Áqá Husayn is blown from a canon in Yazd. [BW18:382] Yazd; Iran Canons; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
1851. 23 Jul Áqá Muhammad-Sádiq-i-Yúzdárání is beaten to death in Yazd after refusing to recant. [BW18:382] Yazd; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
1851. 4 Aug Áqá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Hakkák is blown from a canon after refusing to recant. [BW18:382] Canons; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
1851 Nov c. Siyyid Basír-Hindí, a blind Indian, is put to death by Ildirím Mírzá. [BW18:382]

  • For details of his life see DB588–90.
Iran Siyyid Basir-Hindi; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
1852 16 – 22 Aug A large number of Bábís are arrested in Tihrán and its environs following the attempt on the life of the Sháh. A number are executed. [BBR134–5; BW18:382]

Eighty–one, of whom 38 are leading members of the Bábí community, are thrown into the Síyáh-Chál. [BKG77]

Tihran; Iran Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
1852 16 – 27 Aug The martyrdom of Táhirih in Tihrán. [BBR172–3; BBRSM:30; BW18:382; BKG87; MF203]
  • She is martyred in the Ílkhání garden, strangled with her own silk handkerchief which she has provided for the purpose. Her body is lowered into a well which is then filled with stones. [BBD220; DB622–8; GPB75]
  • See GPB73–5 for a history of her life.
Tihran; Iran Tahirih; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Women; Gender; Equality; Letters of the Living; - Basic timeline, Expanded
1852 22 Aug – 27 Aug After the initial executions, about 20 or more Bábís are distributed among the various courtiers and government departments to be tortured and put to death. [BBR135–6 BW18:382] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
1852. Aug In Mílán, Iran, 15 Bábís are arrested and imprisoned. [BW18:382]

Many Bábís are tortured and killed in the weeks following the attempt on the life of the Sháh. [BKG84]

  • See BBR171 for the story of Mahmud Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, and his role in the arrest and execution of the Bábís.
  • See BKG84–93 for a description of the tortures and executions of Bábís. Thirty–eight Bábís are martyred.
  • See BKG86–7 and DB616–21 for the torture and martyrdom of Sulaymán Khán. Holes are gouged in his body and nine lighted candles are inserted. He joyfully dances to the place of his execution. His body is hacked in two, each half is then suspended on either side of the gate.
  • The persecutions are so severe that the community is nearly annihilated. The Bábí remnant virtually disappears from view until the 1870s. [BBRSM:30; EB269]
Milan; Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Shah; Mahmud Khan; Kalantar; Sulayman Khan
1852 Aug-Dec Bahá'u'lláh's imprisonment in the Síyáh-Chál

  • See AB10–11, BBD211–12, BKG79–83, CH41–2, DB631–3, GPB109 and RB1:9 for a description of the prison and the conditions suffered by the prisoners.
  • No food or drink is given to Bahá'u'lláh for three days and nights. [DB608]
  • Bahá'u'lláh remained in the prison for four months. [CH41; ESW20, 77; GPB104; TN31]
  • "Upon Our arrival We were first conducted along a pitch-black corridor, from whence We descended three steep flights of stairs to the place of confinement assigned to Us. The dungeon was wrapped in thick darkness, and Our fellow prisoners numbered nearly a hundred and fifty souls: thieves, assassins and highwaymen. Though crowded, it had no other outlet than the passage by which We entered. No pen can depict that place, nor any tongue describe its loathsome smell. Most of these men had neither clothes nor bedding to lie on. God alone knoweth what befell Us in that most foul-smelling and gloomy place!" [ESW20-21]
  • See CH42–3 for the effect of Bahá'u'lláh's imprisonment on His wife and children. Friends and and even family were afraid to be associated with His immediate family. During this period Mírzá Músá helped the family surreptitiously and Mírzá Yúsif, who was married to Bahá'u'lláh's cousin, a Russian citizen and a friend of the Russian Consul, was less afraid of repercussions for his support of them.
  • They were also assisted by Isfandíyár, the family's black servant that had been emancipated in 1839 on the order of Bahá'u'lláh. This man's life was in great danger. At one time they had 150 policemen looking for him but he managed to evade capture. They thought that if they questioned (tortured) Isfandíyár he would reveal Bahá'u'lláh's nefarious plots. [SoW Vol IX April 28, 1918 p38-39]
  • ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, as a child of eight, is attacked in the street of Tihrán. [DB616]
  • See AB11–12, RB1:9 for ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's account of His visit to His father.
  • Bahá'u'lláh's properties are plundered. [CH41; RB1:11]
  • See BBD4–5 and BKG94–8 for the story of ‘Abdu'l-Vahháb-i-Shírází who was martyred while being held in the Síyáh-Chál.
  • See BBD190, 200 and ESW77 about the two chains with which Bahá'u'lláh was burdened while in the Síyáh-Chál. Five other Bábís were chained to Him day and night. [CH41]
  • Bahá'u'lláh had some 30 or 40 companions. [BBIC:6, CH41]
  • An attempt was made to poison Him. The attempt failed but His health was impaired for years following. [BBIC:6; BKG99–100, GPB72]
Bahá'u'lláh's half-brother Mírzá Yahyá flees to Tákur and goes into hiding. He eventually goes to Baghdád. [BKG90, 107, CH41]
Tihran; Takur; Iran; Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Attempts on; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Prison; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Vahhab-i-Shirazi; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Poison; Chains; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline
1853. 31 Oct Some 600 female and 80 to 180 male Bábís are taken prisoner at Nayríz and marched to Shíráz, along with the heads of' some 180 martyrs. This fulfils an Islamic prophecy concerning the appearance of the Qá'im indicating that the heads of the followers would be used as gifts. [BW18:382; KI245] Nayriz; Shiraz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Prophecies; Qaim
1853. 24 Nov The prisoners from Nayríz and the heads of the martyrs arrive in Shíráz. More Bábís are executed and their heads sent to Tihrán. The heads are later buried at Ábádih. [BW18:382] Shiraz; Nayriz; Tihran; Abadih; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
1867. 11 Jan Three Bahá'ís are executed in Tabríz. Their arrest is precipitated by conflict and rivalry between the Azalís and the Bahá'ís. [BBR252–3; BKG237–8; BW18:382–3; RB2:61]
  • BW18:382 says this was 8 January.
Tabriz; Iran Azali Babis; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
1867. Jan or Feb Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí, a Bahá'í physician, is executed in Zanján. [BBR253; BKG238; BW18:383]

Áqá Najaf-‘Alíy-i-Zanjání, a disciple of Hujjat, is executed in Tihrán. [BBR254; BW18:383]

Zanjan; Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
1869 The 17-year-old Áqá Buzurg-i-Níshápúrí, Badí`, arrives in `Akká having walked from Mosul. He is able to enter the city unsuspected. [BKG297; RB3:178]
  • He is still wearing the simple clothes of a water bearer. [BKG297]
  • For the story of his life, see BKG294–297 and RB3:176–179.
  • For his transformation see RB3:179–182.
Badí` sees `Abdu'l-Bahá in a mosque and is able to write a note to Him. The same night Badí` enters the citadel and goes into the presence of Bahá'u'lláh. He meets Bahá'u'lláh twice. [BKG297; RW3:179]
  • Badí` asks Bahá'u'lláh for the honour of delivering the Tablet to the Sháh and Bahá'u'lláh bestows it on him. [BKG297; RB3:182]
  • The journey takes four months; he travels alone. [BKG298]
  • For the story of the journey see BKG297–300 and RB3:184.
  • For the Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to Badí` see BKG299 and RB3:175–176.

“Bahá’u’lláh’s lengthiest epistle to any single sovereign” -- Lawḥ-i-Sulṭán, (the Tablet to Náṣiri’d-Dín Sháh) Of the various writings that make up the Súriy-i-Haykal, one requires particular mention. The Lawḥ-i-Sulṭán, the Tablet to Náṣiri’d-Dín Sháh, Bahá’u’lláh’s lengthiest epistle to any single sovereign, was revealed in the weeks immediately preceding His final banishment to ‘Akká. It was eventually delivered to the monarch by Badí‘, a youth of seventeen, who had entreated Bahá’u’lláh for the honour of rendering some service. His efforts won him the crown of martyrdom and immortalized his name. The Tablet contains the celebrated passage describing the circumstances in which the divine call was communicated to Bahá’u’lláh and the effect it produced. Here, too, we find His unequivocal offer to meet with the Muslim clergy, in the presence of the Sháh, and to provide whatever proofs of the new Revelation they might consider to be definitive, a test of spiritual integrity significantly failed by those who claimed to be the authoritative trustees of the message of the Qur’án. - The Universal House of Justice (Introduction to ‘The Summons of the Lord of Hosts’)

Akka; Mosul; Iraq; Tihran; Iran Badi (Mirza Aqa Buzurg-i-Nishapuri); Lawh-i-Sultan (Tablet to Nasirid-Din Shah); Suriy-i-Muluk (Surih to the Kings); Tablets to kings and rulers; Nasirid-Din Shah; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Apostles of Bahaullah
1869. Jul Badí` delivers the Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to the Sháh. He is tortured and executed. [BBRXXXIX; BKG300; BW18:383; RB3:184–6]
  • For details of his torture and martyrdom see BKG300, 304–7 and RB3:186–91.
  • For the account of the French Minister in Tihrán see BBR254–5.
  • He is given the title Fakhru'sh-Shuhadá' (Pride of Martyrs). [BKG300]
  • Shoghi Effendi listed him among the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW3:80–1]
  • For the effect on Bahá'u'lláh of the martyrdom of Badí` see BKG300 and GPB199.
  • See also BKG293–314; GPB199, RB3:172–203; TN589
Iran Badi (Mirza Aqa Buzurg-i-Nishapuri); Apostles of Bahaullah; Shahs; Nasirid-Din Shah; Lawh-i-Sultan (Tablet to Nasirid-Din Shah); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
1870 In Zanján, Áqá Siyyid Ashraf is arrested, condemned to death as a Bábí and executed. [BWG470]
  • He is the son of Mír Jalíl, one of the companions of Hujjat who was martyred in Tihrán at the end of the Zanján episode. [BKG470]
  • He was born during the siege at Zanján. [BKG470]
  • His mother was brought to prison to persuade him to recant his faith but she threatened to disown him if he did so. [BBD25; BKG470; ESW73–4; GPB199–200]
  • See G135–6 for Bahá'u'lláh's Tablet concerning Ashraf and his mother.
Zanjan; Iran Ashraf, Aqa Siyyid; Mir Jalil; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Other; Persecution
1880 In the year Martyrdom of seven Bahá'ís in Sultánábád. [BW18:383]
  • Three Bahá'ís are killed on the orders of Siyyid Muhammad-Báqir-i-Mujtahid and a large number of Bahá'ís are thrown into prison. [BW18:383]
  • Sayyidih Khánum Bíbí, an old lady, is sent to Tihrán and is strangled in prison. [BW18:383]
Sultanabad; Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
1887 Karbalá'í Hasan Khán and Karbalá'í Sádiq are arrested in Sarvistán, Fárs, and imprisoned for two years before being killed in prison. [BW18:383] Sarvistan; Fars; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
1888. 23 Oct The martyrdom of Mírzá Ashraf of Ábádih in Isfahán. He is hanged, his body burnt and left hanging in the market. Later his body is buried beneath a wall. [BBRXXIX, 277–80; BW18:383; GPB201] Isfahan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
1889. 8 Sep Hájí Muhammad Ridáy-i-Isfahání is martyred in `Ishqábád. [BBRXXIX, 296–7; GPB202]
  • Czar Alexander III sends a military commission from St Petersburg to conduct the trial of those accused of the murder. [AB109; GPB202]
  • Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl serves as chief Bahá'í spokesman at the trial. [AB109]
  • Two are found guilty and sentenced to death, six others are ordered to be transported to Siberia. [AB109; BBR297; GPB203]
  • Bahá'u'lláh attaches importance to the action as being the first time Shí'ís received judicial punishment for an attack on Bahá'ís. [BBRSM91]
  • The Bahá'í community intercedes on behalf of the culprits and has the death sentences commuted to transportation to Siberia. [AB109; BBR297; GPB203]
  • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR296–300.
Ishqabad; Turkmenistan Haji Muhammad Riday-i-Isfahani; Czar Alexander III; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Firsts, Other; Persecution, Turkmenistan; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Court cases; Court cases; Persecution; Human rights
1890. 25 Feb Seven Bahá'ís from Sidih who had gone to Tihrán to petition the Sháh for protection secure a decree from him permitting them to return home. When they try to enter Sidih they are killed. [BBRXXIX, 285–9; BW18:383] Sidih; Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Petitions
1891 19 May The execution of the Seven Martyrs of Yazd. [BBRXXIX, BW18:384]

Seven Bahá'ís are executed on the order of the governor of Yazd, Husain Mírzá, Jalálu'd-Dín-Dawlih (the grandson of the shah) and his father Zillu's-Sultán , and at the instigation of the mujtahid, Shaykh Hasan-i-Sabzivárí. [BW18:384]

  • For their names see BW18:384.
  • For details of the executions see GBP201–2.
  • For Western reports of the episode see BBR301–5.
  • Bahá'u'lláh stated that a representative of Zillu's-Sultán. Hájí Sayyáh, visited Him in 'Akká in the hope of persuading Him to support his plot to usurp the throne. He was promised freedom to practice the Faith should He support him. Hájí Sayyáh was arrested in Tehran in April of 1891 and Zillu's-Sultán, afraid that he would be implicated in the plot to overthrow the king, inaugurated vigorous persecution of the Bahá'ís in Yazd in order to draw attention from himself and prove his loyalty to the crown and to Islam. Had Bahá'u'lláh reported this incident to the Shah, Zillu's-Sultán would have paid dearly for his disloyalty. [BBR357-358]
  • See also RB3:194–6 and SBBH2:77.
  • “The tyrant of the land of Yá (Yazd) committed that which has caused the Concourse on High to shed tears of blood.” Lawḥ-i-Dunyá (Tablet of the World) Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh, p. 85
Yazd; Iran Jalalud-Din-Dawlih; Shaykh Hasan-i-Sabzivari; Seven martyrs of Yazd; Seven martyrs; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
1891 after 19 May Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Lawh-i-Times, Tablet to the Times in which He recounts the circumstances of the martyrdoms in Yazd. [RB4:348–50, BW18p976-7, Essay by Mehdi Wolf] Akka; London; United Kingdom; Yazd; Iran Bahji; Times (newspaper); Newspapers; Media; Lawh-i-Times (Tablet to the Times); Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Seven martyrs of Yazd; Seven martyrs; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
1891. 3 Oct Mullá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Dihábádí is martyred, one of the Seven Martyrs of Yazd who were killed at the hands of Jalálu’d-Dawlih and Zillu’s-Sultan. [BW18:384] Yazd; Iran Mulla Muhammad-Aliy-i-Dihabadi; Jalalud-Dawlih; Zillus-Sultan; Seven Martyrs of Yazd; Seven martyrs; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
1893. 17 Jun Áqá Muhammad-Ridáy-i-Muhammadábádí is killed by three men on the orders of two of the `ulamá of Yazd. [BW18:384; GPB296]
  • He is the first to suffer martyrdom in the ministry of `Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • See GPB296 for details of his martyrdom.
Yazd; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Firsts, Other
1896 In the year Áqá Siyyid Mihdíy-i-Yazdí is martyred in Tabríz. [BW18:384] Tabriz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
1896 1 May The martyrdom of Hand of the Cause of God Varqa (‘Dove’), Mírzá ‘Ali-Muhammad. (b.1856) He and his young son, Ruhu’lláh, were killed by, Hajib’ud-Dawleh, one of the Qajar courtiers, in fact the Chief Steward, in the aftermath of the assassination of Nasir'd-Din Shah. [GPB296, BBRXXIX]
  • For the story of their lives see MRHK405–22 and World Order: Winter 1974-1975, Vol. 9 No.2 p29-44.
  • For a Western account of the episode see BBR361–2.
  • He was posthumously named a Hand of the Cause of God by 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • ‘Abdu’l-Bahá named him posthumously as a Hand of the Cause and Shoghi Effendi designated him as one of the Apostles of Bahá-u-lláh. [EB75-97 LoF42-49, BBR361-362, SoBSNBp225-229]
  • See Varqá and Son: The Heavenly Doves by Darius Shahrokh.
  • See also Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • Yazd; Tihran; Iran Varqa, Mirza Ali-Muhammad; Varqa, Ruhullah; In Memoriam; Apostles of Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed by Abdul-Baha; Hands appointed by Abdul-Baha; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Varqa
    1896. 21 Jul Hájí Muhammad Sádiq is stabbed to death in Turbat-i-Haydarí. [BW18:384] Turbat-i-Haydari; Iran Haji Muhammad Sadiq; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1896. 24 Jul Four Bahá'ís are executed in Turbat-i-Haydarí on the order of the mujtahid. [BW18:384; BBR405]
    • BBRXXIX says the four Bahá'ís were martyred in August.
    • These four together with Hájí Muhammad Sádiq are known as the Shuhadáy-i-Khamsih (Five Martyrs). [GPB296]
    • Their martyrdom is the result of the assassination of the Sháh, for which the Bahá'ís are erroneously blamed. [GPB296]
    • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR405–6.
    Turbat-i-Haydari; Iran Haji Muhammad Sadiq; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Assassinations; Nasirid-Din Shah
    1898 Several Bahá'ís are arrested and imprisoned in Qazvín. [BW18:384]

    Hájí Muhammad is set upon and killed in Hisár, Khurásán. BW18:384]

    Qazvin; Hisar; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1898. 1 Jun Áqá Ghulám-Husayn-i-Banádakí is killed by a mob in Yazd after refusing to deny his faith. [BW18:384] Yazd; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1901 May Ghulám-Ridá is killed in Najafábád. [BW18:385] Najafabad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1902 In Shíráz, Hájí Abu'l-Hasan is beaten so severely on the order of the mujtahid that he dies a few months later from the effects. [BW18:385] Shiraz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1902 18 Mar Áqá Muhammad-Zamá-i-Sabbágh and Siyyid Ja`far are executed in Isfandábád and Abarqú, Fárs. Several Bahá'ís are expelled from the town and another Bahá'í killed. [BW18:385] Isfandabad; Abarqu; Fars; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1903 28 May A large mob gather outside the Russian Consulate in Isfahán and beat the Bahá'ís as they leave. One Bahá'í dies. [BW18:385] Isfahan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Russian consulate; Persecution, Mobs; Russian consulate
    1903 8 Jun Bahá'ís in Maláyir, Hamadán, are attacked, beaten and imprisoned. Two are killed. [BW18:385] Malayir; Hamadan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1903 Jun-Jul The Yazd Upheaval. [BBRXXX]
    • See BW18:385–6 for a chronicle of events.
    • This is said to be one of the bloodiest events to take place during the ministry of `Abdu'l-Bahá.
    • For Western responses see BBR385–98 and SBBH1:67.
    • For details of the martyrdom of Hájí Mírzáy-i-Halabí-Sáz during the upheaval see RB2:358–66.
    • For the effect on Bahá'ís of Zoroastrian background see SBBH2:80.
    Yazd; Iran Yazd upheaval; Upheavals; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Zoroastrianism
    1903 Sep At the request of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, Hájí Mírzá Hadar-'Alí writes Bahá'í Martyrdoms in Persia in the Year 1903 AD. Yazd; Isfahan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of
    1904 The publication of Bahá'í Martyrdoms in Persia in the Year 1903 AD by Hájí Mírzá Haydar-Alí Isfaháni and translated by Youness Afroukhteh. A second edition was published in 1917. Yazd; Isfahan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Publications
    1905 c. 30 Mar Hájí Kalb-`Alí is shot and killed in Najafábád. [BW18:386] Najafabad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1906 Oct-Nov Several Bahá'ís in Sangsar and Shahmírzád are killed or injured by bullets; six Bahá'ís are arrested. [BW18:386] Sangsar; Shahmirzad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1907 Hájar, an elderly Bahá'í woman, is shot dead in Nayríz. [BW18:386] Nayriz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1907 25 Apr Karbalá'í Sádiq is martyred in Tabríz. [BW18:386] Tabriz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1908 `Alí Ádharí is martyred in Kirmán. [BW18:386]

    Kirman; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1909 Mar Eighteen or nineteen Bahá'ís are brutally assassinated in Nayríz when the Constitutionalists take control of the city. [BBR369; BW18:386; DH71, 138; GPB298; RB1:268] Nayriz; Iran Constitutionalists; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1909 Mar–Apr Bahá'ís of Námiq, Khurásán, are attacked and Kad-khudá Ismá'íl is killed. [BW18:386] Namiq; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1909 22 Apr Three Bahá'ís are killed in Hisár, Khurásán, and their wives seriously injured. [BW18:386] Hisar; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1909 28 Jul Bahá'ís in Námiq, Khurásán, are killed. [BW18:386] Namiq; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1909 8 Nov Hájí Haydar, a leading Bahá'í of Najafábád, is shot and killed at Isfahán. [BBR432]
    • BRXXX and BW18:387 say this occurred on 5 November.
    • For Western accounts of the incident see BRR432–4.
    Isfahan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1910 20 Sep Muhammad-Ja`far-i-Sabbágh is martyred at Najafábád. [BW18:387] Najafabad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1911 Mírzá Ibráhím Khán, Ibtiháju'l-Mulk is killed near Rasht. [BW18:387] Rasht; Iran Mirza Ibrahim Khan (Ibtihajul-Mulk); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Zdate check
    1911 23 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá went for a carriage ride in the nearby hills. ["With 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Switzerland" by Juliet Thompson, SoW Vol 2 no 14 (Nov 23, 1911) p9-13, ABF15]
    • Later that day, by chance, 'Abdu'l-Bahá encountered the Persian prince, Sultán-Mas'ud Mírzá Zillu's-Sultán (1850-1918), the eldest son of Násirid-/dín Sháh, (1850-1918) in the Parc Hotel. He was in voluntary exile in Europe accompanied by his four sons. At various times, he had been the governor or governor-general of various provinces in Iran from 1862 to 1907 and had persecuted the Bahá'ís zealously. He was responsible for ratifying the execution of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs in 1879. Upon meeting 'Abdu'l-Bahá he presented his excuses but 'Abdu'l-Bahá forgave him by saying "All those things are in the past. Never think of them again." [DJT172-3, ABF17]
    • Annie Boylan arrived in Thonon-les-Bains from America by way of Lausanne. 'Abdu'l-Bahá is reported to have told her that the building of the Shrine of the Báb was the fulfillment of the prophecy that "the Lord would come and rebuild the temple that had been torn down". He added that the Tomb of the Báb and that of Bahá'u'lláh were considered the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkar. [SoW vol 11. no. 1 (March 21, 1920) p1-15, ABF18]
    Thonon-les-Bains; France; Isfahan; Iran Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Zillus-Sultan; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Annie Boylan; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1911 28 Aug In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá's visitor was Sultán-Husayn Mírzá, the eldest son of Zillu's-Sultán. Between 1879 and 1906 he had served as either governor or deputy governor of Khuzestán,, Lorestán, Yazd, Fárs, Burujerd and Kurdistan. He was responsible for the martyrdoms in Yazd in 1891 and again in 1903. He had been exiled with his father in 1908.
    • As a footnote, in his latter years he became a devoted Bahá'í. [DJT206]

    Later He gave a talk in Arabic that was published in its entirety by the leading Egyptian newspaper, Al-Ahram. [ABF45-48, SoW vol 5 no 10, Far Stretching River (translation by Mohsen Enayat)]

    Thonon-les-Bains; France; Yazd; Iran Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Sultan-Husayn Mirza; Mohsen Enayat; Seven martyrs of Yazd; Seven martyrs; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Yazd upheaval
    1912 Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí and his wife are killed in Bárfurúsh, Mázandarán. [BW18:387] Barfurush; Mazandaran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1912 3 Jan In Sárí, Mázandarán, a mob attacks houses of Bahá'ís and four Bahá'ís are killed; a few days later another Bahá'í is killed. [BW18:387] Sari; Mazandaran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Persecution, Mobs
    1912 4 Feb Two Bahá'ís are killed in Máhfurúzak, Mázandarán. [BW18:387] Mahfuruzak; Mazandaran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1913 Dec Áqá Abu'l-Qásim-i-Isfandábádí is killed by two assailants in Qúzih-Kúh, Bavánát, Fárs. [BW18:387] Quzih-Kuh; Bavanat; Fars; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1914 27 Aug Áqá Mírzá Yúsif-i-Qá'iní is killed in Mashhad. [BW18:387] Mashhad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1915 Mírzá Husayn-i-Hudá is martyred in Urúmíyyih. [BW18:387] Urumiyyih; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1915 14 Mar Shaykh ‘Alí Akbar-i-Qúchání is shot to death in Mashhad. Considerable anti-Bahá’í agitation follows and many Bahá’ís are forced to seek sanctuary. Three hundred people are arrested. [BBRXXX; BW18:387; GPB298–9] Mashhad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1916 22 Feb In Sultánábád Mírzá `Alí-Akbar, his wife, his sister-in-law (aged 12) and their four children (aged from 46 days to 11 years) are killed by having their throats cut. [BW18:387; GPB299]
    • See DB610 for picture.
    Sultanabad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1916 28 Jul Mullá Nasru'lláh-i-Shahmírzádí is martyred at Sangsar, Khurásán. [BW18:387] Sangsar; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1917 2 May The martyrdom of Mírzá Muhammad-i-Bulúr-Furúsh in Yazd. [BBRXXX, BBR443] Yazd; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1918 15 Mar Áqá Mírzá Javád, I`timádu't-Tujjár, is shot in Bandar Jaz and the houses of the Bahá'ís are looted, causing the death of Javád's 14-year-old nephew. [BW18:387] Bandar Jaz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1920 Mírzá Ibráhím Khán, Ibtiháju'l-Mulk, is martyred in Rasht at the hands of the Jangalís. [BW18:387] Rasht; Iran Mirza Ibrahim Khan (Ibtihajul-Mulk); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Zdate check
    1920 21 May The execution at Sultánábád of Hájí `Arab by hanging. [BBRXXX, 444-6; BW18:387] Sultanabad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1920 Oct Mírzá Mustafá is killed at Farúgh, Fárs, and other Bahá'ís are imprisoned. [BW18:387] Farugh; Fars; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1921 23 Jan Mírzá Ya`qúb-i-Muttahidih is assassinated in Kirmánsháh. [BBRXXX, 446-50; BW18:387; GPB299]
    • He is the last to lay down his life in the ministry of `Abdu'l-Bahá. GPB299]
    Kirmanshah; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1921 20 Oct Áqá Siyyid Mustafá Tabátabá'í is poisoned in Sangsar. Continual agitation prevents the burial of the body for several days. [BW18:388] Sangsar; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1924 5 Apr Shaykh `Abdu'l-Majíd is beaten to death in Turshíz, Khurásán, Iran. [BW18:388] Turshiz; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1924 22 Jun Aqá Husayn-`Alí is martyred in Firúzábád, Fárs, Iran. [BW18:388] Firuzabad; Fars; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1924 18 Jul American Vice-Consul Major Robert Imbrie was murdered in Tihrán for being a Bahá'í, which he was not, straining relations between the Persian and American governments. When Washington threatened to sever diplomatic relations, Persia arrested some two hundred mullás, formally apologized to the United States and accepted Washington’s terms for full reparations. [BBR462-5; BW18:388, [AY277-279]
    • For a picture of the floral tribute sent to his funeral by the Bahá'ís of Persia and America see BW1:100.
    Tihran; Iran; United States Major Robert Imbrie; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1926 7 Apr Eight or perhaps as many as twelve Bahá’ís are beaten to death in Jahrum, Fárs, Iran. [BW18:388, SETPE1p128, GBF36, UD49-53]
    • It is first reported that 12 Bahá’ís are killed. [PP98]
    • For the response of Shoghi Effendi see BA104–6, 106–8; GBF36–7; PP98–9; and UD48–53.
    • For Western accounts and responses see BBR465–72.
    • "The attacks were apparently instigated by a majlis representative who sought to gain favour with anti-Baha’i religious leaders in order to secure reelection. The Baha’is complained to the local and national authorities to obtain redress but were denied. This was the last incident of mass killing of Baha’is during Reza Shah’s reign." [Religious Contentions in Modern Iran,1881-1941 pg 229-230 by Mina Yazdani]
    Jahrum; Fars; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1926 29 Jun Three Bahá’ís are martyred in Zavárih, near Isfahán. [BW18:388] Zavarih; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1927 25 Mar Áqá ‘Abdu’l-‘A‘zím, Amínu’l-‘Ulamá’ is martyred in Ardibíl, Iran, by the order of the mujtahid. [BW18:388] Ardibil; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1927 19 Jun Karbalá’í Asadu’lláh-i-Saqat-furúsh is martyred in Kirmán, Iran. [BW18:388] Kirman; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1937 May Several prominent Bahá’ís are arrested in Yazd. [BW18:389]
    • They are imprisoned in Tihrán for four years; one dies in prison. [BW18:389]
    Yazd; Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1941 Shaykh Kázim is martyred in Bunáb, Ádharbáyján. [BW18:389] Bunab; Adharbayjan Persecution, Adharbayjan; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1941 18 Oct Four members of a Bahá’í family are killed and several other family members severely beaten in an attack on their home by an armed mob in Panbih-Chúlih, near Sárí, Iran. [BW18:389] Panbih-Chulih; Sari; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Persecution, Mobs
    1942 In the village of Daidanaw eleven Bahá'ís were slain. Records, books and documents that had been transferred to Daidanaw from the headquarters in Mandalay and Rangoon were lost when the headquarters building was destroyed by fire. [BW11]p33] Daidanaw; Mandalay; Rangoon; Myanmar (Burma) Persecution, Myanmar (Burma); Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution
    1942 13 Feb Ustád Habíbu’lláh Mu‘ammarí is martyred in Nayríz, Iran. [BW18:389] Nayriz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1944 8 Aug Three Bahá’ís are murdered in Sháhrúd, Iran, after three weeks of anti-Bahá’í agitation. Many Bahá’í houses are attacked and looted. [BW18:389] Shahrud; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Human rights; Court cases
    1947 4 Jul ‘Abbás Sháhídzádih is martyred in Sháhí, Mázandarán, Iran and a fellow Baha’i, Habib Allah Hushmand, is murdered in Sarvistan. [BW18:390, Towards a History of Iran’s Baha’i Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.] Shahi; Mazandaran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1948 A Bahá’í is killed after an attack on his home at Chálih-Zamín, Iran. [BW18:390] Chalih-Zamin; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1948 11 Jan Habíbu’lláh Húshmand is martyred in Sarvistán, Iran. [BW18:390] Sarvistan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1949 A Bahá’í in Kamshatti, near Calcutta, is martyred by a religious fanatic. [BW11:34] Kolkata (Calcutta); India Persecution, India; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1949 Dr. Sulayman Birjis was brutally murdered in Kashan, Iran. His killers, who had collectively confessed to his murder, were all exonerated due to "the lack of evidence." [Towards a History of Iran’s Baha’i Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.] Kashan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1950 Ghulam Reza Akhzari and his son Nur Allah are killed near Yazd and Bahram Rawhani is murdered in Taft. [Towards a History of Iran’s Baha’i Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.] Yazd; Taft; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1950 3 Feb Dr Sulaymán Birgís is martyred in Káshán, Iran. [BW18:390]
    • For his obituary see BW12:684–5.
    Kashan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1951 Muhammad Kayvani is murdered in Najafabad. [Towards a History of Iran’s Baha’i Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.] Najafabad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1951 Bahá’ís in Árán, Káshán, Iran, are attacked, and one dies. [BW18:390] Aran; Kashan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1951 12 Mar Bahá’ís in Taft, Iran, are attacked and one dies. [BW18:390] Taft; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1952 26 Aug The martyrdom of Nuri'd-Dín Fath-'Azam near Tehran. [BW12p690-692] Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1953 Áqá Rahmán Kulayní-Mamaqání is martyred in Durúd, Iran. [BW18:390] Durud; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1953 26 Sep The martyrdom of Rahmán Kulayní Mamaqání. He was stabbed by a ruffian in a mob. [BW12p710-711] Durud; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Mobs
    1955 23 Apr Ramadán begins. Shaykh Muhammad-Taqí known as "Falsafí" makes an inflammatory speech against the Bahá’ís from a mosque in Tihrán. [BW18:390]
    • This is broadcast on national radio and stirs up the people against the Bahá’ís. [BW18:390]
    • Beatings, killings, looting and raping go on for several weeks, usually incited by the local ‘ulamá. [BW18:390–1; MC16–17; ZK215–6]
    • The House of the Báb in Shíráz is attacked and damaged by a mob led by Siyyid Núru’d-Dín, a mujtahid.
    Tihran; Shiraz; Iran Bab, House of (Shiraz); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution
    1955 28 Jul Seven Bahá’ís are stabbed and beaten to death by a mob in Hurmuzak, Iran. [BW18:391, Towards a History of Iran’s Baha’i Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.]
    • Several other Bahá’ís, including women, are beaten and injured; Bahá’í houses and property are damaged. [BW18:391]
    • See also M. Labíb, The Seven Martyrs of Hurmuzak.
    • See entry for 26 September, 2016.
    Hurmuzak; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution; Seven martyrs of Hurmuzak; Seven martyrs
    1960 Bahá’ís in Angola are detained and questioned by officials.
    • Joaquim Sampaio is carried off in the middle of the night and is never seen again. It is presumed that he was executed or died in a prison camp.
    • One family is forced to leave the country.
    Angola Persecution, Angola; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1966 31 Mar While in the custody of the Portuguese authorities Eduardo Duarte Vieira dies in prison in Portuguese Guinea (now Guinea Bissau) after twenty days of torture. He is named the first African martyr. [BW14:390, BW16:568]
    • For his obituary see BW14:389–90.
    • For the messages to his wife and children he scratched on a biscuit box see BW14:390–1.
    Portuguese Guinea (Guinea Bissau); Guinea Bissau Eduardo Duarte Vieira; Persecution, Guinea Bissau; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Firsts, Other
    1967 1 Jan A Bahá’í is beaten to death by a mob in Saysán, Ádharbáyján, and other Bahá’ís are attacked and beaten. [BW18:391] Saysan; Adharbayjan Persecution, Adharbayjan; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution
    1972 30 Jul Parvíz Sádiqí, Farámarz Vujdání and Parvíz Furúghí, Iranian youth pioneers, are murdered near Mindanao, Philippines, by Muslims. [BW15:257; DM316–17]
    • The three are found in a shallow grave. All had been shot, grievously mutilated and two had been decapitated. The bodies are removed and given a Bahá'í burial in a beautiful plot donated for the purpose. [CBN261September1972p1]
    • For their obituaries see BW15:514–16.
    Mindanao; Philippines Persecution, Philippines; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Cemeteries and graves
    1977 14 May The house of a Bahá’í in Fádilábád, Iran, is attacked; the Bahá’í is killed and his sister severely injured. [BW18:391]
    • BW17:79 says this was June.
    Fadilabad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1978 Ten Bahá’ís are killed in Iran, seven by mobs. [BW18:291]
    • For the response of Bahá’í institutions to the persecution of the Bahá’ís in Iran see BW18:337.
    Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution; Human rights
    1979 Five Bahá’ís are killed in Iran, two by execution. [BW18:291]
    • For the response of Bahá’í institutions to the persecution of the Bahá’ís in Iran see BW18:337–9.
    Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1979 Sep Bahár Vujdání is executed in Mahábád, Iran. [BW18:255] Mahabad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1979 11 Nov Dr ‘Alímurád Dávúdí, a member of the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran, is kidnapped in Tihrán and presumed dead. [BW18:254, 294] Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; NSA
    1979 Dec ‘Azamatu’lláh Fahandizh is executed in Tihrán. [BW18:255] Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1980 The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the year. [BW18:92]
    • Twenty–four Bahá’ís are executed or otherwise killed. [BW18:229–30]
    • BW18:291–2 shows a slightly different, incorrect list.
    • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:293–305 and BW19:236–46.
    • For accounts of some of the martyrdoms see BW18:275–81.
    • Twelve Bahá’ís disappear and are presumed dead. [BW19:235]
    • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments, and other actions taken, see BW18:92–6.
    • For a list of the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community, Bahá’í institutions and others see BW18:339–41, 415–17.
    Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; United Nations; Bahai International Community; Human rights
    1980 Apr Eight Bahá’ís are arrested in Tabríz; five are released after signing an agreement not to take part in Bahá’í administrative activities. [BW18:256]
    • Two of the others, members of the local assembly, are put on trial and executed on 14 July 1982. [BW18:256]
    Tabriz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1980 14 Jul Two of the Bahá’ís arrested in Tabríz in April are executed. [BW18:256] Tabriz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1981 The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the year. [BW18:92]
    • Forty–six Bahá’ís are executed and two assassinated. [BW18:292–3; BW19:230–1]
    • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
    • For accounts of some of the martyrdoms see BW18:277–8, 281–4.
    • For excerpts from the wills of some of the martyrs see BW18:284–9.
    • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments, and other actions taken, see BW18:92–6 and BW19:44–6.
    • For a list of the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community, Bahá’í institutions and others see BW18:341–5, 417–20.
    Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; United Nations; Bahai International Community; Human rights
    1981 27 Dec Eight of the nine members of the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran are executed. [BI13; BW19:43] Iran NSA; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1982 The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the year. [BW18:92]
    • Thirty–two Bahá’ís are executed or otherwise killed. [BW19:232]
    • BW18:293–4 shows a slightly different, incorrect list.
    • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
    • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments, and other actions taken, see BW18:92–6 and BW19:44–6.
    • For a list of the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community, Bahá’í institutions and others see BW18:345–52, 420–4.
    • See the Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 26 January 1982 for a summation of the steps taken by the coordinated Bahá'í community to expose the crimes of the Iranian regime and to bring pressure to have the persecutions stop.
    Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; United Nations; Bahai International Community; Human rights
    1983 The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the year. [BW18:92; BW19:177–226]
    • Twenty–nine Bahá’ís are executed or otherwise killed. [BW19:232–3]
    • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
    • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments, and other actions taken, see BW18:92–6 and BW19:44–6.
    • For a list of the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community, Bahá’í institutions and others see BW18:352–6, 424–5.
    Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; United Nations; Bahai International Community; Human rights
    1983 18 Jun In Shiraz, ten Bahá'í women ranging in age from 17 to 57, were hanged. All of the women had been tortured and interrogated in the months prior to their execution. The youngest of these martyrs was Mona Mahmudnizhad, a 17-year-old schoolgirl who had been beaten on the soles of her feet, kissed the hands of her executioner and placed the hangman's rope around her own throat. The names of the others executed were Zarrin Muqimi-Abyanih, 28, Ruya Ishraqi, a 23-year-old veterinary student, Shahin Dalvand, 25, a sociologist; Izzat Janami Ishraqi, 57, a homemaker; Mahshid Nirumand, 28, who had qualified for a degree in physics but had it denied her because she was a Bahá'í, Simin Sabiri, 25; Tahirih Arjumandi Siyavushi, 30, a nurse; Akhtar Thabit, 25, also a nurse; Nusrat Ghufrani Yalda'i, 47, a mother and member of the local Bahá'í Spiritual Assembly. [Hanged for teaching “Sunday school”]
    • For the story of the martyrs see BW19:180–7 and VV56.
    • For their obituaries see BW19:596–607.
    • For pictures of the martyred women see BW19:240–1.
    Shiraz; Iran Mona Mahmudnizhad; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Youth
    1984 The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the year. [BW19:177–226]
    • Thirty Bahá’ís are executed or otherwise killed. [BW19:233-4]
    • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
    • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments and other actions taken, see BW19:44–6.
    Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; United Nations; Human rights
    1985 The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the year. [BW19:177–226]
    • Seven Bahá’ís are executed or otherwise killed. [BW19:234]
    • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
    • For the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community see BW19:39.
    Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Bahai International Community; Human rights
    1985. 28 or 31 Aug Mr Rahmatu'lláh Vujdani, a 57 year old teacher, is executed by firing squad in Bandar 'Abbas. He was an elected member of the Local Spiritual Assembly. [Iranian.com] Bandar Abbas; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1986 The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the year. [BW19:177–226]
    • One Bahá’í, 15-year-old Paymán Subhání, is killed. [BW19:225–6, 234]
    • For his picture see BW19:246.
    • For the actions taken by the Bahá’í international Community see BW19:38.
    Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Bahai International Community; Human rights
    1992 18 Mar The martyrdom of Mr. Bahman Samandari in the Evin prison in Tehran. Mr. Samandari was executed with no advance notice and in the absence of due process. A 52 year-old businessman from a distinguished Bahá'í family, he was buried secretly on 20 March 1992 and his family was not notified until 5 April 1992. This was the first execution in three and one-half years. It belied the public position taken by the Iránian government that the Bahá'ís were not being persecuted for their religious beliefs. [AWH118-9, VV126] Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Evin Prison
    1997 4 Jul Masha'llah Enayati, a 63-year-old man, died in custody while in prison in Isfahan after being severely beaten. [One Country Jul-Sep 1998 Vol 10 Issue 2] Isfahan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1997 6 Jul Shahram Reza'i, a conscript in the army, was shot in the head by his superior officer at a military base near Rasht, Iran. The officer, who said the bullets were fired in error, was released a few days after a court excused him from paying the blood money normally required in such cases because the dead soldier was a Bahá'í. [One Country Jul-Sep 1998 Vol 10 Issue 2] Rasht; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Court cases
    1998 21 Jul Mr. Ruhu'llah Rawhani, a 52-year-old medical supplies salesman was hanged in Mashhad solely for religious reasons. Later that morning, Mr. Rawhani's family was summoned to collect his body and required, despite their protests, to complete the burial within one hour, under the supervision of Government intelligence agents.
    • In 1984, Mr. Rawhani was arrested and imprisoned for more than a year. According to an account given by Mr. Rawhani's relatives in the Australian Bahá'í News, Mr. Rawhani was tortured during his first imprisonment. He was arrested a second time about four years ago. The charge was apparently related to his work in the conduct of purely religious activities, such as prayer meetings and children's classes. He was released after 24 hours.
    • Mr. Rawhani was arrested for a third time in September 1997 and placed in solitary confinement in Mashhad. He had been accused of "converting" a woman from Islam to the Bahá'í Faith. The woman, however, denied that she had converted; she explained that her mother was a Bahá'í and that she herself had been raised as a Bahá'í. She was not arrested.
    • The killing of Mr. Rawhani was the first government execution of a Bahá'í in Iran in six years, and, coupled with the widespread arrest of some 32 Bahá'í educators in fourteen different cities throughout Iran in late September and early October. From the Daily Telegraph, August 2nd 1998. [One Country Jul-Sep 1998 Vol 10 Issue 2, One Country Oct-Dec 1998 Vol 10 Issue 3]
    Mashhad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1999 Sep The murder of Abdullah Mogharrabi in Dushanbe, Tajikistan. It was determined that he was killed for his religious beliefs. [One Country Jan-Mar 2002 Vol13 Issue 4] Dushanbe; Tajikistan Persecution, Tajikistan; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    2001 23 Oct The murder of Rashid Gulov in Dushanbe, Tajikistan. It was determined that he was killed for his religious beliefs. [One Country Vol.13 Issue 4, BW01-02p304] Dushanbe; Tajikistan Persecution, Tajikistan; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    2001 3 Dec The murder of Mosadegh Afshin Shokoufeh in Dushanbe, Tajikistan. It was determined that he was killed for his religious beliefs. [One Country Vol.13 Issue 4] Dushanbe; Tajikistan Persecution, Tajikistan; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    2002 5 Mar The announcement by the Bahá'í International Community of the murder of three Bahá'ís in Dushanbe, Tajikistan. Rashid Gulov was shot and killed on 23 October 2001 while returning home from work. A second man, Mosadegh Afshin Shokoufeh, was shot outside his home on 3 December 2001 and died from his wounds on the way to the hospital. These deaths follow the assassination of 88 year old Abdullah Mogharrabi, a leader in the community, in September 1999. [BWNS153] Dushanbe; Tajikistan Persecution, Tajikistan; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; BWNS
    2005 15 Dec The death of Mr. Dhabihu'llah Mahrami, 59, who had been held in a government prison in Yazd under harsh physical conditions at the time of his death.

    First arrested in 1995, Mr. Mahrami served in the civil service but at the time of his arrest was making a living installing venetian blinds, having been summarily fired from his job like thousands of other Baha'is in the years following the 1979 Iranian revolution. Although Iranian officials have asserted that Mr. Mahrami was guilty of spying for Israel, court records clearly indicate that he was tried and sentenced solely on charge of being an "apostate," a crime which is punishable by death under traditional Islamic law. While Mr. Mahrami had been a lifelong Baha'i, the apostasy charge apparently came about because a civil service colleague, in an effort to prevent Mr. Mahrami from losing his job, submitted to a newspaper an article stating that he had converted to Islam. When it later became clear to Iranian authorities that Mr. Mahrami remained a member of the Baha'i community, they arrested him and charged him with apostasy for allegedly converting from Islam to the Baha'i Faith. On 2 January 1996, he was sentenced to death by the Revolutionary Court, a conviction that was later upheld by the Iranian Supreme Court.

    The death sentence against Mr. Mahrami stirred an international outcry. The European Parliament, for example, passed a resolution on human rights abuses in Iran, making reference to Mr. Mahrami's case. The governments of Australia, Brazil, Canada, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States also registered objections. [BWNS415]

    Yazd; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Human rights; Court cases; BWNS
    2013 7 Apr Mr. Ataollah Rezvani, a well-known Bahá'í in the city of Bandar Abbas was shot and killed in his car. It is of note that a few years before his murder, the Friday prayer Imam had incited the local population against the Bahá'ís, referring to them as un-Islamic. He further called on the people of the city to rise up against the Bahá'í community. [BWNS987, BWNS1031] Bandar Abbas; Iran Ataollah Rezvani; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; BWNS
    2013 24 Aug Mr. Ataollah Rezvani is murdered in Bandar Abbas. Rezvani was shot in the back of the head and his body was found in his car near the railway station on the outskirts of the city. His assailants had forced him to drive to that location. His body was discovered following a search when he failed to return home. [http://publicaffairs.bahai.us/388] Bandar Abbas; Iran Ataollah Rezvani; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    2016 26 Sep The murder of Farhang Amiri in Yazd. BWNS1133
    • See also Iran Wire4167.
    • In a message from the Universal House of Justice to the Bahá'ís in Iran dated the 19th of October, 2016, it states
      And at the age of sixty-three, that pure soul, that radiant and magnanimous soul, offered up his life in absolute meekness, hoisted the ensign of martyrdom and attained his Beloved's presence in the realms above, and in the Abha Kingdom joined the company of the other martyrs of this Faith--among whom number his own noble father and six other relatives who, sixty-one years ago in Hurmuzak, near Yazd, sacrificed their lives in the path of the Blessed Beauty.
    • A group of extremists murdered Amiri’s father, Hedayatollah Daftari, and six others in the village of Hormozak in Yazd province more than 60 years ago. At the time, Farhang was 13 months old. See entry for July 28th, 1955 for The Seven Martyrs of Hurmuzak.
    • See a paper by Kamyar Behrang entitled "Extrajudicial killings supported by law and Islamic jurisprudence" for an explanation of how a Bahá'í might be murdered with near impunity in Iran.
    Hurmuzak; Yazd; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Farhang Amiri; BWNS
    2016 26 Oct The report from the offices of the Bahá'í International Community entitled The Bahá'í Question Revisited: Persecution and Resilience in Iran was formally released.
    • The full report can be read on-line here.
    • A list of resolutions by the United Nations and United Nations bodies that reference the situation of Baha’is in Iran since 1980 can be found at this location.
    • An annex to The Bahá'í Question Revisited is the report called "Inciting Hatred". It is an analysis of approximately 400 anti-Baha'i articles, broadcasts, and webpages from late December 2009 through May 2011 and can be found here.
    • A list of the 222 Baha’is who have been killed in Iran since 1978 can be read here.
    Iran; New York; United States Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Bahai International Community; Human rights; United Nations
    2017 Jul The men who admitted to stabbing and killing Farhang Amiri, a 63-year-old father of four children, in September 2016 in Yazd on the street outside his home in public view were sentenced by a court in Yazd. The two brothers immediately admitted to have been motivated by religious hatred. The older brother was sentenced to just 11 years in prison and two years away from home. The court justified the sentence by stating that according to the Islamic penal code, the accused and the victim are not equal for the general purpose of retributive justice. This astonishing provision clearly and deliberately deprives non-Muslims of the legal right to seek justice on equal-footing with the country's Muslim majority.

    The younger man was sentenced to half of his brother’s sentence for aiding in the murder. [BWNS1182]

    Yazd; Iran Farhang Amiri; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Court cases; Court cases; Human rights; BWNS

    from the main catalogue

    1. Alavíyyih Khánum and 'Alí Ján, Mullá, by Mehraeen Mottahedin-Mavaddat and Moojan Momen, in The Bahá'í Encyclopedia (2009). On the couple, both distinguished Iranian teachers of the Bahá’í Faith; Mullá ‘Alí Ján was executed for his faith. [about]
    2. Alí Bastámí, Mullá, by Denis MacEoin, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 1 (1985). Very brief article, short enough to qualify as "fair use." [about]
    3. Ali Bastami, Mulla, by Moojan Momen (1995). [about]
    4. Alí Bastámí, Mullá, by Moojan Momen, in The Bahá'í Encyclopedia (2009). On the second disciple to recognize the Báb, and the first Bábí martyr. [about]
    5. Babi Martyrs, Some, by John Walbridge, in Essays and Notes on Babi and Bahá'í History (2002). Includes bios of Shaykh Salih Karimi, Mulla Abd al-Karim Qazvini, the Farhadis of Qazvin, the Seven Martyrs of Tehran, and others. [about]
    6. Badí` Khurasani, by Moojan Momen (1995). Short biography of Badi, a Baha'i renowned for his bravery and devotion. [about]
    7. Bahá'í Faith in Iran, The, by John Walbridge, in Essays and Notes on Babi and Bahá'í History (2002). Includes essay "Three Clerics and a Prince of Isfahan: background to Bahá'u'lláh's Epistle to the Son of the Wolf" and bios of Ayatollah Khomeini and Zill al-Sultan. [about]
    8. Bahá'í Martyrdoms in Persia in the Year 1903 AD, by Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali Isfahani (1917). A memoir by Abdu'l-Baha, erroneously credited to Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali, published in English as a 28-page book in 1904 and 1917, covering events from March-September 1903. [about]
    9. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 18 (1979-1983), in Bahá'í World (1986). [about]
    10. Bahá'u'lláh and the Fourth Estate, by Roger White, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Baha'u'llah's response to the martyrdom of seven Baha'is in Yazd in May, 1891, and his relationship with the media. [about]
    11. Behind the Veil in Persia and Turkish Arabia: An Account of an Englishwoman's Eight Years' Residence Amongst the Women of the East, by M. E. Hume-Griffith (1909). Three-page history of the Bab and his execution, with reference to the persecutions in Yazd. [about]
    12. Brutal Slashing to Death of Dr Berjis, The, by Nasser Mohajer, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 17:1 (2011). English translation of an article in Persian about persecutions during the Pahlavi regime, and the death of a Baha'i doctor in 1950. [about]
    13. Deaths of Two Iranian Bahá'ís, 1997, by Universal House of Justice and National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1997). Reports from the Universal House of Justice and the NSA of the United States on the deaths of Masha'llah Enayati and Shahram Reza'i. [about]
    14. Dress for Mona, A: Abridged one-act version, by Mark Perry (2002). The story of Mona Mahmudnizhad. [about]
    15. European Bahá'í Youth Conference in Innsbruck, by Universal House of Justice (1983). Challenges facing European Baha'i Youth, followed by consolation to Baha'i youth in light of the 1983 martyrdoms of young Baha'is in Iran. [about]
    16. Events and Tragedies of Manshád, The, by Muhammad-Tahir Malmiri (2007). Events and martyrs from the uprisings in Manshad and Yazd, in 1903. A translation of Haji Málmírí's Tarikh Shuhaday Yazd, pp. 432-503. [about]
    17. Eyewitness Account of the Massacre of Bahá'ís in Nayriz, 1909, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Lights of Irfan, 14 (2013). Shaykh Dhakariyya's rebellion in Nayriz culminated in the martyrdom of nineteen Baha'is on Naw Ruz, 1909, the same day Abdu'l-Baha interred the remains of the Bab in the mausoleum on Mount Carmel. This is a history of both events. [about]
    18. Martyrdom of Hájí Muhammad-Ridá: 19 Historical Accounts, by Ahang Rabbani, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 5 (2007). [about]
    19. Martyrdom of Haji Muhammad-Rida, The, by Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Gulpaygani (1890). Gulpaygani's firsthand account of the events leading up to and following the murder of Muhammad-Rida and the trial of his killers. [about]
    20. Martyrs of Manshad, by Siyyid Muhammad Tabíb Manshádi, in World Order, 28:1 (1996). Detailed eyewitness account of martyrdoms in Iran in 1903. [about]
    21. Massacres de Babis en Perse, by A.L.M. Nicolas (1936). On events in 1903 in Rasht, Isfahan, Yazd, and Tehran, written by a French consul in Iran. [about]
    22. Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
    23. Mystery of Martyrdom, The, by Darius Shahrokh and Grace Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1992). Life stories of many early martyrs, and some explanations of what inspires self-sacrifice. [about]
    24. Reunion with the Beloved: Poetry and Martyrdom (2004). Poetry by or in honor of early Babi and Baha'i martyrs. Includes foreword by Hushmand Fatheazam, and discussion of the concept of martyrdom, cultural issues, and history of persecutions. [about]
    25. Social Basis of the Bábí Upheavals in Iran (1848-1953): A Preliminary Analysis, by Moojan Momen, in International Journal of Middle East Studies, 15 (1983). In the mid-19th century, Iran was shaken by unrest caused by the Babi movement, which set off a chain of events that led on the one hand, to the constitutional movement in Iran, and on the other, to the establishment of the now world-wide Baha'i Faith. [about]
    26. Tablet to Sháh-Muhammad-Amín (Amínu'l-Bayán): Excerpt, by Bahá'u'lláh and Universal House of Justice (2003). Excerpt of a tablet revealed in honour of the first Trustee of Huquq’u’lláh, surnamed the “Trusted of the Bayán," with introductory letter from the House of Justice. [about]
    27. Tablet to Shaykh Kazim-i-Samandar II, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Eminent Bahá'ís in the Time of Bahá'u'lláh (1985). [about]
    28. Tablet to The Times of London, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh, by Adib Taherzadeh, Vol. 4 (1987). Short tablet calling newspapers to investigate the Truth. [about]
    29. Tablet to Varqá Regarding the Prince and King of Martyrs, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Eminent Bahá'ís in the Time of Bahá'u'lláh with some Historical Background (1985). Short tablet of tribute to the King and Beloved of the Martyrs, from H. M. Balyuzi's Eminent Bahá’ís. [about]
    30. Treatise on Persecution of Bahá'ís in 1903, by Abdu'l-Bahá, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 14 (2007). Events in Isfahán and Yazd from March-September 1903. [about]
    31. Varqa and Son: The Heavenly Doves, by Darius Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1992). History of the family of Varqa, the only family with the distinction of having a grandfather, a father, and a son all named Hand of the Cause. [about]
    32. Varqá, Ali-Mohammad, by Iraj Ayman, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2017). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
    33. Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, by Ahang Rabbani (1996). Multiple volumes of historical materials, translations, and original research. [about]
     
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