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Search for tag "Persecution, Iraq"

from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1844. 11 Aug The Báb sent Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí to Najaf and Karbalá to proclaim His Cause among the Shaykhís. In Najaf Mullá `Alí delivered a letter from the Báb to Shaykh Muhammad-Hasan Najafí, the leading Shí`í divine and the keeper of the shrines in Iraq. [BBRSM15; DB87-91; SBBH20–1, HotD46]
  • The Shaykh's rejection of the claim led to a violent debate. Mullá `Alí was taken to Baghdád and imprisoned there. After a public trial, a joint tribunal of Sunní and Shí`í `ulamá, he was sent to Istanbul. He was the first martyr of the Bábí Dispensation. It is significant that Mullá Hasan Gawhar, a leading figure of the Shaykhí school, participated in the condemnation as it marks the first major challenge to Babism from a Shaykhí leader. [B27, 37–8, 58; BBR83–90; BBRSM17; BKG31; DB90–2; MMBA, BBR2p17, GPB10]
  • Istanbul; Turkey; Iraq; Baghdad; Najaf; Karbala Bab, Life of; Mulla Ali Bastami; Ulama; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Shaykhism; Firsts, Other; Trials; Court cases; Persecution, Court cases; Letters of the Living
    1845. 13 Jan The trial of Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí in Baghdád. A fatwá is issued in Baghdád against both Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí and the Báb, condemning the Báb, who is unnamed in the fatwá, to death as an unbeliever. [B64; BBRSM15, 215; SBBH21, 22] Baghdad; Iraq Trials; Mulla Ali Bastami; Qayyumul-Asma (book); Fatwa; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases
    1845. c. 16 Apr Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí was removed from his prison cell in Baghdád and taken to Istanbul, where he was sentenced to hard labour in the imperial naval dockyard. Istanbul; Turkey; Baghdad; Iraq Mulla Ali Bastami; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Turkey; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1845. 30 Dec The Báb's birthday fell on the first day of the mourning observance for the Imám Husayn. Táhirih, who was in Karbalá with the widow of Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí, instructed her relatives and the Bábís to dress in bright clothing and joyously celebrate the Báb's birth. This caused a considerable disturbance, even among the Bábís. Táhirih was arrested and expelled from the city. [RR305, SA217] Karbala; Iraq Tahirih; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1868. c. Jul Principal Bahá'ís in Baghdád were arrested by the Turkish authorities and exiled to Mosul and other places. [BBR265; BKG247; CH129–30; RB2:333]
  • RB2:333 indicates this took place towards the end of Bahá'u'lláh's stay in Adrianople.
  • About 70 people were exiled. [GPB178; RB2:334] Estimate given by Hájí Mirzá Haydar-;Alí is 80. (DOH12]
  • See BKG184 for an illustration of Mosul.
  • See BKG183 for a description of the city.
  • See RB2:334 for the hardships suffered by the exiles.
  • They remained in Mosul for some 20 years until Bahá'u'lláh advised the community to disband (1885-1886). Their hardship was lessened by generous contributions from the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs. A charity fund was established, the first fund of that kind in any Bahá'í community. [RB2:334–6]
  • Baghdad; Mosul; Iraq Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Charity and relief work; Funds; Firsts, Other; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1870 Násiri'd-Dín Sháh maded a pilgrimage to the shrines in Iraq. In preparation for his visit the Bahá'ís were rounded up, arrested and exiled. [BBR267; BBRSM90; BKG441]
  • See BKG441–3 for details of the exile.
  • Iraq; Iran Nasirid-Din Shah; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1924 Nov The Supreme Court of Iraq decided against the Bahá'ís in the dispute over the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád. [UD37-8] Iraq Court cases; House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution
    1966 (In the year) In Iraq the national and one local Ḥaẓíratu’l-Quds were seized and the activities of the friends were severely restricted. [Ridván Message, 1966] Persecution, Iraq; Z****
    1970 May In Iraq the Baathist Revolutionary Command Council issued Decree No. 105 to ban Bahá’í activities and disbanding all Bahá’í institutions. [BBRSM174; BW15:173; BW16:137] Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1973 Dec A teenaged Muslim student defended the Bahá’í Faith in a school in Baghdád, causing her arrest and the arrest of three Bahá’í girl students. [BW16:138]
    • Over the next months nearly 50 Bahá’ís were arrested. [BW16:138]
    Baghdad; Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1974 4 Mar Following the arrest of more than 50 Bahá’ís in Iraq, their trial opened and the Bahá’ís were exonerated. [BW16:138]
    • The Revolutionary Council was dissatisfied with this result and the case was ordered to be reopened in a military court with the death sentence requested for all the detainees. [BW16:138]
    Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution
    1974 23 Apr At the trial of nearly 50 Bahá’ís in Baghdád, the Iraqi military court sentenced 13 men and one girl to life imprisonment, one man and two girls to 15 years’ imprisonment, and two men and seven women to ten years’ imprisonment; 13 Bahá’ís were fined and released. [BW16:138] Baghdad; Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution
    1974 20 May The Iraqi military court tried nearly 50 Bahá’ís and handed down in absentia sentences of life imprisonment on ten Bahá’ís, two of whom were deceased and a number of whom were of other nationalities or Iraqis not resident in Iraq. [BW16:138]
    • In the weeks following, 24 Bahá’ís had their property confiscated, one Bahá’í was sentenced to ten years’ imprisonment and another to 20 years. [BW16:138]
    Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution
    1975 Jan A Bahá’í was arrested in Iraq and sentenced to ten years’ imprisonment. [BW16:138] Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution
    1975 Jul In Iraq, a partial amnesty reducing the terms of the Bahá’ís imprisoned by 15 per cent was granted. [BW16:138] Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution
    1975 Sep c. In Iraq, a young Bahá’í was detained, interrogated, beaten and asked to recant his faith when he specified his religion on a form. [BW16:138]
    • When he refused to recant his faith he was tried by a revolutionary court and sentenced to ten years’ imprisonment. [BW16.138]
    Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution
    1977 Dec Properties confiscated by the Iraqi government belonging to individual Bahá’ís were returned; properties and funds belonging to the Faith were turned over to the Ministry of the Interior for disposal. [BW17:80] Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    2005 15 Oct The Constitution of Iraq was approved by referendum to replace the Law of Administration for the State of Iraq for the Transitional Period (TAL), previously adopted by a Governing Council appointed by the Coalition Provisional Authority after the Iraq War. The Constitution guaranteed the Islamic identity of the majority of the Iraqi people and guaranteed the full religious rights of all individuals to freedom of religious belief and practice such as Christians, Yazedis, and Mandi Sabeans. It made no mention of the Bahá'ís as an acknowledged religious minority.
    The Law No.105 of 1970 which prohibited all Bahá'í activities was not rescinded therefore it entered into force despite its being unconstitutional under the new constitution. Also problematic for the Bahá'í community was Regulation 358 of 1975 by the Department of Civil Status that prohibited the issuance of new identity cards to followers of the Bahá'í faith and altered their civil status so that they were registered as Muslims. [Al-Monitor 11 December, 2018; Washington Post 12 October, 2005] .
    Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Z****
    2007 Apr In Iraq the Ministry of Interior's Nationality and Passport Section canceled regulation 358 of 1975 which prohibited the issuance of national identity cards to those claiming the Bahá'í Faith. In May 2007 a small number of Bahá'ís were issued identity cards. The Nationality and Passport Section's legal advisor stopped issuance of the cards thereafter, claiming Bahá'ís had been registered as Muslims since 1975 and citing a government regulation preventing the conversion of "Muslims" to another faith. Without this official identity card, Bahá'ís could not register their children for school or acquire passports. Despite the cancellation of the regulation, Bahá'ís whose identity records were changed to "Muslim" after regulation 358 was instituted in 1975 still could not change their identity cards to indicate their Bahá'í faith, and their children were not recognized as Bahá'ís. [US Department of State BUREAU OF DEMOCRACY, HUMAN RIGHTS, AND LABOR July-December, 2010 International Religious Freedom Report Report September 13, 2011] Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Z****
    2017. 30 Nov Baha’is celebrated the bicentennial of the birth of Bahá'u'lláh in a ceremony in Baghdad attended by representatives from the Iraqi parliament, the Iraqi High Commission for Human Rights (IHCHR), the United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq, civil society as well as media activists. This is considered the most prominent ceremony where Baha’is officially announced themselves for the first time in 47 years, as the Baathist Revolutionary Command Council issued Decree No. 105 in 1970 to ban Baha’i activities. As a consequence, Baha’i administrative institutions in Iraq were dissolved and any activity where Baha’is declared their religious identity was punishable by imprisonment. During the proceedings they asked for support to rescind the law on prohibiting Baha’i activity, which is still in effect despite the fact that the law contradicts the 2005 constitution, which guarantees freedom of belief to all citizens. Millions of Baha’is around the world celebrated the honorary bicentennial of the birth of Baha'u'llah on Oct. 21-22. Baha’is in Baghdad celebrated after one month of postponements given the security difficulties and challenges surrounding the ceremony. [Al-Monitor.com] Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Birth of; Twin Holy days; Holy days; Centenaries; Websites; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Bans; Persecution

    from the main catalogue

    1. Trial of Mullá 'Alí Bastámí, The: A Combined Sunní-Shí'í Fatwá against The Báb, by Moojan Momen, in Iran: Journal of the British Institute for Persian Studies, 20 (1982). [about]
     
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