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Search for tag "Persecution, Iraq"

from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1844. 11 Aug The Báb sends Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí to Najaf and Karbalá to proclaim His Cause among the Shaykhís. In Najaf Mullá `Alí delivers a letter from the Báb to Shaykh Muhammad-Hasan Najafí, the leading Shí`í divine and the keeper of the shrines in Iraq. [BBRSM15; DB87-91; SBBH20–1, HotD46]
  • The Shaykh's rejection of the claim leads to violent debate. Mullá `Alí is taken to Baghdád and imprisoned there. After a public trial, a joint tribunal of Sunní and Shí`í `ulamá, he is sent to Istanbul. He is the first martyr of the Bábí Dispensation. It is significant that Mullá Hasan Gawhar, a leading figure of the Shaykhí school, participated in the condemnation as it marks the first major challenge to Babism from a Shaykhí leader. [B27, 37–8, 58; BBR83–90; BBRSM17; BKG31; DB90–2; MMBA, BBR2p17, GPB10]
Istanbul; Turkey; Iraq; Baghdad; Najaf; Karbala Bab, Life of; Mulla Ali Bastami; Ulama; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Shaykhism; Firsts, Other; Trials; Court cases; Persecution, Court cases; Letters of the Living
1845. 13 Jan The trial of Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí in Baghdád. A fatwá is issued in Baghdád against both Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí and the Báb, condemning the Báb, who is unnamed in the fatwá, to death as an unbeliever. [B64; BBRSM15, 215; SBBH21, 22] Baghdad; Iraq Trials; Mulla Ali Bastami; Qayyumul-Asma (book); Fatwa; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases
1845. c. 16 Apr Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí is removed from his prison cell in Baghdád and taken to Istanbul, where he is sentenced to hard labour in the imperial naval dockyard. Istanbul; Turkey; Baghdad; Iraq Mulla Ali Bastami; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Turkey; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1845. 30 Dec The Báb's birthday falls on the first day of the mourning observance for the Imám Husayn. Táhirih, who is in Karbalá with the widow of Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí, instructs her relatives and the Bábís to dress in bright clothing and joyously celebrate the Báb's birth. This causes a considerable disturbance, even among the Bábís. Táhirih is arrested and expelled from the city. [RR305, SA217] Karbala; Iraq Tahirih; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1868. c. Jul Principal Bahá'ís in Baghdád are arrested by the Turkish authorities and exiled to Mosul and other places. RB2:333 indicates this took place towards the end of Bahá'u'lláh's stay in Adrianople.[BBR265; BKG247; CH129–30; RB2:333]
  • About 70 people are exiled. [GPB178; RB2:334] Estimate given by Hájí Mirzá Haydar-;Alí is 80. (DOH12]
  • See BKG184 for an illustration of Mosul.
  • See BKG183 for a description of the city.
  • See RB2:334 for the hardships suffered by the exiles.
  • They remained in Mosul for some 20 years until Bahá'u'lláh advised the community to disband (1885-1886). Their hardship was lessened by generous contributions from the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs. A charity fund was established, the first fund of that kind in any Bahá'í community. [RB2:334–6]
Baghdad; Mosul; Iraq Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Charity and relief work; Funds; Firsts, Other; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1870 Násiri'd-Dín Sháh makes a pilgrimage to the shrines in Iraq. In preparation for his visit the Bahá'ís are rounded up, arrested and exiled. [BBR267; BBRSM90; BKG441]
  • See BKG441–3 for details of the exile.
Iraq; Iran Nasirid-Din Shah; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1924 Nov The Supreme Court of Iraq decides against the Bahá'ís in the dispute over the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád. [UD37-8] Iraq Court cases; House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution
1970 May In Iraq the Baathist Revolutionary Command Council issued Decree No. 105 to ban Bahá’í activities and disbanding all Bahá’í institutions. [BBRSM174; BW15:173; BW16:137] Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
1973 Dec A teenaged Muslim student defends the Bahá’í Faith in a school in Baghdád, causing her arrest and the arrest of three Bahá’í girl students. [BW16:138]
  • Over the next months nearly 50 Bahá’ís are arrested. [BW16:138]
Baghdad; Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1974 4 Mar Following the arrest of more than 50 Bahá’ís in Iraq, their trial opens and the Bahá’ís are exonerated. [BW16:138]
  • The Revolutionary Council is dissatisfied with this result and the case is ordered to be reopened in a military court, with the death sentence requested for all the detainees. [BW16:138]
Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution
1974 23 Apr At the trial of nearly 50 Bahá’ís in Baghdád, the Iraqi military court sentences 13 men and one girl to life imprisonment, one man and two girls to 15 years’ imprisonment, and two men and seven women to ten years’ imprisonment; 13 Bahá’ís are fined and released. [BW16:138] Baghdad; Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution
1974 20 May The Iraqi military court trying nearly 50 Bahá’ís hands down in absentia sentences of life imprisonment on ten Bahá’ís, two of whom are deceased and a number of whom are of other nationalities or Iraqis not resident in Iraq. [BW16:138]
  • In the weeks following, 24 Bahá’ís have their property confiscated, one Bahá’í is sentenced to ten years’ imprisonment and another to 20 years. [BW16:138]
Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution
1975 Jul In Iraq, a partial amnesty reducing the terms of the Bahá’ís imprisoned by 15 per cent is granted. [BW16:138] Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution
1975 Sep c. In Iraq, a young Bahá’í is detained, interrogated, beaten and asked to recant his faith when he specifies his religion on a form. [BW16:138]
  • When he refuses to recant his faith he is tried by a revolutionary court and sentenced to ten years’ imprisonment. [BW16.138]
Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution
1977 Dec Properties confiscated by the Iraqi government belonging to individual Bahá’ís are returned; properties and funds belonging to the Faith are turned over to the Ministry of the Interior for disposal. [BW17:80] Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Other; Persecution
2017. 30 Nov Baha’is celebrated the bicentennial of the birth of Bahá'u'lláh in a ceremony in Baghdad attended by representatives from the Iraqi parliament, the Iraqi High Commission for Human Rights (IHCHR), the United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq, civil society as well as media activists. This is considered the most prominent ceremony where Baha’is officially announced themselves for the first time in 47 years, as the Baathist Revolutionary Command Council issued Decree No. 105 in 1970 to ban Baha’i activities. As a consequence, Baha’i administrative institutions in Iraq were dissolved and any activity where Baha’is declared their religious identity was punishable by imprisonment. During the proceedings they asked for support to rescind the law on prohibiting Baha’i activity, which is still in effect despite the fact that the law contradicts the 2005 constitution, which guarantees freedom of belief to all citizens. Millions of Baha’is around the world celebrated the honorary bicentennial of the birth of Baha'u'llah on Oct. 21-22. Baha’is in Baghdad celebrated after one month of postponements given the security difficulties and challenges surrounding the ceremony. [Al-Monitor.com] Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Birth of; Twin Holy days; Holy days; Centenaries; Websites; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Bans; Persecution

from the main catalogue

  1. Trial of Mullá 'Alí Bastámí, The: A Combined Sunní-Shí'í Fatwá against The Báb, by Moojan Momen, in Iran: Journal of the British Institute for Persian Studies, 20 (1982). [about]
 
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