Search for tag "Persia"
|1804 - 1813
||Russo-Persian War resulted in a Russian victory. The Battle of Aslan Duz on 31 October 1812 was the turning point in the war, which led to the complete destruction of the Persian army, thus leaving Fath Ali Shah with no other option but to sign the Treaty of Gulistan on 24 October 1813. Numerically, Persian forces had a considerable advantage during the war, a ratio of 5 to 1 over their Russian adversaries, however, the Persian forces were technologically backwards and poorly trained - a problem that the Persian government failed to recognize.
With the Treaty of Gulistan Persia ceded what is now Georgia, Dagestan, parts of northern Armenia, and most of what now comprises modern Azerbaijan to Russia.
||Gulistan; Aslan Duz; Iran; Russia
||Russo-Persian War; Treaty of Gulistan
|1828 10 Feb
||Defeat of the Persians at the hands of the Russians.
The Russo-Persian War of 1826–28 was the last major military conflict between the Russian Empire and Iran.
The war ended following the occupation of Tabriz and had even more disastrous results for Persia than the 1804-1813 war. The ensuing Treaty of Turkmenchay, signed on 10 February 1828 in Torkamanchay, Iran, stripped Persia of its last remaining territories in the Caucasus, which comprised all of modern Armenia, the southern remainder of modern Azerbaijan, and modern Igdir in Turkey. Through the Gulistan and Turkmenchay treaties Persia had lost all of its territories in the Caucasus to Russia making them the unquestioned dominant power in the region. [BBRSM55]
||Tabriz; Turkmenchay; Iran
|1830. c. 1830
||Marriage of Táhirih to her cousin Mullá Muhammad, the son of Mullá Taqí.
||Marriage; Tahirih; Mulla Muhammad; Mulla Taqi
|1844. 22 Jan
||Mullá Husayn returns to Karbalá after a journey of two years in Persia. He has been on a mission in Isfahán and Mashhad where he has successfully defended the views of his master, Siyyid Kázim, before the leading clerics of those cities. [MH49]
- After a period of mourning and 40 days of prayer and fasting in the vicinity of the shrine in Najaf he sets out for Persia in the company of his brother and his nephew following the last wishes of Siyyid Kázim that his followers quit Karbalá and search for the Promised One. The party go to Búshihr and then on to Shíráz. [MH50–55, HotD28]
- See SI dustjacket for a photo of the Shrine of Imam 'Ali.
|Karbalá; Isfahán; Mashhad; Najaf; Búshihr; Shíráz; Iraq; Iran; Persia
||Mulla Husayn; Siyyid Kazim; mourning; fasting
|1846. 23 Sep
||The governor, Husayn Khán, threatened by the Báb's rising popularity, orders His arrest. The chief constable, `Abdu'l-Hamíd Khán, takes the Báb into custody and escorts Him to the governor's home but finds it abandoned. He takes the Báb to his own home and learns that a cholera epidemic has swept the city and that his sons have been stricken. At the chief constable's insistence the Báb cures the boys by requesting they drink some of the water with which He has washed His own face. `Abdu'l-Hamíd resigns his post and begs the governor to release the Báb. He agrees on condition the Báb leaves Shíráz. The incident proves to be Husayn Khán's undoing: the Sháh dismisses him from office shortly after. [B104–5; BBRSM55; DB194–7; GPB13; TN9]
- See BBR170–1 and DB197 for the fate of Husayn Khán.
- DB196–7 says `Abdu'l-Hamíd Khán had only one ill son.
|Shiraz; Iran; Persia
||Husayn Khan; Governors; Bab, Life of; Abdul-Hamid Khan; Epidemics; Muhammad Shah; Shahs
|1846 23 – 24 Sep
||The Báb departs for Isfahán after a sojourn in Shíráz of less than 15 months. [B105–6; BBRSM216; BW18:380; TN9, SBBR1pxxviii]
- TN9 says that the Báb left Shíráz `the morning after' the night He saved the children from cholera.
- B105 says he left `in the last days of September'.
|Shíráz; Isfahán; Iran; Persia
|1846 Sep - Oct
||On His approach to the city the Báb writes to Manúchihr Khán, the governor-general of Isfahán, and asks him for shelter. The governor requests that Siyyid Muhammad, the Imám-Jum`ih of Isfahán, accommodate Him. During His stay of 40 days the Báb impresses His host as well as the governor. [B109–10, 13; DB199–202, 208]
- See B108–9 for information on Manúchihr Khán.
- It is during His six-month stay in Isfahán that the Báb takes a second wife, Fátimih, the sister of a Bábí from that city. [RB1:249]
|Isfahan; Iran; Persia
||Bab; Manuchihr Khan; governor-generals; Siyyid Muhammad; Imam-Jumih
|1846 c. Nov
||Manúchihr Khán arranges a meeting between the Báb and the clerics to silence their opposition. After the encounter, about 70 of them meet and issue a death-warrant. [B112–13; DB205–9]
||Manuchihr Khan; Bab; death-warrant
|1847 Spring - Summer
||Táhirih's activities in Iraq so alarm some Bábís of Kázimayn that they agitate against her. Siyyid `Alí Bishr writes to the Báb in Máh-Kú on their behalf. The Báb replies praising Táhirih, causing the Kázimayn Bábís to withdraw from the Faith. [B 163]
- Among those Táhirih meets in Baghdád is Hakím Masíh, a Jewish doctor who years later becomes the first Bahá'í of Jewish background. [B165]
- Táhirih is sent back to Persia by Najíb Páshá. She is accompanied by a number of Bábís; they make a number of stops along the way, enrolling supporters for the Cause of the Báb. [B163–4; BBRSM216]
- Ma'ani says Táhirih left Baghdád early in 1847.
- In Kirand 1,200 people are reported to have volunteered to follow her. [B164 DB272; TN20]
- B164 says the number is 12,000; DB272 says it was 1,200.
- In Kirmánsháh she is respectfully received by the `ulamá. [B164; DB272]
- Táhirih arrives in Hamadán. Her father has sent her brothers here to persuade her to return to her native city of Qazvín. She agrees on condition that she may remain in Hamadán long enough to tell people about the Báb. [B165; DB273]
- MF180 says Táhirih remained in Hamadán for two months.Ma'ani says Táhirih left Baghdád early in 1847.
- In Kirand 1,200 people are reported to have volunteered to follow her. [B164 DB272; TN20]
|Kazimayn; Baghdad; Iraq; Persia; Iran; Hamadan; Kirmanshah
||Tahirih; Siyyid Ali Bishr; Bab, Life of; Mah-Ku; Hakim Masih; Jews; doctor; Najib Pasha
|1847 c. May - Jun
||The Báb arrives in Tabríz, en route to Máh-Kú. He remains for 40 days and is well received by the general populace. He spends His time in seclusion, being allowed only two visitors. [B127–8; DB237–40; GPB18; TN12]
||Tabríz; Iran; Persia
||The Báb arrives at the prison fortress of Máh-Kú (the Open Mountain). [B128; BW18:380]
- See B128, BBD142 and DB243–4 for descriptions of Máh-Kú, its environs, fortress and inhabitants.
|Máh-Kú; Iran; Persia
|1847 Jul to 1848 Apr
||The people of Máh-Kú show marked hostility to the Báb on His arrival. Later they are won over by His gentle manners and His love. They congregate at the foot of the mountain hoping to catch a glimpse of Him. [B129; DB244–5]
At the beginning of the Báb's incarceration the warden `Alí Khán keeps the Báb strictly confined and allows no visitors. He has a vision of the Báb engaged in prayer outside of the prison gates, knowing that the Báb is inside. He becomes humble and permits the Bábís to visit the Báb. [B129–31; DB245–8]
The winter the Báb spends in Máh-Kú is exceptionally cold. [DB252]
Many of the Báb's writings are revealed in this period. [GPB24–5]
- It was probably at this time that He addressed all the divines in Persia and Najaf and Karbalá, detailing the errors committed by each one of them. [GPB24]
- He revealed nine commentaries on the whole of the Qur'an, the fate of which is unknown. [GPB24]
- He revealed the Persian Bayán, containing the laws and precepts of the new Revelation in some 8,000 verses. It is primarily a eulogy of the Promised One. [BBD44–5; BBRSM32; BW12:91 GPB24–5]
- The Báb began the composition of the `smaller and less weighty' Arabic Bayán. [B132; BBD45; GPB25]
- He stated in the Bayán that, to date, He had revealed some 500,000 verses, 100,000 of which had been circulated. [BBRSM32, GPB22]
- In the Dalá'il-i-Sab'ih (Seven Proofs) the Báb assigned blame to the seven powerful sovereigns then ruling the world and censured the conduct of the Christian divines who, had they recognized Muhammad, would have been followed by the greater part of their co-religionists. [BBD63; BW12:96; GPB26]
- The Báb wrote His `most detailed and illuminating' Tablet to Muhammad Sháh. [GPB26]
|Mah-Ku; Iran; Persia; Najaf; Karbala; Iraq
||Bab, Life of; Ali Khan; Commentaries; Quran; Bayan-i-Farsi (Persian Bayan); Bayan-i-Arabi (Arabic Bayan); Bayan; Dalail-i-Sabih (Seven Proofs); Bab, Writings of; Tablet to Muhammad Shah; Muhammad Shah
||Táhirih sends Mullá Ibráhím Mahallátí to present to the chief mujtahid of Hamadán her dissertation in defence of the Bábí Cause. Mahallátí is attacked and severely beaten.
||Hamadán; Iran Persia
||Tahirih; Mulla Ibrahim Mahallati; Babi
|1847. Sep or Oct
||The murder of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí, the powerful uncle of Táhirih, by Mullá `Abdu'lláh of Shíráz. [B166; BBRSM216; DB276–8]
BBRSM22 says the murder took place towards the end of October.
- Mullá `Abdu'lláh indicates that he was `never a convinced Bábí'. [DB276]
- BBRSM22 says the murder took place towards the end of October.
- Mullá `Abdu'lláh indicates that he was `never a convinced Bábí'. [DB276]
|Shíráz; Iran; Persia
||murder; Haji Mulla Muhammad Taqi; uncle; Tahirih; Mulla `Abdu'llah
|1847. Nov - Dec
||Bahá'u'lláh, who is living in Tihrán, visits the detainees and gives them money. [BKG41; DB278–9; GPB68]
Mullá `Abdu'lláh confesses to the murder of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí and is helped to escape. [BKG41–2; DB278]
- See BKG42 for why Bahá'u'lláh was thought to have engineered his escape. Bahá'u'lláh is imprisoned for a few days for having assisted in Mullá `Abdu'lláh's escape.
- This was Bahá'u'lláh's first imprisonment. [BKG41; BW18:380; DB585]
- Shaykh Salib-i-Karímí, one of the imprisoned Bábís, is publicly executed in Tihrán.
- He is the first to suffer martyrdom on Persian soil. His remains are interred in the courtyard of the shrine of the Imám-Zádih Zayd in Tihrán. [B166; BW18:380; DB280]
- The remaining captives are returned to Qazvín. Hájí Asadu'lláh-i-Farhádí is secretly put to death in prison. Mullá Táhir-i-Shírází and Mullá Ibrahím-i-Maballátí are also put to death. [B166; BW18:380; DB280–3]
- DB280–3 says `the rest of' the detainees were put to death by the relatives of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí.
|Tihran; Tehran; Qazvin; Iran; Persia
||Bahaullah, Life of; Mulla `Abdu'llah; murder; Haji Mulla Muhammad Taqi; Shaykh Salib-i-Karimi; Babis; execute; execution; martyrdom; shrine; Imam-Zadih Zayd; Haji Asadu'llah-i-Farhadi; death; prison; Mulla Tahir-i-Shirazi; Mulla Ibrahim-i-Maballati
|1848. early Dec
||Bahá'u'lláh sets out from Tihrán with 11 companions to reinforce the Bábís at Shaykh Tabarsí. Nine miles from the fort they are arrested and taken to the town of Ámul, where they are held prisoner in the home of the deputy governor. This is Bahá'u'lláh's second imprisonment. He intervenes to spare His companions the bastinado and He alone receives it.
- When the governor returns to his home he orders that Bahá'u'lláh and His companions be released and arranges a safe conduct for them to Tihrán. [B174; BBD44; BKG56–60; BW18:381; DB369–76; GPB68; SB7]
- See BKG57 and DB70 for pictures.
|Tihran; Tehran; Ámul; Iran; Persia
||Bahaullah, Life of; Shaykh Tabarsi; arrest; bastinado
|1848. 30 Mar
||Mullá Husayn departs for Mázindarán, setting out on foot as the Báb has directed. [DB260; MH144]
- The Báb tells him to visit the Bábís in Khuy, Urúmíyyih, Marághih, Mílán, Tabríz, Zanján, Qazvín and Tihrán before proceeding to Mázindarán. In Mázindarán he is to find `God's hidden treasure'. [DB260; MH144]
- In Tihrán he again meets Bahá'u'lláh. [DB261; MH148]
|Mazindaran; Khuy; Urumiyyih; Maraghih; Milan; Tabriz; Zanjan; Qazvin; Tehran; Iran; Persia
||Mulla Husayn; Bahaullah, Life of; Bab, Life of
|1848. late Spring
||Mullá Husayn goes to the house of Quddús in Bárfurúsh, Mázindarán, and realizes that the `hidden treasure' is his recognition of the station of Quddús. [DB261–5; MH148–54]
Mullá Husayn proceeds to Mashhad and builds a `Bábíyyih', a centre for the Bábís, as instructed by Quddús. He and Quddús take up residence in it and begin to teach the Bábí religion.
- See DB288–90 and MH158–68 for the result of this effort.
- Among those who come to the Bábíyyih is Sám Khán, the chief of police. [MH158]
- See MH156 for a picture of the Bábíyyih.
|Barfurush; Mazindaran; Mashhad; Iran; Persia
||Mulla Husayn; Quddus; Babi centre
||Quddús leaves Mashhad for Badasht. Mullá Husayn is prevented from attending. He is invited to stay in the camp of the soldiers garrisoned in the area to control a local revolt. The invitation amounts to a confinement but he is able to teach the soldiers while so confined. [BKG50; DB290; MH165–6]
- MH160 says that it was at this time that the Báb wrote to all the believers in Persia and Iraq instructing them to go to the aid of Mullá Husayn and Quddús in the `Land of Khá (Khurásán). DB269ff implies this letter was written in 1845.
|Mashhad; Badasht; Iran; Persia
||Quddus; Mulla Husayn; soldiers; confinement
|1848. c. 26 Jun - 17 Jul
||The Conference of Badasht
Bahá'u'lláh, who hosts and directs the event, rents three gardens, one for Quddús, another for Táhirih and the third for Himself. [B168; GPB31, 68; MF200]
The conference coincides with the removal of the Báb to Tabríz for interrogation in July.
It is held near the village of Sháhrúd in Semnan province. [BBRSM23; DB292]
- `The primary purpose of that gathering was to implement the revelation of the Bayán by a sudden, a complete and dramatic break with the past — with its order, its ecclesiasticism, its traditions, and ceremonials. The subsidiary purpose of the conference was to consider the means of emancipating the Báb from His cruel confinement in Chihríq.' [BBRSM23; BKG43; DB297–8; GPB31, 157]
- B167 says that the Bábís did not come to Badasht to make plans to rescue the Báb. It is attended by 81 believers and lasts 22 days. [BKG43–4, 46; DB292–3; GPB312]
- Each day Bahá'u'lláh reveals a Tablet, and on each believer He confers a new name. Each day an Islamic law is abrogated. Henceforth, when the Báb was addressing the believers, He used the new name that Bahá'u'lláh had bestowed upon them. [DB293; GPB32]
- See BKG44–5, DB293 and MF201 for the story of the central event, Táhirih's confrontation with Quddús and removal of her veil.
- Also see B167–9; BBD31–2; BBRSM46; BKG43–7; DB292–8; RB2:353.
|Badasht; Tabriz; Shahrud; Chihriq; Iran; Persia
||Conference at Badasht; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Quddus; Tahirih; Bab, Life of; Bayan; - Basic timeline
||After three months in Chihríq, the Báb is taken under escort to Tabríz for trial. [B137; BW18:380; TN14]
- En route He stops in Urúmíyyih where the governor tests the Báb by offering Him an unruly horse to ride. The local people take away His bath water. [B138; BBR74; DB309–11]
- A sketch of the Báb is made there and later two copies of the portrait are made in water colour. The sketch and one of the water colours are now in the International Archives. [B138–9, Juhúrú'l-Haqq by Asadu'lláh Fádil-i-Mázindarání p.48 quoted in World Order Winter 1974-95 p41]
- See Trial of the Báb: Shi'ite Orthodoxy Confronts its Mirror Image by Denis MacEoin.
|Chihriq; Tabriz; Urumiyyih; Iran; Persia
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Trial of; Portraits; Bab, Portrait of; Horses
|1848. 21 Jul
||Mullá Husayn and his 202 companions leave Mashhad for Mázindarán under the Black Standard. They will arrive in September. [BBRSM26, 216]
||Mashhad; Mázindarán; Iran; Persia
|1848. last week
|The Báb arrives in Tabríz and is brought before a panel of which the 17-year-old Crown Prince Násiri'd-Dín Mírzá is the president. The Báb publicly makes His claim that He is the Qá'im. This claim has also been announced to those gathered at Badasht. [B140–7; BBR157; BBRSM23, 216; BW18:380; DB314–20; GPB21–2; TN14]
- This constitutes the formal declaration of His mission. [GPB22]
- The purpose of the public forum is to force the Báb to recant His views; instead He takes control of the hearing and embarrasses the clergy. After considerable argument and discussion, they decide He is devoid of reason. [GPB22]
- The Báb is bastinadoed. [B145; BBD44; DB320; GPB22; TN14–15] This is the first formal punishment He receives. [BBRSM20]
- He is first attended by an Irish physician, Dr William Cormick, to ascertain His sanity and later to treat Him for a blow to the face that occurred during the bastinado. Cormick is the only Westerner to meet and converse with Him. [B145; BBR74–5, 497–8 DBXXXIL–XXXIII]
- The clergy issue a fatwa or legal pronouncement against the Báb condemning Him to death for heresy, but to no purpose as the civil authorities are unwilling to take action against Him. [BBRSM19–20]
- For an account of the life of Dr. William Cormick see Connections by Brendan McNamara.
|Tabriz; Badasht; Iran; Persia
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Trial of; Nasirid-Din Shah; Qaim; Bastinado; William Cormick; Fatwa
||Le Journal de Constantinople 1848-1851 (first entry dated June 21 1848)|
|1848. Jul - Sep
||Mullá Husayn and his companions, marching to Mázindarán, are joined by Bábís who had been at Badasht as well as newly-converted Bábís. [B171–2]
- Their numbers swell into hundreds, possibly 300 and beyond. [B172; BKG50]
- The Black Standard is raised on the plain of Khurásán. [B171, 176–7; BBD46; BBRSM52; MH175]
- The Black Standard will fly for some 11 months. [B176–7; DB351]
- See DB326 and MH177–83 for details of the journey.
- See MH182 for Mullá Husayn's prophecy of the death of Muhammad Sháh.
|Mazindaran; Badasht; Khurasan; Iran; Persia
||Mulla Husayn; Babis; Black Standard; Prophecies; death; Muhammad Shah
|1848. 10 Oct
||Mullá Husayn and his company arrive near Bárfurúsh. The Sa`ídu'l-`Ulamá, threatened by their presence, has stirred up the townspeople, who go out to meet them. Some three or four miles from the city they clash and seven of Mullá Husayn's companions are killed. [B172; BW18:381; DB329–31; MH192–3]
MH188 says that the journey from Mashhad had taken 83 days.
- In the ensuing battle, the townspeople are worsted. They beg for peace and a truce is agreed. [B172; DB336; MH197]
- It was here that Mullá Husayn cut a man, a musket and a tree with one blow from his sword. [B172; DB 330–1; MH193]
- Mullá Husayn and his companions take shelter in a caravanserai. Three young men who mount the roof to raise the call to prayer are each met with a bullet and killed. Mullá Husayn gives the command to attack the townspeople, who are again routed. [BW18:381; DB337–8; MH201–5]
- Mullá Husayn and his companions are offered safe passage by the town's leaders if they will leave Bárfurúsh. They agree but are attacked by their escort, Khusraw-i-Qádí-Kalá'í and his hundred men. [B172; DB338–42; MH206–9]
|Barfurush; Iran; Persia
||Mulla Husayn; Saidul-Ulama
|1848. 12 Oct
||The band of 72 Bábís take refuge in the shrine of Shaykh Tabarsí which is located about 14 miles southeast of Bárfurúsh and prepare it for siege. [B173; BBRSM26; BW18:381; DB344–5]
||Bárfurúsh; Iran; Persia
||Bábís; Bábí; shrine; Shaykh Tabarsí
|1848. Oct - May 1849
||The siege of the Shrine of Shaykh Tabarsí.
- See BBD217, BW18:381, DB345–413 and MH221–85 for chronicle of events.
- The episode lasts seven months. [BBRSM26; BW18:381]
- See BBRSM26 for the Bábís' intentions.
- See DB343–5 for pictures and DB348, MH217–18 for sketches.
- See MH212 for a diagram of the fortifications.
- Bahá'u'lláh visits the fortress and approves the fortifications. [BKG51, DB347–9; MH227]
- He advises Mullá Husayn to seek the release of Quddús. Mullá Husayn sets out immediately and secures the release of Quddús, who has been in detention for 95 days. [B173; BKG51; DB349–50; MH227]
- Quddús arrives towards the end of the year. Some sources say October 20. [B173]
- See DB352–4 for the entry of Quddús into Shaykh Tabarsí. His arrival brings the number of Bábís in the shrine to 313. [DB354]
- Note: BBRSM26 and MH233–4 say that the number of defendants rose to 500–600 individuals.
- 37 per cent of the identified participants were of the `ulamá class. [BBRSM50]
- The siege begins with the arrival of `Abdu'lláh Khán's forces on 19 December.
- it is said that 2000 soldiers were involved in the siege.
||Shaykh Tabarsi; Bahaullah, Life of; fortress; Mulla Husayn; Quddus
||Le Journal de Constantinople 1848-1851 (second entry dated March 24 1849 and third dated March 29 1849)|
|1849. early Jan
||Arrival of Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá and 3,000 royal troops in the vicinity of the shrine of Shaykh Tabarsí. [B173–4; BW18:381; DB363]
- He sets up camp and his headquarters in the village of Vás-Kas. [DB363]
|Vas-Kas; Persia; Iran
||Mihdi-Quli Mirza; Armies; Shaykh Tabarsi
|1849. 11 Jan
||Quddús and Mullá Husayn lead a night attack on the encamped army. Two hundred and two Bábís disperse the camp. [BW18:381; BD365; MH254]
DB 368 says this occurred on 21 December 1848.
||Quddus; Mulla Husayn; Armies; Shaykh Tabarsi; Swords
|1849. 27 Jan
||The arrival of reinforcements for the besiegers under the leadership of ‘Abbás-Qulí Khán-i-Láríjání. [BW18:381; DB378–9; MH263]
- This is the third army to be mustered.
- The water supply is again cut off and Mullá Husayn orders that a well be dug and a bath constructed. [DB379; MH263]
||Abbas-Quli Khan-i-Larijani; Armies; Mulla Husayn; Shaykh Tabarsi
|1849. 1 Feb
||The well is completed. Mullá Husayn performs his ablutions and puts on clean clothes and the turban of the Báb. [DB379; MH264–6]
||Mulla Husayn; Turbans; Relics; Shaykh Tabarsi
|1849. 2 Feb
||Soon after midnight, Mullá Husayn leads a charge of 313 men that again routs the king's army. He is struck in the chest by a bullet and dies. His body is carried back to the fort and buried. Ninety other Bábís are also wounded, about 40 of whom die. [B174; BW18:381; DB379–82; MH266–70]
- Mullá Husayn is 36 years old at the time of his death. [DB383; MH272]
- See DB382–3 for an account of his life.
- See DB415–16 for an account of the heroics of Mullá Husayn.
- See DB381–2 and MH265–70 for an account of the death and burial of Mullá Husayn.
- See SDH13–14 for an account of his death by Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá.
- Seventy–two of the original 313 inhabitants of the fort had been martyred by this time. [DB382]
- It takes the army 45 days to reassemble its forces. [DB384; MH277]
||Mulla Husayn; Mihdi-Quli Mirza; Martyrs; Shaykh Tabarsi
|1849. c. 11 Mar
||On learning through a traitor of the death of Mullá Husayn, ‘Abbás-Qulí Khán launches a fresh attack on the fort. [DB384–6]
- DB386 says this was 10 days before Naw-Rúz.
- Nineteen Bábís led by Mírzá Muhammad-Báqir overcome the attackers. [DB386–8]
||Abbas-Quli Khan-i-Larijani; Armies; Mulla Husayn; Shaykh Tabarsi
|1849. 27 Mar
||Renewed forces under Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá encamp in the neighbourhood of the fort, build fortifications and begin to bombard the shrine. [BW18:381; DB390–3]
- DB391 says this was the ninth day after Naw-Rúz.
||Mihdi-Quli Mirza; Shaykh Tabarsi
|1849. c. end Mar
||The army continues to fire on the shrine for a few days. Mírzá Muhammad-Báqir and 18 others attack the new fortifications and destroy some of them. [DB393–4]
||Shaykh Tabarsi; Armies; Mirza Muhammad-Baqir
|1849. early Apr
||Sulaymán Khán-i-Afshar arrives with more troops. [BW18:381]
||Sulayman Khan-i-Afshar; Shaykh Tabarsi
|1849. c. Jun - Jul
||The Báb, in prison in the castle of Chihríq, learns of the massacre at Shaykh Tabarsí and the martyrdom of Quddús. He is so overcome with grief that He is unable to write or dictate for a period of six months. [DB411, 430]
||Chihriq; Iran; Persia
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Prison; Shaykh Tabarsi; Martyrs; Quddus; Tablets of Visitation
|1850. 15 Jan
||Mullá Ádí-Guzal arrives in Mázindarán and carries out the Báb's request. [DB432]
||Mázindarán; Iran; Persia
||Mullá Ádí-Guzal; Báb
|1850. 14 Feb
||Fourteen Bábís are arrested as a result of the actions of an informer. [BBRSM28; BW18:381]
||Bábí; informer; arrest
|1850. 13 May-
2 Jan 1851 c.
|Zanján upheaval. A quarrel among children escalates into opposition and hostility towards Hujjat. [B185; DB540–1]
- Hujjat had converted a sizeable proportion of the town. Tension mounted between the Bábís and the ‘ulamá. [BBR114]
- See BW18:381 for a chronicle of events.
- B185–8, 209–13; BBD111, 245; BBR114–26; BBRSM28, 216; DB527–81; GPB44–5; TN245.
|Zanjan; Iran; Persia
||Hujjat; Zanjan upheaval; Opposition; Ulama; Iran
||Newspaper coverage of the Zanjan Upheaval|
|1850. 16 May
||Martyrdom of Shaykh Muhammad-i-Túb-Chí in Zanján, the first of the martyrs. [BBR115; DB542–3]
||Zanján; Iran; Persia
||Martyrdom; Shaykh Muhammad-i-Tub-Chi
|1850. 21 Jun
||End of the first Nayríz upheaval. [BBRXXIX, 112]
- Vahíd is forced to write to his companions in the fortress to assure them that a settlement has been reached. The Bábís leave the fort, are set upon and killed. [B181; BW18;381]
|Nayríz; Iran; Persia
|1850. 24 Jun
||The severed heads of 13 Bábís arrive in Shíráz from Nayríz. They are raised on lances and paraded through the town. [B182; BW18:381]
||Shíráz; Nayríz; Iran; Persia
||severed head; Bábí
|1850. 11 Jul
||The bodies are removed from the moat and taken to a silk factory. [B159–60; DB519]
- See B159–60, DB518–22 and TN27–8, The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1952 Information Statistical & Comparative p20-22 for the story of the recovery of the bodies and eventual arrival in Haifa.
- The soldiers report that the bodies have been eaten by dogs. [B160; DB519]
||silk; factory; bodies
||The Faith of the Báb has spread to two countries at this point, Iran and Iraq. [MBW147]
- B148–60, 202–3; BBD147; BBR77–82; DB510–17; GPB49–55; TN26–7.
|Iran; Persia; Iraq
||Early mention of Bábís in western newspapers summer 1850
|1850. 25 Aug
||The arrival of ‘Azíz Khán-i-Mukrí, commander-in-chief of Iran's army, in Zanján where the fighting begun in May continues. He takes charge of the operation. [BBR119; BW18:382; DB556]
- For the story of Ashraf and his mother see DB562–3.
|Zanjan; Iran; Persia
||Aziz Khan-i-Mukri; Commander-in-chief; Zanjan upheaval; Ashraf; Mothers
||Muhammad Khán, the commander of the government forces at Zanján, tries to deceive Hujjat into surrender by drawing up a peace proposal. Hujjat, recalling Tabarsí and Nayríz, responds by sending children and old men to Muhammad Khán, who has them thrown into a dungeon. This signals the beginning of the final month-long siege at Zanján. [B186–7; DB564–8]
||Zanján; Tabarsí; Nayríz; Iran; Persia
||Muhammad Khan; Hujjat
|1850. 29 Dec
||Hujjat dies of his wounds. [B187; BRR122; BW18:382]
- DB573 says this was on 8 January 1851.
|Zanján; Iran; Persia
|1851 2 Jan c.
||End of the Zanján upheaval. [BW18:382]
- Hujjat, wounded in the right arm by a bullet 19 days previously, succumbed to his wounds. With the death of Hujjat the Bábí resistance weakens. A general assault by the royal forces ends the siege. [B187; BBR122; BW18:382; DB573–4]
- See B187 and DB574–7 for the fate of the survivors.
- See B187 and DB577–9 for the fate of Hujjat's body.
- About 1,800 Bábís were killed during the upheaval. [DB580, 598]
|Zanján; Iran; Persia
||death; Hujjat; Babi
|1851. 2 Mar
||Four Bábís brought from Zanján are execute in Tihrán. [BW18:382]
||Tihrán; Tehran; Zanján; Iran; Persia
|1851. 30 Apr
||Mullá Hasan-i-Fadíl is executed in Yazd when he refuses to recant. [BW18:382]
||Yazd; Iran; Persia
||Mullá Hasan-i-Fadíl; executed
|1851. 23 Jul
||Áqá Muhammad-Sádiq-i-Yúzdárání is beaten to death in Yazd after refusing to recant. [BW18:382]
||Yazd; Iran; Persia
||Áqá Muhammad-Sádiq-i-Yúzdárání; death
||Bahá'u'lláh spends most of August in Kirmánsháh. [BKG67; DB591]
||Kirmanshah; Iran; Persia
||Bahaullah, Life of
|1852 Apr - May c.
||Bahá'u'lláh returns to Iran from Karbalá. [DB598]
- He is the guest of the Grand Vizier for one month. [BKG74; DB598–9]
|Karbala; Iraq; Iran; Persia
||Bahaullah, Life of; Grand Viziers
||Bahá'u'lláh stays at the summer residence of Ja‘far-Qulí Khán, the brother of the Grand Vizier, in Afchih, Lavásán, near Tihrán. [BKG77; DB599]
||Afchih; Lavasan; Tihran; Tehran; Iran; Persia
||Bahaullah, Life of; Jafar-Quli Khan; Grand Viziers
||In Mílán, Iran, 15 Bábís are arrested and imprisoned. [BW18:382]
Many Bábís are tortured and killed in the weeks following the attempt on the life of the Sháh. [BKG84]
- See BBR171 for the story of Mahmud Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, and his role in the arrest and execution of the Bábís.
- See BKG84–93 for a description of the tortures and executions of Bábís. Thirty–eight Bábís are martyred.
- See BKG86–7 and DB616–21 for the torture and martyrdom of Sulaymán Khán. Holes are gouged in his body and nine lighted candles are inserted. He joyfully dances to the place of his execution. His body is hacked in two, each half is then suspended on either side of the gate.
- The persecutions are so severe that the community is nearly annihilated. The Bábí remnant virtually disappears from view until the 1870s. [BBRSM:30; EB269]
|Mílán; Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia
||Bábí; arrest; torture; prison; Sháh; Mahmud Khán; Kalántar; martyr; Sulaymán Khán
|1853. 12 Jan
||Bahá'u'lláh and His family depart for Baghdád after a one month respite in the home of his half-brother Mírzá Ridá-Qulí. During the three-month journey Bahá'u'lláh is accompanied by His wife Navváb, (Who was six weeks from giving birth upon departure.) His eldest son ‘Abdu'l-Bahá (9), Bahíyyih Khánum (7) and two of His brothers, Mírzá Músá and Mírzá Muhammad-Qulí. Mírzá Mihdí (2), was very delicate was left behind with the grandmother of Àsíyih Khánum. They are escorted by an officer of the Persian imperial bodyguard and an official representing the Russian legation. [BKG102–5; GPB108]
- CH44–5 says the family had ten days after Bahá'u'lláh's release to prepare for the journey to Iraq.
- ‘Never had the fortunes of the Faith proclaimed by the Báb sunk to a lower ebb'. [DB651]
- This exile compares to the migration of Muhammad, the exodus of Moses and the banishment of Abraham. [GPB107–8]
- See BKG104 and GPB108–9 for conditions on the journey.
- Bahá'u'lláh's black servant, Isfandíyár, who had managed to evade capture during this dark period, after he had paid all the debts to various merchants, went to Mazandaran where he was engaged by the Governor. Years later when his master made a pilgrimage to Iraq Isfandíyár met Bahá'u'lláh and stated his preference to return to His service. Bahá'u'lláh said that he owed his master a debt of gratitude and could not leave his employ without his permission. It was not granted and Isfandíyár returned to Mazandaran and stayed with the Governor until his passing. [SoW IX 28 April, 1918 p38-39]
- Also see
A Gift of Love Offered to the Greatest Holy Leaf (Gloria Faizi, 1982), by Hand of the Cause Abu'l-Qasim Faizi, which includes a brief summary of the character of Isfandiyar and his services to the Holy Family on pages 14-16.
|Íran; Persia; Baghdad; Iraq
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mirza Rida-Quli; Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Abdul-Baha, Life of; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Mirza Musa; Mirza Muhammad-Quli; Russia; Isfandiyar
|1853. 31 Oct
||Some 600 female and 80 to 180 male Bábís are taken prisoner at Nayríz and marched to Shíráz, along with the heads of' some 180 martyrs. This fulfils an Islamic prophecy concerning the appearance of the Qá'im indicating that the heads of the followers would be used as gifts. [BW18:382; KI245]
||Nayriz; Shiraz; Iran; Persia
||Babi; prisoner; martyr; Islam; Prophecies; Qaim
|1853. 24 Nov
||The prisoners from Nayríz and the heads of the martyrs arrive in Shíráz. More Bábís are executed and their heads sent to Tihrán. The heads are later buried at Ábádih. [BW18:382]
||Shíráz; Nayríz; Tihrán; Tehran; Ábádih; Iran; Persia
||Bahá'u'lláh reveals The Kitáb-i-Íqán, ‘a comprehensive exposition of the nature and purpose of religion'. [BBD134, 162; BKG159; BBD134; BBRSM64–5; GPB138–9; RB1:158]
- The Tablet is revealed in answer to four questions put to Bahá'u'lláh by Hájí Mírzá Siyyid Muhammad, a maternal uncle of the Báb. [BBD134, 162; BKG163–5; RB1:158]
- It is revealed in the course of two days and two nights. [BBD 134; BKG165; GPB238; RB1:158]
- The original manuscript, in the handwriting of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, is in the Bahá'í International Archives. [BKG165; RB1:159]
- It is probably the first of Bahá'u'lláh's writings to appear in print. [BKG165; EB121]
- For a discussion of the circumstances of its revelation, its content and major themes see RB1:153–97.
|Baghdad; Iraq; Tihran; Tehran; Iran; Persia
||Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Kitab-i-Iqan (Book of Certitude); Haji Mirza Siyyid Muhammad; - Basic timeline; Interfaith dialogue
|1863. 3 May
||Bahá'u'lláh leaves the Garden of Ridván.
- This initiates the holy day the Twelfth Day of Ridván, to be celebrated on 2 May. [BBD196]
- As He is about to leave He reveals a Tablet addressed to Áqá Mírzá Áqá in Shíráz. It brings relief and happiness to those who receive it. [EB222]
- His leaving is accompanied by symbolic signs of His station: He rides a horse rather than a donkey and wears a tall táj. [BBD221; BKG176]
- See BKG175–6, GPB155 and RB1:281–2 for descriptions of the scenes that accompanied His departure.
Bahá'u'lláh and His party arrive at Firayját, about three miles away on the banks of the Tigris. [BKG176]
- They remain here for seven days. [BKG176]
- See BKG for a description of activities during this period.
|Baghdad; Firayjat; Iraq; Shiraz; Iran; Persia
||Bahaullah, Life of; Ridvan Festival; Aqa Mirza Aqay-i-Afnan (Nurud-Din); Afnan; Horses; Donkeys; Taj; Tigris; Rivers; Ridvan garden; Najibiyyih Garden
||Birth of Mírzá Hádí Shírází, the father of Shoghi Effendi, in Shíráz.
||Shíráz; Iran; Persia
||Mirza Hadi Shirazi; father; Shoghi Effendi
from the main catalogue
- Ahmad, The Flame of Fire, by Darius Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1992). History of the recipient of the Tablet of Ahmad, extracted from an article by Hand of the Case Jinab-i-Abu'l-Qasim-i-Faizi in Baha'i News, 1967. [about]
- Báb's Bayan, The: An Analytical Survey, by Muhammad Afnan, in World Order, 31:4 (2000). Analysis of the Bayan and its contents: fundamental beliefs and worldview, moral principles, laws, administration of society, and future expectations. [about]
- Bahá'í Glossary: Persian and Arabic words appearing in the Bahá'í Writings, by Marzieh Gail (1957). The first published glossary of Baha'i terms and names. [about]
- Bahá'í Shrines, by John Walbridge, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). [about]
- Bahá'í World, The: Volume 18 (1979-1983), in Bahá'í World (1986). [about]
- Bayán, by Denis MacEoin, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
- Bayan (Bayán-i-Farsí and Bayán-i-'Arabí), The: Letters and Letters of the Living, by Universal House of Justice and Iraj Ayman (1994). [about]
- Bayan (Bayán-i-Farsí and Bayán-i-'Arabí), The: Wilmette Institute faculty notes, by Brent Poirier and Christopher Buck (1997). [about]
- Bayán (Bayán-i-Farsí): Questions on, by Denis MacEoin (1998). Answers to a number of questions relating to the Bab and the Bayan, inspired by MacEoin's translation of the Persian Bayan. [about]
- Diacritics and transliteration, by Jonah Winters (2002). [about]
- Diacritics; meaning of "Self-subsisting", by Universal House of Justice (1993). Two disparate topics: the translation style adopted by the Guardian and other considerations related to literary style and the sacred writings, and the meaning of the term "self-subsisting." [about]
- Dictionaries: English-Persian (1841). Links to Google Books and Archive.org for online versions of English-Persian dictionaries. [about]
- Flame of Fire, A, by Abu'l-Qasim Faizi, in Conqueror of Hearts (1967). Biography of the recipient of the Persian Lawh-i-Ahmad. [about]
- Glossary of Arabic and Persian Transliteration (2016). Comprehensive list of names and terms encountered in Baha'i history, with accents and underlines, and definitions. [about]
- Guide to Pronunciation, A, by Darius Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1992). Pronunciation of Persian and Arabic words, clearly explained and enunciated for a non–Persian-speaking audience. [about]
- Guide to Transliteration and Pronunciation of the Persian Alphabet: together with the Numerical Value of the letters (Abjad Reckoning), by Marzieh Gail, in Bahá'í Glossary (1957). Persian letter, key, transliteration, pronunciation, and Abjad value. [about]
- Illustrated description of a design in the Persian-Indian style of architecture for the first Mashrak-el-Azkar (Bahai temple) to be erected in America, by Charles Mason Remey (1920). Expanded version of a portion of Remey's earlier Mashrak-el-Azkar [Mashriqu'l-Adhkár]: Descriptive of the Bahai temple, with photographs of Temple models. [about]
- Index to Ad'iyyih-i-Hadrat-i-Mahbúb (1994). Index of the contents of an Arabic and Persian Baha'i collection of prayers and scripture. [about]
- Invisible Occidentalism: Eighteenth-Century Indo-Persian Constructions of the West, by Juan Cole, in Iranian Studies, 25:3-4 (1992). Iranian attitudes toward Western culture, science, and philosophers in the colonial era. (No mention of Babis or Baha'is.) [about]
- Iranian Expatriates, Letter to, following 1979 Iranian Revolution, by Universal House of Justice, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Open letter of support and guidance to Iranians who had recently fled the Iranian Revolution. [about]
- Iranian Refugees in America: A Cross-Cultural Perspective, by Frank Lewis and Puran Stevens (1986). Introduction to Persian culture, history, and customs, designed as an aid in cultural understanding for Americans interacting with Iranian emigrants. [about]
- Laws of the Bayán reflected in The Kitáb-i-Aqdas (2008). List of 32 laws from the Báb's Persian Bayán or the Arabic Bayán which also appear in Bahá'u'lláh's book of laws. [about]
- Letters of the Quranic Dispensation and Letters of the Living (huruf), by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, 4 (2003). Some meanings of the term huruf ("letters") in Baha'i texts, including Letters of the Bayan, Letters of the Living, and Letters of the Quranic Dispensation. [about]
- Literary History of Persia: Volumes 1-4, by E. G. Browne (1902). The essential text for students of Iranian literature through the ages. [about]
- Literary History of Persia, Volume 4: Modern Times (1500-1924), by E. G. Browne (1928). Volume 4 contains the first extensive catalogue of Babi and Baha'i literature published in English. To this day, the four-volume set is an essential text for students of Iranian literature. [about]
- Literature of Persia, The: A Lecture delivered to the Persia Society, by E. G. Browne (1912). A selection of Persian poetry, featuring poems by Nabil, Tahirih, and Babi martyrs. [about]
- Mystic's Flight, The: The Parable of Majnún and Laylí, by Jack McLean (2001). This classic love tale of the Middle East, quoted by Baha'u'llah in the Seven Valleys, is prized by Sufi mystics as a spiritual allegory of the soul's search for union with God. A literary-critical analysis of the text yields theological clues. [about]
- New World Transliterator: Macintosh Font for Transliteration of Persian and Arabic, by Christopher Buck (1993). Transliteration software (TrueType font for Mac). [about]
- Oriental Words in Bahá'í Literature, Transliteration, and Pronunciation, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Guide to spelling and pronunciation of Arabic and Persian words encountered in Baha'i history and writings. [about]
- Persian and Arabic names, by Hasan M. Balyuzi and Marzieh Gail, in The Báb (1973). Explanations of the elaborate system of Persian names and titles used in the nineteenth century. [about]
- Persian Bahá'ís in Australia, by Graham Hassall, in Religion and Ethnic Identity, An Australian Study, Abe Ata, ed. (1989). Overview of the history and modern activities (ca. 1989) of the Persian Baha'i community in Australia. [about]
- Persian Bayan, A Summary, by Báb, The and E. G. Browne, in Selections from the Writings of E. G. Browne on the Babi and Bahá'í Religions (1987). Overview and summary of The Bab's Persian Bayán, translated by Browne, edited by Momen. [about]
- Persian Bayan, The: Partial translation, by Báb, The. A partial provisional translation of the Persian Bayan. [about]
- Persian Bayan, The: From A.L.M. Nicolas' French translation, by Báb, The (2001). Four short chapters from The Báb's book of laws. [about]
- Persian Bayán: Summary and Thematic Analysis, by Peter Terry (2015). A detailed overview of this lengthy text of The Báb, which outlines elements of Bábí law, discussion of religious concepts, and the glorification of "He whom God shall make manifest." [about]
- Persian, Arabic, and Provisional Translations, by Iraj Ayman and Robert Stockman (1999). Words relating to the titles of Baha'i Writings, "Pure" Persian and "Pure" Arabic, and information on provisional translations. [about]
- Persian-speaking Believers in Anglophone Communities, by Universal House of Justice, in Bahá'í Canada, 8:6 (1996). Some Persian expatriates feel deprived of participation in Baha'i gatherings because of an inability to understand English. [about]
- Pioneering, Language, Arts, Example of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Pioneering; Serving parents; Serving where need is; Gardens; International Auxiliary Language; Arabic pronunciation; study of Persian; Some references in Writings of Baha'u'llah; Folk art; External affairs; Daily living; Abdu'l-Baha as divine exemplar. [about]
- Readings from the Writings of The Báb, by Muhammad Afnan (2012). Link to audio recordings of a descendant of the Báb reading from two of his most important works, Qayyúm al-Asmá' "Surah to the Kings" and the Bayán-i-farsí (Persian Bayán). [about]
- Report of the Transliteration Committee, by G. T. Plunkett, in The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (1895). The 10th Orientalist Congress in Geneva, 1894, produced the system of transliteration later approved by Shoghi Effendi.
- Same Yet Different, The: Bahá'í Perspectives on Achieving Unity out of Difference, by Deborah Clark Vance (2002). [about]
- Same Yet Different, The: Creating Unity Among the Diverse Members of the Bahá'í Faith, by Deborah Clark Vance, in Journal of Intergroup Relations (a publication of the National Association of Human Rights Workers), Volume 29:4 (2002). [about]
- Scripture as Literature: Sifting through the layers of the text, by Frank Lewis, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 7 (1997). Literary and religious antecedents to some of the styles and genres of Baha'i scripture. [about]
- Seeds of Revelation and the Mystic Bond between The Báb and Bahá'u'lláh: An Exposition on Excerpts from the Persian Bayán, by James B. Thomas, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). [about]
- Selections from the Writings of the Báb, by Báb, The (1982). [about]
- Stylistic Analysis of the Báb's Writings, A: Abridged Translation of Vahid Behmardi's Muqaddamih-yi dar bárih-yi sabk va siyáq-i áthár-i mubárakih-yi ḥaḍrat-i rabb a`lá, by Vahid Behmardi and William F. McCants, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). English translation by McCants of Behmardi's Persian article "Stylistic Analysis of the Báb’s Writings". [about]
- Summon Up Remembrance, by Marzieh Gail (1987). Memoir left by Ali-Kuli Khan, one of the first translators of Baha'i Writings; writings of his wife Florence; other family papers and memories. [about]
- Tablet of the Centennial, by Shoghi Effendi (1998). An epistle to the Persian-speaking Baha'is. Includes English translation of Muhammad Varqa's "Le Style persan du Gardien." [about]
- Transliteration, by Moojan Momen (1991). [about]
- Transmission of Cultural Values in Persian Bahá'í Families, The, by Stephen Licata (1997). Includes a survey on cultural values in Persian Bahá’í families. [about]
- Windows to the Past, by Darius Shahrokh (1992). Deepening talks on 25 topics about Baha'i history and teachings, downloadable in MP3 audio format and PDF transcripts. [about]
- Wrathful God of Martin Luther and Baha'u'llah: Tablet of Ahmad-i-Farsi and Martin Luther (A comparison), by Roberta Law (1998). Comparison of the theologies of Baha'u'llah's Tablet of Ahmad (Persian) and early Protestantism. [about]