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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1783. c. 1783 Birth of Mírzá `Abbás-i-Irivání, later Prime Minister Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, in Máh-Kú. Mah-Ku; Iran Mirza `Abbas-i-Irivani; Prime Minister of Persia; Prime Minister of Iran; Haji Mirza Áqasi
1806. c. 1806 Birth of Mírzá Muhammad Taqí Khán-i-Farahání, later Prime Minister of Persia, in Hizávih. Hizávih; Iran Mirza Muhammad Taqi Khan-i-Farahani; Prime Minister of Persia; Prime Minister of Iran
1828 Defeat of the Persians at the hands of the Russians. [BBRSM55] Persia; Iran Defeat; Persians; Russians
1830. c. 1830 Marriage of Táhirih to her cousin Mullá Muhammad, the son of Mullá Taqí. Iran; Persia Marriage; Tahirih; Mulla Muhammad; Mulla Taqi
1835 Nov c. Hájí Mírzá Áqásí becomes Prime Minister of Persia. Iran Haji Mirza Áqasi; Prime Minister of Persia; Prime Minister of Iran
1839 Defeat of Persia at the hands of the British. [BBRSM55] Persia; Iran British defeat Persia; war; Britain
1842 Birth of Hájí Ákhúnd (Mullá `Alí-Akbar Shahmírzádí), who was named a Hand of the Cause by Bahá'u'lláh. Iran; Persia Haji Ákhund; Mulla `Ali-Akbar Shahmirzadi; Hand of the Cause
1844. 22 Jan Mullá Husayn returns to Karbalá after a journey of two years in Persia. He has been on a mission in Isfahán and Mashhad where he has successfully defended the views of his master, Siyyid Kázim, before the leading clerics of those cities. [MH49]
  • After a period of mourning and 40 days of prayer and fasting in the vicinity of the shrine in Najaf he sets out for Persia in the company of his brother and his nephew following the last wishes of Siyyid Kázim that his followers quit Karbalá and search for the Promised One. The party go to Búshihr and then on to Shíráz. [MH50–55, HotD28]
  • See SI dustjacket for a photo of the Shrine of Imam 'Ali.
Karbalá; Isfahán; Mashhad; Najaf; Búshihr; Shíráz; Iraq; Iran; Persia Mulla Husayn; Siyyid Kazim; mourning; fasting
1844 Jul - Aug Forty days after the Declaration of the Báb, the second Letter of the Living, Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí, has a vision that leads him to Mullá Husayn and he accepts the Báb. During this period of waiting for the second person to recognize the Báb, He called Mulla Husayn to His house several times. He always comes at night and stays until dawn. [HotD41]. Sixteen others recognize Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad as the Promised One. The 18 are later designated `Letters of the Living'. [BBD138, B21–7; DB63–71, 80–2; MH73–81, MH121, SBBH1:16–17, GPB7-8]
  • See RB2:145–6 for the fate of the Letters of the Living.
  • See B26–7, BBD138, DB80–1, MH81 for a list of the Letters of the Living.
  • See BBRSM24–5 for more on the Letters of the Living.
  • See BBRSM24–5 for a discussion of the special places occupied by Quddús, Mullá Husayn and Táhirih.
Persia; Iran Declaration; Bab; Mulla `Aliy-i-Bastami; Mulla Husayn; Siyyid `Ali-Muhammad; Promised One; Letters of the Living; Quddus; Tahirih
1844 Jul - Aug The intention of the Báb is to introduce the new Revelation slowly so as not to cause estrangement. He instructe them to spread out and heach His Faith and to this end He assigned each one a special task, most often to their own native provinces. [BBRSM14–16, 36; SWB119, BBR2p36, DB92–4; MH82–6; SBBH1:19]
  • To Mullá Husayn He had given the task of delivering a Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh in Tihrán and going to the court of the Sháh to apprise him of the Báb's cause. Mullá Husayn is not able to gain access to the Sháh. [B48–57; BBRSM15 BKG32–3; CH22–3; DB85-87, 97; MH90–2, 102]
  • Mullá Husayn carries to Tihrán a Tablet revealed by the Báb for Muhammad Sháh. This is the first of a number of unsuccessful attempts to enlist his aid. [BBRSM20–1; MH102; SWB13]
  • Note: MH118-119 and DB127-128 indicate that Mullá Husayn had been in Tehran "between the months of Jámádí and Rajab". The first day of Jámádí, 1260 corresponds to 18 June, and the last day of Rajab to 15 August, 1844.
  • See RB2:303, `The Báb … sent Tablets to only two monarchs of His day — Muhammad Sháh of Persia and Sultán `Abdu'l-Majíd of Turkey.'
  • From Shiraz he journeys north to Isfahán where Mullá Ja`far, the sifter of wheat, is the first to embrace the Cause of the Báb in that city. Mullá Husayn then travels to Káshán, about 130 miles from Isfahán. He then goes to Qum, another 100 miles from Káshán. After Qum he goes to Tihrán. [MH98–101, DB99]
  • See B53–6; DB104–7, MH104–110 for the delivery of the Báb's Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh. Mullá Husayn does not meet Bahá'u'lláh on this occasion.
  • On receiving the Tablet of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh accepts His Cause. He immediately journeys to Mázindarán, His native province, to promote the Cause of the Báb. He returns after the death of the Shah in 1948 [BKG39–40; BW8:782; DB109; TN35, SoB6, BPP45, 48, SoG4]
  • Mullá Husayn leaves for Khurásán, as he had been instructed, winning supporters for the Báb's Cause while there he writes to the Báb regarding these new believers and Bahá'u'lláh's immediate response to the Báb's Revelation. [B56, DB128–9, MH118]
  • See MH121–2 for a discussion of the speed of Mullá Husayn's journey before the letter was dispatched to the Báb. It assumes that Mullá Husayn departed after The Báb met with all the Letters of the Living (date not before 2 July, 1844.) In fact both Mullá Husayn and Mullá 'Alíy-Bastámí had been dispatched before this meeting. [DB85-86, 92, HotD46] .
Iran; Persia; Turkey; Kashan; Isfahan; Tihran; Tehran; Mazindaran; Khurasan; Qum Bab, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Letters of the Living; Mulla Husayn; Bahaullah, Life of; Tablet to Baha'u'llah; Shah; Mulla Ja`far; sifter of wheat; Muhammad Shah; Sultan Abdu'l-Majid
1845. c. 1845 Birth of Mírzá `Alí-Muhammad-i-Khurásání, later known as Ibn-i-Asdaq, Hand of the Cause. Persia; Iran Mirza `Ali-Muhammad-i-Khurasani; Ibn-i-Asdaq; Hand of the Cause of God
1845. 30 Jun The Báb meets the soldiers of the governor of Fárs who had been sent to arrest Him at Dálakí, some 40 miles northeast of the city. He is escorted to Shíráz. [B84, 105; BBR170; BBRSM216; DB148–9; GPB11; TN6, SBBH1pxxv111]
  • DB150 says the Báb travelled `free and unfettered', `before His escort'.
  • BBRSM16 implies the Báb returned to Shíráz by Himself in July and that He was placed under house arrest on arrival.
Dálakí; Fars; Shíráz; Iran; Persia Bab; governor; arrest
1846 Summer The Báb bequeaths all His possessions to His mother and His wife and reveals a special prayer for His wife to help her in times of sorrow He tells his wife of His impending martyrdom. He moves to the house of His uncle Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Alí. He tells the Bábís in Shíráz to go to Isfahán. [GPB14; KB21–2; TB103–5, LTDT13] Shíráz; Isfahán; Iran; Persia Bab; mother; wife; prayer; martyrdom; uncle; Haji Mirza Siyyid `Ali; Babi
1846. 23 Sep The governor, Husayn Khán, threatened by the Báb's rising popularity, orders His arrest. The chief constable, `Abdu'l-Hamíd Khán, takes the Báb into custody and escorts Him to the governor's home but finds it abandoned. He takes the Báb to his own home and learns that a cholera epidemic has swept the city and that his sons have been stricken. At the chief constable's insistence the Báb cures the boys by requesting they drink some of the water with which He has washed His own face. `Abdu'l-Hamíd resigns his post and begs the governor to release the Báb. He agrees on condition the Báb leaves Shíráz. The incident proves to be Husayn Khán's undoing: the Sháh dismisses him from office shortly after. [B104–5; BBRSM55; DB194–7; GPB13; TN9]
  • See BBR170–1 and DB197 for the fate of Husayn Khán.
  • DB196–7 says `Abdu'l-Hamíd Khán had only one ill son.
Shiraz; Iran; Persia Husayn Khan; Governors; Bab, Life of; Abdul-Hamid Khan; Epidemics; Muhammad Shah; Shahs
1846 23 – 24 Sep The Báb departs for Isfahán after a sojourn in Shíráz of less than 15 months. [B105–6; BBRSM216; BW18:380; TN9, SBBR1pxxviii]
  • TN9 says that the Báb left Shíráz `the morning after' the night He saved the children from cholera.
  • B105 says he left `in the last days of September'.
Shíráz; Isfahán; Iran; Persia Bab
1846 Sep - Oct On His approach to the city the Báb writes to Manúchihr Khán, the governor-general of Isfahán, and asks him for shelter. The governor requests that Siyyid Muhammad, the Imám-Jum`ih of Isfahán, accommodate Him. During His stay of 40 days the Báb impresses His host as well as the governor. [B109–10, 13; DB199–202, 208]
  • See B108–9 for information on Manúchihr Khán.
  • It is during His six-month stay in Isfahán that the Báb takes a second wife, Fátimih, the sister of a Bábí from that city. [RB1:249]
Isfahan; Iran; Persia Bab; Manuchihr Khan; governor-generals; Siyyid Muhammad; Imam-Jumih
1846 c. Nov Manúchihr Khán arranges a meeting between the Báb and the clerics to silence their opposition. After the encounter, about 70 of them meet and issue a death-warrant. [B112–13; DB205–9] Iran; Persia Manuchihr Khan; Bab; death-warrant
1847. 21 Mar En route to Tihrán the Báb spends three nights in Káshán in the home of Hájí Mírzá Jání, a noted resident of that city who had realized in a dream that the Báb would be his quest. [B118; DB217–22] Tihrán; Tehran; Káshán; Iran; Persia Báb; Hájí Mírzá Jání; dream
1847 Spring - Summer Táhirih's activities in Iraq so alarm some Bábís of Kázimayn that they agitate against her. Siyyid `Alí Bishr writes to the Báb in Máh-Kú on their behalf. The Báb replies praising Táhirih, causing the Kázimayn Bábís to withdraw from the Faith. [B 163]
  • Among those Táhirih meets in Baghdád is Hakím Masíh, a Jewish doctor who years later becomes the first Bahá'í of Jewish background. [B165]
  • Táhirih is sent back to Persia by Najíb Páshá. She is accompanied by a number of Bábís; they make a number of stops along the way, enrolling supporters for the Cause of the Báb. [B163–4; BBRSM216]
  • Ma'ani says Táhirih left Baghdád early in 1847.
  • In Kirand 1,200 people are reported to have volunteered to follow her. [B164 DB272; TN20]
  • B164 says the number is 12,000; DB272 says it was 1,200.
  • In Kirmánsháh she is respectfully received by the `ulamá. [B164; DB272]
  • Táhirih arrives in Hamadán. Her father has sent her brothers here to persuade her to return to her native city of Qazvín. She agrees on condition that she may remain in Hamadán long enough to tell people about the Báb. [B165; DB273]
  • MF180 says Táhirih remained in Hamadán for two months.
  • Ma'ani says Táhirih left Baghdád early in 1847.
  • In Kirand 1,200 people are reported to have volunteered to follow her. [B164 DB272; TN20]
Kazimayn; Baghdad; Iraq; Persia; Iran; Hamadan; Kirmanshah Tahirih; Siyyid Ali Bishr; Bab, Life of; Mah-Ku; Hakim Masih; Jews; doctor; Najib Pasha
1847. Apr The Báb receives a courteous message from the Sháh, who, on the advice of his prime minister, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, assigns Him to the fortress of Máh-Kú in the province of Ádharbáyján. The Báb is taken to Máh-Kú via Tabríz. [B121–2, 124; DB229–32; GPB16; TN11–12] Máh-Kú; Ádharbáyján; Tabríz; Iran; Persia Bab; Shah; prime minister; Haji Mirza Áqasi; fortress Mah-Ku
1847. 1 Apr The Báb receives a letter and gifts from Bahá'u'lláh in Tihrán delivered to His Hands by Mulla Muhammad-Mihdiy-i-Kandi. The letter cheers His heart, which has been despondent since His arrest and departure from Shíráz. [B120; DB227; GPB678] Tihrán; Tehran; Shíráz; Iran; Persia Bab; letter; gifts; Baha'u'llah
1847 c. 1 – 17 Apr One night the Báb disappears and is found the next morning on the road coming from the direction of Tihrán. A look of confidence has settled on Him and His words have a new power. [B120–1; DB228–9] Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia Bab; disappear
1847. c. 17 Apr The Báb sends a letter to the Sháh requesting an audience. [B121; DB229; TN11]

Some accounts maintain that the prime minister intervened in the correspondence between the Báb and the Sháh. En route to Tabríz the Báb writes to various people, including the Grand Vizier, the father and uncle of Táhirih, and Hájí Sulaymán Khán. Hujjat learns of this last letter and sends a message to the Bábís of Zanján to rescue the Báb. The Báb declines their assistance. [B124–5; DB235–6]

  • See B126 for an account of the Báb's demonstration to His guards that He could have escaped had He so wished.
Iran; Persia; Tabríz; Zanján; Bab; letter; Shah; prime minister; Bab; Shah; Grand Vizier; Tahirih; Haji Sulayman Khan; Hujjat
1847 c. May - Jun The Báb arrives in Tabríz, en route to Máh-Kú. He remains for 40 days and is well received by the general populace. He spends His time in seclusion, being allowed only two visitors. [B127–8; DB237–40; GPB18; TN12] Tabríz; Iran; Persia Bab; Mah-Ku
1847. Jul The Báb arrives at the prison fortress of Máh-Kú (the Open Mountain). [B128; BW18:380]
  • See B128, BBD142 and DB243–4 for descriptions of Máh-Kú, its environs, fortress and inhabitants.
Máh-Kú; Iran; Persia Bab; prison
1847 Jul to 1848 Apr The people of Máh-Kú show marked hostility to the Báb on His arrival. Later they are won over by His gentle manners and His love. They congregate at the foot of the mountain hoping to catch a glimpse of Him. [B129; DB244–5]

At the beginning of the Báb's incarceration the warden `Alí Khán keeps the Báb strictly confined and allows no visitors. He has a vision of the Báb engaged in prayer outside of the prison gates, knowing that the Báb is inside. He becomes humble and permits the Bábís to visit the Báb. [B129–31; DB245–8]

The winter the Báb spends in Máh-Kú is exceptionally cold. [DB252]

Many of the Báb's writings are revealed in this period. [GPB24–5]

  • It was probably at this time that He addressed all the divines in Persia and Najaf and Karbalá, detailing the errors committed by each one of them. [GPB24]
  • He revealed nine commentaries on the whole of the Qur'an, the fate of which is unknown. [GPB24]
  • He revealed the Persian Bayán, containing the laws and precepts of the new Revelation in some 8,000 verses. It is primarily a eulogy of the Promised One. [BBD44–5; BBRSM32; BW12:91 GPB24–5]
  • The Báb began the composition of the `smaller and less weighty' Arabic Bayán. [B132; BBD45; GPB25]
  • He stated in the Bayán that, to date, He had revealed some 500,000 verses, 100,000 of which had been circulated. [BBRSM32, GPB22]
  • In the Dalá'il-i-Sab'ih (Seven Proofs) the Báb assigned blame to the seven powerful sovereigns then ruling the world and censured the conduct of the Christian divines who, had they recognized Muhammad, would have been followed by the greater part of their co-religionists. [BBD63; BW12:96; GPB26]
  • The Báb wrote His `most detailed and illuminating' Tablet to Muhammad Sháh. [GPB26]
Mah-Ku; Iran; Persia; Najaf; Karbala; Iraq Bab, Life of; Ali Khan; Commentaries; Quran; Bayan-i-Farsi (Persian Bayan); Bayan-i-Arabi (Arabic Bayan); Bayan; Dalail-i-Sabih (Seven Proofs); Bab, Writings of; Tablet to Muhammad Shah; Muhammad Shah
1847. Aug Táhirih sends Mullá Ibráhím Mahallátí to present to the chief mujtahid of Hamadán her dissertation in defence of the Bábí Cause. Mahallátí is attacked and severely beaten. Hamadán; Iran Persia Tahirih; Mulla Ibrahim Mahallati; Babi
1847 c. Aug - Sep On her departure from Hamadán Táhirih asks most of the Arab Bábís travelling with her to return to Iraq. [B165; DB273]

Arrived in Qazvín, Táhirih refuses her estranged husband's attempts at reconciliation and lives with her father. Her father-in-law Hájí Mullá Taqí, feels insulted and denounces the Shaykhís and Bábís. [B166; DB2736]

Hamadán; Qazvín; Mashhad; Khurásán; Shíráz; Máh-Kú; Tihrán; Tehran; Iran Persia Tahirih; Arab; Babis; Haji Mulla Taqi; Shaykhis; Mulla Husayn; pilgrimage; Baha'u'llah
1847. Sep or Oct The murder of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí, the powerful uncle of Táhirih, by Mullá `Abdu'lláh of Shíráz. [B166; BBRSM216; DB276–8]

BBRSM22 says the murder took place towards the end of October.

  • Mullá `Abdu'lláh indicates that he was `never a convinced Bábí'. [DB276]
  • BBRSM22 says the murder took place towards the end of October.
  • Mullá `Abdu'lláh indicates that he was `never a convinced Bábí'. [DB276]
Shíráz; Iran; Persia murder; Haji Mulla Muhammad Taqi; uncle; Tahirih; Mulla `Abdu'llah
1847. Oct - Nov Táhirih is accused of instigating the assassination of her uncle and is confined to her father's house while about 30 Bábís are arrested. Four, including the assassin, are taken to Tihrán and held in the house of Khusraw Khán. [BKG41; BW18:380; DB276–8] Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia Tahirih; assassination; uncle; Babis; arrested; Khusraw Khan
1847. Nov - Dec Bahá'u'lláh, who is living in Tihrán, visits the detainees and gives them money. [BKG41; DB278–9; GPB68]

Mullá `Abdu'lláh confesses to the murder of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí and is helped to escape. [BKG41–2; DB278]

  • See BKG42 for why Bahá'u'lláh was thought to have engineered his escape. Bahá'u'lláh is imprisoned for a few days for having assisted in Mullá `Abdu'lláh's escape.
  • This was Bahá'u'lláh's first imprisonment. [BKG41; BW18:380; DB585]
  • Shaykh Salib-i-Karímí, one of the imprisoned Bábís, is publicly executed in Tihrán.
  • He is the first to suffer martyrdom on Persian soil. His remains are interred in the courtyard of the shrine of the Imám-Zádih Zayd in Tihrán. [B166; BW18:380; DB280]
  • The remaining captives are returned to Qazvín. Hájí Asadu'lláh-i-Farhádí is secretly put to death in prison. Mullá Táhir-i-Shírází and Mullá Ibrahím-i-Maballátí are also put to death. [B166; BW18:380; DB280–3]
  • DB280–3 says `the rest of' the detainees were put to death by the relatives of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí.
Tihrán; Tehran; Qazvín; Iran; Persia Baha'u'llah; Mulla `Abdu'llah; murder; Haji Mulla Muhammad Taqi; Shaykh Salib-i-Karimi; Babis; execute; execution; martyrdom; shrine; Imam-Zadih Zayd; Haji Asadu'llah-i-Farhadi; death; prison; Mulla Tahir-i-Shirazi; Mulla Ibrahim-i-Maballati
1848. early Dec Bahá'u'lláh sets out from Tihrán with 11 companions to reinforce the Bábís at Shaykh Tabarsí. Nine miles from the fort they are arrested and taken to the town of Ámul, where they are held prisoner in the home of the deputy governor. This is Bahá'u'lláh's second imprisonment. He intervenes to spare His companions the bastinado and He alone receives it.
  • When the governor returns to his home he orders that Bahá'u'lláh and His companions be released and arranges a safe conduct for them to Tihrán. [B174; BBD44; BKG56–60; BW18:381; DB369–76; GPB68; SB7]
  • See BKG57 and DB70 for pictures.
Tihrán; Tehran; Ámul; Iran; Persia Baha'u'llah; Babis; Shaykh Tabarsi; arrest; bastinado
1848 Bahá'u'lláh plans Táhirih's escape, giving the task to Mírzá Hádíy-i-Farhádí, the nephew of Hájí Asadu'lláh-i-Farhádí. Táhirih is rescued and escorted from Qazvín to Bahá'u'lláh's home in Tihrán. [B167; BKG42; DB284–5; MF199]
  • While she is in Bahá'u'lláh's home she is visited by Vahíd and challenges him by saying `Let deeds, not words, be our adorning!' [DB285; MF200]
  • After a few days Bahá'u'lláh sends Táhirih to a place of safety before sending her on to Khurásán. [DB286–7; GPB68]
  • Note: Ma'ani says this was the house of Mírzá Áqá Khán-i Núrí, who was then living in Káshán as an exile. His sister acted as Táhirih's hostess until she left for Badasht.
Tihrán; Tehran; Qazvín; Khurásán; Iran; Persia Tahirih; escape; Mirza Hadiy-i-Farhadi; Haji Asadu'llah-i-Farhadi; Vahid
1848. 30 Mar Mullá Husayn departs for Mázindarán, setting out on foot as the Báb has directed. [DB260; MH144]
  • The Báb tells him to visit the Bábís in Khuy, Urúmíyyih, Marághih, Mílán, Tabríz, Zanján, Qazvín and Tihrán before proceeding to Mázindarán. In Mázindarán he is to find `God's hidden treasure'. [DB260; MH144]
  • In Tihrán he again meets Bahá'u'lláh. [DB261; MH148]
Mázindarán; Khuy; Urumiyyih; Maraghih; Milan; Tabriz; Zanjan; Qazvin; Tehran; Iran; Persia Mulla Husayn; Baha'u'llah; Báb Mulla Husayn
1848. 9 Apr The Báb is removed from Máh-Kú.
  • Hájí Mírzá Áqásí is alarmed by the developments at Máh-Kú and orders that the Báb be moved to Chihríq. [B131; DB259; GPB1920]
  • The Báb's presence in Máh-Kú, so close to the Russian frontier, is also a cause for concern for the Russian government. Prince Dolgorukov, the Russian Minister in Tihrán, asks that He be removed. It is likely that this request was made in 1847 but not carried out until now. [B131; BBR72; TN13]
  • The Báb had been in Máh-Kú for nine months. [DB259]
Mah-Ku; Chihriq; Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia Báb; Hájí Mírzá Áqásí; Russian; Russia; Prince Dolgorukov
1848 Apr-Jul The presence of the Báb in Chihríq attracts much notice. Eventually Yahyá Khán softens his attitude to the Báb. [B135; DB303]
  • Excitement among local people eclipses that of Máh-Kú. [GPB20]
  • Many priests and government officials become followers, among them Mírzá Asadu'lláh of Khuy, surnamed Dayyán. [B136; DB303; GPB20]
  • So many Bábís come to Chihríq that they cannot all be housed. [B135]
  • See B136 for story of the inferior honey.
  • A dervish, a former navváb, arrives from India after having seen the Báb in a vision. [B137; DB305; GPB20]
  • The Báb reveals the Lawh-i-Hurúfát (Tablet of the Letters) in honour of Dayyán. [DB304; GPB27]
Chihriq; Iran; Persia; India Bab, Life; Yahya Khan; Mah-Ku; Mirza Asadullah; Dayyan; Honey; Dervishes; Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Lawh-i-Hurufat (Tablet of the Letters)
1848. late Spring Mullá Husayn goes to the house of Quddús in Bárfurúsh, Mázindarán, and realizes that the `hidden treasure' is his recognition of the station of Quddús. [DB261–5; MH148–54]

Mullá Husayn proceeds to Mashhad and builds a `Bábíyyih', a centre for the Bábís, as instructed by Quddús. He and Quddús take up residence in it and begin to teach the Bábí religion.

  • See DB288–90 and MH158–68 for the result of this effort.
  • Among those who come to the Bábíyyih is Sám Khán, the chief of police. [MH158]
  • See MH156 for a picture of the Bábíyyih.
Barfurush; Mazindaran; Mashhad; Iran; Persia Mulla Husayn; Quddus; Babi centre
1848. summer Quddús leaves Mashhad for Badasht. Mullá Husayn is prevented from attending. He is invited to stay in the camp of the soldiers garrisoned in the area to control a local revolt. The invitation amounts to a confinement but he is able to teach the soldiers while so confined. [BKG50; DB290; MH165–6]
  • MH160 says that it was at this time that the Báb wrote to all the believers in Persia and Iraq instructing them to go to the aid of Mullá Husayn and Quddús in the `Land of Khá (Khurásán). DB269ff implies this letter was written in 1845.
Mashhad; Badasht; Iran; Persia Quddus; Mulla Husayn; soldiers; confinement
1848. c. 26 Jun - 17 Jul The Conference of Badasht

Bahá'u'lláh, who hosts and directs the event, rents three gardens, one for Quddús, another for Táhirih and the third for Himself. [B168; GPB31, 68; MF200]

The conference coincides with the removal of the Báb to Tabríz for interrogation in July.

It is held near the village of Sháhrúd in Semnan province. [BBRSM23; DB292]

  • `The primary purpose of that gathering was to implement the revelation of the Bayán by a sudden, a complete and dramatic break with the past — with its order, its ecclesiasticism, its traditions, and ceremonials. The subsidiary purpose of the conference was to consider the means of emancipating the Báb from His cruel confinement in Chihríq.' [BBRSM23; BKG43; DB297–8; GPB31, 157]
  • B167 says that the Bábís did not come to Badasht to make plans to rescue the Báb. It is attended by 81 believers and lasts 22 days. [BKG43–4, 46; DB292–3; GPB312]
  • Each day Bahá'u'lláh reveals a Tablet, and on each believer He confers a new name. Each day an Islamic law is abrogated. [DB293; GPB32]
  • See BKG44–5, DB293 and MF201 for the story of the central event, Táhirih's confrontation with Quddús and removal of her veil.
  • Also see B167–9; BBD31–2; BBRSM46; BKG43–7; DB292–8; RB2:353.
Badasht; Tabriz; Shahrud; Chihriq; Iran; Persia Conference at Badasht; Bahaullah, Life of; Quddus; Tahirih; Bab, Life of; Bayan; - Basic timeline
1848. Jul After three months in Chihríq, the Báb is taken under escort to Tabríz for trial. [B137; BW18:380; TN14]
  • En route He stops in Urúmíyyih where the governor tests the Báb by offering Him an unruly horse to ride. The local people take away His bath water. [B138; BBR74; DB309–11]
  • A sketch of the Báb is made there and later two copies of the portrait are made in water colour. The sketch and one of the water colours are now in the International Archives. [B138–9, Juhúrú'l-Haqq by Asadu'lláh Fádil-i-Mázindarání p.48 quoted in World Order Winter 1974-95 p41]
  • See Trial of the Báb: Shi'ite Orthodoxy Confronts its Mirror Image by Denis MacEoin.
Chihriq; Tabriz; Urumiyyih; Iran; Persia Bab, Life of; Bab, Trial of; Portraits; Bab, Portrait of; Horses
1848 c. Jul Quddús is arrested and taken to Sárí where he is placed under house arrest in the home of Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, a leading cleric. [B171; BKG50; DB300]

Táhirih is arrested and is later taken to Tihrán where she is held in the home of Mahmúd Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, until her martyrdom in August 1852.

Mullá Husayn leaves the army camp near Mashhad where he has been a guest of a brother of the Sháh. He plans to make a pilgrimage to Karbalá. While making preparations for the journey he receives a Tablet from the Báb instructing him to go to Mázindarán to help Quddús, carrying a Black Standard before him. He is also instructed to wear the Báb's own green turban and to take the new name Siyyid `Alí. [B171; BKG50; DB324; MH174]

Sárí; Tehran; Tihrán; Mashhad; Mázindarán; Iran; Persia; Karbalá; Iraq Quddus; arrest; Mirza Muhammad-Taqi; Tahirih; Mahmud Khan; Kalantar; Mulla Husayn; Shah; pilgrimage; Tablet; Bab; Black Standard; green turban; new name; Siyyid `Ali
1848. 21 Jul Mullá Husayn and his 202 companions leave Mashhad for Mázindarán under the Black Standard. They will arrive in September. [BBRSM26, 216] Mashhad; Mázindarán; Iran; Persia Mulla Husayn
1848. last week
in Jul
The Báb arrives in Tabríz and is brought before a panel of which the 17-year-old Crown Prince Násiri'd-Dín Mírzá is the president. The Báb publicly makes His claim that He is the Qá'im. This claim has also been announced to those gathered at Badasht. [B140–7; BBR157; BBRSM23, 216; BW18:380; DB314–20; GPB21–2; TN14]
  • This constitutes the formal declaration of His mission. [GPB22]
  • The purpose of the public forum is to force the Báb to recant His views; instead He takes control of the hearing and embarrasses the clergy. After considerable argument and discussion, they decide He is devoid of reason. [GPB22]
  • The Báb is bastinadoed. [B145; BBD44; DB320; GPB22; TN14–15] This is the first formal punishment He receives. [BBRSM20]
  • He is first attended by an Irish physician, Dr William Cormick, to ascertain His sanity and later to treat Him for a blow to the face that occurred during the bastinado. Cormick is the only Westerner to meet and converse with Him. [B145; BBR74–5, 497–8 DBXXXIL–XXXIII]
  • The clergy issue a fatwa or legal pronouncement against the Báb condemning Him to death for heresy, but to no purpose as the civil authorities are unwilling to take action against Him. [BBRSM19–20]
  • For an account of the life of Dr. William Cormick see Connections by Brendan McNamara.
Tabriz; Badasht; Iran; Persia Bab, Life of; Bab, Trial of; Nasirid-Din Shah; Qaim; Bastinado; William Cormick; Fatwa Le Journal de Constantinople 1848-1851 (first entry dated June 21 1848)
1848. Jul - Sep Mullá Husayn and his companions, marching to Mázindarán, are joined by Bábís who had been at Badasht as well as newly-converted Bábís. [B171–2]
  • Their numbers swell into hundreds, possibly 300 and beyond. [B172; BKG50]
  • The Black Standard is raised on the plain of Khurásán. [B171, 176–7; BBD46; BBRSM52; MH175]
  • The Black Standard will fly for some 11 months. [B176–7; DB351]
  • See DB326 and MH177–83 for details of the journey.
  • See MH182 for Mullá Husayn's prophecy of the death of Muhammad Sháh.
Mazindaran; Badasht; Khurasan; Iran; Persia Mulla Husayn; Babis; Black Standard; Prophecies; death; Muhammad Shah
1848 Aug The Báb is taken back to Chihríq, where He remains until June/July 1850. [B147; DB322; TN15]
  • B147 says He must have arrived in the first days of August.
  • On His return the Báb writes a denunciatory letter to Hájí Mírzá Áqásí. He sends it to Hujjat in Tihrán, who delivers it personally. [B147; DB323; GPB27]
  • The Báb completes the Arabic Bayán. [BBR45; GBP25]
Chihriq; Iran; Persia Bab, Life of; Haji Mirza Aqasi; Hujjat; Bayan-i-Arabi (Arabic Bayan)
1848. 4 Sep The death of Muhammad Sháh. [BBR153–4]
  • This precipitates the downfall of the Grand Vizier, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí. [B147; BBD19; BBR156]
  • For details of his life, fall and death, see BBR154–6 and BKG52–5.
  • The edict for Bahá'u'lláh's arrest is rendered null. [BKG50; BW18:381]
Iran; Persia Muhammad Sháh; Grand Vizier; Hájí Mírzá Áqásí; Bahá'u'lláh; arrest
1848. 10 Oct Mullá Husayn and his company arrive near Bárfurúsh. The Sa`ídu'l-`Ulamá, threatened by their presence, has stirred up the townspeople, who go out to meet them. Some three or four miles from the city they clash and seven of Mullá Husayn's companions are killed. [B172; BW18:381; DB329–31; MH192–3]
  • MH188 says that the journey from Mashhad had taken 83 days.
  • In the ensuing battle, the townspeople are worsted. They beg for peace and a truce is agreed. [B172; DB336; MH197]
  • It was here that Mullá Husayn cut a man, a musket and a tree with one blow from his sword. [B172; DB 330–1; MH193]
  • Mullá Husayn and his companions take shelter in a caravanserai. Three young men who mount the roof to raise the call to prayer are each met with a bullet and killed. Mullá Husayn gives the command to attack the townspeople, who are again routed. [BW18:381; DB337–8; MH201–5]
  • Mullá Husayn and his companions are offered safe passage by the town's leaders if they will leave Bárfurúsh. They agree but are attacked by their escort, Khusraw-i-Qádí-Kalá'í and his hundred men. [B172; DB338–42; MH206–9]
Barfurush; Iran; Persia Mulla Husayn; Saidul-Ulama
1848. 12 Oct The band of 72 Bábís take refuge in the shrine of Shaykh Tabarsí which is located about 14 miles southeast of Bárfurúsh and prepare it for siege. [B173; BBRSM26; BW18:381; DB344–5] Bárfurúsh; Iran; Persia Bábís; Bábí; shrine; Shaykh Tabarsí
1848. Oct - May 1849 The siege of the Shrine of Shaykh Tabarsí.
  • See BBD217, BW18:381, DB345–413 and MH221–85 for chronicle of events.
  • The episode lasts seven months. [BBRSM26; BW18:381]
  • See BBRSM26 for the Bábís' intentions.
  • See DB343–5 for pictures and DB348, MH217–18 for sketches.
  • See MH212 for a diagram of the fortifications.
  • Bahá'u'lláh visits the fortress and approves the fortifications. [BKG51, DB347–9; MH227]
  • He advises Mullá Husayn to seek the release of Quddús. Mullá Husayn sets out immediately and secures the release of Quddús, who has been in detention for 95 days. [B173; BKG51; DB349–50; MH227]
  • Quddús arrives towards the end of the year. Some sources say October 20. [B173]
  • See DB352–4 for the entry of Quddús into Shaykh Tabarsí. His arrival brings the number of Bábís in the shrine to 313. [DB354]
  • Note: BBRSM26 and MH233–4 say that the number of defendants rose to 500–600 individuals.
    • 37 per cent of the identified participants were of the `ulamá class. [BBRSM50]
    • The siege begins with the arrival of `Abdu'lláh Khán's forces on 19 December.
    • it is said that 2000 soldiers were involved in the siege.
Iran; Persia Shrine; Shaykh Tabarsi; Babis'; Babi; Baha'u'llah; fortress; Mulla Husayn; Quddus Le Journal de Constantinople 1848-1851 (second entry dated March 24 1849 and third dated March 29 1849)
1849. early Jan Arrival of Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá and 3,000 royal troops in the vicinity of the shrine of Shaykh Tabarsí. [B173–4; BW18:381; DB363]

  • He sets up camp and his headquarters in the village of Vás-Kas. [DB363]
Vas-Kas; Persia; Iran Mihdi-Quli Mirza; Armies; Shaykh Tabarsi
1849. 11 Jan Quddús and Mullá Husayn lead a night attack on the encamped army. Two hundred and two Bábís disperse the camp. [BW18:381; BD365; MH254]

DB 368 says this occurred on 21 December 1848.

  • Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá flees barefoot. [DB366]
  • Mullá Husayn's sword is broken in the attack and he uses Quddús'. His companions bring him the abandoned sword of Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá. [DB367; MH257]

    At daybreak the soldiers mount a counter-attack. [DB367; MH258–9]

  • In this encounter Quddús is wounded in the mouth and is rescued by Mullá Husayn who disperses the enemy using the sword of Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá in one hand and that of Quddús in the other. [B174; DB367; MH258–9]
Persia; Iran Quddus; Mulla Husayn; Armies; Shaykh Tabarsi; Swords
1849. 27 Jan The arrival of reinforcements for the besiegers under the leadership of ‘Abbás-Qulí Khán-i-Láríjání. [BW18:381; DB378–9; MH263]

  • This is the third army to be mustered.
  • The water supply is again cut off and Mullá Husayn orders that a well be dug and a bath constructed. [DB379; MH263]
Persia; Iran Abbas-Quli Khan-i-Larijani; Armies; Mulla Husayn; Shaykh Tabarsi
1849. 1 Feb The well is completed. Mullá Husayn performs his ablutions and puts on clean clothes and the turban of the Báb. [DB379; MH264–6] Persia; Iran Mulla Husayn; Turbans; Relics; Shaykh Tabarsi
1849. 2 Feb Soon after midnight, Mullá Husayn leads a charge of 313 men that again routs the king's army. He is struck in the chest by a bullet and dies. His body is carried back to the fort and buried. Ninety other Bábís are also wounded, about 40 of whom die. [B174; BW18:381; DB379–82; MH266–70]

  • Mullá Husayn is 36 years old at the time of his death. [DB383; MH272]
  • See DB382–3 for an account of his life.
  • See DB415–16 for an account of the heroics of Mullá Husayn.
  • See DB381–2 and MH265–70 for an account of the death and burial of Mullá Husayn.
  • See SDH13–14 for an account of his death by Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá.
  • Seventy–two of the original 313 inhabitants of the fort had been martyred by this time. [DB382]
  • It takes the army 45 days to reassemble its forces. [DB384; MH277]
Persia; Iran Mulla Husayn; Mihdi-Quli Mirza; Martyrs; Shaykh Tabarsi
1849. c. 11 Mar On learning through a traitor of the death of Mullá Husayn, ‘Abbás-Qulí Khán launches a fresh attack on the fort. [DB384–6]
  • DB386 says this was 10 days before Naw-Rúz.
  • Nineteen Bábís led by Mírzá Muhammad-Báqir overcome the attackers. [DB386–8]
Persia; Iran Abbas-Quli Khan-i-Larijani; Armies; Mulla Husayn; Shaykh Tabarsi
1849. 27 Mar Renewed forces under Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá encamp in the neighbourhood of the fort, build fortifications and begin to bombard the shrine. [BW18:381; DB390–3]
  • DB391 says this was the ninth day after Naw-Rúz.
Persia; Iran Mihdi-Quli Mirza; Shaykh Tabarsi
1849. c. end Mar The army continues to fire on the shrine for a few days. Mírzá Muhammad-Báqir and 18 others attack the new fortifications and destroy some of them. [DB393–4] Persia; Iran Shaykh Tabarsi; Armies; Mirza Muhammad-Baqir
1849. early Apr Sulaymán Khán-i-Afshar arrives with more troops. [BW18:381] Persian; Iran Sulayman Khan-i-Afshar; Shaykh Tabarsi
1849. c. Jun - Jul The Báb, in prison in the castle of Chihríq, learns of the massacre at Shaykh Tabarsí and the martyrdom of Quddús. He is so overcome with grief that He is unable to write or dictate for a period of six months. [DB411, 430] Chihriq; Iran; Persia Bab, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Prison; Shaykh Tabarsi; Martyrs; Quddus; Tablets of Visitation
1850 early weeks Vahíd clashes with the authorities in Yazd. He escapes and makes a missionary journey through Fárs. [B178–9; DB466–71; BBRSM28, 216]
  • B178 says this took place in the early weeks of 1850; B204–5 says Lt-Col Sheil reported it to London in February; BBRSM28, 216 says it was January or February; DB466 sets it at Naw-Rúz 1850 and DB468 says that the siege carried on for 40 days.
  • See BBR106–9 for the various dates assigned to this event and for the difficulties in dating it.
Yazd; Fárs; Iran; Persia Vahid
1850. 15 Jan Mullá Ádí-Guzal arrives in Mázindarán and carries out the Báb's request. [DB432] Mázindarán; Iran; Persia Mullá Ádí-Guzal; Báb
1850. 14 Feb Fourteen Bábís are arrested as a result of the actions of an informer. [BBRSM28; BW18:381] Iran; Persia Bábí; informer; arrest
1850. 19 or 20 Feb Martyrdom of the Seven Martyrs of Tihrán. Seven of the Bábís are executed in Tihrán on the false charge of having plotted to kill the Grand Vizier. [B182–5; BBD225; BBR100–5; BBRSM28, 216; BKG71; BW18:381; DB462; GPB47–8]

  • See BBD225, BBR100 and BW18:381 for a list of their names.
  • Three of the victims are so eager to be martyrs that they ask the executioner if they can be the first to die. [B183; BBD225; GPB47]
  • Their bodies are left in the public square for three days. [BBD225; GPB47]
  • See GPB478 for the chief features of the episode.
  • The martyrs are the ‘Seven Goats' referred to in Islamic traditions that were to ‘walk in front' of the promised Qá'im. [GPB47–8]
  • See B206–7 and BBR100–5 for the accounts of the event and responses of Prince Dolgorukov and Lt-Col Sheil.
Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia seven; Martyr; seven goats; Islam; Qá'im; Bábí; Grand Vizier; Prince Dolgorukov; Sheil
1850. 13 May-
2 Jan 1851 c.
Zanján upheaval. A quarrel among children escalates into opposition and hostility towards Hujjat. [B185; DB540–1]

  • Hujjat had converted a sizeable proportion of the town. Tension mounted between the Bábís and the ‘ulamá. [BBR114]
  • See BW18:381 for a chronicle of events.
  • B185–8, 209–13; BBD111, 245; BBR114–26; BBRSM28, 216; DB527–81; GPB44–5; TN245.
Zanjan; Iran; Persia Hujjat; Zanjan upheaval; Opposition; Ulama; Iran Newspaper coverage of the Zanjan Upheaval
1850. 16 May Martyrdom of Shaykh Muhammad-i-Túb-Chí in Zanján, the first of the martyrs. [BBR115; DB542–3] Zanján; Iran; Persia Martyrdom; Shaykh Muhammad-i-Tub-Chi
1850. 17 Jun At Nayríz, Vahíd receives a message from the Governor offering a truce and a promise of safety written on the Qur'án. He, together with five attendants, leaves the fortress and is received into the camp of his enemies where he is entertained with great ceremony for three days. [B180–1; BW18:381] Nayríz; Iran; Persia Vahíd; truce
1850. 21 Jun End of the first Nayríz upheaval. [BBRXXIX, 112]

  • Vahíd is forced to write to his companions in the fortress to assure them that a settlement has been reached. The Bábís leave the fort, are set upon and killed. [B181; BW18;381]
Nayríz; Iran; Persia Vahíd; Bábí
1850. 24 Jun The severed heads of 13 Bábís arrive in Shíráz from Nayríz. They are raised on lances and paraded through the town. [B182; BW18:381] Shíráz; Nayríz; Iran; Persia severed head; Bábí
1850. 29 Jun Vahíd is martyred in Nayríz. [B182; BW18:381; DB495, 499; GPB42; RB1:265]

  • See DB494 for details of his martyrdom.
  • His body is dragged through the streets to the accompaniment of drums and cymbals. [RB1:265]
  • See SDH13 for a respectful opinion of Vahíd expressed by an enemy of the Cause, one of the army chiefs who had fought against Vahíd.
Nayríz; Tabríz; Iran; Persia Vahid; martyrdom; Bab
1850. 10 Jul The Russian Consul has an artist make a sketch of the body of the Báb. [B159; DB518; TN28]

  • See BBR43 for details of the drawing made by Consul Bakulin.
Iran; Persia Russian; Consul; Bakulin; sketch; Báb
1850. 11 Jul The bodies are removed from the moat and taken to a silk factory. [B159–60; DB519]

  • See B159–60, DB518–22 and TN27–8 for the story of the recovery of the bodies.
  • The soldiers report that the bodies have been eaten by dogs. [B160; DB519]
Iran; Persia silk; factory; bodies
1850. Jul The Faith of the Báb has spread to two countries at this point, Iran and Iraq. [MBW147]
  • B148–60, 202–3; BBD147; BBR77–82; DB510–17; GPB49–55; TN26–7.
Iran; Persia; Iraq Bab; Faith Early mention of Bábís in western newspapers summer 1850
1850. 25 Aug The arrival of ‘Azíz Khán-i-Mukrí, commander-in-chief of Iran's army, in Zanján where the fighting begun in May continues. He takes charge of the operation. [BBR119; BW18:382; DB556]

  • For the story of Ashraf and his mother see DB562–3.
Zanjan; Iran; Persia Aziz Khan-i-Mukri; Commander-in-chief; Zanjan upheaval; Ashraf; Mothers
1850. 3 Oct Two of Vahíd's companions are executed in Shíráz. Shíráz; Iran; Persia Vahid
1850. Nov-Dec Muhammad Khán, the commander of the government forces at Zanján, tries to deceive Hujjat into surrender by drawing up a peace proposal. Hujjat, recalling Tabarsí and Nayríz, responds by sending children and old men to Muhammad Khán, who has them thrown into a dungeon. This signals the beginning of the final month-long siege at Zanján. [B186–7; DB564–8] Zanján; Tabarsí; Nayríz; Iran; Persia Muhammad Khan; Hujjat
1850. 29 Dec Hujjat dies of his wounds. [B187; BRR122; BW18:382]
  • DB573 says this was on 8 January 1851.
Zanján; Iran; Persia Hujjat; death
1851 2 Jan c. End of the Zanján upheaval. [BW18:382]

  • Hujjat, wounded in the right arm by a bullet 19 days previously, succumbed to his wounds. With the death of Hujjat the Bábí resistance weakens. A general assault by the royal forces ends the siege. [B187; BBR122; BW18:382; DB573–4]
  • See B187 and DB574–7 for the fate of the survivors.
  • See B187 and DB577–9 for the fate of Hujjat's body.
  • About 1,800 Bábís were killed during the upheaval. [DB580, 598]
Zanján; Iran; Persia death; Hujjat; Babi
1851. 2 Mar Four Bábís brought from Zanján are execute in Tihrán. [BW18:382] Tihrán; Tehran; Zanján; Iran; Persia Bábís; executed
1851. 30 Apr Mullá Hasan-i-Fadíl is executed in Yazd when he refuses to recant. [BW18:382] Yazd; Iran; Persia Mullá Hasan-i-Fadíl; executed
1851. 1 May Áqá Husayn is blown from a cannon in Yazd. [BW18:382] Yazd; Iran; Persia Áqá Husayn; cannon
1851. 23 Jul Áqá Muhammad-Sádiq-i-Yúzdárání is beaten to death in Yazd after refusing to recant. [BW18:382] Yazd; Iran; Persia Áqá Muhammad-Sádiq-i-Yúzdárání; death
1851 Aug Bahá'u'lláh spends most of August in Kirmánsháh. [BKG67; DB591] Kirmánsháh; Iran; Persia Baha'u'llah
1852 Apr - May c. Bahá'u'lláh returns to Iran from Karbalá. [DB598]

  • He is the guest of the Grand Vizier for one month. [BKG74; DB598–9]
Karbalá; Iraq; Iran; Persia Baha'u'llah; Grand Vizier
1852 summer Bahá'u'lláh stays at the summer residence of Ja‘far-Qulí Khán, the brother of the Grand Vizier, in Afchih, Lavásán, near Tihrán. [BKG77; DB599] Afchih; Lavásán; Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia Baha'u'llah; Ja‘far-Quli Khan; Grand Vizier
1852. Aug In Mílán, Iran, 15 Bábís are arrested and imprisoned. [BW18:382]

Many Bábís are tortured and killed in the weeks following the attempt on the life of the Sháh. [BKG84]

  • See BBR171 for the story of Mahmud Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, and his role in the arrest and execution of the Bábís.
  • See BKG84–93 for a description of the tortures and executions of Bábís. Thirty–eight Bábís are martyred.
  • See BKG86–7 and DB616–21 for the torture and martyrdom of Sulaymán Khán. Holes are gouged in his body and nine lighted candles are inserted. He joyfully dances to the place of his execution. His body is hacked in two, each half is then suspended on either side of the gate.
  • The persecutions are so severe that the community is nearly annihilated. The Bábí remnant virtually disappears from view until the 1870s. [BBRSM:30; EB269]
Mílán; Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia Bábí; arrest; torture; prison; Sháh; Mahmud Khán; Kalántar; martyr; Sulaymán Khán
1852 Dec Bahá'u'lláh is released from the Síyáh-Chál.

  • This was owing to: the efforts of the Russian Minister Prince Dolgorukov; the public confession of the would-be assassin; the testimony of competent tribunals; the efforts of Bahá'u'lláh's own kinsmen; and the sacrifices of those followers imprisoned with Him. [GPB104–5]
  • See CH43–4 for the role of the Russian Consul in securing His release. He invoking his full power as an envoy of Russia, called out the Sháh and his court for their barbaric behaviour.
  • See BKG101–2, CH44 and DB647–8 for the physical condition of Bahá'u'lláh on release.
  • See BKG101, DB648–9 and GPB105 for the words of Bahá'u'lláh to Mírzá Áqá Khán on His release.
  • The Russian minister invited Bahá'u'lláh to go to Russia but Bahá'u'lláh chose instead to go to Iraq. It may be that He refused the offer because He knew that acceptance of such help would have been misrepresented as having political implications. [BBIC:8; DB650]
Iran; Persia; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Russia; Minister; Prince Dolgorukov; Mirza Áqa Khan
1853. 12 Jan Bahá'u'lláh and His family depart for Baghdád after a one month respite in the home of his half-brother Mírzá Ridá-Qulí. During the three-month journey Bahá'u'lláh is accompanied by His wife Navváb, (Who was six weeks from giving birth upon departure.) His eldest son ‘Abdu'l-Bahá (9), Bahíyyih Khánum (7) and two of His brothers, Mírzá Músá and Mírzá Muhammad-Qulí. Mírzá Mihdí (2), was very delicate was left behind with the grandmother of Àsíyih Khánum. They are escorted by an officer of the Persian imperial bodyguard and an official representing the Russian legation. [BKG102–5; GPB108]
  • CH44–5 says the family had ten days after Bahá'u'lláh's release to prepare for the journey to Iraq.
  • ‘Never had the fortunes of the Faith proclaimed by the Báb sunk to a lower ebb'. [DB651]
  • This exile compares to the migration of Muhammad, the exodus of Moses and the banishment of Abraham. [GPB107–8]
  • See BKG104 and GPB108–9 for conditions on the journey.
Íran; Persia; Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mirza Rida-Quli; Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Abdul-Baha, Life of; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Mirza Musa; Mirza Muhammad-Quli; Russia
1853. 26 Mar Five Bábís, acting on their own initiative, murder the governor of Nayríz, providing the spark for the second Nayríz upheaval. [BBR147] Nayríz; Iran; Persia Bábís; upheaval; murder; governor
1853. Oct Second Nayríz upheaval. [BBR147–51; BBRSM:217; BW18:382; DB642–5]

  • The new governor of Nayríz, Mírzá Na‘ím-i-Núrí, arrests a large number of Bábís and pillages their properties. The Bábís take to the hills. [BW18:382]
  • See BW18:382 for a chronicle of events.
  • See BBR147–51 for Western accounts.
Nayríz; Iran; Persia upheaval; Mirza Na‘im-i-Nuri; Babi
1853. 31 Oct Some 600 female and 80 to 180 male Bábís are taken prisoner at Nayríz and marched to Shíráz, along with the heads of' some 180 martyrs. This fulfils an Islamic prophecy concerning the appearance of the Qá'im indicating that the heads of the followers would be used as gifts. [BW18:382; KI245] Nayriz; Shiraz; Iran; Persia Babi; prisoner; martyr; Islam; Prophecies; Qaim
1853. 24 Nov The prisoners from Nayríz and the heads of the martyrs arrive in Shíráz. More Bábís are executed and their heads sent to Tihrán. The heads are later buried at Ábádih. [BW18:382] Shíráz; Nayríz; Tihrán; Tehran; Ábádih; Iran; Persia Bábí; executed
1856 to Mar 1857 The Anglo-Persian War. [BBR165, 263] Írán Anglo-Persian War
1858. Aug The dismissal of Mírzá Áqá Khán, the prime minister who had directed the persecution of the Bábís that followed the attempt on the life of the Sháh. Írán; Persia Mirza Áqa Khan; prime minister; Babi; Shah
1860 Birth of Shaykh Muhammad-‘Alíy-i-Qá'iní, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Naw Firist, near Bírjand. [EB273] Naw Firist; Bírjand; Iran; Persia Shaykh Muhammad-‘Aliy-i-Qa'ini; birth; Apostle of Baha'u'llah
1862 Bahá'u'lláh reveals The Kitáb-i-Íqán, ‘a comprehensive exposition of the nature and purpose of religion'. [BBD134, 162; BKG159; BBD134; BBRSM64–5; GPB138–9; RB1:158]

  • The Tablet is revealed in answer to four questions put to Bahá'u'lláh by Hájí Mírzá Siyyid Muhammad, a maternal uncle of the Báb. [BBD134, 162; BKG163–5; RB1:158]
  • It is revealed in the course of two days and two nights. [BBD 134; BKG165; GPB238; RB1:158]
  • The original manuscript, in the handwriting of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, is in the Bahá'í International Archives. [BKG165; RB1:159]
  • It is probably the first of Bahá'u'lláh's writings to appear in print. [BKG165; EB121]
  • For a discussion of the circumstances of its revelation, its content and major themes see RB1:153–97.
Baghdad; Iraq; Tihran; Tehran; Iran; Persia Bahaullah, Writings of; Kitab-i-Iqan (Book of Certitude); Muhammad, Haji Mirza Siyyid; - Basic timeline
1863. 3 May Bahá'u'lláh leaves the Garden of Ridván.

  • This initiates the holy day the Twelfth Day of Ridván, to be celebrated on 2 May. [BBD196]
  • As He is about to leave He reveals a Tablet addressed to Áqá Mírzá Áqá in Shíráz. It brings relief and happiness to those who receive it. [EB222]
  • His leaving is accompanied by symbolic signs of His station: He rides a horse rather than a donkey and wears a tall táj. [BBD221; BKG176]
  • See BKG175–6, GPB155 and RB1:281–2 for descriptions of the scenes that accompanied His departure.

Bahá'u'lláh and His party arrive at Firayját, about three miles away on the banks of the Tigris. [BKG176]

  • They remain here for seven days. [BKG176]
  • See BKG for a description of activities during this period.
Najibiyyih Garden; Firayjat; Iraq; Shiraz; Iran; Persia Life of Bahaullah; Ridvan Festival; Aqa Mirza Aqa; Horses; Donkeys; Taj; Tigris; Rivers; Garden of Ridvan
1864 Birth of Mírzá Hádí Shírází, the father of Shoghi Effendi, in Shíráz. Shíráz; Iran; Persia Mirza Hadi Shirazi; father; Shoghi Effendi
1866. Dec About a hundred Bahá'ís are arrested in Tabríz following a disturbance in which a Bábí is killed. [BBR251–3; BW18:382] Tabríz; Iran; Persia Baha'i; arrest; Babi
1887 – 1888 E. G. Browne, the noted Orientalist, spends 12 months in Persia. An important purpose of his journey is to contact the Bábís. [BBR29]
  • For a list of his books and other works and his relationship with the Bahá'í Faith see BBR29–36.
  • Also see BBD47; Balyuzi, Edward Granville Browne and the Bahá'í Faith and Momen, Selections From the Writings of E. G. Browne.
Persia E. G. Browne
1910 8 Jan The Persian-American Educational Society is inaugurated in Washington DC. [BFA2:XVII; 355–8]
  • Its primary purpose is to assist the Tarbíyat School in Iran. [BFA2:357]
Washington DC; United States; Iran Persian-American Educational Society; Tarbiyat School; Bahai organizations
1922 (in the year) Oswald Whitaker, a Sydney optometrist, and Euphemia Eleanor `Effie' Baker, a photographer, become Bahá'ís, the first Australians to accept the Faith. [BW14:320; SBR160-1, BW2p129]
  • In the 1930s Effie Baker travelled to Persia to take photographs of historical sites. [BW14:320]
  • See SETPE1p105-107 for her contribution while serving in Haifa.
  • For Effie Baker's obituary see BW14:320-1.
Australia; Persia Oswald Whitaker; Euphemia Eleanor `Effie' Baker; local assembly
1942 – early The publication in Iran of The Political Confessions or Memoirs of Prince Dolgoruki (or, simply, Dolgorukov's Memoirs). The book contends that the Bábí Faith was simply a plot to destabilize Iran and Islam. [22 February, 2009 Iran Press Watch]
  • See Religious Contentions in Modern Iran, 1881-1941 by Dr Mina Yazdani where she posits that "The process of Othering the Bahā’īs had at least three components; 1) religious, carried on by the traditionalist theologians; 2) institutional and formal, sanctioned by the state; and 3) political, the result of a joint and gradual process in which Azalīs, former Bahā’īs and reformist theologians all played a role. This process reached its culmination with the widespread publication of The Confessions of Dolgoruki which resulted in a fundamental paradigm shift in the anti-Bahā’ī discourse. With the widespread impression of Bahā’īs as spies of foreign powers, what up to that point constituted a sporadic theme in some anti-Bahā’ī polemics now became the dominant narrative of them all, including those authored by traditionalist clerics. Consequently, as Iran entered the 1940s, the process that would transform Islamic piety to political ideology was well under way."
Iran; Persia Political; Confession; Memoir; Prince Dolgoruki; Dolgorukov; Babi; Islam

from the main catalogue

  1. Ahmad, The Flame of Fire, by Darius Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1992). History of the recipient of the Tablet of Ahmad, extracted from an article by Hand of the Case Jinab-i-Abu'l-Qasim-i-Faizi in Baha'i News, 1967. [about]
  2. Báb's Bayan, The: An Analytical Survey, by Muhammad Afnan, in World Order, 31:4 (2000). Analysis of the Bayan and its contents: fundamental beliefs and worldview, moral principles, laws, administration of society, and future expectations. [about]
  3. Bahá'í Glossary: Persian and Arabic words appearing in the Bahá'í Writings, by Marzieh Gail (1957). The first published glossary of Baha'i terms and names. [about]
  4. Bahá'í Shrines, by John Walbridge, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). [about]
  5. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 18 (1979-1983), in Bahá'í World (1986). [about]
  6. Bayan (Bayán-i-Farsí and Bayán-i-'Arabí), The: Letters and Letters of the Living, by Universal House of Justice and Iraj Ayman (1994). [about]
  7. Bayan (Bayán-i-Farsí and Bayán-i-'Arabí), The: Wilmette Institute faculty notes, by Brent Poirier and Christopher Buck (1997). [about]
  8. Bayán (Bayán-i-Farsí): Questions on, by Denis MacEoin (1998). Answers to a number of questions relating to the Bab and the Bayan, inspired by MacEoin's translation of the Persian Bayan. [about]
  9. Diacritics and transliteration, by Jonah Winters (2002). [about]
  10. Diacritics; meaning of "Self-subsisting", by Universal House of Justice (1993). Two disparate topics: the translation style adopted by the Guardian and other considerations related to literary style and the sacred writings, and the meaning of the term "self-subsisting." [about]
  11. Dictionaries: English-Persian (1841). Links to Google Books and Archive.org for online versions of English-Persian dictionaries. [about]
  12. Flame of Fire, A, by Abu'l-Qasim Faizi, in Conqueror of Hearts (1967). Biography of the recipient of the Persian Lawh-i-Ahmad. [about]
  13. Glossary of Arabic and Persian Transliteration (2016). Comprehensive list of names and terms encountered in Baha'i history, with accents and underlines, and definitions. [about]
  14. Guide to Pronunciation, A, by Darius Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1992). Pronunciation of Persian and Arabic words, clearly explained and enunciated for a non–Persian-speaking audience. [about]
  15. Guide to Transliteration and Pronunciation of the Persian Alphabet: together with the Numerical Value of the letters (Abjad Reckoning), by Marzieh Gail, in Bahá'í Glossary (1957). Persian letter, key, transliteration, pronunciation, and Abjad value. [about]
  16. Illustrated description of a design in the Persian-Indian style of architecture for the first Mashrak-el-Azkar (Bahai temple) to be erected in America, by Charles Mason Remey (1920). Expanded version of a portion of Remey's earlier Mashrak-el-Azkar [Mashriqu'l-Adhkár]: Descriptive of the Bahai temple, with photographs of Temple models. [about]
  17. Index to Ad'iyyih-i-Hadrat-i-Mahbúb (1994). Index of the contents of an Arabic and Persian Baha'i collection of prayers and scripture. [about]
  18. Invisible Occidentalism: Eighteenth-Century Indo-Persian Constructions of the West, by Juan Cole, in Iranian Studies, 25:3-4 (1992). Iranian attitudes toward Western culture, science, and philosophers in the colonial era. (No mention of Babis or Baha'is.) [about]
  19. Iranian Expatriates, Letter to, following 1979 Iranian Revolution, by Universal House of Justice, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Open letter of support and guidance to Iranians who had recently fled the Iranian Revolution. [about]
  20. Iranian Refugees in America: A Cross-Cultural Perspective, by Frank Lewis and Puran Stevens (1986). Introduction to Persian culture, history, and customs, designed as an aid in cultural understanding for Americans interacting with Iranian emigrants. [about]
  21. Laws of the Bayán reflected in The Kitáb-i-Aqdas (2008). List of 32 laws from the Báb's Persian Bayán or the Arabic Bayán which also appear in Bahá'u'lláh's book of laws. [about]
  22. Letters of the Quranic Dispensation and Letters of the Living (huruf), by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, 4 (2003). Some meanings of the term huruf ("letters") in Baha'i texts, including Letters of the Bayan, Letters of the Living, and Letters of the Quranic Dispensation. [about]
  23. Literary History of Persia: Volumes 1-4, by E. G. Browne (1902). The essential text for students of Iranian literature through the ages. [about]
  24. Literary History of Persia, Volume 4: Modern Times (1500-1924), by E. G. Browne (1928). Volume 4 contains the first extensive catalogue of Babi and Baha'i literature published in English. To this day, the four-volume set is an essential text for students of Iranian literature. [about]
  25. Literature of Persia, The: A Lecture delivered to the Persia Society, by E. G. Browne (1912). A selection of Persian poetry, featuring poems by Nabil, Tahirih, and Babi martyrs. [about]
  26. Mystic's Flight, The: The Parable of Majnún and Laylí, by Jack McLean (2001). This classic love tale of the Middle East, quoted by Baha'u'llah in the Seven Valleys, is prized by Sufi mystics as a spiritual allegory of the soul's search for union with God. A literary-critical analysis of the text yields theological clues. [about]
  27. New World Transliterator: Macintosh Font for Transliteration of Persian and Arabic, by Christopher Buck (1993). Transliteration software (TrueType font for Mac). [about]
  28. Oriental Words in Bahá'í Literature, Transliteration, and Pronunciation, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Guide to spelling and pronunciation of Arabic and Persian words encountered in Baha'i history and writings. [about]
  29. Persian and Arabic names, by Hasan M. Balyuzi and Marzieh Gail, in The Báb (1973). Explanations of the elaborate system of Persian names and titles used in the nineteenth century. [about]
  30. Persian Bahá'ís in Australia, by Graham Hassall, in Religion and Ethnic Identity, An Australian Study, Abe Ata, ed. (1989). Overview of the history and modern activities (ca. 1989) of the Persian Baha'i community in Australia. [about]
  31. Persian Bayan, A Summary, by Báb, The and E. G. Browne, in Selections from the Writings of E. G. Browne on the Babi and Bahá'í Religions (1987). Overview and summary of The Bab's Persian Bayán, translated by Browne, edited by Momen. [about]
  32. Persian Bayan, The: Partial translation, by Báb, The. A partial provisional translation of the Persian Bayan. [about]
  33. Persian Bayan, The: From A.L.M. Nicolas' French translation, by Báb, The (2001). Four short chapters from The Báb's book of laws. [about]
  34. Persian Bayán: Summary and Thematic Analysis, by Peter Terry (2015). A detailed overview of this lengthy text of The Báb, which outlines elements of Bábí law, discussion of religious concepts, and the glorification of "He whom God shall make manifest." [about]
  35. Persian, Arabic, and Provisional Translations, by Iraj Ayman and Robert Stockman (1999). Words relating to the titles of Baha'i Writings, "Pure" Persian and "Pure" Arabic, and information on provisional translations. [about]
  36. Persian-speaking Believers in Anglophone Communities, by Universal House of Justice, in Bahá'í Canada, 8:6 (1996). Some Persian expatriates feel deprived of participation in Baha'i gatherings because of an inability to understand English. [about]
  37. Pioneering, Language, Arts, Example of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Pioneering; Serving parents; Serving where need is; Gardens; International Auxiliary Language; Arabic pronunciation; study of Persian; Some references in Writings of Baha'u'llah; Folk art; External affairs; Daily living; Abdu'l-Baha as divine exemplar. [about]
  38. Readings from the Writings of The Báb, by Muhammad Afnan (2012). Link to audio recordings of a descendant of the Báb reading from two of his most important works, Qayyúm al-Asmá' "Surah to the Kings" and the Bayán-i-farsí (Persian Bayán). [about]
  39. Report of the Transliteration Committee, by G. T. Plunkett, in The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (1895). The 10th Orientalist Congress in Geneva, 1894, produced the system of transliteration later approved by Shoghi Effendi. [about]
  40. Same Yet Different, The: Bahá'í Perspectives on Achieving Unity out of Difference, by Deborah Clark Vance (2002). [about]
  41. Same Yet Different, The: Creating Unity Among the Diverse Members of the Bahá'í Faith, by Deborah Clark Vance, in Journal of Intergroup Relations (a publication of the National Association of Human Rights Workers), Volume 29:4 (2002). [about]
  42. Scripture as Literature: Sifting through the layers of the text, by Frank Lewis, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 7 (1997). Literary and religious antecedents to some of the styles and genres of Baha'i scripture. [about]
  43. Seeds of Revelation and the Mystic Bond between The Báb and Bahá'u'lláh: An Exposition on Excerpts from the Persian Bayán, by James B. Thomas, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). [about]
  44. Selections from the Writings of the Báb, by Báb, The (1982). [about]
  45. Summon Up Remembrance, by Marzieh Gail (1987). Memoir left by Ali-Kuli Khan, one of the first translators of Baha'i Writings; writings of his wife Florence; other family papers and memories. [about]
  46. Transliteration, by Moojan Momen (1991). [about]
  47. Transmission of Cultural Values in Persian Bahá'í Families, The, by Stephen Licata (1997). Includes a survey on cultural values in Persian Bahá’í families. [about]
  48. Windows to the Past, by Darius Shahrokh (1992). Deepening talks on 25 topics about Baha'i history and teachings, downloadable in MP3 audio format and PDF transcripts. [about]
  49. Wrathful God of Martin Luther and Baha'u'llah: Tablet of Ahmad-i-Farsi and Martin Luther (A comparison), by Roberta Law (1998). Comparison of the theologies of Baha'u'llah's Tablet of Ahmad (Persian) and early Protestantism. [about]
 
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