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Search for tag "Persia"

from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1804 - 1813 Russo-Persian War resulted in a Russian victory. The Battle of Aslan Duz on 31 October 1812 was the turning point in the war, which led to the complete destruction of the Persian army, thus leaving Fath Ali Shah with no other option but to sign the Treaty of Gulistan on 24 October 1813. Numerically, Persian forces had a considerable advantage during the war, a ratio of 5 to 1 over their Russian adversaries, however, the Persian forces were technologically backwards and poorly trained - a problem that the Persian government failed to recognize. With the Treaty of Gulistan Persia ceded what is now Georgia, Dagestan, parts of northern Armenia, and most of what now comprises modern Azerbaijan to Russia. Gulistan; Aslan Duz; Iran; Russia Russo-Persian War; Treaty of Gulistan; War (general); History (general); Iran, General history
1828 10 Feb Defeat of the Persians at the hands of the Russians. The Russo-Persian War of 1826–28 was the last major military conflict between the Russian Empire and Iran. The war ended following the occupation of Tabriz and had even more disastrous results for Persia than the 1804-1813 war. The ensuing Treaty of Turkmenchay, signed on 10 February 1828 in Torkamanchay, Iran, stripped Persia of its last remaining territories in the Caucasus, which comprised all of modern Armenia, the southern remainder of modern Azerbaijan, and modern Igdir in Turkey. Through the Gulistan and Turkmenchay treaties Persia had lost all of its territories in the Caucasus to Russia making them the unquestioned dominant power in the region. [BBRSM55] Tabriz; Turkmenchay; Iran Russo-Persian War; Wars; History (general); Iran, General history
1847 Jul to 1848 Apr The people of Máh-Kú show marked hostility to the Báb on His arrival. Later they are won over by His gentle manners and His love. They congregate at the foot of the mountain hoping to catch a glimpse of Him. [B129; DB244–5]

At the beginning of the Báb's incarceration the warden `Alí Khán keeps the Báb strictly confined and allows no visitors. He has a vision of the Báb engaged in prayer outside of the prison gates, knowing that the Báb is inside. He becomes humble and permits the Bábís to visit the Báb. [B129–31; DB245–8]

The winter the Báb spends in Máh-Kú is exceptionally cold. [DB252]

Many of the Báb's writings are revealed in this period. [GPB24–5]

  • It was probably at this time that He addressed all the divines in Persia and Najaf and Karbalá, detailing the errors committed by each one of them. [GPB24]
  • He revealed nine commentaries on the whole of the Qur'an, the fate of which is unknown. [GPB24]
  • He revealed the Persian Bayán, containing the laws and precepts of the new Revelation in some 8,000 verses. It is primarily a eulogy of the Promised One. [BBD44–5; BBRSM32; BW12:91 GPB24–5]
  • The Báb began the composition of the `smaller and less weighty' Arabic Bayán. [B132; BBD45; GPB25]
  • He stated in the Bayán that, to date, He had revealed some 500,000 verses, 100,000 of which had been circulated. [BBRSM32, GPB22]
  • In the Dalá'il-i-Sab'ih (Seven Proofs) the Báb assigned blame to the seven powerful sovereigns then ruling the world and censured the conduct of the Christian divines who, had they recognized Muhammad, would have been followed by the greater part of their co-religionists. [BBD63; BW12:96; GPB26]
  • The Báb wrote His `most detailed and illuminating' Tablet to Muhammad Sháh. [GPB26]
Mah-Ku; Iran; Najaf; Karbala; Iraq Bab, Life of; Ali Khan; Commentaries; Quran; Bayan-i-Farsi (Persian Bayan); Bayan-i-Arabi (Arabic Bayan); Bayan; Dalail-i-Sabih (Seven Proofs); Bab, Writings of; Tablet to Muhammad Shah; Muhammad Shah; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
1919 19 Aug The Anglo-Persian agreement was signed whereby Persia would get advisors for every department and give every concession to England. It effectively made Persia a British protectorate and eliminated the Russian influence that had been established by the earlier Anglo-Russian pact. The United States Government was much displeased, for this represented a breach of ‘open covenants openly arrived at’, one of Wilson’s Fourteen Points, and represented a continuation of the secret diplomacy of former times. The price of this agreement, according to one official, was £500,000 paid out to one prominent official, and £300,000 to another.

When the Persians discovered by what dubious means this Agreement was contrived, they arose in fury, there was a coup d’état with the backing of the Cossack Brigade, Siyyid Zia-ed-Din came to power (1921) and abrogated the Agreement. Then he himself would be overthrown, and replaced by Reza Khan of the Cossack Brigade as Minister of War and Commander in Chief. Thus an illiterate one-time army private, once a sentry at a hospital gate, would eventually (1925) become a powerful Shah. [AY172, 210]

Iran; United Kingdom Anglo-Persian agreement; British history; History (general); Iran, General history
1977 Jun At the behest of the Universal House of Justice, two conferences are held for Persian-speaking Bahá’ís resident in Europe, one in Germany and one in London. [BW17:194] Germany; London; United Kingdom; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Conferences, Persian-speaking Bahais; Persian diaspora
2010 27 Apr The passing of Dr Nossrat Peseschkian (b. 18 June, 1933 in Iran d. 27 April, 2010 in Wiesbaden, Germany). He came to Germany in 1954 for his studies in medicine at the universities of Freiburg, Frankfurt am Main and Mainz. After his medical specialization and his dissertation, he had his postgraduate training in psychotherapy in Germany, Switzerland, Austria and the United States. Prof. Peseschkian was the founder and leading figure in the growth and development of Positive Psychotherapy for almost 40 years. As an international lecturer, he had traveled to 67 countries worldwide. A global network of over 100 local, regional and national centers of Positive Psychotherapy has been established in 33 countries to date. Among his works is the book "Oriental Stories as Tools in Psychotherapy: The Merchant and the Parrot", which includes short stories from Persia and other countries that can be used in psychotherapy. [Wikipedia] Wiesbaden; Germany Nossrat Peseschkian; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Psychology; Stories; Persian literature

from the main catalogue

  1. Ahmad, The Flame of Fire, by Darius Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1992). History of the recipient of the Tablet of Ahmad, extracted from an article by Hand of the Case Jinab-i-Abu'l-Qasim-i-Faizi in Baha'i News, 1967. [about]
  2. Are the Characteristics of Exiles Different from Immigrants?: The Case of Iranians in Los Angeles, by Georges Sabagh and Mehdi Bozorgmehr, in Institute for Social Science Research Working Papers, 2:5 (1986). Five passing references to "Bahai" — but in a statistical context only — about whether the large influx of Iranians into LA in the late 1970s added a sizeable and distinctive minority to the population of this metropolitan area. [about]
  3. Báb's Bayan, The: An Analytical Survey, by Muhammad Afnan, in World Order, 31:4 (2000). Analysis of the Bayan and its contents: fundamental beliefs and worldview, moral principles, laws, administration of society, and future expectations. [about]
  4. Bahá'í Glossary: Persian and Arabic words appearing in the Bahá'í Writings, by Marzieh Gail (1957). The first published glossary of Baha'i terms and names. [about]
  5. Bahá'í Shrines, by John Walbridge, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). [about]
  6. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 18 (1979-1983), in Bahá'í World (1986). [about]
  7. Bayán, by Denis MacEoin, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
  8. Bayan (Bayán-i-Farsí and Bayán-i-'Arabí), The: Letters and Letters of the Living, by Universal House of Justice and Iraj Ayman (1994). [about]
  9. Bayan (Bayán-i-Farsí and Bayán-i-'Arabí), The: Wilmette Institute faculty notes, by Brent Poirier and Christopher Buck (1997). [about]
  10. Bayán (Bayán-i-Farsí): Questions on, by Denis MacEoin (1998). Answers to a number of questions relating to the Bab and the Bayan, inspired by MacEoin's translation of the Persian Bayan. [about]
  11. Dawn over Mount Hira and Other Essays, by Marzieh Gail (1976). A collection of essays on various topics of interest to Baha'i studies and history. Most of these were first published in Star of the West and World Order between 1929 and 1971. [about]
  12. Diacritics and transliteration, by Jonah Winters (2002). [about]
  13. Diacritics; meaning of "Self-subsisting", by Universal House of Justice (1993). Two disparate topics: the translation style adopted by the Guardian and other considerations related to literary style and the sacred writings, and the meaning of the term "self-subsisting." [about]
  14. Dictionaries: English-Persian (1841). Links to Google Books and Archive.org for online versions of English-Persian dictionaries. [about]
  15. Domestic Temporalities: Sensual Patterning in Persian Migratory Landscapes, by Simone Dennis and Megan Warin, in Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology, 7:2 (2007). Embodied paths of patterning, memory and emotion amongst Persian immigrant women in Adelaide, especially the Baha'i expatriate community. Link to document (offsite). [about]
  16. Flame of Fire, A, by Abu'l-Qasim Faizi, in Conqueror of Hearts (1967). Biography of the recipient of the Persian Lawh-i-Ahmad. [about]
  17. Glimpses of Life and Manners in Persia: With Notes on Russia, Koords, Toorkomans, Nestorians, Khiva, and Persia, by Lady Mary (Leonora Woulfe) Sheil (1856). Considered first travel book on Persia by a woman. Of particular interest to Baha'is are her accounts on Babism (Babeeism) and the Bab. [about]
  18. Glossary of Arabic and Persian Transcription (2016). Comprehensive list of names and terms encountered in Baha'i history, with accents and underlines, and definitions. [about]
  19. Guide to Pronunciation, A, by Darius Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1992). Pronunciation of Persian and Arabic words, clearly explained and enunciated for a non–Persian-speaking audience. [about]
  20. Guide to Transliteration and Pronunciation of the Persian Alphabet: together with the Numerical Value of the letters (Abjad Reckoning), by Marzieh Gail, in Bahá'í Glossary (1957). Persian letter, key, transliteration, pronunciation, and Abjad value. [about]
  21. Illustrated description of a design in the Persian-Indian style of architecture for the first Mashrak-el-Azkar (Bahai temple) to be erected in America, by Charles Mason Remey (1920). Expanded version of a portion of Remey's earlier Mashrak-el-Azkar [Mashriqu'l-Adhkár]: Descriptive of the Bahai temple, with photographs of Temple models. [about]
  22. Index to Ad'iyyih-i-Hadrat-i-Mahbúb (1994). Index of the contents of an Arabic and Persian Baha'i collection of prayers and scripture. [about]
  23. Introduction to the History and Culture of Iran, An, by John Walbridge, in Essays and Notes on Babi and Bahá'í History (2002). [about]
  24. Invisible Occidentalism: Eighteenth-Century Indo-Persian Constructions of the West, by Juan Cole, in Iranian Studies, 25:3-4 (1992). Iranian attitudes toward Western culture, science, and philosophers in the colonial era. (No mention of Babis or Baha'is.) [about]
  25. Iranian Expatriates, Letter to, following 1979 Iranian Revolution, by Universal House of Justice, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Open letter of support and guidance to Iranians who had recently fled the Iranian Revolution. [about]
  26. Iranian Refugees in America: A Cross-Cultural Perspective, by Frank Lewis and Puran Stevens (1986). Introduction to Persian culture, history, and customs, designed as an aid in cultural understanding for Americans interacting with Iranian emigrants. [about]
  27. Laws Abrogated by Bahá'u'lláh (2018). Laws rescinded from previous religions and from the Bayán. [about]
  28. Laws of the Bayán reflected in The Kitáb-i-Aqdas (2008). List of 32 laws from the Báb's Persian Bayán or the Arabic Bayán which also appear in Bahá'u'lláh's book of laws. [about]
  29. Letters of the Quranic Dispensation and Letters of the Living (huruf), by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, 4 (2003). Some meanings of the term huruf ("letters") in Baha'i texts, including Letters of the Bayan, Letters of the Living, and Letters of the Quranic Dispensation. [about]
  30. List of Baha'i Studies and Translations, by Stephen Lambden. A list of content available at Lambden's personal website, Hurqalya Publications, with select links to manuscripts, texts, introductions. Includes Shaykhi and Babi studies, bibliographies, genealogies, provisional translations. [about]
  31. Literary History of Persia: Volumes 1-4, by E. G. Browne (1902). The essential text for students of Iranian literature through the ages. [about]
  32. Literary History of Persia, Volume 4: Modern Times (1500-1924), by E. G. Browne (1928). Volume 4 contains the first extensive catalogue of Babi and Baha'i literature published in English. To this day, the four-volume set is an essential text for students of Iranian literature. [about]
  33. Literature of Persia, The: A Lecture delivered to the Persia Society, by E. G. Browne (1912). A selection of Persian poetry, featuring poems by Nabil, Tahirih, and Babi martyrs. [about]
  34. Mystic's Flight, The: The Parable of Majnún and Laylí, by Jack McLean (2001). This classic love tale of the Middle East, quoted by Baha'u'llah in the Seven Valleys, is prized by Sufi mystics as a spiritual allegory of the soul's search for union with God. A literary-critical analysis of the text yields theological clues. [about]
  35. New World Transliterator: Macintosh Font for Transliteration of Persian and Arabic, by Christopher Buck (1993). Transliteration software (TrueType font for Mac). [about]
  36. Notes on Persian Love Poems, by Marzieh Gail, in World Order (1968). A short history of Persian poetry. Includes a selection of poems by Hafiz, Rumi, Ali-Kuli Khan, and others, many related to the Baha'i Faith or quoted by Baha'u'llah or Abdu'l-Baha, and one written for Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
  37. Off the Grid: Reading Iranian Memoirs in Our Time of Total War, by Negar Mottahedeh, in Middle East Research and Information Project (2004). Observations on contemporary culture and gender issues in Iran. [about]
  38. Oriental Words in Bahá'í Literature, Transliteration, and Pronunciation, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Guide to spelling and pronunciation of Arabic and Persian words encountered in Baha'i history and writings. [about]
  39. Perfection and Refinement: Towards an Aesthetics of the Bab, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 12 (2011). The writings of the Bab have implications for the "plastic" arts; significance for native traditions; relevance to the performing arts; and the concept of refinement which comes across in both the person and the writings of the Báb. [about]
  40. Persian and Arabic names, by Hasan M. Balyuzi and Marzieh Gail, in The Báb (1973). Explanations of the elaborate system of Persian names and titles used in the nineteenth century. [about]
  41. Persian Bahá'í Poets and Poetry: A General Overview, by Heshmat Moayyad (2008). [about]
  42. Persian Bahá'ís in Australia, by Graham Hassall, in Religion and Ethnic Identity, An Australian Study, Abe Ata, ed. (1989). Overview of the history and modern activities (ca. 1989) of the Persian Baha'i community in Australia. [about]
  43. Persian Bayan, A Summary, by Báb, The and E. G. Browne, in Selections from the Writings of E. G. Browne on the Babi and Bahá'í Religions (1987). Overview and summary of The Bab's Persian Bayán, translated by Browne, edited by Momen. [about]
  44. Persian Bayan, The: Partial translation, by Báb, The. A partial provisional translation of the Persian Bayan. [about]
  45. Persian Bayan, The: From A.L.M. Nicolas' French translation, by Báb, The (2001). Four short chapters from The Báb's book of laws. [about]
  46. Persian Bayán: Summary and Thematic Analysis, by Peter Terry (2015). A detailed overview of this lengthy text of The Báb, which outlines elements of Bábí law, discussion of religious concepts, and the glorification of "He whom God shall make manifest." [about]
  47. Persian, Arabic, and Provisional Translations, by Iraj Ayman and Robert Stockman (1999). Words relating to the titles of Baha'i Writings, "Pure" Persian and "Pure" Arabic, and information on provisional translations. [about]
  48. Persian-speaking Believers in Anglophone Communities, by Universal House of Justice, in Bahá'í Canada, 8:6 (1996). Some Persian expatriates feel deprived of participation in Baha'i gatherings because of an inability to understand English. [about]
  49. Pioneering, Language, Arts, Example of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Pioneering; Serving parents; Serving where need is; Gardens; International Auxiliary Language; Arabic pronunciation; study of Persian; Some references in Writings of Baha'u'llah; Folk art; External affairs; Daily living; Abdu'l-Baha as divine exemplar. [about]
  50. Readings from the Writings of The Báb, by Muhammad Afnan (2012). Link to audio recordings of a descendant of the Báb reading from two of his most important works, Qayyúm al-Asmá' "Surah to the Kings" and the Bayán-i-farsí (Persian Bayán). [about]
  51. Report of the Transliteration Committee, by G. T. Plunkett, in The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (1895). The 10th Orientalist Congress in Geneva, 1894, produced the system of transliteration later approved by Shoghi Effendi. [about]
  52. Reunion with the Beloved: Poetry and Martyrdom (2004). Poetry by or in honor of early Babi and Baha'i martyrs. Includes foreword by Hushmand Fatheazam, and discussion of the concept of martyrdom, cultural issues, and history of persecutions. [about]
  53. Same Yet Different, The: Bahá'í Perspectives on Achieving Unity out of Difference, by Deborah Clark Vance (2002). [about]
  54. Same Yet Different, The: Creating Unity Among the Diverse Members of the Bahá'í Faith, by Deborah Clark Vance, in Journal of Intergroup Relations (a publication of the National Association of Human Rights Workers), Volume 29:4 (2002). [about]
  55. Scripture as Literature: Sifting through the layers of the text, by Frank Lewis, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 7 (1997). Literary and religious antecedents to some of the styles and genres of Baha'i scripture. [about]
  56. Seeds of Revelation and the Mystic Bond between The Báb and Bahá'u'lláh: An Exposition on Excerpts from the Persian Bayán, by James B. Thomas, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). [about]
  57. Selections from the Writings of the Báb, by Báb, The (1982). [about]
  58. Stylistic Analysis of the Báb's Writings, A: Abridged Translation of Vahid Behmardi's Muqaddamih-yi dar bárih-yi sabk va siyáq-i áthár-i mubárakih-yi ḥaḍrat-i rabb a`lá, by Vahid Behmardi and William F. McCants, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). English translation by McCants of Behmardi's Persian article "Stylistic Analysis of the Báb’s Writings". [about]
  59. Summon Up Remembrance, by Marzieh Gail (1987). Memoir left by Ali-Kuli Khan, one of the first translators of Baha'i Writings; writings of his wife Florence; other family papers and memories. [about]
  60. Tablet of the Centennial, by Shoghi Effendi (1998). An epistle to the Persian-speaking Baha'is. Includes English translation of Muhammad Varqa's "Le Style persan du Gardien." [about]
  61. Transliteration, by Moojan Momen (1991). [about]
  62. Transmission of Cultural Values in Persian Bahá'í Families, The, by Stephen Licata (1997). Includes a survey on cultural values in Persian Bahá’í families. [about]
  63. Windows to the Past, by Darius Shahrokh (1992). Deepening talks on 25 topics about Baha'i history and teachings, downloadable in MP3 audio format and PDF transcripts. [about]
  64. Wrathful God of Martin Luther and Baha'u'llah: Tablet of Ahmad-i-Farsi and Martin Luther (A comparison), by Roberta Law (1998). Comparison of the theologies of Baha'u'llah's Tablet of Ahmad (Persian) and early Protestantism. [about]
 
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