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Search for tag "Quddus"

from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1822 Birth of Mírzá-`Alíy-i-Bárfurúshí (Quddús), the 18th Letter of the Living. Iran, Mirza-`Aliy-i-Barfurushi, Quddus, Letter of the Living
1844 Jul - Aug Forty days after the Declaration of the Báb, the second Letter of the Living, Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí, has a vision that leads him to Mullá Husayn and he accepts the Báb. During this period of waiting for the second person to recognize the Báb, He called Mulla Husayn to His house several times. He always comes at night and stays until dawn. [HotD41]. Sixteen others recognize Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad as the Promised One. The 18 are later designated `Letters of the Living'. [BBD138, B21–7; DB63–71, 80–2; MH73–81, MH121, SBBH1:16–17, GPB7-8]
  • See RB2:145–6 for the fate of the Letters of the Living.
  • See B26–7, BBD138, DB80–1, MH81 for a list of the Letters of the Living.
  • See BBRSM24–5 for more on the Letters of the Living.
  • See BBRSM24–5 for a discussion of the special places occupied by Quddús, Mullá Husayn and Táhirih.
Persia, Iran Declaration, Bab, Mulla `Aliy-i-Bastami, Mulla Husayn, Siyyid `Ali-Muhammad, Promised One, Letters of the Living, Quddus, Tahirih
1844 30 Sep The Báb, Quddús (Hájí Mullá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Barfurúshí) and the Báb's Ethiopian servant, Mubarak, leave Shíráz for Búshihr en route to Mecca. The journey takes ten days. [B57; DB129; MH119]
  • DB129 says He left Shíráz during the month of Shavvál, 1260 (14October to 11 November, 1844).
  • SBBH1 xxviii shows the departure date as 12 November, 1844.
  • Balyuzi, B57 says "in the month of September.
Iran, Persia, Saudi Arabia, Shíráz, Búshihr, Mecca Bab, Quddus, Haji Mulla Muhammad-`Aliy-i-Barfurushi, Ethiopian, servant, Mubarak
1844. c. Dec The Báb and His companions arrive in Jiddah after a rough sea voyage of two months. There they put on the garb of the pilgrim and proceed to Mecca by camel. [B71; DB129, 132]
  • See B69–71 and DB130–1 for a description of the voyage.
  • Quddús walks from Jiddah to Mecca. [B71, DB132, GPB9]
Jiddah, Saudi Arabia, Mecca, Saudi arabia Bab, sea voyage, Mecca, Quddus
1945 Feb - Mar The Báb returns to Búshihr. He sends Quddús to Shíráz with a letter addressed to His uncle Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Alí who embraces his Nephew's Cause, the first, after the Letters of the Living, to do so. The Báb also entrusts Quddús with a treatise for him entitled dhasá'il-i-Sab`ih (`the Seven Qualifications') and promises him his impending martyrdom. (He gave is life as on of the Seven Martyrs of Tehran, see 1850 19 or 20 Feb.) [B77–8; DB142–3; MS2]
  • B77 and GPB10 say the Báb arrived in Búshihr in February - March.
  • SSBH1p23 and BBRSM216 say 15 May, 1845.
  • Before leaving on pilgrimage the Báb had stated that He would return to Karbalá and asked His followers to congregate there. An explanation in part for the large following that have gathered there is the messianic expectation associated with the year 1261, a thousand years after the Twelfth Imám's disappearance in 260 A.H.. This gathering is perceived as a threat by the authorities. [BBRSM15, 45, 216; DB157–8; SBBH1p23, 32]
  • The Báb changes His plan to meet His followers in Karbalá and instructs them to go to Isfahán instead. A number abandon Him, regarding this as badá', `alteration of divine will'. [BBRSM16; DB158; MH125; SBBH23]
  • Some speculate that He did not go to Karbalá to avoid conflict and sedition. Many Bábís had gone to Karbalá armed in preparation for holy war, `jihád'. [BBRSM21–2; SBBH1:23]
Búshihr, Iran, Shíráz Bab, Quddus, uncle, Haji Mirza Siyyid `Ali, dhasa'il-i-Sab`ih, Seven Qualifications, martyrdom
1845. Jun Quddús meets Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas in Shíráz. Mullá Sádiq, following instructions received in a Tablet from the Báb, sounds the call to prayer using the additional words provided by the Báb. [B78; DB144]
  • This provokes a public commotion. [B78; DB145; BBRSM16]
Shíráz, Iran Quddus, Mulla Sadiq-i-Muqaddas, Tablet Bab
1845. 23 Jun The governor of Fárs, Husayn Khán, has Quddús, Mullá Sádiq-i-Khurásání, Mullá `Alí-Akbar-i-Ardistání and Mullá Abú-Tálib arrested, tortured and expelled from Shíráz. [B78; BBR69; BW18:380; DB145–8; GPB11, BBR1pxxviii]
  • Note: B78 says that Mullá Abú-Tálib was not among the group.
  • Note: DB146 note2 says "According to A. L. M. Nicolas’ “Siyyid ‘Alí-Muhammad dit le Báb” (footnote 175, p. 225), this meeting took place on August 6, 1845 A.D."
  • The London Times of November 1st and November 19, 1945 reports that this took place on the 23rd of June. [B76, BBR1p69,82]
  • The governor of Fárs, Hasayn Khán orders that the Báb be arrested and brought to Shíráz. [B84; BW18:380; DB148–50; GPB11]
  • Búshihr,
  • The Báb leaves Búshihr for Shíráz on an unknown date. [B 105]
Fárs, Iran, Shíráz, Iran, Búshihr, governor, Husayn Khan, Quddus, Mulla Sadiq-i-Khurasani, Mulla `Ali-Akbar-i-Ardistani, Mulla Abu-Talib, arrest, torure, Husayn Khan
1845. 1 Nov The Times of London carries an item on the arrest and torture of Quddús, Mullá Sádiq-i-Khurásání, Mullá `Alí-Akbar-i-Ardistání and Mullá Abú-Tálib in Shíráz in June. This is the first known printed reference to the Revelation. A similar article is reprinted on 19 November. [B76–7; BBR4, 69] Shíráz, Iran, London, England arrest, torture, Quddus, Mulla Sadiq-i-Khurasani, Mulla `Ali-Akbar-i-Ardistani, Mulla Abu-Talib First newspaper story of the events of the Bábí Faith
1848. late Spring Mullá Husayn goes to the house of Quddús in Bárfurúsh, Mázindarán, and realizes that the `hidden treasure' is his recognition of the station of Quddús. [DB261–5; MH148–54]

Mullá Husayn proceeds to Mashhad and builds a `Bábíyyih', a centre for the Bábís, as instructed by Quddús. He and Quddús take up residence in it and begin to teach the Bábí religion.

  • See DB288–90 and MH158–68 for the result of this effort.
  • Among those who come to the Bábíyyih is Sám Khán, the chief of police. [MH158]
  • See MH156 for a picture of the Bábíyyih.
Bárfurúsh, Mázindarán, Mashhad, Iran, Persia Mulla Husayn, Quddus, hidden treasure, Babiyyih, Babi, Centre, Center, Sam Khan
1848. summer Quddús leaves Mashhad for Badasht. Mullá Husayn is prevented from attending. He is invited to stay in the camp of the soldiers garrisoned in the area to control a local revolt. The invitation amounts to a confinement but he is able to teach the soldiers while so confined. [BKG50; DB290; MH165–6]
  • MH160 says that it was at this time that the Báb wrote to all the believers in Persia and Iraq instructing them to go to the aid of Mullá Husayn and Quddús in the `Land of Khá (Khurásán). DB269ff implies this letter was written in 1845.
Mashhad, Badasht, Iran, Persia Quddus, Mulla Husayn, soldiers, confinement
1848. c. 26 Jun - 17 Jul The Conference of Badasht

Bahá'u'lláh, who hosts and directs the event, rents three gardens, one for Quddús, another for Táhirih and the third for Himself. [B168; GPB31, 68; MF200]

The conference coincides with the removal of the Báb to Tabríz for interrogation in July.

It is held near the village of Sháhrúd in Semnan province. [BBRSM23; DB292]

  • `The primary purpose of that gathering was to implement the revelation of the Bayán by a sudden, a complete and dramatic break with the past — with its order, its ecclesiasticism, its traditions, and ceremonials. The subsidiary purpose of the conference was to consider the means of emancipating the Báb from His cruel confinement in Chihríq.' [BBRSM23; BKG43; DB297–8; GPB31, 157]
  • B167 says that the Bábís did not come to Badasht to make plans to rescue the Báb. It is attended by 81 believers and lasts 22 days. [BKG43–4, 46; DB292–3; GPB312]
  • Each day Bahá'u'lláh reveals a Tablet, and on each believer He confers a new name. Each day an Islamic law is abrogated. [DB293; GPB32]
  • See BKG44–5, DB293 and MF201 for the story of the central event, Táhirih's confrontation with Quddús and removal of her veil.
  • Also see B167–9; BBD31–2; BBRSM46; BKG43–7; DB292–8; RB2:353.
Badasht, Tabríz, Sháhrúd, Chihríq, Iran, Persia Conference Badasht, Baha'u'llah, Quddus, Tahirih, Bab, Bayan
1848 c. Jul Quddús is arrested and taken to Sárí where he is placed under house arrest in the home of Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, a leading cleric. [B171; BKG50; DB300]

Táhirih is arrested and is later taken to Tihrán where she is held in the home of Mahmúd Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, until her martyrdom in August 1852.

Mullá Husayn leaves the army camp near Mashhad where he has been a guest of a brother of the Sháh. He plans to make a pilgrimage to Karbalá. While making preparations for the journey he receives a Tablet from the Báb instructing him to go to Mázindarán to help Quddús, carrying a Black Standard before him. He is also instructed to wear the Báb's own green turban and to take the new name Siyyid `Alí. [B171; BKG50; DB324; MH174]

Sárí, Tehran, Tihrán, Mashhad, Mázindarán, Iran, Persia, Karbalá, Iraq Quddus, arrest, Mirza Muhammad-Taqi, Tahirih, Mahmud Khan, Kalantar, Mulla Husayn, Shah, pilgrimage, Tablet, Bab, Black Standard, green turban, new name, Siyyid `Ali
1848. Oct - May 1849 The siege of the Shrine of Shaykh Tabarsí.
  • See BBD217, BW18:381, DB345–413 and MH221–85 for chronicle of events.
  • The episode lasts seven months. [BBRSM26; BW18:381]
  • See BBRSM26 for the Bábís' intentions.
  • See DB343–5 for pictures and DB348, MH217–18 for sketches.
  • See MH212 for a diagram of the fortifications.
  • Bahá'u'lláh visits the fortress and approves the fortifications. [BKG51, DB347–9; MH227]
  • He advises Mullá Husayn to seek the release of Quddús. Mullá Husayn sets out immediately and secures the release of Quddús, who has been in detention for 95 days. [B173; BKG51; DB349–50; MH227]
  • Quddús arrives towards the end of the year. [B173]
  • See DB352–4 for the entry of Quddús into Shaykh Tabarsí. His arrival brings the number of Bábís in the shrine to 313. [DB354]
  • Note: BBRSM26 and MH233–4 say that the number of defendants rose to 500–600 individuals.
    • 37 per cent of the identified participants were of the `ulamá class. [BBRSM50]
    • The siege begins with the arrival of `Abdu'lláh Khán's forces on 19 December.
Iran, Persia Shrine, Shaykh Tabarsi, Babis', Babi, Baha'u'llah, fortress, Mulla Husayn, Quddus Le Journal de Constantinople 1848-1851 (second entry dated March 24 1849 and third dated March 29 1849)
1848. 21 Dec The Bábís, led by Quddús, make a mounted attack on the army. All of the officers are killed including `Abdu'lláh Khán. A number of soldiers are drowned as they retreat into the Tálár River. About 430 soldiers are killed but no Bábís; one Bábí is wounded. [BW18:381; DB361–3; MH243–6]
  • For the next 19 days the defenders dig a moat. [DB363]
Persia, Iran Bábís, Bábí, Quddús, attack, `Abdu'lláh Khán, Tálár River
1849. 11 Jan Quddús and Mullá Husayn lead a night attack on the encamped army. Two hundred and two Bábís disperse the camp. [BW18:381; BD365; MH254]

DB 368 says this occurred on 21 December 1848.

  • Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá flees barefoot. [DB366]
  • Mullá Husayn's sword is broken in the attack and he uses Quddús'. His companions bring him the abandoned sword of Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá. [DB367; MH257]

    At daybreak the soldiers mount a counter-attack. [DB367; MH258–9]

  • In this encounter Quddús is wounded in the mouth and is rescued by Mullá Husayn who disperses the enemy using the sword of Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá in one hand and that of Quddús in the other. [B174; DB367; MH258–9]
Persia, Iran Quddus, Mulla Husayn, attack, army, Babis
1849. 9 May Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá sends an emissary to the fort to invite two representatives to his camp to conduct negotiations. On the strength of assurances written on a Qur'án, Quddús leaves the fort and enters the Prince's camp. [B175; BW18:381; DB399–400] Persia, Iran Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá, Quddús, fort
1849. 11 May Quddús is taken to Bárfurúsh and handed over to the priests. [DB408] Bárfurúsh, Iran, Persia Quddús
1849. 16 May Quddús is tortured and, in the public square, he is struck down with an axe, dismembered and burnt. [B176; BBD191; BW18:381; DB409–13; MH283–4]

  • As he dies he begs God's forgiveness for his foes. [DB411; MH284]
  • His remains are gathered and buried by a friend. [B176; DB413]
  • See GPB49–50 for the rank and titles of Quddús.
Bárfurúsh, Iran, Persia Quddus, torture, death, burial
1849. c. Jun - Jul The Báb, in prison in the castle of Chihríq, learns of the massacre at Shaykh Tabarsí and the martyrdom of Quddús. He is so overcome with grief that He is unable to write or dictate for a period of six months. [DB411, 430]
  • DB430 says he languished in despondency and sorrow for five months.
Chihríq, Iran, Persia Bab, prison, massacre, Shaykh Tabarsi, martyr, Quddus
1849. 26 Nov The Báb sends Mullá Ádí-Guzal to the graves of Quddús and Mullá Husayn to make a pilgrimage on His behalf [DB431] Persia, Iran Báb, Mullá Ádí-Guzal, grave, Quddús, Mullá Husayn, pilgrimage
2004 Feb In Babul, Iran, the destruction of the gravesite of Quddús, a house-like structure that marked the resting place of Mullá Muhammad-'Ali Barfurushi, was began and halted temporarily after local Bahá'ís demanded to see a legal permit for the demolition work. Later it was discovered that the dismantling of the gravesite had continued surreptitiously over a period of days until the structure was entirely demolished despite protests from Bahá'ís at the local, national, and international levels.
  • This measure came soon after the international community failed to offer a resolution on the human rights situation in Iran at the United Nations. [One Country Vol.15 Issue 4]
Babul, Iran Quddus, Iranian persecution
2004 Apr The destruction of the gravesite of Mulla Muhammad-'Ali Barfurushi, known as Quddus (The Most Holy). Quddus was the foremost disciple of the Báb, the Prophet-Herald of the Bahá'í Faith. [BWNS293] Iran, Mulla Muhammad-'Ali Barfurushi, Quddus, gravesite
 
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