|1804 - 1813
||Russo-Persian War resulted in a Russian victory. The Battle of Aslan Duz on 31 October 1812 was the turning point in the war, which led to the complete destruction of the Persian army, thus leaving Fath Ali Shah with no other option but to sign the Treaty of Gulistan on 24 October 1813. Numerically, Persian forces had a considerable advantage during the war, a ratio of 5 to 1 over their Russian adversaries, however, the Persian forces were technologically backwards and poorly trained - a problem that the Persian government failed to recognize.
With the Treaty of Gulistan Persia ceded what is now Georgia, Dagestan, parts of northern Armenia, and most of what now comprises modern Azerbaijan to Russia.
||Gulistan; Aslan Duz; Iran; Russia
||Russo-Persian War; Treaty of Gulistan
|1845. 28 Jun
||Prince Dolgorukov is appointed Russian ambassador to Tihrán. He was previously first secretary of the Russian legation at Istanbul. He arrives in Tihrán in January 1846.
||Constantinople; Istanbul; Turkey; Tihran; Iran; Russia
||Prince Dolgorukov; Ambassadors; History (general)
||Prince Dolgorukov arrives in Tihrán as the Russian ambassador.
||Prince Dolgorukov; Russia; Ambassadors; History (general)
|1848. 9 Apr
||The Báb is removed from Máh-Kú.
- Hájí Mírzá Áqásí is alarmed by the developments at Máh-Kú and orders that the Báb be moved to Chihríq. [B131; DB259; GPB1920]
- The Báb's presence in Máh-Kú, so close to the Russian frontier, is also a cause for concern for the Russian government. Prince Dolgorukov, the Russian Minister in Tihrán, asks that He be removed. It is likely that this request was made in 1847 but not carried out until now. [B131; BBR72; TN13]
- The Báb had been in Máh-Kú for nine months. [DB259]
|Mah-Ku; Chihriq; Tihran; Iran
||Bab, Life of; Haji Mirza Aqasi; Russia; Prince Dolgorukov
||Bahá'u'lláh is in Bandar-Jaz. An edict comes from Muhammad Sháh ordering His arrest.
- The Russian agent at Bandar-Jaz offers Him passage on a Russian ship at anchor there but He refuses. [BKG50]
- Birth of Hájí Mírzá Hasan, Adíb, Hand of the Cause and Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Táliqán.
|Bandar-Jaz; Taliqan; Iran
||Bahaullah, Life of; Muhammad Shah; Russian agent; Russia; Adib (Haji Mirza Hasan Talaqani); Hands of the Cause; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
|1850. 10 Jul
||The Russian Consul has an artist make a sketch of the body of the Báb. [B159; DB518; TN28]
- See BBR43 for details of the drawing made by Consul Bakulin.
||Russian consul; Consuls; Bab, Sketches of; Martyrdom of the Bab
|1852. 16 Aug
||Bahá'u'lláh rides out towards the headquarters of the imperial army. He stops at Zargandih at the home of Mírzá Majíd Khán-i-Áhí, secretary to the Russian legation. [BKG77; DB603]
- Bahá'u'lláh is invited to remain in this home. [DB603]
- The Sháh is informed of Bahá'u'lláh's arrival and sends an officer to the legation to demand the delivery of Bahá'u'lláh into his hands. The Russian minister, Prince Dolgorukov, refuses and suggests that Bahá'u'lláh be sent to the home of the Grand Vizier. [BKG77; DB603]
- Bahá'u'lláh is arrested. [BKG77; DB603]
||Bahaullah, Life of; Mirza Majid Khan-i-Ahi; Russian; Shahs; Prince Dolgorukov; Grand Vizier; Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on
||Bahá'u'lláh is released from the Síyáh-Chál.
- This was owing to: the efforts of the Russian Minister Prince Dolgorukov; the public confession of the would-be assassin; the testimony of competent tribunals; the efforts of Bahá'u'lláh's own kinsmen; and the sacrifices of those followers imprisoned with Him. [GPB104–5]
- See CH43–4 for the role of the Russian Consul in securing His release. He invoking his full power as an envoy of Russia, called out the Sháh and his court for their barbaric behaviour.
- See BKG101–2, CH44 and DB647–8 for the physical condition of Bahá'u'lláh on release.
- See BKG101, DB648–9 and GPB105 for the words of Bahá'u'lláh to Mírzá Áqá Khán on His release.
- The Russian minister invited Bahá'u'lláh to go to Russia but Bahá'u'lláh chose instead to go to Iraq. It may be that He refused the offer because He knew that acceptance of such help would have been misrepresented as having political implications. [BBIC:8; DB650]
||Bahaullah, Life of; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Russia; Minister; Prince Dolgorukov; Mirza Áqa Khan
|1853. 12 Jan
||Bahá'u'lláh and His family depart for Baghdád after a one month respite in the home of his half-brother Mírzá Ridá-Qulí. During the three-month journey Bahá'u'lláh is accompanied by His wife Navváb, (Who was six weeks from giving birth upon departure.) His eldest son ‘Abdu'l-Bahá (9), Bahíyyih Khánum (7) and two of His brothers, Mírzá Músá and Mírzá Muhammad-Qulí. Mírzá Mihdí (2), was very delicate was left behind with the grandmother of Àsíyih Khánum. They are escorted by an officer of the Persian imperial bodyguard and an official representing the Russian legation. [BKG102–5; GPB108]
- CH44–5 says the family had ten days after Bahá'u'lláh's release to prepare for the journey to Iraq.
- ‘Never had the fortunes of the Faith proclaimed by the Báb sunk to a lower ebb'. [DB651]
- This exile compares to the migration of Muhammad, the exodus of Moses and the banishment of Abraham. [GPB107–8]
- See BKG104 and GPB108–9 for conditions on the journey.
- Bahá'u'lláh's black servant, Isfandíyár, who had managed to evade capture during this dark period, after he had paid all the debts to various merchants, went to Mazandaran where he was engaged by the Governor. Years later when his master made a pilgrimage to Iraq Isfandíyár met Bahá'u'lláh and stated his preference to return to His service. Bahá'u'lláh said that he owed his master a debt of gratitude and could not leave his employ without his permission. It was not granted and Isfandíyár returned to Mazandaran and stayed with the Governor until his passing. [PUP428; SoW IX 28 April, 1918 p38-39]
- Also see
A Gift of Love Offered to the Greatest Holy Leaf (Gloria Faizi, 1982), by Hand of the Cause Abu'l-Qasim Faizi, which includes a brief summary of the character of Isfandiyar and his services to the Holy Family on pages 14-16.
|Íran; Persia; Baghdad; Iraq
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mirza Rida-Quli; Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Abdul-Baha, Life of; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Mirza Musa; Mirza Muhammad-Quli; Russia; Isfandiyar
||French diplomat Joseph Comte de Gobineau published Religions et les Philosophies dans l'Asie Centrale, over half of which is devoted to a study of the Bábí movement. This work attracted a number of other European intellectuals, including E. G. Browne of Cambridge, who eventually became the most prolific western writer and researcher of the Bábi religion. [BBR17]
Mírzá Kazem-Beg of St Petersburg University publishes Bab Babidy, the first Western book written entirely on the subject of the Bábí religion. [BBR26]
|Paris; France; St Petersburg; Russia
||Comte de Gobineau; Babi studies; Mirza Kazem-Beg; First publications
|1870 19 Jul – 1871 10 May
||Franco-Prussian War was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia. The conflict was caused by Prussian ambitions to extend German unification and French fears of the shift in the European balance of power that would result if the Prussians succeeded.
- See KA90 for Bahá'u'lláh's reference to this and KAN121 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's interpretation.
||Franco-Prussian War; War
|1877 – 1878
||War between Russia and Turkey, freeing some 11 million people from the Turkish yoke. Adrianople is occupied. [BKG262; GPB225]
- See BKG460 for the Siege of Plevna.
|Edirne (Adrianople); Plevna; Turkey; Russia
||Wars; History (general)
|1902 15 Sep
||Mírzá `Azízu'lláh visits Count Leo Tolstoy, speaking to him at length about the history and teachings of the Faith and of the station of Bahá'u'lláh. [EB185; RB3:172-3]
- For Mírzá `Azízu'lláh's own account of the interview see EB186–9.
- See BW10:569–70 for Tolstoy's response to the Faith.
||Mirza Azizullah; Leo Tolstoy
||Upheaval at Rasht. [BBRXXX, 373; BW18:385]
Upheaval at Isfahán. [BW18:385]
- See BW18:385 for a chronicle of events.
- See BW18:385 for a chronicle of events.
- The Bahá'ís take sanctuary at the Russian Consulate. [BBR376]
- For Western accounts of the episode see BBR377–85.
|Rasht; Isfahan; Iran
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution; Rasht upheaval; Isfahan upheaval; Upheavals; Russian consulate
||Russian poet Isabella Grinevskaya wrote the play "Báb" which was performed in St. Petersburg in 1904 and again in 1914 and once again in 1917. It was translated into French and Tatar
(and later into German by Friedrich Fiedler) and lauded by Leo Tolstoy and other reviewers at the time. It is reported to have been Tolstoy's first knowledge of the Faith.
In 1910-11 she spent two weeks in Ramleh as a guest of `Abdu'l-Bahá and after she returned to Russia she had several letters and Tablets from Him.
- Immediately upon her return from Egypt in January of 1911 she began work on the book "A Journey in the Countries of the Sun", an account of her visit with 'Abdu'l-Bahá. This work was not completed until 1914 because in the summer of 1912 she made a trip to Paris to work with the French translator of "Báb", Madame Halperin, and when she returned to Leningrad she began work on the drama entitled Bahá'u'lláh. It was published in Leningrad in 1912 but was never performed. "Journey", a book of some 550 pages did not get published because of the disruption cause by the advent of the war. See BW6p707-712 for the article "Russia's Cultural Contribution to the Bahá'i Faith" by Martha Root.
- For a photo see BW6p709 or here.
- Also see Notes on the Babi and Bahá'í Religions in Russia and its territories by Graham Hassall.
- Isabella Grinevskaya (the pen name of Beyle (Berta) Friedberg), born in Grodno in 1964, died in Istanbul in 1944. [Revolvy]
|St Petersburg; Ramleh; Egypt; Istanbul; Turkey; Grodno; Russia
||Isabella Grinevskaya; Leo Tolstoy; Publications; Plays; Arts
|1903 28 May
||A large mob gather outside the Russian Consulate in Isfahán and beat the Bahá'ís as they leave. One Bahá'í dies. [BW18:385]
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Russian consulate; Persecution, Mobs
||Opposition to the Faith begins in Russia. [BW3:35; BBR473]
- For details see BW3:34–43.
|Russia; Soviet Union
||Persecution, Soviet Union; Persecution
||Elinore Putney arrives in the Aleutian Islands and is named a Knight of Bahá’u‘lláh. [BW13:449]
||Aleutian Islands; Alaska; United States; Russia
||Knights of Bahaullah
|1989 18 Dec - 1990 2 Jan
||During the Youth Winter School in Traben-Trarback participants from 12 countries including East Germany, Romania, Hungary and the Soviet Union gather for the first time since the Second World War. [BINS215:2]
||Traben-Trarback; Germany; Eastern Europe; Soviet Union; Russia
||Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; Conferences, International; Winter schools; First conferences
|1990 24 Jan – 5 Feb
||The first All-Union Bahá'í Conference was held in Moscow with 250 people gathered from all over the Soviet Union and from 17 other countries. This was the first national Bahá'í conference held in the USSR in about 60 years. [BINS224:8; VV112]
||Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, National; First conferences
|1990 24 Mar
||Mr. and Mrs. Abbas Katirai opened the Sakhalin Islands and became Knights of Bahá'u'lláh after 35 years of pioneering in Japan. This last goal was achieved 37 years after the Guardian had designated it as a goal of the Ten Year Crusade. [DM345] [AWH73] [VV112]
||Sakhalin Island; Russia; Japan
||Knights of Bahaullah
||The re-formation of the Spiritual Assembly of Moscow with Hand of the Cause 'Alí-Akbar Furútan in attendance. [VV111-2]
||Local Spiritual Assemblies; Re-formation
||The launching of a subsidiary Two Year Plan for the Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc countries. [Ridván Message 1992]. Goals were:
- attraction of numerous supporters
- great increase in the translation, publication and dissemination of Bahá'í literature
- the extension of the administrative order in the region by the erection of local and national spiritual assemblies [AWH71]
|Eastern Europe; Soviet Union; Russia
||Teaching Plans, National
||Abbas and Rezvanieh Katirai became the last Knights of Bahá'u'lláh to be named when they pioneered to Sakhalin Island, the last remaining territory named by Shoghi Effendi in his Ten Year Crusade. [Russia by Moojan Momen]
||Sakhalin Island; Russia; Japan
||Knights of Bahaullah
||Nicolai Gejnze, from Bishkek and a crew member in one of three boats in which Bahá'ís made a trip down the Volga River in June and July 1990, enrols, the first person from Kirgizia known to have become a Bahá'í.
||Bishkek; Kirgizia; Kyrgyz; Central Asia; Volga River; Russia
|1990 8 Sep
||The first local spiritual assembly on Sakhalin Island is formed in Yuzhno. [BINS232:5]
||Yuzhno; Sakhalin Island; Russia
||Local Spiritual Assemblies
|1990 8 - 9 Dec
||The first All-Union Bahá'í Consultative Conference was held in Moscow attended by Bahá'ís from every part of the Soviet Union, members of three Continental Boards of Counsellors and representatives of all those National Spiritual Assemblies having responsibility for the work of the Faith in that area. [BINS 238:6] [CBN Mar91Vol3no8] [VV112]
||Conferences, Bahai; First conferences
||The former Spiritual Assembly of the USSR with its seat in Moscow became the Regional Spiritual Assembly of Russia, Georgia and Armenia. [CBN Jan92 p2, CBN Jan91 pg2, BW92–3:119; VV121]
||Russia; Georgia; Armenia
||NSA; Regional National Spiritual Assembly
|1992 23 – 26 Nov
||The Second World Congress was held in New York City to commemorate the centenary of the passing of Bahá'u'lláh and the completion of the Six Year Plan. It was attended by some 28,000 Bahá'ís from some 180 countries. [BBD240] [VV136-141] [BW92-3p98-101, 136]
- Nine auxiliary conferences were held in Buenos Aires, Sydney, New Delhi, Nairobi, Panama City, Bucharest, Moscow, Apia and Singapore. [BINS283:3-4]
- For pictures see [BINS283:9-10], [BW92-3p100] and [VV136-141]
- "New York will become a blessed spot from which the call to steadfastness in the Covenant and Testament of God will go forth to every part of the world." - 'Abdu'l-Bahá [AWH77-8 90-1 105-6]
- On the 25th of November a concert was held in Carnegie Hall as a birthday tribute to Dizzy Gillespie called "Celebrating the Bahá'í Vision of World Peace". [VV141]
- On the 26th of November Bahá'ís around the world are linked together by a live satellite broadcast serving the second Bahá'í World Congress, the nine auxiliary conferences and the Bahá'í World Centre and is received by those with access to satellite dish antennas. [BINS283:1–5, 8; BINS286:10; BINS287:4]
- For the message of the Universal House of Justice read on the satellite link see BW92–3:37–4.
- For accounts of personal experiences by some of the attendees see In the Eyes of His Beloved Servants: The Second Bahá'í World Congress and Holy Year by J. Michael Kafes.
|New York; United States; Buenos Aires; Argentina; Sydney; Australia; New Delhi; India; Nairobi; Kenya; Panama; Bucharest; Romania; Moscow; Russia; Apia; Samoa; Singapore
||Dizzy Gillespie; World Congresses; Carnegie Hall; Centenaries; Bahaullah, Ascension of
|1993 29 - 31 Oct
||The founding conference of the Association for Bahá'í Studies in Russia is held in St Petersburg. [BINS305:5]
||St Petersburg; Russia
||Bahai Studies, Associations for; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences
|1994 Jul 20 – 25
||The European Bahá'í Youth Council sponsors five regional ‘Shaping Europe' conferences, in Berlin, Bucharest, St Petersburg, Barcelona and Wolverhampton, United Kingdom. [BINS323:3–5; BW94–5:177–8, 189]
||Berlin; Germany; Bucharest; Romania; St Petersburg; Russia; Barcelona; Portugal; Wolverhampton; United Kingdom; Europe
||Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth
|1999 19 Jan
||The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Russia formally received its re-registration documents under the new law on religious organizations that was passed by the Russian Parliament in the fall of 1997.
- Formal recognition as a “centralized religious organization” entitled the community to full rights to teach and proclaim the Faith, publish and import literature, rent and own property, invite foreign nationals etc. [From “European Bulletin” Issue 60 February 1999]
||NSA; Russian Parliament