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Search for tag "Sháh"

from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1771 Birth of Fath-`Alí Khán (later Sháh) in Shíráz. Shiraz; Iran Fath-Ali Khan; Fath-Ali Shah
1798 c. Mar Áqá Muhammad Khán, leader of the Qájárs, proclaims himself Sháh of Persia; beginning of Qájár dynasty. Persia; Iran Áqa Muhammad Khan; Qajars; Qajar dynasty; Shah
1797. 17 Jun Assassination of Muhammad Sháh in Ádhirbáyján. Ádhirbáyján Muhammad Sháh
1808. 5 Jan Birth of Muhammad Mírzá (later Sháh), son of Crown Prince `Abbás Mírzá and grandson of Fath-`Alí Sháh. Iran Muhammad Mírzá; `Abbás Mírzá; Fath-`Alí Sháh
1831 17 Jul Birth of Násiri'd-Dín Mírzá, later Sháh. Iran Nasiri'd-Din Mirza; Nasiri'd-Din Shah
1834 9 Sep The end of the reign of Fath-`Alí Sháh and the accession of Muhammad Sháh. [B7; BBD83, 164; BBR153, 482]
  • Fifty–three sons and 46 daughters survive Fath-`Alí Sháh. [B7]
  • After his accession Muhammad Sháh executes the Grand Vizier, the Qá'im Máqám, the man who has raised him to the throne. He then installs his tutor, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, to the office (1835). [B10–11]
  • See BBD164 for picture.
  • See B11–122 for the relationship between the Sháh and his new Grand Vizier, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí.
  • For details on the life of Hájí Mírzá Áqásí see BBD19.
Iran; Fath-`Ali Shah; Muhammad Shah; Grand Vizier; Qa'im Maqam; Haji Mirza Áqasi
1842 Birth of Hájí Ákhúnd (Mullá `Alí-Akbar Shahmírzádí), who was named a Hand of the Cause by Bahá'u'lláh. Iran; Persia Haji Ákhund; Mulla `Ali-Akbar Shahmirzadi; Hand of the Cause
1844 Jul - Aug The intention of the Báb is to introduce the new Revelation slowly so as not to cause estrangement. [BBRSM14–16, 36; SWB119, BBR2p36]
  • To Mullá Husayn He had given the task of delivering a Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh in Tihrán and going to the court of the Sháh to apprise him of the Báb's cause. Mullá Husayn is not able to gain access to the Sháh. [B48–57; BBRSM15 BKG32–3; CH22–3; DB85-87, 97; MH90–2, 102]
  • Mullá Husayn carries to Tihrán a Tablet revealed by the Báb for Muhammad Sháh. This is the first of a number of unsuccessful attempts to enlist his aid. [BBRSM20–1; MH102; SWB13]
  • Note: MH118-119 and DB127-128 indicate that Mullá Husayn had been in Tehran "between the months of Jámádí and Rajab". The first day of Jámádí, 1260 corresponds to 18 June, and the last day of Rajab to 15 August, 1844.
  • See RB2:303, `The Báb … sent Tablets to only two monarchs of His day — Muhammad Sháh of Persia and Sultán `Abdu'l-Majíd of Turkey.'
  • From Shiraz he journeys north to Isfahán where Mullá Ja`far, the sifter of wheat, is the first to embrace the Cause of the Báb in that city. Mullá Husayn then travels to Káshán, about 130 miles from Isfahán. He then goes to Qum, another 100 miles from Káshán. After Qum he goes to Tihrán. [MH98–101, DB99]
  • See B53–6; DB104–7, MH104–110 for the delivery of the Báb's Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh. Mullá Husayn does not meet Bahá'u'lláh on this occasion.
  • On receiving the Tablet of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh accepts His Cause. He immediately journeys to Mázindarán, His native province, to promote the Cause of the Báb. He returns after the death of the Shah in 1948 [BKG39–40; BW8:782; DB109; TN35, SoB6, BPP45, 48, SoG4]
  • Mullá Husayn leaves for Khurásán, as he had been instructed, winning supporters for the Báb's Cause while there he writes to the Báb regarding these new believers and Bahá'u'lláh's immediate response to the Báb's Revelation. [B56, DB128–9, MH118]
  • See MH121–2 for a discussion of the speed of Mullá Husayn's journey before the letter was dispatched to the Báb. It assumes that Mullá Husayn departed after The Báb met with all the Letters of the Living (date not before 2 July, 1844.) In fact both Mullá Husayn and Mullá 'Alíy-Bastámí had been dispatched before this meeting. [DB85-86, 92, HotD46]
  • The Báb addresses the Letters of the Living, giving each a specific task. [DB92–4; MH82–6; SBBH1:19] .
Iran; Persia; Turkey; Kashan; Isfahan; Tihran; Tehran; Mazindaran; Khurasan; Qum Bab; Letters of the Living; Mulla Husayn; Baha'u'llah; Tablet Baha'u'llah; Shah; Mulla Ja`far; sifter of wheat; Muhammad Shah; Sultan Abdu'l-Majid; Tablet Bab
1845. Jul and months following The Báb is told to attend a Friday gathering at the Mosque of Vakíl to appease the hostility and the curiosity of some of the residents of Shíráz and to clarify His position. The exact date of His attendance is unknown. He makes a public pronouncement that He is neither the representative of the Hidden Imám nor the gate to him, that is, His station is higher. [B94–8; DB151–7]
  • He is released to the custody of His uncle, Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'Alí. [DB151, LTDT13]
  • see DB152 for pictures of the above mosque.
  • Upon hearing the news of the confinement of the Báb, Mullá Husayn and his companions leave Isfahán where they have been awaiting further instructions and travel to Shíráz. Mullá Husayn is able to meet secretly with the Báb several times in the house of His uncle. The Báb sends word to the remainder of His followers in Isfahán to leave and travel to Shíráz. [B102–3; MH128–9]
  • After a time the presence of Mullá Husayn in Shíráz threatens to cause civil unrest. The Báb instructs him to go to Khurásán via Yazd and Kirmán and tells the rest of the companions to return to Isfahán. [B90, 102–3; DB170; MH130]
  • This time, described as the `most fecund period' of the Báb's ministry, marks the birth of the Bábí community. [B89–90]
  • The Sháh sends one of the most learned men in Persia, Siyyid Yahyáy-i-Dárábí, surnamed Vahíd, to investigate the claims of the Báb. He becomes a follower of the Báb. As a result of his conversion most of the inhabitants of the town of Nayríz later become Bábís. [B90–4; BBD216; BBRSM41; CH21; DB171–7; GPB11–12; TN7–8]
  • Another learned scholar, Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Zanjání, surnamed Hujjat, becomes a believer after reading only one page of the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá'. Several thousand of his fellow townspeople become Bábís. [B100–2; BBD111; BBRSM16; GPB12]
  • Mírzá Ahmad-i-Azghandí, yet another learned man, who had compiled traditions and prophecies concerning the expected Revelation, becomes a believer as well. [GPB12–13]
Shíráz; Isfahán; Khurásán; Yazd; Kirmán; Nayríz; Iran; Persia; Karbalá; Iraq Bab; Mosque Vakil; Hidden Imam; Mulla Husayn; uncle; Babi; Shah; Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi; Vahid; scholar; Muhammad-`Aliy-i-Zanjani; Hujjat; Qayyumu'l-Asma'; Mirza Ahmad-i-Azghandi; learned; Tahirih; Shaykhi; Shi`ism; Karim Khan; Shaykhi; Ishaqu'l-Batil; Crushing Falsehood; Shaykhism
1846. c. Feb - Mar 1846 The Sháh had already instructed Manúchihr Khán to send the Báb to Tihrán. The governor, fearing for the safety of the Báb, devises a scheme to have the Báb escorted from Isfahán but returned secretly to his own residence. The Báb remains there for four months with only three of His followers apprised of His whereabouts. These four months are described as having been the calmest in His Ministry. [B113–16; DB209–11, 213; TN9–11]

The governor offers all of his resources to try to win the Sháh over to His Cause but the Báb declines his offer saying that the Cause will triumph through the `poor and lowly'. [B115–16; DB212–13]

Tihrán; Tehran; Isfahán; Iran Shah; Manuchihr Khan; Bab; wife; Fatimih
1846. 23 Sep The governor, Husayn Khán, threatened by the Báb's rising popularity, orders His arrest. The chief constable, `Abdu'l-Hamíd Khán, takes the Báb into custody and escorts Him to the governor's home but finds it abandoned. He takes the Báb to his own home and learns that a cholera epidemic has swept the city and that his sons have been stricken. At the chief constable's insistence the Báb cures the boys by requesting they drink some of the water with which He has washed His own face. `Abdu'l-Hamíd resigns his post and begs the governor to release the Báb. He agrees on condition the Báb leaves Shíráz. The incident proves to be Husayn Khán's undoing: the Sháh dismisses him from office shortly after. [B104–5; BBRSM55; DB194–7; GPB13; TN9]
  • See BBR170–1 and DB197 for the fate of Husayn Khán.
  • DB196–7 says `Abdu'l-Hamíd Khán had only one ill son.
Shíráz; Iran; Persia Husayn Khan; governor; Bab; `Abdu'l-Hamid Khan; cholera; epidemic; Shah
1847 Spring - Summer Táhirih's activities in Iraq so alarm some Bábís of Kázimayn that they agitate against her. Siyyid `Alí Bishr writes to the Báb in Máh-Kú on their behalf. The Báb replies praising Táhirih, causing the Kázimayn Bábís to withdraw from the Faith. [B 163]
  • Among those Táhirih meets in Baghdád is Hakím Masíh, a Jewish doctor who years later becomes the first Bahá'í of Jewish background. [B165]
  • Táhirih is sent back to Persia by Najíb Páshá. She is accompanied by a number of Bábís; they make a number of stops along the way, enrolling supporters for the Cause of the Báb. [B163–4; BBRSM216]
  • Ma'ani says Táhirih left Baghdád early in 1847.
  • In Kirand 1,200 people are reported to have volunteered to follow her. [B164 DB272; TN20]
  • B164 says the number is 12,000; DB272 says it was 1,200.
  • In Kirmánsháh she is respectfully received by the `ulamá. [B164; DB272]
  • Táhirih arrives in Hamadán. Her father has sent her brothers here to persuade her to return to her native city of Qazvín. She agrees on condition that she may remain in Hamadán long enough to tell people about the Báb. [B165; DB273]
  • MF180 says Táhirih remained in Hamadán for two months.
  • Ma'ani says Táhirih left Baghdád early in 1847.
  • In Kirand 1,200 people are reported to have volunteered to follow her. [B164 DB272; TN20]
Kázimayn; Baghdád; Iraq; Persia; Iran; Hamadán; Kirmánsháh Tahirih; Babi; Siyyid `Ali Bishr; Bab; Mah-Ku; Hakim Masih; Jewish; doctor; Baha'i; Najib Pasha
1847. Apr The Báb receives a courteous message from the Sháh, who, on the advice of his prime minister, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, assigns Him to the fortress of Máh-Kú in the province of Ádharbáyján. The Báb is taken to Máh-Kú via Tabríz. [B121–2, 124; DB229–32; GPB16; TN11–12] Máh-Kú; Ádharbáyján; Tabríz; Iran; Persia Bab; Shah; prime minister; Haji Mirza Áqasi; fortress Mah-Ku
1847. c. 17 Apr The Báb sends a letter to the Sháh requesting an audience. [B121; DB229; TN11]

Some accounts maintain that the prime minister intervened in the correspondence between the Báb and the Sháh. En route to Tabríz the Báb writes to various people, including the Grand Vizier, the father and uncle of Táhirih, and Hájí Sulaymán Khán. Hujjat learns of this last letter and sends a message to the Bábís of Zanján to rescue the Báb. The Báb declines their assistance. [B124–5; DB235–6]

  • See B126 for an account of the Báb's demonstration to His guards that He could have escaped had He so wished.
Iran; Persia; Tabríz; Zanján; Bab; letter; Shah; prime minister; Bab; Shah; Grand Vizier; Tahirih; Haji Sulayman Khan; Hujjat
1847 Jul to 1848 Apr The people of Máh-Kú show marked hostility to the Báb on His arrival. Later they are won over by His gentle manners and His love. They congregate at the foot of the mountain hoping to catch a glimpse of Him. [B129; DB244–5]

At the beginning of the Báb's incarceration the warden `Alí Khán keeps the Báb strictly confined and allows no visitors. He has a vision of the Báb engaged in prayer outside of the prison gates, knowing that the Báb is inside. He becomes humble and permits the Bábís to visit the Báb. [B129–31; DB245–8]

The winter the Báb spends in Máh-Kú is exceptionally cold. [DB252]

Many of the Báb's writings are revealed in this period. [GPB24–5]

  • It was probably at this time that He addressed all the divines in Persia and Najaf and Karbalá, detailing the errors committed by each one of them. [GPB24]
  • He revealed nine commentaries on the whole of the Qur'an, the fate of which is unknown. [GPB24]
  • He revealed the Persian Bayán, containing the laws and precepts of the new Revelation in some 8,000 verses. It is primarily a eulogy of the Promised One. [BBD44–5; BBRSM32; BW12:91 GPB24–5]
  • The Báb began the composition of the `smaller and less weighty' Arabic Bayán. [B132; BBD45; GPB25]
  • He stated in the Bayán that, to date, He had revealed some 500,000 verses, 100,000 of which had been circulated. [BBRSM32, GPB22]
  • In the Dalá'il-i-Sab'ih (Seven Proofs) the Báb assigned blame to the seven powerful sovereigns then ruling the world and censured the conduct of the Christian divines who, had they recognized Muhammad, would have been followed by the greater part of their co-religionists. [BBD63; BW12:96; GPB26]
  • The Báb wrote His `most detailed and illuminating' Tablet to Muhammad Sháh. [GPB26]
Máh-Kú; Iran; Persia; Najaf; Karbalá; Iraq Bab; `Ali Khan; Babi; commentary; commentaries; Qur'an; Persian Bayan; Arabic Bayan; Bayan; Dala'il-i-Sab'ih; Seven Proofs; Christian; Muhammad; Tablet Muhammad Shah
1848. 10 Apr The Báb is transferred to the fortress of Chihríq, `Jabal-i-Shadíd' (the Grievous Mountain) into the custody of Yahyá Khán, a brother-in-law of Muhammad Sháh. [BR72; BBRSM216; GPB19]
  • He remains here for two years. [BBD55; BBR73; GPB27]
  • He is subjected to a more rigorous confinement than He had been at Máh-Kú and the warden is harsh and unpredictable. [B135; DB302]
Chihríq; Iran; Persia Báb; fortress; Chihríq; `Jabal-i-Shadíd'; Grievous Mountain; Yahyá Khán; Muhammad Sháh; Máh-Kú
1848. c. 26 Jun - 17 Jul The Conference of Badasht

Bahá'u'lláh, who hosts and directs the event, rents three gardens, one for Quddús, another for Táhirih and the third for Himself. [B168; GPB31, 68; MF200]

The conference coincides with the removal of the Báb to Tabríz for interrogation in July.

It is held near the village of Sháhrúd in Semnan province. [BBRSM23; DB292]

  • `The primary purpose of that gathering was to implement the revelation of the Bayán by a sudden, a complete and dramatic break with the past — with its order, its ecclesiasticism, its traditions, and ceremonials. The subsidiary purpose of the conference was to consider the means of emancipating the Báb from His cruel confinement in Chihríq.' [BBRSM23; BKG43; DB297–8; GPB31, 157]
  • B167 says that the Bábís did not come to Badasht to make plans to rescue the Báb. It is attended by 81 believers and lasts 22 days. [BKG43–4, 46; DB292–3; GPB312]
  • Each day Bahá'u'lláh reveals a Tablet, and on each believer He confers a new name. Each day an Islamic law is abrogated. [DB293; GPB32]
  • See BKG44–5, DB293 and MF201 for the story of the central event, Táhirih's confrontation with Quddús and removal of her veil.
  • Also see B167–9; BBD31–2; BBRSM46; BKG43–7; DB292–8; RB2:353.
Badasht; Tabríz; Sháhrúd; Chihríq; Iran; Persia Conference Badasht; Baha'u'llah; Quddus; Tahirih; Bab; Bayan
1848 c. Jul Quddús is arrested and taken to Sárí where he is placed under house arrest in the home of Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, a leading cleric. [B171; BKG50; DB300]

Táhirih is arrested and is later taken to Tihrán where she is held in the home of Mahmúd Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, until her martyrdom in August 1852.

Mullá Husayn leaves the army camp near Mashhad where he has been a guest of a brother of the Sháh. He plans to make a pilgrimage to Karbalá. While making preparations for the journey he receives a Tablet from the Báb instructing him to go to Mázindarán to help Quddús, carrying a Black Standard before him. He is also instructed to wear the Báb's own green turban and to take the new name Siyyid `Alí. [B171; BKG50; DB324; MH174]

Sárí; Tehran; Tihrán; Mashhad; Mázindarán; Iran; Persia; Karbalá; Iraq Quddus; arrest; Mirza Muhammad-Taqi; Tahirih; Mahmud Khan; Kalantar; Mulla Husayn; Shah; pilgrimage; Tablet; Bab; Black Standard; green turban; new name; Siyyid `Ali
1848. Jul - Sep Mullá Husayn and his companions, marching to Mázindarán, are joined by Bábís who had been at Badasht as well as newly-converted Bábís. [B171–2]
  • Their numbers swell into hundreds, possibly 300 and beyond. [B172; BKG50]
  • The Black Standard is raised on the plain of Khurásán. [B171, 176–7; BBD46; BBRSM52; MH175]
  • The Black Standard will fly for some 11 months. [B176–7; DB351]
  • See DB326 and MH177–83 for details of the journey.
  • See MH182 for Mullá Husayn's prophecy of the death of Muhammad Sháh.
Mázindarán; Badasht; Khurásán; Iran; Persia Mulla Husayn; Babis; Black Standard; prophecy; death; Muhammad Shah
1948 Sep Bahá'u'lláh is in Bandar-Jaz. An edict comes from Muhammad Sháh ordering His arrest.
  • The Russian agent at Bandar-Jaz offers Him passage on a Russian ship at anchor there but He refuses. [BKG50] Birth of Hájí Mírzá Hasan, Adíb, Hand of the Cause and Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Táliqán.
Bandar-Jaz; Táliqán; Iran; Persia Baha'u'llah; arrest; Muhammad Shah; Russian agent; Russia; Haji Mirza Hasan; Adib; Hand Cause; Apostle
1848. 4 Sep The death of Muhammad Sháh. [BBR153–4]
  • This precipitates the downfall of the Grand Vizier, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí. [B147; BBD19; BBR156]
  • For details of his life, fall and death, see BBR154–6 and BKG52–5.
  • The edict for Bahá'u'lláh's arrest is rendered null. [BKG50; BW18:381]
Iran; Persia Muhammad Sháh; Grand Vizier; Hájí Mírzá Áqásí; Bahá'u'lláh; arrest
1848. 12 Sep The accession of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh at Tabríz. [BBR482]
  • He is 17 years old. [BBR158; GPB37]
  • He ruled from 1848 to 1 May 1896 when he was assassinated on the eve of his jubilee. [BBD168; BBR482]
  • The first four years of his reign were marked by the `fiercest and bloodiest of the persecutions of the religion of the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh'. During the whole of his reign there were `sporadic persecutions and, in at least some cases, he himself was directly responsible for the death of the martyrs'. [BBR157]
  • For the first time in the Faith's history the civil and ecclesiastical powers banded together in a systematic campaign against it, one that was to `culminate in the horrors experienced by Bahá'u'lláh in the Síyáh-Chál' and `His subsequent banishment to Iraq'. [GPB37]
  • See BBRSM25 for an explanation of why the Bábí religion was a challenge to the secular regime.
  • See SB86 for a reason for Násiri'd-Dín Sháh's cruelty towards the Bábís and Bahá'ís.
  • See RB3:201 for an explanation of his lengthy reign.
  • He chose as his prime minister Mírzá Taqí Khán-i-Faráhání, known as a great reformer and a founder of modern Iran. [BBD221; BBR160]
  • It was not until the spring of 1849 that the new regime was in firm control.
Tabríz; Síyáh-Chál'; Iran; Persia; Iraq Násiri'd-Dín Sháh; Báb; Bahá'u'lláh'; martyrs; Bábí; Bahá'í; prime minister; Mírzá Taqí Khán-i-Faráhání
1848. 19 Oct Entry of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh into Tihrán. [BBR482]
  • MH240 says it took him 45 days to travel to Tihrán to occupy his father's throne.

    Mírzá Taqí Khán-i-Faráhání takes up post as prime minister. [BBR482]

Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia Nasiri'd-Din Shah
1851 Aug Bahá'u'lláh spends most of August in Kirmánsháh. [BKG67; DB591] Kirmánsháh; Iran; Persia Baha'u'llah
1852 Jan Mírzá Taqí Khán is killed in the public bath in Káshán by order of the Sháh on the instigation of the Sháh's mother and Mírzá Áqá Khán. [BBR164–5; BKG72]

  • He chooses to have his veins opened and he bleeds to death. [BBR164; BKG72]
Káshán; Iran; Persia Mirza Taqi Khan; death; Shah; mother; Mirza Áqa Khan
1852. 15 Aug Attempt on the life of the Sháh. [BBR128; BBRSM:30; BKG74–5; DB599; ESW20; GPB62; TN2930]

  • See BKG74–5 for circumstances of the event.
  • See BKG76 for the fate of the perpetrators.
  • See BBR128–46 for reporting of the event in the West.
  • Ja‘far-Qulí Khán writes immediately to Bahá'u'lláh telling Him of the event and that the mother of the Sháh is denouncing Bahá'u'lláh as the ‘would-be murderer'. Ja‘far-Qulí Khán offers to hide Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG77; DB602]
Iran; Persia Sháh; Ja‘far-Qulí Khán; Bahá'u'lláh
1852. 16 Aug Bahá'u'lláh rides out towards the headquarters of the imperial army. He stops at Zargandih at the home of Mírzá Majíd Khán-i-Áhí, secretary to the Russian legation. [BKG77; DB603]

  • Bahá'u'lláh is invited to remain in this home. [DB603]
  • The Sháh is informed of Bahá'u'lláh's arrival and sends an officer to the legation to demand the delivery of Bahá'u'lláh into his hands. The Russian minister, Prince Dolgorukov, refuses and suggests that Bahá'u'lláh be sent to the home of the Grand Vizier. [BKG77; DB603]
  • Bahá'u'lláh is arrested. [BKG77; DB603]
Zargandih; Iran; Persia Bahá'u'lláh; Mírzá Majíd Khán-i-Áhí; Russian; Sháh; Prince Dolgorukov; Grand Vizier; arrest
1852. Aug In Mílán, Iran, 15 Bábís are arrested and imprisoned. [BW18:382]

Many Bábís are tortured and killed in the weeks following the attempt on the life of the Sháh. [BKG84]

  • See BBR171 for the story of Mahmud Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, and his role in the arrest and execution of the Bábís.
  • See BKG84–93 for a description of the tortures and executions of Bábís. Thirty–eight Bábís are martyred.
  • See BKG86–7 and DB616–21 for the torture and martyrdom of Sulaymán Khán. Holes are gouged in his body and nine lighted candles are inserted. He joyfully dances to the place of his execution. His body is hacked in two, each half is then suspended on either side of the gate.
  • The persecutions are so severe that the community is nearly annihilated. The Bábí remnant virtually disappears from view until the 1870s. [BBRSM:30; EB269]
Mílán; Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia Bábí; arrest; torture; prison; Sháh; Mahmud Khán; Kalántar; martyr; Sulaymán Khán
1858. Aug The dismissal of Mírzá Áqá Khán, the prime minister who had directed the persecution of the Bábís that followed the attempt on the life of the Sháh. Írán; Persia Mirza Áqa Khan; prime minister; Babi; Shah
1861. c. 1861 ‘Abdu'l-Bahá writes the Sharh-i Kuntu Kanzan Makhfiyan, the commentary on the Islamic tradition ‘I was a Hidden Treasure …' for ‘Alí Shawkat Páshá. He is reported to be 17 years old at the time. [AB14]

Hájí Ákhúnd (Mullá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí), Hand of the Cause, becomes a Bábí in Mashhad. [EB266]

Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurásání (Ismu'láhu'l-Asdaq), a Bábí and father of Ibn Asdaq, meets Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád and becomes a follower. [BKG18]

Baghdád; Iraq; Mashhad; Iran; Persia ‘Abdu'l-Baha; Sharh-i Kuntu Kanzan Makhfiyan; commentary; Islam; Hidden Treasure; ‘Ali Shawkat Pasha; Haji Ákhund; Mulla ‘Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi; Hand Cause; Babi; Mulla Sadiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurasani; Ismu'lahu'l-Asdaq; Ibn Asdaq; Baha'u'llah
1862 Bahá'u'lláh reveals The Kitáb-i-Íqán, ‘a comprehensive exposition of the nature and purpose of religion'. [BBD134, 162; BKG159; BBD134; BBRSM64–5; GPB138–9; RB1:158]

  • The Tablet is revealed in answer to four questions put to Bahá'u'lláh by Hájí Mírzá Siyyid Muhammad, a maternal uncle of the Báb. [BBD134, 162; BKG163–5; RB1:158]
  • It is revealed in the course of two days and two nights. [BBD 134; BKG165; GPB238; RB1:158]
  • The original manuscript, in the handwriting of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, is in the Bahá'í International Archives. [BKG165; RB1:159]
  • It is probably the first of Bahá'u'lláh's writings to appear in print. [BKG165; EB121]
  • For a discussion of the circumstances of its revelation, its content and major themes see RB1:153–97.
Baghdád; Iraq; Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia Baha'u'llah; Kitab-i-Íqan; ‘Abdu'l-Baha; Babi; prison; death; ‘Abdu'l-‘Ali Khan-i-Maraghi'i; Nasiri'd-Din Shah
1862. c. 1862 Bahá'u'lláh sends a ring and cashmere shawl to His niece, Shahr-Bánú, the daughter of Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan, in Tihrán to ask for her hand in marriage to ‘Abdu'l-Bahá. Shahr-Bánú's uncle, acting in place of her dead father, refuses to let her go to Iraq. [BKG342–3] Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia Baha'u'llah; ring; shawl; Shahr-Banu; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan; ‘Abdu'l-Baha; Iraq
1867 Sep - Aug 1868 Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Kitáb-i-Badí‘, the Munájátháy-i-Síyám (Prayers for Fasting), the first Tablet to Napoleon III, the Lawh-i-Sultán written to Násiri'd-Dín Sháh, and the Súriy-i-Ra'ís. [BKG245; GBP172]

  • See RB2:370–82 for details of the Kitáb-i-Badí‘.

Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Súriy-i-Ghusn (Tablet of the Branch) in which ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's future station is foreshadowed. [BBD218; BKG250; GPB177]

  • See RB2:338–9 for a description of the Tablet.
Adrianople; Turkey; Baha'u'llah; Suriy-Muluk; Surih Kings; Kitab-i-Badi‘; Munajathay-i-Siyam; Prayers for Fasting; Napoleon III; Lawh-i-Sultan; Nasiri'd-Din Shah; Suriy-i-Ra'is; Suriy-i-Ghusn; Tablet of the Branch; ‘Abdu'l-Baha; Allah-u-Abha'; Bayan; Mirza Yahya
1868 Hájí Mullá `Alí-i-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí (later Hand of the Cause Hájí Ákhúnd) is imprisoned in Tihrán as a Bahá'í on the order of Mullá `Alí Kání. This is the first of many imprisonments. [EB266]
  • He was imprisoned so often that `Abdu'l-Bahá later said of him that at the first sign of disturbances, he would `put on his turban, wrap himself in his `abá and sit waiting' to be arrested. [MF11]
Tihrán; Haji Mulla `Ali-i-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi; Mulla `Ali Kani; Hand of the Cause of God
1869 The 17-year-old Áqá Buzurg-i-Níshápúrí, Badí`, arrives in `Akká having walked from Mosul. He is able to enter the city unsuspected. [BKG297; RB3:178]
  • He is still wearing the simple clothes of a water bearer. [BKG297]
  • For the story of his life, see BKG294–297 and RB3:176–179.
  • For his transformation see RB3:179–182.
Badí` sees `Abdu'l-Bahá in a mosque and is able to write a note to Him. The same night Badí` enters the citadel and goes into the presence of Bahá'u'lláh. He meets Bahá'u'lláh twice. [BKG297; RW3:179]
  • Badí` asks Bahá'u'lláh for the honour of delivering the Tablet to the Sháh and Bahá'u'lláh bestows it on him. [BKG297; RB3:182]
  • The journey takes four months; he travels alone. [BKG298]
  • For the story of the journey see BKG297–300 and RB3:184.
  • For the Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to Badí` see BKG299 and RB3:175–176.

“Bahá’u’lláh’s lengthiest epistle to any single sovereign” -- Lawḥ-i-Sulṭán, (the Tablet to Náṣiri’d-Dín Sháh) Of the various writings that make up the Súriy-i-Haykal, one requires particular mention. The Lawḥ-i-Sulṭán, the Tablet to Náṣiri’d-Dín Sháh, Bahá’u’lláh’s lengthiest epistle to any single sovereign, was revealed in the weeks immediately preceding His final banishment to ‘Akká. It was eventually delivered to the monarch by Badí‘, a youth of seventeen, who had entreated Bahá’u’lláh for the honour of rendering some service. His efforts won him the crown of martyrdom and immortalized his name. The Tablet contains the celebrated passage describing the circumstances in which the divine call was communicated to Bahá’u’lláh and the effect it produced. Here, too, we find His unequivocal offer to meet with the Muslim clergy, in the presence of the Sháh, and to provide whatever proofs of the new Revelation they might consider to be definitive, a test of spiritual integrity significantly failed by those who claimed to be the authoritative trustees of the message of the Qur’án. - The Universal House of Justice (Introduction to ‘The Summons of the Lord of Hosts’)

'Akká; Mosul; Áqa Buzurg-i-Nishapuri; Badi`; Lawḥ-i-Sulṭan; Tablet to Naṣiri’d-Din Shah
1869. Jul Badí` delivers the Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to the Sháh. He is tortured and executed. [BBRXXXIX; BKG300; BW18:383; RB3:184–6]
  • For details of his torture and martyrdom see BKG300, 304–7 and RB3:186–91.
  • For the account of the French Minister in Tihrán see BBR254–5.
  • He is given the title Fakhru'sh-Shuhadá' (Pride of Martyrs). [BKG300]
  • Shoghi Effendi listed him among the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW3:80–1]
  • For the effect on Bahá'u'lláh of the martyrdom of Badí` see BKG300 and GPB199.
  • See also BKG293–314; GPB199, RB3:172–203; TN589
Írán Badi`; Fakhru'sh-Shuhada' (Pride of Martyrs); Apostle of Baha'u'llah; Shah
1870 Násiri'd-Dín Sháh makes a pilgrimage to the shrines in Iraq. In preparation for his visit the Bahá'ís are rounded up, arrested and exiled. [BBR267; BBRSM90; BKG441]
  • See BKG441–3 for details of the exile.
Iraq Nasiri'd-Din Shah)
1876. 4 Jun `Abdu'l-`Azíz either commits suicide or is assassinated. [BBD2; BBR485; GPB225]
  • Bahá'u'lláh predicted his downfall in the Lawh-i-Fu'ád. RB3:87]
  • Bahá'u'lláh stated that the tyranny of Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz exceeded that of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh because the Sultán exiled Bahá'u'lláh to the Most Great Prison without any reason whereas the Sháh had reason to be fearful of the Bahá'ís because of the attempt on his life. [BKG412]
  • Bahá'u'lláh addressed two Tablets to the Sultán including the Súriy-i-Mulúk (Tablet to the Kings) but he did not respond. [BBD2]
Accession of Murád V to the throne. [BBR485]
Constantinople Sultan `Abdu'l-`Aziz; Nasiri'd-Din Shah; Murad V; Lawh-i-Fu'ad; Suriy-i-Muluk
1878 to 1881 The First Trustee of the Huqúqu'llah was Hájí Sháh-Muhammad-i-Manshádí, or Jináb-i-Sháh Muhammad from Manshád, Yazd who had become a believer in Baghdad. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
  • His title was Amínu'l-Bayán (Trustee of the Bayán).
  • He made many journeys between Iran and the Holy Land carrying donations and petitions from the friends and returning with Tablets and news.
  • He was tasked with receiving the casket of the Báb and transferring it to the Mosque of Imámzádih Zayd in Tehran where it stayed until 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent for it for the internment.
  • Hájí Sháh-Muhammad was in 'Akká when Áqá Buzurg, entitled Badí', came to confer with Bahá'u'lláh. He and Badí met on Mount Carmel as directed by Bahá'u'lláh.
  • He was killed as a result of wounds incurred during an attack during a Kurdish revolt. [RoB3p73]
Iran; Yazd; Baghdad; Tehran Trustee of the Huququ'llah; Jinab-i-Shah Muhammad; Aminu'l-Bayan; Trustee of the Bayan; Remains of the Bab; Mosque of Imamzadih Zayd; Huququ’llah
1881 to 1928 The second Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Hájí Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikání, entitled Amín-i-Iláhí (Trusted of God). He had been a companion of Jináb-i-Sháh until his death in 1881 in a fatal attack. Hájí Sháh-Muhammad and Hájí Abu'l-Hasan had been the first believers to succeed in entering the city of 'Akká and attain the presence of Bahá'u'lláh in the public bath in the early days of His confinement in the Most Great Prison. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
  • He travelled to Paris to obtain the presence of 'Abu'l-Bahá.
  • Shoghi Effendi named him a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously (July, 1928) and was he was also named one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. In appreciation of Hájí Amín's services, 'Abdu'l-Bahá named one of the doors of the Shrine of the Báb after him.
  • Upon his death Shoghi Effendi appointed Hájí Ghulám-Ridá (entitled Amín-i-Amín), who for several years had been Hájí Amín's assistant, to succeed him as Trustee of the Huqúq'u'lláh. [RoB3p74-86]
Akka; BWC Trustee of the Huququ'llah; The second Trustee of the Huququ'llah; Haji Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikani; Amin-i-Ilahi; Jinab-i-Shah; Hand of the Cause; Apostles of Baha'u'llah; Haji Ghulam-Rida; Amin-i-Amin; Huququ’llah
1882 Ibn-i-Asdaq is given the distinction Shahíd Ibn-i-Shahíd (Martyr, son of the martyr) by Bahá'u'lláh. [EB173] Ibn-i-Asdaq; Shahid Ibn-i-Shahid (Martyr; son of the martyr)
1892 Mu'tuminu's-Saltanih is poisoned in Tihrán on the orders of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh. [BW18:384] Tihrán Mu'tuminu's-Saltanih; Nasiri'd-Din Shah
1896. 19 Apr Násiri'd-Dín Sháh is assassinated on the eve of his jubilee. [BKG455]
  • BBRXXIX and BBRSM219 say it was 1 May.
  • His assassin is a follower of Jamálu'd-Dín-i-Afghání, one of the originators of the Constitutional movement in Iran. [BBRSM87; GBP296]
  • For an account of his assassination see PDC67–8.
  • See BKG430–55 for a history of his reign.
  • He is succeeded by his son Muzaffari'd-Dín. [GPB296]
  • See also CBM546.
Nasiri'd-Din Shah
1901 Apr The Iranian ambassador to the Ottoman government at Istanbul, `Ala'u'l-Mulk, filed a report with the Office of Foreign Ministry in Tihran which was subsequently presented to the Shah. Constantinople Report to the Shah
1906 Oct-Nov Several Bahá'ís in Sangsar and Shahmírzád are killed or injured by bullets; six Bahá'ís are arrested. [BW18:386] Sangsar and Shahmírzád Iranian persecution
1907 8 Jan The death of Muzaffari'd-Dín Sháh. [BBR354, 482] Iran Muzaffari'd-Din Shah
1907 19 Jan The accession of Muhammad-`Alí Sháh to the throne of Iran. [BBR354, 482]
  • The Bahá'í community received some measure of protection under this regime. [BBRSM:97–8]
Iran Muhammad-`Ali Shah
1908 Jun Muhammad-`Alí Sháh undertakes a successful coup d'état in Iran and abolishes the Constitution. [BBR369] Iran Muhammad-`Ali Shah; Constitution
1909 16 Jul After an armed revolt, Muhammad-`Alí Sháh abdicates and the Iranian Constitution is resurrected. [BBR354, 482]
  • The country soon deteriorates and anarchy prevails. It is effectively partitioned into two spheres of influence, British and Russian. [BBRSM:87]
Iran Muhammad-`Ali Shah; Iranian Constitution
1909 18 Jul The accession of Ahmad Sháh, the boy-king, to the throne of Iran. [BBR482; CBM57] Iran Ahmad Shah
1910 The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Hájí Mullá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí, (Hájí Akhund). He was born in Shahmírzád around 1842/3.
  • Bahá’u’lláh had entrusted him with the sacred task of moving and hiding the remains of the Báb. In Tehran he transferred the remains to Hand of the Cause Amínu’l-Bayán who moved them through innumerable dangers to a safe hiding place in the Mosque of the Imámzádih Zayd in Tehran, where they lay concealed until the time when, at the behest of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, they were transferred to the Holy Land to be laid in their permanent resting place on the slopes of Mount Carmel. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
  • He was appointed a Hand of the Cause by Bahá’u’lláh. [LoF3-8]
Tihrán; Tehran; Shahmírzád; Hand appointed by Baha'u'llah; In Memoriam; Haji Mulla ‘Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi; Haji Akhund; Hand of the Cause of God
1910 4 Mar Hand of the Cause of God `Alí-Akhar-i-Shahmírzádí (Hájí Ákhúnd) passes away in Tihrán. [BBD14; EB266] Tihrán `Ali-Akhar-i-Shahmirzadi (Haji Ákhund); Hand of the Cause of God; In Memoriam
1916 28 Jul Mullá Nasru'lláh-i-Shahmírzádí is martyred at Sangsar, Khurásán. [BW18:387] Sangsar; Khurasan Mulla Nasru'llah-i-Shahmirzadi; Iranian persecution
1921 23 Jan Mírzá Ya`qúb-i-Muttahidih is assassinated in Kirmánsháh. [BBRXXX, 446-50; BW18:387; GPB299]
  • He is the last to lay down his life in the ministry of `Abdu'l-Bahá. GPB299]
Kirmánsháh Mirza Ya`qub-i-Muttahidih; Iranian persecution; `Abdu'l-Baha
1921 Feb Ahmad Sháh (reigned 1909–25), who succeeded to the throne at age 11, was deposed in a coup d'état led by Reza Khán who appointed himself prime minister. He ruled as Reza Sháh Pahlaví between 1925–41. Iran; Ahmad Shah; Reza Shah
1925 31 Oct Ahmad Sháh is deposed and the Qájár dynasty (1785-1925) was formerly terminated by declaration of the National Consultative Assembly. [BBD190; BBR482; BBRSM87, PDC66-69] Iran Ahmad Shah; Qajar dynasty; Reza Shah
1925 13 Dec Ridá (or Reza) Sháh accedes to the throne of Iran. The Pahlaví dynasty commences. [BBR482] Iran Rida Shah; Pahlavi dynasty
1932 10 Jun The American National Spiritual Assembly addresses a petition to the Sháh of Iran requesting that the ban on Bahá’í literature be removed and asking that its representative, Mrs Keith Ransom-Kehler, be recognized to present in person the appeal. [BW5:390–1] America NSA; Petition to Sháh of Írán; Keith Ransom-Kehler
1932 15 Aug Keith Ransom-Kehler meets the Iranian Court Minister Taymur Tash. [BW5:392]
  • She presents the American petition to him asking that the ban on Bahá’í literature in Iran be lifted and receives assurances from him that this will be effected. [BW5:392]
  • She made seven successive petitions addressed to the Sháh of Persia. [GPB345]
  • For the history and unsuccessful outcome of this effort see BW5:391–8.
Iran Keith Ransom-Kehler; Petition to Shah of Íran
1935 The persecution against the Bahá’ís in Iran continues. [BW18:389]
  • Meetings in the Bahá’í Centre in Tihrán are banned.
  • A number of Bahá’ís in Bandar Sháh are arrested and imprisoned.
  • The secretary of the Local Spiritual Assembly of Arák is arrested.
  • Bahá’ís in Qazvín are arrested and harassed.
  • A Bahá’í in Záhidán is arrested.
Iran; Tihrán; Bandar Sháh; Arák; Qazví; Záhidán; religious persecution; LSA
1936 Jun The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues. [BW18:389]
  • All Bahá’í meetings are banned throughout Iran.
  • Several local Bahá’í centres are attacked or closed down.
  • Bahá’ís in Bandar Sháh are interrogated by the police for closing their shops on Bahá’í holy days.
Iran; Bandar Sháh religious persecution; holy days
1937 The persecution of the Bahá’ís in Iran continues throughout the country. [BW18:389]
  • Many Bahá’ís employed in the police force, army and government departments are dismissed.
  • Six members of the Local Spiritual Assembly of Ahváz are arrested.
  • Bahá’ís closing their shops on Bahá’í holy days in Bandar Sháh are arrested.
  • All Bahá’í meetings in Kirmánsháh, Bírjand, Arák and other towns are prohibited by police order.
  • Five Bahá’í families are attacked in their homes in Cham-tang, near Hindíyán. They are severely beaten and forced to leave the village.
Iran; Ahváz; Bandar Sháh; Kirmánsháh; Bírjand; Arák; Cham-tang religious persecution; LSA; holy days
1938 Persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the country. [BW18:389]
  • Bahá’ís marrying without a Muslim ceremony are investigated, including several hundred in Tihrán alone. Most are imprisoned pending trial and are imprisoned for six to eight months afterwards and fined.
  • Bahá’í meetings in Kirmánsháh, Záhidán, Mashhad and other towns are harassed by the police.
Iran; Tihrán; Kirmánsháh; Záhidán; Mashhad religious persecution
1941 16 Sep In Iran, Ridá Sháh abdicates and Muhammad-Ridá Sháh ascends to the throne. His rule was to last until 1979. [BBR482]
  • Ridá Sháh is overthrown by the British and Russians. [BBRSM173]
  • His reign can be described in three phases:

    The first phase, from1941 through 1955, was a period characterized by physical danger, during which Baha’is were scapegoated in the interactions among the government, the clerics and the people, and experienced several bloody incidents, the culmination of which was the 1955 anti-Baha’i campaign and its aftermaths.

    The second phase, from the late 1950s to around 1977, marked almost two decades of relative respite from physical attacks, during which Baha’is enjoyed more security than before, without ever being officially recognized as a religious community and while their existence as Baha’is was essentially ignored or denied.

    The last two years of the reign of the Shah comprised the third phase, the revival of a bloody period. [Towards a History of Iran’s Baha’i Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani]

Iran Rida Shah; Muhammad-Rida Shah
1944 8 Aug Three Bahá’ís are murdered in Sháhrúd, Iran, after three weeks of anti-Bahá’í agitation. Many Bahá’í houses are attacked and looted. [BW18:389] Sháhrúd; Iran religious persecution
1944 after Aug Following the murder of Bahá’ís at Sháhrúd, Iran, and the widespread publicity on the outcome of the trial, there is an upsurge in persecution of Bahá’ís throughout Iran. [BW18:389]
  • At Ábádih Bahá’ís are beaten and their houses sacked. [BW18:389]
  • The Bahá’í centre at Bandar Jaz is attacked. [BW18:389]
  • Two Bahá’ís are knifed at Bandar Sháh. The attackers are set free and attack a further three Bahá’ís, leaving one an invalid. [BW18:390]
  • Bahá’ís, including women and children, are attacked and beaten at Bushrúyih, their homes and shops looted and burned and the Bahá’í cemetery desecrated. [BW18:390]
  • Bahá’í houses are attacked and looted at Fárán, Káshán and Ná’in. [BW13:390]
  • Bahá’í houses are set on fire in Gulpáygán and Zábul. [BW18:390]
  • Bahá’ís are driven from town in Bujnúrd, Gunábád and Tabas. [BW18:390]
  • The Bahá’í cemetery at Mahmúdábád is desecrated.
  • Bahá’ís are beaten at Miyán-du-áb, Rafsanján, Sangsar and Sírján. [BW18:390]
  • Bahá’ís are stoned at Qasr-i-Shírín. [BW18:390]
Ábádih; Bandar Jaz; Bandar Sháh; Bushrúyih; Fárán; Káshán; Ná’in; Gulpáygán; Zábul; Bujnúrd; Gunábád; Tabas; Mahmúdábád; Miyán-du-áb; Rafsanján; Sangsar; Sírján; Qasr-i-Shírín religious persecution
1944 Nov Shoghi Effendi sent the cable below to the Bahá'í world: "Monib Shahid, grandson of both `Abdu'l-Bahá and the King of Martyrs, married according to the Moslem rites the daughter of a political exile who is nephew of the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem. This treacherous act of alliance with enemies of the Faith merits condemnation of entire Bahá'í world." [Bahá'í News, December, 1944 No. 172] BWC Covenant-Breakers; Munib Shahid
1947 4 Jul ‘Abbás Sháhídzádih is martyred in Sháhí, Mázandarán, Iran and a fellow Baha’i, Habib Allah Hushmand, is murdered in Sarvistan. [BW18:390, Towards a History of Iran’s Baha’i Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.] Sháhí; Mázandarán; Iran ‘Abbas Shahidzadih; martyr; religious persecution
1953 Nov Husayn Rawhání Ardikání and his wife, Nusrat, arrive in Tangier with their daughter, Shahlá, and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for Morocco (International Zone). [BW13:454] Tangier; Morocco Husayn Rawhani Ardikani; Nusrat Rawhani Ardikani; Shahla Rawhani Ardikani; Knight of Baha’u’llah
1971 16 Oct The inauguration of Shahyad Tower ("King's Memorial Tower") in Tehran. The tower was built in honour of the shah on the occasion of the commemoration of the 2,500th anniversary of the Persian Empire and has become an iconic symbol of the city of Tehran. It has been described as being a tower, an arch, a gate and an obelisk in one and is 50 meters (164 ft) tall and completely clad in some eight thousand blocks of cut marble from Isfahan Province. The main financing was provided by a group of five hundred Iranian industrialists.

After the Revolution in 1979 it was renamed The Azadi Tower (Liberty Tower) and was, in turn, the gathering place of the "rebels" in 1979 and for those protesting the results of the election in 2009.

The architect, Hossein Amanat was only 24 years old and a recent graduate when he won the competition for the project. In addition to having a remarkable career in designing buildings for commercial, educational and residential use, he is the architect for such Bahá'í projects as the Universal House of Justice Building, the Centre for the Study of the Holy Texts, the International Teaching Centre and the Mashriqu’l-Adhka in Samoa. He left Iran in 1978 and took up residence in Vancouver in 1980. [Hossein Amanat website]

Tehran; Hossein Amanat; Continental Mashriqu’l-Adhkar; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar; Azadi Tower; Shahyad Tower; Universal House of Justice Building; the Centre for the Study of the Holy Texts; the International Teaching Centre; Samoa; Apia
1983 18 Jun In Shiraz, ten Bahá'í women ranging in age from 17 to 57, were hanged. All of the women had been tortured and interrogated in the months prior to their execution. The youngest of these martyrs was Mona Mahmudnizhad, a 17-year-old schoolgirl who had been beaten on the soles of her feet, kissed the hands of her executioner and placed the hangman's rope around her own throat. The names of the others executed were Zarrin Muqimi-Abyanih, 28, Ruya Ishraqi, a 23-year-old veterinary student, Shahin Dalvand, 25, a sociologist; Izzat Janami Ishraqi, 57, a homemaker; Mahshid Nirumand, 28, who had qualified for a degree in physics but had it denied her because she was a Bahá'í, Simin Sabiri, 25; Tahirih Arjumandi Siyavushi, 30, a nurse; Akhtar Thabit, 25, also a nurse; Nusrat Ghufrani Yalda'i, 47, a mother and member of the local Bahá'í Spiritual Assembly. [Hanged for teaching “Sunday school”]
  • For the story of the martyrs see BW19:180–7 and VV56.
  • For their obituaries see BW19:596–607.
  • For pictures of the martyred women see BW19:240–1.
Shiraz; Iran Baha'i; martyr; Mona Mahmudnizhad; Zarrin Muqimi-Abyanih; Ruya Ishraqi; Shahin Dalvand; Izzat Janami Ishraqi; Mahshid Nirumand; Simin Sabiri; Tahirih Arjumandi Siyavushi; Akhtar Thabit; Nusrat Ghufrani Yalda'i
1997 6 Jul Shahram Reza'i, a conscript in the army, was shot in the head by his superior officer at a military base near Rasht, Iran. The officer, who said the bullets were fired in error, was released a few days after a court excused him from paying the blood money normally required in such cases because the dead soldier was a Bahá'í. [http://www.onecountry.org/e102/e10207as.htm] Rasht; Shahram Reza'I; Iranian persecution
2003 Autumn The publication of History of Bahá'ísm in Iran by Abdullah Shahbazi, the then head of the Political Studies and Research Institute, part of the Institute for Iranian Contemporary Historical Studies. In his book he advanced the theory of the alliance between Bahá'ísm and Zionism. [Iran Press Watch1407] Iran History of Baha'ism in Iran; Abdullah Shahbazi
2006 2 May Letter, from the Trades, Production, and Technical Services Society of Kermanshah to the Iranian Union of Battery Manufacturers, asked the Union to provide a list of members of the Bahá'í sect in their membership. [BWNS488] Kermanshah; Iran persecution
2008 30 Apr The election of the Universal House of Justice at the 10th International Bahá'í' Convention. Those elected are Farzam Arbab, Kiser Barnes, Peter Khan, Hooper Dunbar, Firaydoun Javaheri, Paul Lample, Payman Mohajer, Shahriar Razavi, and Gustavo Correa. [BWNS629, BWNS631, BWNS627, BWNS628, BWNS626, BWNS624] BWC Farzam Arbab; Kiser Barnes; Peter Khan; Hooper Dunbar; Firaydoun Javaheri; Paul Lample; Payman Mohajer; Shahriar Razavi; Gustavo Correa
2013 29 Apr – 2 May The Eleventh International Bahá'í Convention in Haifa and the 50th anniversary of the inaugural Convention in 1963 at which the first Universal House of Justice was elected. Those elected were Paul Lample, Firaydoun Javaheri, Payman Mohajer, Gustavo Correa, Shahriar Razavi, Stephen Birkland, Stephen Hall, Chuungu Malitonga, and Ayman Rouhani. [BWNS950, BWNS951, BWNS953] BWC International Baha'i Convention; Paul Lample; Firaydoun Javaheri; Payman Mohajer; Gustavo Correa; Shahriar Razavi; Stephen Birkland; Stephen Hall; Chuungu Malitonga; Ayman Rouhani

from the main catalogue

  1. Süleyman Nazif's Nasiruddin Shah ve Babiler: an Ottoman Source on Babi-Baha'i History, by Necati Alkan (2000). On the author of the 1919 Persian history "Nasiru’d-Din Shah and the Babis," including a translation of passages on Tahirih. [about]
  2. Diary of H.M. the Shah of Persia, during his tour through Europe in 1873, The, by Nasir al-Din Shah (1874). Contains no mention of the Babi or Baha'i Faiths, but is useful for historical context, and a window into the Sháh's worldview. [about]
 
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