Search for tag "Shah"
||Birth of Fath-`Alí Khán (later Sháh) in Shíráz. He ruled from 1797 (or 1798) to 1834.
||Fath-Ali Shah; Shahs; Births and deaths; Qajar dynasty
|1797 17 Jun
||Áqá Muhammad Khán, leader of the Qájárs, (b. 5 September, 1772, d. 23 October, 1834) proclaimed himself Sháh of Persia; beginning of Qájár dynasty. He ruled until the 23rd of October, 1834. [AY213, Wikipedia]
||Aqa Muhammad Khan; Qajar dynasty; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history
|1797. 17 Jun
||Assassination of Muhammad Sháh in Ádhirbáyján.
||Muhammad Shah; Shahs; Assassinations
|1797 c. Aug
||Crown Prince Fath-`Alí Mírzá assumed leadership of Persia. (1797 (or 1798) to 1834)
||Fath-Ali Shah; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; Qajar dynasty; History (general); Iran, General history
|1798. 21 Mar
||Fath-`Alí Khán was crowned second Qájár Sháh during Naw-Rúz festival.
||Fath-Ali Shah; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; Qajar dynasty; History (general); Iran, General history
|1799. 21 Mar
||Fath-`Alí Sháh's son, `Abbás Mírzá (aged 9), was designated Crown Prince of Persia.
||Fath-Ali Shah; Shahs; Abbas Mirza; Qajar dynasty; History (general); Iran, General history
|1808. 5 Jan
||Birth of Muhammad Mírzá (later Sháh), son of Crown Prince `Abbás Mírzá and grandson of Fath-`Alí Sháh.
||Muhammad Shah; Abbas Mirza; Fath-Ali Shah; Shahs; Qajar dynasty; Births and deaths
|1831 17 Jul
||Birth of Násiri'd-Dín Mírzá, later Sháh.
||Nasirid-Din Shah; Qajar dynasty; Births and deaths
|1834 9 Sep
||The end of the reign of Fath-`Alí Sháh and the accession of his grandson, Muhammad Sháh. [B7; BBD83, 164; BBR153, 482]
Fifty–three sons and 46 daughters survived Fath-`Alí Sháh. [B7]
After his accession Muhammad Sháh executed the Grand Vizier, the Qá'im Máqám, the man who had raised him to the throne. He then installed his tutor, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, to the position (1835). During his first year in office Hájí Mírzá Áqásí succeeded in removing most of the supporters of the previous prime minister from power, filling their positions with his own appointees from Máh-Kú. Among those removed from power was Mírzá Buzurg Núrí, Bahá'u'lláh's father. [B10–11]
See BBD164 for picture.
See B11–122 for the relationship between the Sháh and his new Grand Vizier, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí.
For details on the life of Hájí Mírzá Áqásí see BBD19.
For an example of Hájí Mírzá Áqásí's machinations against Bahá'u'lláh and others see DB120-122.
||Fath-Ali Shah; Muhammad Shah; Shahs; Grand Viziers; Prime Ministers of Iran; Prime Ministers; Haji Mirza Aqasi; Iran, General history
|1842 (In the year)
||Birth of Hájí Ákhúnd (Mullá `Alí-Akbar Shahmírzádí), who was named a Hand of the Cause by Bahá'u'lláh.
||Haji Akhund (Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi); Hands of the Cause; Births and deaths; Births and deaths
|1844 Jul - Aug
||The intention of the Báb was to introduce the new Revelation slowly so as not to cause estrangement. He instructed the Letters of the Living to spread out and teach His Faith and to this end He assigned each one a special task, most often to their own native provinces. This is analogous to Christ's instructions to His disciples. He instructed them to record the mane of every believer who embraced the Faith and send their lists to His uncle, Hájí Mírzá 'Alí in Shíráz in a sealed envelope. Thus fourteen Letters of the Living were dispatched; only Mullá Husayn and Quddús remained with Him. [BBRSM14–16, 36; SWB119, BBR2p36, DB92–4, 123; MH82–6; SBBH1:19]
To Mullá Husayn He had given the task of delivering a Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh in Tihrán and going to the court of the Sháh to apprise him of the Báb's cause. Mullá Husayn was not able to gain access to the Sháh. [B48–57; BBRSM15 BKG32–3; CH22–3; DB85-87, 96, 97; MH90–2, 102] He was also directed to send Him a written report on the nature and progress of his activities in Isfáhán, Tehran and in Khurásán. Not until He received this letter from Khurásán would He depart on pilgrimage. [DB123]
Mullá Husayn carried a Tablet revealed by the Báb for Muhammad Sháh to Tihrán . This was the first of a number of unsuccessful attempts to make him aware of the Revelation. [BBRSM20–1; MH102; SWB13]
Note: MH118-119 and DB127-128 indicate that Mullá Husayn had been in Tehran "between the months of Jámádí and Rajab". The first day of Jámádí, 1260 corresponds to 18 June, and the last day of Rajab to 15 August, 1844.
See RB2:303, `The Báb … sent Tablets to only two monarchs of His day — Muhammad Sháh of Persia and Sultán `Abdu'l-Majíd of Turkey.'
From Shiraz Mullá Husayn journeyed north to Isfahán where his message was rejected by the 'ulamás. Mullá Ja'far, the sifter of wheat, was the first and only one to embrace the Cause of the Báb in that city. There was however, a disciple of Siyyid Kazim, Mírzá Muhammad-'Alíy-i-Nahrí, who had been instructed to go to Isfahan some five years earlier to prepare the way for the advent of the new Revelation, who was receptive to the message of Mulla Husayn. He was instructed to go to Kirmán and acquaint Hájí Mírzá Karím Khán with the Message and then to travel to Shiraz. (This man's daughter was subsequently joined in wedlock with 'Abdu'l-Bahá.)[DB100]
Mullá Husayn then traveled to Káshán, about 130 miles from Isfahán. He had great success in that city but news of his conversion brought the wrath of the official clergy down upon him. [DB101note1; DB123-125]
He then went to Qum, another 100 miles from Káshán where he met with no success. After Qum he went to Tihrán. [MH98–101, DB101]
In Tirhrán he took residence in a madrisih and first met with the leader of the shaykhí community, Hájí Mírzá Muhammad, but he failed to win him over. He did, however, manage to convince a number of souls in private conversations. [DB103note1] This same reference seems to indicate that his well-wishers assisted in delivering the Tablet to Muhammad Sháh and his minister, Hájí Mírzá Àqásí but they did not receive it. " the book was not submitted to thy presence, through the intervention of such as regard themselves the well-wishers of the government." [Selections from the Writings of the Báb page 13]
See B53–6; DB104–7, MH104–110 for the delivery of the Báb's Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh by the young student, Mullá Huhammad-i-Mu'allim, a native of Núr. Mullá Husayn did not meet Bahá'u'lláh on this occasion.
On receiving the Tablet of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh accepted His Cause and asked that a gift of a loaf of Russian sugar and a package of tea be given to Mulla Husayn for delivery to the Báb. [DB106-107] See DB123-125 for his activities in Khán.
Mullá Husayn left for Khurásán, as he had been instructed, winning supporters for the Báb's Cause while there he wrote to the Báb regarding these new believers and Bahá'u'lláh's immediate response to the Báb's Revelation. [B56, DB128–9, MH118]
After Khurásán he travelled to Najaf and Karbilá where he was to wait for further instructions from the Báb. [DB86]
See MH121–2 for a discussion of the speed of Mullá Husayn's journey before the letter was dispatched to the Báb. It assumes that Mullá Husayn departed after the Báb met with all the Letters of the Living (date not before 2 July, 1844.) In fact both Mullá Husayn and Mullá 'Alíy-Bastámí had been dispatched before this meeting. [DB85-86, 92, HotD46]
||Kashan; Shiraz; Isfahan; Tihran; Mazandaran; Khurasan; Qum; Iran; Turkey
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Letters of the Living; Mulla Husayn; Bahaullah, Life of; Tablet to Bahaullah; Shahs; Mulla Jafar (sifter of wheat); Muhammad Shah; Sultan Abdul-Majid; First believers; Letters of the Living; Bab, Basic timeline; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1845. Jul (and months following)
||The Báb was released to the custody of His uncle, Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'Alí. [DB151, LTDT13]
Báb was asked by Mírzá Abu'l-Qásim to attend a Friday gathering at the Mosque of Vakíl to appease the hostility and the curiosity of some of the residents of Shíráz and to clarify His position. The exact date of His attendance is unknown. He made a public pronouncement that He was neither the representative of the Hidden Imám nor the gate to him, that is, His station was higher. Many of those who witnessed His address became partisans. [Bab94–8; DB153–157]
see DB152 for pictures of the above mosque.
This time has been described by Shoghi Effendi as the `most fecund period' of the Báb's ministry. It marks the birth of the Bábí community. [Bab89–90]
During this time He was asked to speak in mosques and in colleges and He addressed gatherings in His home. The clergy sent their most able mullas to refute and humiliate Him without success. He never attacked the government or Islam but rather called out the corrupt clergy and the abuses of all classes of society. His fame and acceptance among the population grew. [DB157note1]
A considerable number of the Báb's followers had congregated in Isfahan at His instruction when He informed them He would not go to Karbilá when He returned from Mecca as He had previously stated. Upon hearing the news of the confinement of the Báb, Mullá Husayn and his companions, his brother and nephew, left Isfahán where they have been awaiting further instructions. They travelled to Shíráz in disguise. Mullá Husayn was able to meet secretly with the Báb several times in the house of His uncle. The Báb sent word to the remainder of His followers in Isfahán to leave and to travel to Shíráz in small, inconspicuous numbers. Among those gathered were some who were jealous of Múllá Husayn and the attention he received from the Báb. They threw their lot in with the detractors and were eventually expelled from the city for the unrest they caused. [DB160-162; Bab102–3; MH128–9]
After a time the presence of Mullá Husayn in Shíráz threatened to cause civil unrest. The Báb instructed him to go to Khurásán via Yazd and Kirmán and told the rest of the companions to return to Isfahán. He retained Mullá 'Abdu'l-Karím to transcribe His Writings. [Bab90, 102–3; DB170; MH130]
The Sháh sent one of the most learned men in Persia, Siyyid Yahyáy-i-Dárábí, surnamed Vahíd, to investigate the claims of the Báb. He became an adherent of the Cause of the Báb. To him He revealed some 2,000 verses at one sitting of five hours and among the the Surih of Kawthar. Vahíd and 'Abdu'l-Karím spent three days and three nights transcribing this Tablet. Siyyid Yahyáy-i-Dárábí wrote to the Sháh and resigned his post. On the instructions of the Báb he journeyed home to acquaint his father with the new Message. As a result of his conversion most of the inhabitants of the town of Nayríz later became Bábís. [Bab90–4; BBD216; BBRSM41; CH21; DB171–7; GPB11–12; TN7–8; DB171-172note 2] iiiii
Another learned scholar, Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Zanjání, surnamed Hujjat, became a believer after reading only one page of the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá'. Several thousand of his fellow townspeople in Zanján became Bábís. [Bab100–2; BBD111; BBRSM16; GPB12; DB177-179]
Mírzá Ahmad-i-Azghandí, yet another learned man, who had compiled traditions and prophecies concerning the expected Revelation, became a believer as well. [GPB12–13]
||Shiraz; Isfahan; Khurasan; Yazd; Kirman; Nayriz; Iran; Karbala; Iraq
||Bab, Life of; Vakil Mosque; Mosques; Mulla Husayn; Bab, Family of; Muhammad Shah; Shahs; Vahid ; Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Hujjat; Qayyumul-Asma (book); Mirza Ahmad-i-Azghandi; Tahirih; Mirza Ahmad-i-Azghandi; Abdul-Karim
|1846. 23 Sep
||Up to this point the Báb had not been critical of the civil government but considering that His denunciations of the intellectually dishonest and plundering clergy were so unrelenting, could they expect to escape His scrutiny? The governor, Husayn Khán, was thus threatened by the Báb's rising popularity and ordered His arrest. The chief constable, `Abdu'l-Hamíd Khán, took the Báb into custody and escorted Him to the governor's home but found it abandoned. He took the Báb to his own home where he learned that a cholera epidemic had swept the city and that his sons have been stricken. At the chief constable's insistence the Báb cureed the boys by requesting they drink some of the water with which He had washed His own face. `Abdu'l-Hamíd resigned his post and begged the governor to release the Báb who agreed on condition the Báb leave Shíráz. The incident proved to be Husayn Khán's undoing: the Sháh dismissed him from office shortly after. [B104–5; BBRSM55; DB194–7; DB194note1; GPB13; TN9]
This cholera outbreak was evidently a sign of the coming Manifestation. The outbreak raged for four years. [DB196note2)
See BBR170–1 and DB197 for the fate of Husayn Khán who was immediately dismissed by the Sháh.
DB196–7 says `Abdu'l-Hamíd Khán had only one ill son. iiiii
||Husayn Khan; Governors; Bab, Life of; Abdul-Hamid Khan; Epidemics; Muhammad Shah; Shahs; cholera
|1846. date uncertain
||The Sháh had already instructed the governor, Manúchihr Khán to send the Báb to Tihrán. Seeking to discredit the Báb in the eyes of the Shah, Hájí Mírzá Áqási incited the mullas of Isfahan to condemn Him. The Imám-Jum'ih, knowing that about seventy of the leading clerics of the city had signed His death warrant, he, himself refused to endorse it and fearing for the safety of the Báb, devised a scheme to have the Báb escorted from Isfahán but then secretly returned to the governor's residence. The Báb remained there for four months with only three of His followers apprised of His whereabouts. These four months have been described as having been the calmest in His Ministry. [Bab113–16; DB209–211, 213; TN9–11]
The governor offered all of his resources to try to win the Sháh over to His Cause but the Báb declined his offer saying that the Cause will triumph through the `poor and lowly'. [Bab115–16; DB212–213]
|Tihran; Isfahan; Iran
||Shah; Manuchihr Khan; Bab, Life of; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1847 Spring - Summer
||Táhirih's activities in Iraq so alarm some Bábís of Kázimayn that they agitated against her. Siyyid `Alí Bishr wrote to the Báb in Máh-Kú on their behalf. The Báb replied praising Táhirih, causing the Kázimayn Bábís to withdraw from the Faith. [B 163]
Among those Táhirih met in Baghdád was Hakím Masíh, a Jewish doctor who years later becomes the first Bahá'í of Jewish background. [B165]
Táhirih was sent back to Persia by Najíb Páshá. She was accompanied by a number of Bábís; they made a number of stops along the way, enrolling supporters for the Cause of the Báb. [B163–4; BBRSM216]
Ma'ani says Táhirih left Baghdád early in 1847.
In Kirand 1,200 people are reported to have volunteered to follow her. [B164 DB272; TN20]
B164 says the number is 12,000; DB272 says it was 1,200.
In Kirmánsháh she was respectfully received by the `ulamá. [B164; DB272]
Táhirih arrived in Hamadán. Her father had sent her brothers here to persuade her to return to her native city of Qazvín. She agreed on condition that she may remain in Hamadán long enough to tell people about the Báb. [B165; DB273]
MF180 says Táhirih remained in Hamadán for two months.
||Kazimayn; Baghdad; Iraq; Mah-Ku; Iran; Hamadan; Kirmanshah
||Tahirih; Bab, Life of
||The Báb received a courteous message from the Sháh, who, on the advice of his prime minister, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, assigned Him to the fortress of Máh-Kú in the province of Ádharbáyján. The Báb was taken to Máh-Kú via Tabríz. [B121–2, 124; DB229–32; GPB16; TN11–12]
||Mah-Ku; Adharbayjan; Tabriz; Iran
||Bab, Life of; Shah; Haji Mirza Aqasi; Fortress of Mah-Ku; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1847. c. 17 Apr
||The Báb sent a letter to the Sháh requesting an audience. [B121; DB229; TN11]
Some accounts maintain that the prime minister intervened in the correspondence between the Báb and the Sháh. En route to Tabríz the Báb wrote to various people, including the Grand Vizier, the father and uncle of Táhirih, and Hájí Sulaymán Khán. Hujjat learned of this last letter and sent a message to the Bábís of Zanján to rescue the Báb. The Báb declined their assistance. [B124–5; DB235–6]
See B126 for an account of the Báb's demonstration to His guards that He could have escaped had He so wished.
|Tabriz; Zanjan; Iran
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Shah; Prime Ministers of Iran; Prime ministers; Grand Viziers; Tahirih; Haji Sulayman Khan; Hujjat
|1847 Jul to 1848 Apr
||The people of Máh-Kú show markeded hostility to the Báb on His arrival. Later they were won over by His gentle manners and His love. They congregated at the foot of the mountain hoping to catch a glimpse of Him. [B129; DB244–5]
At the beginning of the Báb's incarceration the warden `Alí Khán kept the Báb strictly confined and allowed no visitors. He had a vision of the Báb engaged in prayer outside of the prison gates, knowing that the Báb is inside. He became humble and permitted the Bábís to visit the Báb. [B129–31; DB245–8]
The winter the Báb spent in Máh-Kú was exceptionally cold. [DB252]
Many of the Báb's writings were revealed in this period. [GPB24–5]
It was probably at this time that He addressed all the divines in Persia and Najaf and Karbalá, detailing the errors committed by each one of them. [GPB24]
He revealed nine commentaries on the whole of the Qur'an, the fate of which is unknown. [DB31; GPB24]
He revealed the "Mother Book" of the Bábí Revelation, the Persian Bayán, containing the laws and precepts of the new Revelation in some 8,000 verses. It is primarily a eulogy of the Promised One. [BBD44–5; BBRSM32; BW12:91 GPB24–5; ESW165; SWB102, 159] It is possible that the latter part of the Persian Bayán was revealed while He was confined in Chihríq.
The Báb began the composition of the `smaller and less weighty' Arabic Bayán. [B132; BBD45; GPB25]
He stated in the Bayán that, to date, He had revealed some 500,000 verses, 100,000 of which had been circulated. [BBRSM32, GPB22]
In the Dalá'il-i-Sab'ih (Seven Proofs) the Báb assigned blame to the seven powerful sovereigns then ruling the world and censured the conduct of the Christian divines who, had they recognized Muhammad, would have been followed by the greater part of their co-religionists. [BBD63; BW12:96; GPB26]
The Báb wrote His `most detailed and illuminating' Tablet to Muhammad Sháh. [GPB26]
|Mah-Ku; Iran; Najaf; Karbala; Iraq
||Bab, Life of; Ali Khan; Bayan-i-Farsi (Persian Bayan); Bayan-i-Arabi (Arabic Bayan); Bayan; Dalail-i-Sabih (Seven Proofs); Bab, Writings of; Tablet to Muhammad Shah; Muhammad Shah; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1848. 10 Apr
||The Báb in Chihríq
The Báb was transferred to the fortress of Chihríq, `Jabal-i-Shadíd' (the Grievous Mountain) into the custody of Yahyá Khán, a brother-in-law of Muhammad Sháh. [BR72; BBRSM216; GPB19]
He remained there for two years. [BBD55; BBR73; GPB27]
He was subjected to a more rigorous confinement than He had been at Máh-Kú and the warden was harsh and unpredictable. [B135; DB302]
||Bab, Life of; Chihriq; Yahya Khan; Muhammad Shah; Mah-Ku; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1848. c. 26 Jun - 17 Jul
||The Conference of Badasht
Bahá'u'lláh, who hosted and directed the event, rented three gardens, one for Quddús, another for Táhirih and the third for Himself. [B168; GPB31, 68; MF200]
The conference coincided with the removal of the Báb to Tabríz for interrogation in July. It was held near the village of Sháhrúd in Semnan province. [BBRSM23; DB292]
`The primary purpose of that gathering was to implement the revelation of the Bayán by a sudden, a complete and dramatic break with the past — with its order, its ecclesiasticism, its traditions, and ceremonials. The subsidiary purpose of the conference was to consider the means of emancipating the Báb from His cruel confinement in Chihríq.' [BBRSM23; BKG43; DB297–8; GPB31, 157]
From the beginning of His ministry the Báb had implicitly claimed some higher spiritual station than merely that of being the "bábu'l-imám" and in the early months of 1848 while still in prison in Máh-Kú He put forward these claims to his companions. He proclaimed HImself to be the Imam Mahdi, the promised Q´'im (He who will arise), the inaugurator of the Resurrection and the abrogator of the Islamic holy law. [BBRSM23]
B167 says that the Bábís did not come to Badasht to make plans to rescue the Báb.
It was attended by 81 believers and lasts 22 days. [BKG43–4, 46; DB292–3; GPB312]
Each day Bahá'u'lláh revealed a Tablet, and on each believer He conferred a new name. Each day an Islamic law was abrogated. Henceforth, when the Báb was addressing the believers, He used the new name that Bahá'u'lláh had bestowed upon them. [DB293; GPB32]
See BKG44–5, DB293 and MF201 for the story of the central event, Táhirih's confrontation with Quddús and removal of her veil.
Also see B167–9; BBD31–2; BBRSM46; BKG43–7; DB292–8; RB2:353.
|Badasht; Tabriz; Shahrud; Chihriq; Iran
||Conference of Badasht; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Quddus; Tahirih; Veils; Women; Womens rights; Gender; Equality; Bab, Life of; Bayan; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bab, Basic timeline; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Letters of the Living
|1848 c. Jul
||Quddús was arrested and taken to Sárí where he was placed under house arrest in the home of Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, a leading cleric. [B171; BKG50; DB300]
Táhirih was arrested and is later taken to Tihrán where she is held in the home of Mahmúd Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, until her martyrdom in August 1852.
Mullá Husayn left the army camp near Mashhad where he had been a guest of a brother of the Sháh. He planned to make a pilgrimage to Karbalá. While making preparations for the journey he received a Tablet from the Báb instructing him to go to Mázindarán to help Quddús, carrying a Black Standard before him. He was also instructed to wear the Báb's own green turban and to take the new name Siyyid `Alí. [B171; BKG50; DB324; MH174]
|Sari; Tihran; Mashhad; Mazandaran; Iran; Karbala; Iraq
||Quddus; Mirza Muhammad-Taqi; Tahirih; Mahmud Khan; Kalantar; Mulla Husayn; Shahs; Black Standard; Green turban; Turbans; Names and titles; Letters of the Living
|1848. last week
|Trial of the Báb
The Báb arrived in Tabríz and was brought before a panel of which the 17-year-old Crown Prince Násiri'd-Dín Mírzá was the president. The Báb publicly made His claim that He was the Qá'im. This claim had also been announced to those gathered at Badasht. [B140–7; BBR157; BBRSM23, 216; BW18:380; DB314–20; GPB21–2; TN14]
The purpose of the public forum was to force the Báb to recant His views; instead He took control of the hearing and embarrassed the clergy. After considerable argument and discussion, they decided He was devoid of reason. [GPB22; BBRSM216]
The Báb was bastinadoed. [B145; BBD44; DB320; GPB22; TN14–15] This is the first formal punishment He received. [BBRSM20]
This constituted the formal declaration of His mission. [GPB22]
The clergy issued a fatwa or legal pronouncement against the Báb condemning Him to death for heresy, but to no purpose as the civil authorities were unwilling to take action against Him. [BBRSM19–20]
See Trial of the Báb: Shi'ite Orthodoxy Confronts its Mirror Image by Denis MacEoin.
He was first attended by an Irish physician, Dr William Cormick, to ascertain His sanity and later to treat Him for a blow to the face that occurred during the bastinado. Cormick is the only Westerner to have met and conversed with Him. [B145; BBR74–5, 497–8 DBXXXIL–XXXIII]
For an account of the life of Dr. William Cormick see Connections by Brendan McNamara.
|Tabriz; Badasht; Iran
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Trial of; Nasirid-Din Shah; Qaim; Bastinado; William Cormick; Fatwa; Conference of Badasht; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
||Le Journal de Constantinople 1848-1851 (first entry dated June 21 1848)|
|1848. Jul - Sep
||Mullá Husayn and his companions, marching to Mázindarán, were joined by Bábís who had been at Badasht as well as newly-converted Bábís. [B171–2]
Their numbers rose to 300 and possibly beyond. [B172; BKG50]
The Black Standard was raised on the plain of Khurásán. [B171, 176–7; BBD46; BBRSM52; MH175]
The Black Standard flew for some 11 months. [B176–7; DB351]
See DB326 and MH177–83 for details of the journey.
See MH182 for Mullá Husayn's prophecy of the death of Muhammad Sháh.
||Mazandaran; Badasht; Khurasan; Iran
||Mulla Husayn; Babis; Black Standard; Prophecies; Muhammad Shah; Conference of Badasht
||Bahá'u'lláh was in Bandar-Jaz. An edict came from Muhammad Sháh ordering His arrest.
||Bahaullah, Life of; Muhammad Shah; Russian officials
|1848. 4 Sep
||The death of the chronically Muhammad Sháh whom Shoghi Effendi described as bigoted, sickly and vacillating. [BBR153–4; GPB4; Encyclopædia Iranica]
This precipitated the downfall of the Grand Vizier, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí because many of Tehran's elite arose against him. [Bab147; BBD19; BBR156]
For details of his life, fall and death in Karbila on the 1st of August, 1849, see BBR154–6 and BKG52–5.
The edict for Bahá'u'lláh's arrest was rendered null. [BKG50; BW18:381]
||Muhammad Shah; Grand Viziers; Prime Ministers of Iran; Prime Ministers; Haji Mirza Aqasi; Antichrist; Bahaullah, Life of; Iran, General history; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
|1848. 12 Sep
||The accession of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh at Tabríz. [BBR482]
He was 17 years old. [BBR158; GPB37]
He ruled from 1848 to 1 May 1896 when he was assassinated on the eve of his jubilee. [BBD168; BBR482]
The first four years of his reign were marked by the `fiercest and bloodiest of the persecutions of the religion of the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh'. During the whole of his reign there were `sporadic persecutions and, in at least some cases, he himself was directly responsible for the death of the martyrs'. [BBR157]
For the first time in the Faith's history the civil and ecclesiastical powers banded together in a systematic campaign against it, one that was to `culminate in the horrors experienced by Bahá'u'lláh in the Síyáh-Chál' and `His subsequent banishment to Iraq'. [GPB37]
See BBRSM25 for an explanation of why the Bábí religion was a challenge to the secular regime.
See SB86 for a reason for Násiri'd-Dín Sháh's cruelty towards the Bábís and Bahá'ís.
See RB3:201 for an explanation of his lengthy reign.
He chose as his prime minister Mírzá Taqí Khán-i-Faráhání, known as a great reformer and a founder of modern Iran. [BBD221; BBR160]
It was not until the spring of 1849 that the new regime was in firm control.
His reform antagonized many and a coalition was formed against him. One of the most active proponents was the queen mother. She convinced the Shah that the prime minister wanted his throne. In October of 1851 the Shah dismissed him and exiled him to Kashan where he was murdered on the Shah's orders.
||Tabriz; Iran; Iraq
||Nasirid-Din Shah; Qajar dynasty; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history; Mirza Taqi Khan-i-Farahani; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Firsts, Other
|1848. 19 Oct
||Entry of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh into Tihrán. [BBR482]
MH240 says it took him 45 days to travel to Tihrán to occupy his father's throne.
Hájí Mírzá Áaqsí Khán-i-Faráhání took up post as his prime minister. [BBR482]
By the end of 1848 the governmental opposition to the Báb continued and intensified. Encouraged by the ulama (religious leaders), the public increasingly turned against the B´b and His followers and the Bábis "were held responsible for the country's general state of turmoil." [RR395]
||Nasirid-Din Shah; Qajar dynasty; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history; Mirza Taqi Khan-i-Farahani; Prime ministers of Iran; Prime Ministers
||Bahá'u'lláh spent most of August in Kirmánsháh. [BKG67; DB90, 591]
||Bahaullah, Life of
||Mírzá Taqí Khán was killed in the public bath in Káshán by order of the Sháh on the instigation of the Sháh's mother and Mírzá Áqá Khán. [BBR164–5; BKG72]
He chose to have his veins opened and he bled to death. [BBR164; BKG72]
Shoghi Effendi described him has being "arbitrary, bloodthirsty and reckless". [GPB4]
||Mirza Taqi Khan; Prime ministers; Assassinations; Public baths; Nasirid-Din Shah, Mother of; Mirza Aqa Khan
|1852. 15 Aug
||Attempt on the life of the Sháh. [BBR128; BBRSM:30; BKG74–5; DB599; ESW20; GPB62; TN2930]
See BKG74–5 for circumstances of the event.
See BKG76 for the fate of the perpetrators.
See BBR128–46 for reporting of the event in the West.
Ja‘far-Qulí Khán wrote immediately to Bahá'u'lláh telling Him of the event and that the mother of the Sháh was denouncing Bahá'u'lláh as the ‘would-be murderer'. Ja‘far-Qulí Khán offered to hide Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG77; DB602]
||Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Nasirid-Din Shah, Mother of; Shahs; History (general); Iran, General history; Jafar-Quli Khan; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1852. 16 Aug
||Bahá'u'lláh rode out towards the headquarters of the imperial army. At the time, He had been in ‘The Abode of the Birds’ (MurghMaḥallih), a garden which had been His summer residence. He stopped at Zargandih at the home of Mírzá Majíd Khán-i-Áhí, secretary to the Russian legation. [BKG77; DB603, AY235]
Bahá'u'lláh was invited to remain in this home. [DB603]
The Sháh was informed of Bahá'u'lláh's arrival and sent an officer to the legation to demand the delivery of Bahá'u'lláh into his hands. The Russian minister, Prince Dolgorukov, refused and suggested that Bahá'u'lláh be sent to the home of the Grand Vizier. [BKG77; DB603]
Bahá'u'lláh was arrested. [BKG77; DB603]
||Bahaullah, Life of; Mirza Majid Khan-i-Ahi; Russian officials; Shahs; Prince Dolgorukov; Grand Viziers; Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1852 (days following
|For a few days after His arrest, Bahá'u'lláh was interrogated. [TN31]
He was then taken ‘on foot and in chains, with bared head and bare feet' to Tihrán where He was cast into the Síyáh-Chál. [BKG77; DB606–7; ESW20; GPB71; TN31]
See BKG77–8 and DB606–8 for a description of Bahá'u'lláh's journey.
See CH40–1 for the effect on Bahá'u'lláh's family.
||Bahaullah, Life of; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Chains; Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1852 16 – 22 Aug
||A large number of Bábís were arrested in Tihrán and its environs following the attempt on the life of the Sháh. A number were executed. [BBR134–5; BW18:382]
Eighty–one, of whom 38 were leading members of the Bábí community, were thrown into the Síyáh-Chál. [BKG77]
||Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
|1852. 26 Aug
||An account of the punishment meted out to those who participated in the attempt on the life of the Sháh and those who happened to be followers of the Báb, was published in the Vaqayi-yi Ittifáqíyyih, a Tihran newspaper. In addition, the newspaper reported that Mírzá Husayn 'Ali-i Nuri (Bahá'u'lláh) and five others who did not participated were sentenced to life imprisonment by the Sháh.
See Bahá'u'lláh's Prison Sentence: The Official Account translated by Kazem Kazemzadeh and Firuz Kazemzadeh with an introduction by Firuz Kazemzadeh published in World Order Vol 13 Issue 2 Winter 1978-1979 page 11.
||Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Persecution; Persecution, Iran; Newspaper articles; Bahaullah, Life of
||In Mílán, Iran, 15 Bábís were arrested and imprisoned. [BW18:382]
Many Bábís were tortured and killed in the weeks following the attempt on the life of the Sháh. [BKG84]
See BBR171 for the story of Mahmud Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, and his role in the arrest and execution of the Bábís.
See BKG84–93 for a description of the tortures and executions of Bábís. Thirty–eight Bábís were martyred.
See BKG86–7 and DB616–21 for the torture and martyrdom of Sulaymán Khán. Holes were gouged in his body and nine lighted candles were inserted. He joyfully danced to the place of his execution. His body was hacked in two, each half is then suspended on either side of the gate.
The persecutions were so severe that the community was nearly annihilated. The Bábí remnant virtually disappeared from view until the 1870s. [BBRSM:30; EB269]
|Milan; Tihran; Iran
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Shah; Mahmud Khan; Kalantar; Sulayman Khan
||Bahá'u'lláh was released from the Síyáh-Chál.
This was owing to: the efforts of the Russian Minister Prince Dolgorukov; the public confession of the would-be assassin; the testimony of competent tribunals; the efforts of Bahá'u'lláh's own kinsmen; and the sacrifices of those followers imprisoned with Him. [GPB104–5]
See CH43–4 for the role of the Russian Consul in securing His release. He invoked his full power as an envoy of Russia and called out the Sháh and his court for their barbaric behaviour.
See BKG101–2, CH44 and DB647–8 for the physical condition of Bahá'u'lláh upon release.
See BKG101, DB648–9 and GPB105 for the words of Bahá'u'lláh to Mírzá Áqá Khán upon His release.
The Russian minister invited Bahá'u'lláh to go to Russia but He chose instead to go to Iraq. It may be that He refused the offer because He knew that acceptance of such help would have been misrepresented as having political implications. [BBIC:8; DB650]
||Bahaullah, Life of; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Russia; Minister; Prince Dolgorukov; Mirza Aqa Khan; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1855. During Bahá'u'lláh's absence
||At some point during the retirement of Bahá'u'lláh, Mírzá 'Aqá Ján was engaged in the service of Mírzá Yahyá who wanted him to go on a secret mission to Tehran to assassinate Násiri'd-Dín Sháh. He accepted the assignment and soon after his arrival managed to obtain access to the court in the guise of a labourer. He realized the extent of his folly and returned to Baghdád and when Bahá'u'lláh returned from exile he confessed his part in the scheme and begged Bahá'u'lláh's forgiveness and he was permitted to resume service for Bahá'u'lláh. [CoB181-182]
||Baghdad; Iraq; Tihran; Iran
||Mirza Aqa Jan; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Nasirid-Din Shah
||The revelation of Sahíiy-i-Shattíyyih (Book of the River or Book of the Tigris) by Bahá'u'lláh.
See Tablet of the River [Tigris] by Bahá'u'lláh translated by Juan Cole, 1997 for the background to the Tablet and a translation. Cole contends, by his translation, that at this time Bahá'u'lláh, had no thought of advancing any claim to Revelation.
See Concealment and Revelation in Bahá'u'lláh's Book of the River by Nader Saiedi published in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 9:3, 1999 where Saiedi postulates, based on his translation that Bahá'u'lláh was fully aware of His mission from at least the time of his imprisonment in the Siyah-Chal and rejects any suggestion that Bahá'u'lláh's consciousness evolved in this regard.
See Messianic Concealment and Theophanic Disclosure by Moojan Momen
published in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 Association for Bahá'í Studies of New Zealand, 2007, where Momen contends that the controversy is an illusory one caused by the specific nature of the meaning of the word "amr" and that the phrase that is the subject of dispute proves neither side's case, however it is translated. He explains it by say there is a theological schematic of the stages of the evolution of the mission of the Manifestations of God, the phenomenon of a period of messianic concealment followed by a theophanic disclosure. He then imposes this schematic upon the dispensation of the Báb creating a new interpretation of His ministry and further suggests it could be applied to the Revelation of Muhammad and Jesus.
||Shahifiy-i-Shattiyyih (Book of the River); Rivers; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Birth of Revelation of; Bahaullah, Declaration of; Tigris river
||The dismissal of Mírzá Áqá Khán, the prime minister who had directed the persecution of the Bábís that followed the attempt on the life of the Sháh.
||Mirza Aqa Khan; Prime Ministers of Iran; Prime Ministers; Nasirid-Din Shah; Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Shahs
||Hájí Ákhúnd (Mullá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí), Hand of the Cause, became a Bábí in Mashhad. [EB266]
||Haji Ákhund; Hand of the Cause
Haji Akhund (Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi); Hands of the Cause
|1862. c. 1862
||Bahá'u'lláh sent a ring and cashmere shawl to His niece, Shahr-Bánú, the daughter of Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan, in Tihrán to ask for her hand in marriage to ‘Abdu'l-Bahá. Shahr-Bánú's uncle, acting in place of her dead father, refused to let her go to Iraq. [BKG342–3]
||Tihran; Iran; Baghdad; Iraq
||Bahaullah, Life of; Rings; Shawls; Gifts; Shahr-Banu; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Abdul-Baha, Life of
|1867 Sep - Aug 1868
||Bahá'u'lláh addressed a Tablet to to Mullá-'Alí Akbar-i-Sháhmírzádí and Jamál-i-Burújirdí in Tehran to transfer the casket containing the remains of the Báb to a safer hiding place so they temporarily concealed it within a wall of the Masjid-i-M´shá'u'lláh outside of the gates of the city of Tehran. After the hiding place was detected the casket was smuggled into the city and deposited in the house of Mírzá Hasan-i-Vazír, a believer and son-in-law of Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'Alíy-i-Tafríshí, the Majdu'l-Ashráf. [GPB177; ISC-1963p32]
||Bab, Burial of; Bab, Remains of; Haji Akhund (Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi); Jamal-i-Burujirdi; Imam-Zadih Masum; Z^^^^
|1867 Sep - Aug 1868
||Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Kitáb-i-Badí‘, the Munájátháy-i-Síyám (Prayers for Fasting), the first Tablet to Napoleon III, the Lawh-i-Sultán written to Násiri'd-Dín Sháh, and the Súriy-i-Ra'ís. [BKG245; GBP172]
See RB2:370–82 for details of the Kitáb-i-Badí'.
Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Súriy-i-Ghusn (Tablet of the Branch) in which ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's future station was foreshadowed. [BBD218; BKG250; GPB177]
See RB2:338–9 for a description of the Tablet.
||Edirne; Adrianople; Turkey
||Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Suriy-i-Muluk (Surih to the Kings); Kitab-i-Badi (Wondrous Book); Munajathay-i-Siyam (Prayers for Fasting); Lawh-i-Napulyun (Tablet to Napoleon III); Lawh-i-Sultan (Tablet to Nasirid-Din Shah); Suriy-i-Rais (Tablet to Sultan Ali Pasha); Suriy-i-Ghusn (Tablet of the Branch); Abdul-Baha, Life of; Firsts, Other; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1868 (In the year)
||Hájí Mullá `Alí-i-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí (later Hand of the Cause Hájí Ákhúnd) was imprisoned in Tihrán as a Bahá'í on the order of Mullá `Alí Kání. This is the first of many imprisonments. [EB266]
He was imprisoned so often that `Abdu'l-Bahá later said of him that at the first sign of disturbances, he would `put on his turban, wrap himself in his `abá and sit waiting' to be arrested. [MF11]
||Haji Akhund (Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi); Mulla Ali Kani; Hands of the Cause
|1869 (In the year)
||The 17-year-old Áqá Buzurg-i-Níshápúrí, Badí`, arrived in `Akká having walked from Mosul. He was able to enter the city unsuspected. [BKG297; RB3:178]
He was still wearing the simple clothes of a water bearer. [BKG297]
For the story of his life, see BKG294–297 and RB3:176–179.
For his transformation see RB3:179–182.
Badí` saw `Abdu'l-Bahá in a mosque and was able to write a note to Him. The same night Badí` entered the citadel and went into the presence of Bahá'u'lláh. He met Bahá'u'lláh twice. [BKG297; RW3:179]
- Badí` asked Bahá'u'lláh for the honour of delivering the Tablet to the Sháh and Bahá'u'lláh bestowed it on him. [BKG297; RB3:182]
- The journey to Tehran took four months; he traveled alone. [BKG298]
- For the story of the journey see BKG297–300 and RB3:184.
- For the Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to Badí` see BKG299 and RB3:175–176.
- Regarding the tablet to the Sháh
“Bahá’u’lláh’s lengthiest epistle to any single sovereign” -- Lawḥ-i-Sulṭán, (the Tablet to Náṣiri’d-Dín Sháh) Of the various writings that make up the Súriy-i-Haykal, one requires particular mention. The Lawḥ-i-Sulṭán, the Tablet to Náṣiri’d-Dín Sháh, Bahá’u’lláh’s lengthiest epistle to any single sovereign, was revealed in the weeks immediately preceding His final banishment to ‘Akká. It was eventually delivered to the monarch by Badí‘, a youth of seventeen, who had entreated Bahá’u’lláh for the honour of rendering some service. His efforts won him the crown of martyrdom and immortalized his name. The Tablet contains the celebrated passage describing the circumstances in which the divine call was communicated to Bahá’u’lláh and the effect it produced. Here, too, we find His unequivocal offer to meet with the Muslim clergy, in the presence of the Sháh, and to provide whatever proofs of the new Revelation they might consider to be definitive, a test of spiritual integrity significantly failed by those who claimed to be the authoritative trustees of the message of the Qur’án. [The Universal House of Justice (Introduction to ‘The Summons of the Lord of Hosts’)]
|Akka; Mosul; Iraq; Tihran; Iran
||Badi (Mirza Aqa Buzurg-i-Nishapuri); Lawh-i-Sultan (Tablet to Nasirid-Din Shah); Suriy-i-Muluk (Surih to the Kings); Tablets to kings and rulers; Nasirid-Din Shah; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Apostles of Bahaullah
||Badí` delivered the Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to the Sháh. He was tortured and executed. [BBRXXXIX; BKG300; BW18:383; RB3:184–6]
For details of his torture and martyrdom see BKG300, 304–7 and RB3:186–91.
For the account of the French Minister in Tihrán see BBR254–5.
He is given the title Fakhru'sh-Shuhadá' (Pride of Martyrs). [BKG300]
Shoghi Effendi listed him among the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW3:80–1]
For the effect on Bahá'u'lláh of the martyrdom of Badí` see BKG300 and GPB199.
See also BKG293–314; GPB199, RB3:172–203; TN589
||Badi (Mirza Aqa Buzurg-i-Nishapuri); Apostles of Bahaullah; Shahs; Nasirid-Din Shah; Lawh-i-Sultan (Tablet to Nasirid-Din Shah); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
|1870 (In the year)
||Násiri'd-Dín Sháh maded a pilgrimage to the shrines in Iraq. In preparation for his visit the Bahá'ís were rounded up, arrested and exiled. [BBR267; BBRSM90; BKG441]
See BKG441–3 for details of the exile.
||Nasirid-Din Shah; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
|1876. 4 Jun
||`Abdu'l-`Azíz either committed suicide or was assassinated. [BBD2; BBR485; GPB225]
Accession of Murád V to the throne. [BBR485]
Bahá'u'lláh had predicted his downfall in the Lawh-i-Fu'ád. [RB3:87]
Bahá'u'lláh stated that the tyranny of Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz exceeded that of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh because the Sultán exiled Bahá'u'lláh to the Most Great Prison without any reason whereas the Sháh had reason to be fearful of the Bahá'ís because of the attempt on his life. [BKG412]
Bahá'u'lláh had addressed two Tablets to the Sultán including the Súriy-i-Mulúk (Tablet to the Kings) but he did not respond. [BBD2]
See The Summons of the Lord of Hosts p177-181 for the Lawh-i-Fu'ád and p185-235 for the Súriy-i-Mulúk.
||Sultan Abdul-Aziz; Births and deaths; Nasirid-Din Shah; Murad V; Lawh-i-Fuad (Tablet to Fuad Pasha); Suriy-i-Muluk (Surih to the Kings); History (general); Prophecies
|1878 to 1881
||The first Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Hájí Sháh-Muhammad-i-Manshádí, or Jináb-i-Sháh Muhammad from Manshád, Yazd who had become a believer in Baghdad. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
His title was Amínu'l-Bayán (Trustee of the Bayán).
He made many journeys between Iran and the Holy Land carrying donations and petitions from the friends and returning with Tablets and news.
He was tasked with receiving the casket of the Báb after the location had been discovered by a number of believers. He transferred it to the Mosque of Imámzádih Zayd in Tehran where it was buried beneath the floor of the inner sanctuary of the shrine. It was consequently discovered and moved to a series of private homes in Tehran until 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent for it for the internment. [ISC-1963p32]
Hájí Sháh-Muhammad was in 'Akká when Áqá Buzurg, entitled Badí', came to confer with Bahá'u'lláh. He and Badí met on Mount Carmel as directed by Bahá'u'lláh.
He was killed as a result of wounds incurred during an attack during a Kurdish revolt. [RoB3p73]
||Iran; Yazd; Baghdad; Tihran
||Huququllah; Huququllah, Trustees of; Haji Shah-Muhammad-i-Manshadi (Aminul-Bayan); Bab, Remains of; Mosques; Firsts, Other; Z^^^^
|1881 to 1928
||The second Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Hájí Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikání, entitled Amín-i-Iláhí (Trusted of God). He had been a companion of Jináb-i-Sháh until his death in 1881 in a fatal attack. Hájí Sháh-Muhammad and Hájí Abu'l-Hasan had been the first believers to succeed in entering the city of 'Akká and attain the presence of Bahá'u'lláh in the public bath in the early days of His confinement in the Most Great Prison. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
He travelled to Paris to obtain the presence of 'Abu'l-Bahá. By 1906 he had made 19 pilgrimages to the Holy Land. [AY225]
Shoghi Effendi named him a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously (July, 1928) and was he was also named one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. In appreciation of Hájí Amín's services, 'Abdu'l-Bahá named one of the doors of the Shrine of the Báb after him.
Upon his death Shoghi Effendi appointed Hájí Ghulám-Ridá (entitled Amín-i-Amín), who for several years had been Hájí Amín's assistant, to succeed him as Trustee of the Huqúq'u'lláh. [RoB3p74-86]
||Huququllah; Huququllah, Trustees of; Haji Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani (Amin-i-Ilahi); Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Apostles of Bahaullah; Haji Shah-Muhammad-i-Manshadi (Aminul-Bayan); Haji Ghulam-Rida (Amin-i-Amin); Public baths
|1890 (In the year)
||Hájí Ákhúnd, Hájí Amín and Ibn-i-Abhar were arrested. Hájí Ákhúnd was imprisoned in Tihrán for two years; Hájí Amín was imprisoned in Qazvín for two years; and Ibn-i-Abhar was imprisoned in Tihrán for four years. [BW18:383–4]
Mírzá Mahmúd-i-Furúghí was arrested in Furúghí and sent to Mashhad. From there he was sent to Kalát-i-Nadírí where he was imprisoned for two years. [BW18:384]
In Mashhad a mob set out to kill Mírzá Husayn-i-Bajistání, but failing to find him they looted his shop. [BW18:384]
|Tihran; Qazvin; Kalat-i-Nadiri; Mashhad; Iran
||Haji Akhund (Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi); Haji Amin (Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani); Ibn-i-Abhar (Mulla Muhammad Taqi); Mirza Mahmud-i-Furughi; Mirza Husayn-i-Bajistani; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution
|1891 19 May
||The execution of the Seven Martyrs of Yazd. [BBRXXIX, BW18:384]
Seven Bahá'ís were executed on the order of the governor of Yazd, Husain Mírzá, Jalálu'd-Dín-Dawlih (the grandson of the shah and the son of Zillu's-Sultán) and at the instigation of the mujtahid, Shaykh Hasan-i-Sabzivárí. [BW18:384]
For their names see BW18:384.
For details of the executions see GBP201–2.
For Western reports of the episode see BBR301–5.
Bahá'u'lláh stated that a representative of Zillu's-Sultán. Hájí Sayyáh, visited Him in 'Akká in the hope of persuading Him to support his plot to usurp the throne. He was promised freedom to practice the Faith should He support him. Hájí Sayyáh was arrested in Tehran in April of 1891 and Zillu's-Sultán, afraid that he would be implicated in the plot to overthrow the king, inaugurated vigorous persecution of the Bahá'ís in Yazd in order to draw attention from himself and prove his loyalty to the crown and to Islam. Had Bahá'u'lláh reported this incident to the Shah, Zillu's-Sultán would have paid dearly for his disloyalty. [BBR357-358]
See also RB3:194–6 and SBBH2:77.
“The tyrant of the land of Yá (Yazd) committed that which has caused the Concourse on High to shed tears of blood.” from the Lawḥ-i-Dunyá (Tablet of the World) Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh, p. 85
||Jalalud-Din-Dawlih; Shaykh Hasan-i-Sabzivari; Seven martyrs of Yazd; Seven martyrs; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Zillus-Sultan; Haji Sayyah; Shah; Lawh-i-Dunya (Tablet of the World)
|1892 (In the year)
||Mu'tuminu's-Saltanih was poisoned in Tihrán on the orders of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh. [BW18:384]
||Mutuminus-Saltanih; Nasirid-Din Shah; Assassinations
|1896. 19 Apr
||Násiri'd-Dín Sháh was assassinated on the eve of the celebration of his jubilee. He had ascended to the throne in 1848 and by the Islamic lunar calendar it marked the 50th year of his reign. [BKG455]
BBRXXIX and BBRSM219 say it was 1 May.
His assassin, Mírzá Ridá-yi-Kirmáni, a Pan-Islamic terrorist, was a follower of Jamálu'd-Dín-i-Afghání, one of the originators of the Constitutional movement in Iran and an enemy of the Faith. [BBRSM87; GBP296; MCS540]
For an account of his assassination see PDC67–8.
See BKG430–55 for a history of his reign.
He was succeeded by his son Muzaffari'd-Dín. [GPB296]
See also CBM54-56.
||Nasirid-Din Shah; Shahs; Throne changes; Qajar dynasty; History (general); Iran, General history; Births and deaths; Jamalud-Din-i-Afghani; Assassinations
|1896 1 May
||Muzaffari'd-Dín became the shah of Persia. He was the son of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh. He had been sent as governor to the province of Azerbaijan in 1861 and, as the crown prince, had spent 35 years in the pursuit of pleasure. When he ascended to the throne he was unprepared for the office. In addition, the country had huge debts to both Britain and Russia.
||Muzaffarid-Din Shah; Shahs; Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history
|1896. 24 Jul
||Four Bahá'ís were executed in Turbat-i-Haydarí on the order of the mujtahid. [BW18:384; BBR405]
BBRXXIX says the four Bahá'ís were martyred in August.
These four together with Hájí Muhammad Sádiq are known as the Shuhadáy-i-Khamsih (Five Martyrs). [GPB296]
Their martyrdom was the result of the assassination of the Sháh, for which the Bahá'ís were erroneously blamed. [GPB296]
For Western accounts of the episode see BBR405–6.
||Haji Muhammad Sadiq; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Assassinations; Nasirid-Din Shah
||The Iranian ambassador to the Ottoman government at Istanbul, `Ala'u'l-Mulk, filed a report with the Office of Foreign Ministry in Tihran which was subsequently presented to the Shah.
||Shah, Reports to
|1902 (In the year)
||Since the assassination of the Sháh's father in 1986 the Bahá'í community in Iran had been scapegoated and the oppression was increasing. In 1902 Muzaffar al-Din Sháh and his prime minister were in Paris staying at the Elysèe Palace Hotel. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had a petition for him and Lua Getsinger was asked to deliver it. She and Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney requested an audience with the Sháh but they were refused by the prime minister. She was told that he was not receiving anyone as his son was gravely ill and likely to die. Lua asked if he would see her the following day should his son be healed and consent was granted. That night the Bahá'ís of Paris held a prayer vigil till dawn. As promised, Lua was granted access and put the petition directly in the Sháh's hand. She heard him say that he would do all that was within his power but in 1903 a savage rash of persecution broke out and, upon the advice of his prime minister, the Sháh did nothing believing that it was better to let the restless population vent rage on the Bahá'ís then on the rich and powerful foreigners who might have been victimized. The prime minister was replaced in mid-1903 and the persecutions eased. In 1907 the Sháh did intervene on behalf of the Bahá'ís. [Find a grave; LDNW18-19]
||Iran, persecution; Lua Getsinger; Muzaffar al-Din Shah; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; petition; Z****
|1906 5 Aug
||After an almost bloodless revolution Muzaffari'd-Din Sháh was forced to sign a document calling for a National Assembly to be elected from amount the working guilds, landowners merchants and the nobles. The parliament was opened on the 7th of October. [AY24]
||Iran, General history; History (general); Muzaffarid-Din Shah; Shahs
||Several Bahá'ís in Sangsar and Shahmírzád were killed or injured by bullets; six Bahá'ís were arrested. [BW18:386]
||Sangsar; Shahmirzad; Iran
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
|1907 8 Jan
||The death of Muzaffari'd-Dín Sháh just a few days after he had signed the constitution. [BBR354, 482]
||Muzaffarid-Din Shah; Shahs; Qajar dynasty; Births and deaths; Iran, General history; History (general); Constitutions
|1907 19 Jan
||The accession of Muhammad-`Alí Sháh to the throne of Iran. He reigned until 1909. He attempted to rescind the constitution and abolish parliamentary government. After several disputes with the members of the Majlis in June, 1908 he bombed the Majlis building, arrested many of the deputies and closed down the assembly. In July 1909 constitutional forces deposed him and he went into exile in Russia from where he attempted to regain his throne. [BBR354, 482, AY218]
The Bahá'í community received some measure of protection under this regime. [BBRSM:97–8]
||Muhammad-Ali Shah; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; Qajar dynasty; History (general); Iran, General history; Persecution
||Muhammad-`Alí Sháh undertook a successful coup d'état in Iran and abolished the Constitution. [BBR369]
||Muhammad-Ali Shah; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; Qajar dynasty; Iranian Constitution; Constitutions; History (general); Iran, General history
|1909 16 Jul
||After an armed revolt, Muhammad-`Alí Sháh abdicated and the Iranian Constitution was resurrected. [BBR354, 482]
The country soon deteriorated and anarchy prevailed. It was effectively partitioned into two spheres of influence, British and Russian. [BBRSM:87]
||Muhammad-Ali Shah; Qajar dynasty; Iranian Constitution
|1909 18 Jul
||The accession of Ahmad Sháh, the boy-king, to the throne of Iran. He was twelve years old and because of his youth a regency was established under Azudu'l-Mulk, the head of the Qájár family. Ahmad's official coronation took place on the 21st of July, 1914. His reign formerly lasted until October 1925 when he was deposed by the Majles while he was absent in Europe. He was the last of the Qajar dynasty. [BBR482; CBM57]
||Ahmad Shah; Shahs; Qajar dynasty; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history
|1910 4 Mar
||The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Hájí Mullá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí, (Hájí Akhund). He was born in Shahmírzád around 1842/3. [Bahaikepedia]
Bahá’u’lláh had entrusted him with the sacred task of moving and hiding the remains of the Báb. In Tehran he transferred the remains to Hand of the Cause Amínu’l-Bayán who moved them through innumerable dangers to a safe hiding place in the Mosque of the Imámzádih Zayd in Tehran, where they lay concealed until the time when, at the behest of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, they were transferred to the Holy Land to be laid in their permanent resting place on the slopes of Mount Carmel. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
He was appointed a Hand of the Cause by Bahá’u’lláh. [LoF3-8]
Hand of the Cause of God `Alí-Akhar-i-Shahmírzádí (Hájí Ákhúnd) passed away in Tihrán. [BBD14; EB266]
||Tihran; Shahmirzad; Iran
||Haji Akhund (Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi); Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Activities
|1916 28 July
||Mullá Nasru'lláh-i-Shahmírzádí was martyred in his home in Shahmirzád, Khurásán. [BW18:387]
|Shahmirzad; Khurasan; Iran
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
|1921 23 Jan
||Mírzá Ya`qúb-i-Muttahidih was assassinated in Kirmánsháh. [BBRXXX, 446-50; BW18:387; GPB299]
He was the last to lay down his life in the ministry of `Abdu'l-Bahá. GPB299]
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
||Ahmad Sháh, who succeeded to the throne at age 11, (reigned 1909–25) was deposed in a coup d'état led by Reza Khán who appointed himself prime minister. He ruled as Reza Sháh Pahlaví between 1925–41.
||Ahmad Shah; Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Qajar dynasty; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history
|1925 31 Oct
||Ahmad Sháh was deposed and the Qájár dynasty (1785-1925) was formerly terminated by declaration of the National Consultative Assembly. He was replaced by Reza Shah Pahlavi. [BBD190; BBR482; BBRSM87, PDC66-69, AY46-47]
||Ahmad Shah; Qajar dynasty; Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; Iran, general history
|1925 13 Dec
||Ridá (or Reza) Sháh acceded to the throne of Iran. The Pahlaví dynasty commenced. [BBR482]
||Reza Shah Pahlavi; Pahlavi dynasty; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history
|1932 10 Jun
||The American National Spiritual Assembly addresseed a petition to the Sháh of Iran requesting that the ban on Bahá’í literature be removed and asking that its representative, Mrs Keith Ransom-Kehler, be recognized to present in person the appeal. [BW5:390–1]
||United States; Iran
||NSA; Petitions; Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Keith Ransom-Kehler; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
|1932 15 Aug
||Keith Ransom-Kehler met the Iranian Court Minister Taymur Tash. [BW5:392]
She presented the American petition to him asking that the ban on Bahá’í literature in Iran be lifted and received assurances from him that this would be affected. [BW5:392]
She made seven successive petitions addressed to the Sháh of Persia. [GPB345]
For the history and unsuccessful outcome of this effort see BW5:391–8.
||Iran; United States
||Keith Ransom-Kehler; NSA; Petitions; Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Keith Ransom-Kehler; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
|1935 (In the year)
||The persecution against the Bahá’ís in Iran continued. [BW18:389]
Meetings in the Bahá’í Centre in Tihrán were banned.
A number of Bahá’ís in Bandar Sháh were arrested and imprisoned.
The secretary of the Local Spiritual Assembly of Arák was arrested.
Bahá’ís in Qazvín were arrested and harassed.
A Bahá’í in Záhidán was arrested.
||Iran; Tihran; Bandar Shah; Arak; Qazvin; Zahidan
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; LSA
||The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continued. [BW18:389]
All Bahá’í meetings were banned throughout Iran.
Several local Bahá’í centres were attacked or closed down.
Bahá’ís in Bandar Sháh were interrogated by the police for closing their shops on Bahá’í holy days.
||Iran; Bandar Shah
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Holy days
|1937 (In the year)
||The persecution of the Bahá’ís in Iran continued throughout the country. [BW18:389]
Many Bahá’ís employed in the police force, army and government departments were dismissed.
Six members of the Local Spiritual Assembly of Ahváz were arrested.
Bahá’ís who closed their shops on Bahá’í holy days in Bandar Sháh were arrested.
All Bahá’í meetings in Kirmánsháh, Bírjand, Arák and other towns were prohibited by police order.
Five Bahá’í families were attacked in their homes in Cham-tang, near Hindíyán. They were severely beaten and forced to leave the village.
||Iran; Ahvaz; Bandar Shah; Kirmanshah; Birjand; Arak; Cham-tang
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; LSA; Holy days
|1938 (In the year)
||Persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continued throughout the country. [BW18:389]
Bahá’ís marrying without a Muslim ceremony were investigated, including several hundred in Tihrán alone. Most were imprisoned pending trial and were imprisoned for six to eight months afterwards and fined.
Bahá’í meetings in Kirmánsháh, Záhidán, Mashhad and other towns were harassed by the police.
||Iran; Tihran; Kirmanshah; Zahidan; Mashhad
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution
|1941 16 Sep
||In Iran, Ridá Sháh abdicated and Muhammad-Ridá Sháh ascended to the throne. His rule was to last until 1979. [BBR482]
Ridá Sháh was overthrown by the British and Russians. [BBRSM173]
His reign can be described in three phases:
The first phase, from 1941 through 1955, was a period characterized by physical danger, during which Bahá'ís were scapegoated in the interactions among the government, the clerics and the people, and experienced several bloody incidents, the culmination of which was the 1955 anti-Bahá'í campaign and its aftermaths.
The second phase, from the late 1950s to around 1977, marked almost two decades of relative respite from physical attacks, during which Bahá'ís enjoyed more security than before, without ever being officially recognized as a religious community and while their existence as Bahá'ís was essentially ignored or denied.
The last two years of the reign of the Shah comprised the third phase, the revival of a bloody period. [Towards a History of Iran’s Bahá'í Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by
||Mohammed Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
|1944 8 Aug
||Three Bahá’ís were murdered in Sháhrúd, Iran, after three weeks of anti-Bahá’í agitation. Many Bahá’í houses were attacked and looted. [BW18:389]
The murderers confessed, were put on trial and were acquitted. [BW18:389, Towards a History of Iran’s Baha’i Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.]
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Human rights; Court cases
|1944 after Aug
||Following the murder of Bahá’ís at Sháhrúd, Iran, and the widespread publicity on the outcome of the trial, there was an upsurge in persecution of Bahá’ís throughout Iran. [BW18:389]
At Ábádih Bahá’ís were beaten and their houses were sacked. [BW18:389]
The Bahá’í centre at Bandar Jaz was attacked. [BW18:389]
Two Bahá’ís were knifed at Bandar Sháh. The attackers were set free and attacked a further three Bahá’ís, leaving one an invalid. [BW18:390]
Bahá’ís, including women and children, were attacked and beaten at Bushrúyih, their homes and shops looted and burned and the Bahá’í cemetery desecrated. [BW18:390]
Bahá’í houses were attacked and looted at Fárán, Káshán and Ná’in. [BW13:390]
Bahá’í houses were set on fire in Gulpáygán and Zábul. [BW18:390]
Bahá’ís were driven from town in Bujnúrd, Gunábád and Tabas. [BW18:390]
The Bahá’í cemetery at Mahmúdábád was desecrated.
Bahá’ís were beaten at Miyán-du-áb, Rafsanján, Sangsar and Sírján. [BW18:390]
Bahá’ís were stoned at Qasr-i-Shírín. [BW18:390]
||Iran; Abadih; Bandar Jaz; Bandar Shah; Bushruyih; Faran; Kashan; Nain; Gulpaygan; Zabul; Bujnurd; Gunabad; Tabas; Mahmudabad; Miyan-du-ab; Rafsanjan; Sangsar; Sirjan; Qasr-i-Shirin
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution, Other; Persecution
||Shoghi Effendi sent the cable below to the Bahá'í world: "Monib Shahid, grandson of both `Abdu'l-Bahá and the King of Martyrs, married according to the Moslem rites the daughter of a political exile who is nephew of the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem. This treacherous act of alliance with enemies of the Faith merits condemnation of entire Bahá'í world." [Bahá'í News, December, 1944 No. 172]
||Covenant-breakers; Munib Shahid
|1947 4 Jul
||‘Abbás Sháhídzádih was martyred in Sháhí, Mázandarán, Iran and a fellow Bahá'í, Habib Allah Hushmand, was murdered in Sarvistan. [BW18:390, Towards a History of Iran’s Bahá'í Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.]
||Shahi; Mazandaran; Iran
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
|1949 4 Feb
||There was an attempt on the life of the Shah during a ceremony commemorating the founding of Tehran University. The enemies of the Faith took advantage of the instability to launch attacks against the Bahá'ís throughout Iran. [SCF107]
||Shah of Iran; persecution, Iran; Z****
|1963 (In the year)
||15 years after the establishment of Israel and during the course of the unrest that swept through Iran in response to a set of far-reaching reforms launched by Muhammad-Ridá Sháh, Ayatollah Khomeini and the Association of Iranian Clerics, in two separate declarations, denounced Bahá'ís as agents and representatives of Israel, and demanded their severe repression.
During the 1960s and 70s almost everything that troubled Iranian clerics was seen as evidence of a Bahá'í-Israeli plot against Islam. The Shah, who was harshly rebuked by the ‘ulama for his regime’s strong ties with Israel, was accused of being a Bahá'í because of some of the reforms he had introduced, notably his giving voting rights to women, and providing blue-collar industrial workers with a share of the profits earned by their companies. Various cultural events launched by the administration, some of which had clear Western tones, were seen as Bahá'í plots to undermine the Islamic identity of Iranians. Iranian ministers and courtiers were almost collectively accused of being Bahá'ís. Even Iran’s notorious intelligence agency, SAVAK, whose strong anti-leftist agenda had naturally led to its inclination to recruit people with Islamic ties, and which had obvious connections with the Hujjatieh society – the self-professed arch-enemies of the Bahá'ís – was seen as nothing more than a Bahá'í puppet. Consequently, the 1979 Islamic Revolution came about not just as an uprising against the Shah, but supposedly as a reaction to an Israeli-Bahá'í threat.
[Iran Press Watch 1407]
||Conspiracy Theories; Ayatollah Khomeini; Shahs; Mohammed Reza Shah Pahlavi; Reform; History (general); Iran, General history; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
|1979 17 Jan
||Mohammad Rezā Pahlavi, known as Mohammad Reza Shah, entitled Shāhanshāh ("Emperor" or "King of Kings"), fled Iran. The dissolution of the monarchy was complete on the 11th of February.
||Mohammed Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history
||Revolutionary committees in Shahsavár, ‘Ábádán and Tabríz, Iran, ordered the arrest of Bahá’ís. [BW18:255]
Among those arrested were members of local spiritual assemblies. [BW18:255]
Bahá’í homes in Tabríz were raided and literature seized. [BW18:255]
||Shahsavar; Abadan; Tabriz; Iran
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution
|1980 27 Jul
||The death of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi in Cairo. (b.26 October, 1919 in Tehran).
Shah of Iran from 16 September, 1941 to 11 February. He came to power after an Anglo-Soviet invasion forced the abdication of his father, Reza Shah.
He had been diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia in April 1974 by the French haematologist Professor Jean Bernard, [David Owen]
He fled Iran on 17 January and flew to Aswan, Egypt where he was welcomed by President Anwar El-Sadat.Later he lived in Marrakech, Morocco as a guest of King Hassan II.
And then Paradise Island in the Bahamas,
then Cuernavaca, Mexico, near Mexico City where his medical condition deteriorated.
On the 22nd of October he flew New York for treatment in the Cornell Medical Center after President Carter relented. He was later taken to the Kelly Air Force Base in Texas and from there to the Wilford Hall Medical Center at Lackland Air Force Base.
He left the US on the 15th of December, 1979 and lived for a short time in Isla Contadora in Panama where he was taken in under American pressure. The new Iranian government made an attempt to extradite him.
In March, 1980 he returned to Egypt having been offered permanent asylum by President Anwar El-Sadat
The official cause of death was complications of Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma)
He was buried in the Al Rifa'i Mosque in Cairo, [Wiki]
||Reza Shah Pahlavi
|2002 1 May
||The publication of The Summons of the Lord of Hosts by Bahá'í World Centre Publications.
The 272-page book contained authoritative English translations of six major works written by Bahá'u'lláh between 1868 and 1870. Collectively, the works clearly enunciated His claim to prophethood and offered a prescription for peaceful and just leadership in the modern world as offered to the the monarchs and religious leaders of His time.
Specifically, the book collects the Súriy-i-Haykal [Súrih of the Temple], Súriy-i-Ra’ís [Súrih of the Chief], Lawh-i-Ra'is [Tablet of the Chief], Lawh-i-Fu'ad [Tablet to Fu'ad Pasha], Lawh-i-Sultan [Tablet to the Shah of Iran], and Súriy-i-Mulúk [Súrih of the Kings]. [One Country Vol.14 Issue 1, BWNS163]
||Summons of the Lord of Hosts (book); Bahaullah, Writings of; Tablets to kings and rulers; Translation; Publications; Lawh-i-Napulyun (Tablet to Napoleon III); Tablet to Czar Alexander II; Lawh-i-Malikih (Tablet to Queen Victoria); Lawh-i-Sultan (Tablet to Nasirid-Din Shah); Lawh-i-Pap (Tablet to Pope Pius IX)
|2006 2 May
||Letter, from the Trades, Production, and Technical Services Society of Kermanshah to the Iranian Union of Battery Manufacturers, asked the Union to provide a list of members of the Bahá'í sect in their membership. [BWNS488]
English translation of the letter.
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; BWNS
|2008 30 Apr
||The election of the Universal House of Justice at the 10th International Bahá'í Convention. Those elected were Farzam Arbab, Kiser Barnes, Peter Khan, Hooper Dunbar, Firaydoun Javaheri, Paul Lample, Payman Mohajer, Shahriar Razavi, and Gustavo Correa.
||Conventions, International; Universal House of Justice, Election of; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Farzam Arbab; Kiser Barnes; Peter Khan; Hooper Dunbar; Firaydoun Javaheri; Paul Lample; Payman Mohajer; Shahriar Razavi; Gustavo Correa; BWNS
||Following the reduction of his sentence, Vahid Tizfahm was transferred to Rajai-Shahr prison, where he remained until his release. Rajai-Shahr is located in the Alborz Province, and was at the time a maximum-security prison, a place for the “dangerous” individuals. According to Iran’s Department of Prisons, Security and Corrections’ Regulations, and based on the principle of Segregation of Crimes, Tizfahm’s transfer to Rajai-Shahr was not legal. [Iran Press Watch 29 March, 2018]
||Yaran; Vahid Tizfahm; Rajai-Shahr prison; Prisons; Persecution, Iran; Z****
|2011 3 May
||After conviction, the two women of the Yaran were transferred from Evin Prison to the even more notorious Rajaei Shahr Prison in Karaj, near Tehran. In that prison, Fariba Kamalabadi, Mahvash Sabet, and a number of political prisoners were locked up in the communal ward with hundreds of ordinary female prisoners — inmates incarcerated for crimes not linked to politics. When authorities closed the women’s ward of that prison, the prisoners were all transferred to Gharchak Prison in Varamin near Tehran, where the conditions were even worse than those at Rajaei Shahr Prison. [IranWire4985; BWNS821]
||Varan; Mahvash Sabet; Fariba Kamalabadi; Rajaei Shahr Prison; BWNS
|2013 29 Apr – 2 May
||The Eleventh International Bahá'í Convention in Haifa and the 50th anniversary of the inaugural Convention in 1963 at which the first Universal House of Justice was elected. Those elected were Paul Lample, Firaydoun Javaheri, Payman Mohajer, Gustavo Correa, Shahriar Razavi, Stephen Birkland, Stephen Hall, Chuungu Malitonga, and Ayman Rouhani. [BWNS950, BWNS951, BWNS953]
More than a thousand
members of one hundred and fifty seven National Spiritual Assemblies attended, and nearly five
hundred more, including those from an additional fourteen countries, participated in the election
by mail. [Letter from the Universal House of Justice to the delegates gathered at
Bahá'í National Conventions dated 16 May, 2013]
||Universal House of Justice, Election of; Elections; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Conventions, International; Paul Lample; Firaydoun Javaheri; Payman Mohajer; Gustavo Correa; Shahriar Razavi; Stephen Birkland; Stephen Hall; Chuungu Malitonga; Ayman Rouhani; Anniversaries; BWNS
|2014 13 Mar
||From Rejai Shahr Prison Mr. Behrouz Tavakkoli wrote a letter to his first grandchild who had just been born three days prior in Canada. The letter can be found at Iran Press Watch 9766.
||Rejai Shahr Prison
||Behrouz Tavakkoli; Yaran; Z****
|2017 19 Sep
||Mahvash Sabet, one of the seven members of the former leadership group of the Bahá'ís in Iran known as the Yaran, was released after 10 years of confinement in Iran's notorious Evin and Raja'i Shahr prisons.
She had been arrested in March 2008 and was now 64 years old. Mrs. Sabet distinguished herself by the loving care and kindness she extended to her fellow prisoners. As has occurred with prisoners of conscience, writers, thought-leaders, and poets who have been wrongly imprisoned throughout history, the power of Mrs. Sabet's ideas and beliefs was only amplified by her persecution. The plight of its author attracted attention to this deeply moving collection of poetry, inspiring PEN International to feature Mrs. Sabet in a campaign to defend persecuted writers. Her poems also inspired a musical composition by award-winning composer Lasse Thoresen, performed at an international music festival in Oslo earlier this year. [BWNS1198]
See Prison Poems.
See CNN article Writing to survive: Bahá'í woman's poetry was her best friend in Iranian jail.
||Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Court cases; Human rights; Evin prison; Rajai Shahr prison; Prisons; Poetry; Music; Lasse Thoresen; BWNS
|2017 18 - 22 Oct
||The Iranian Bahá'í community was targeted during the bicentenary period. Between 18 and 21 October, some 19 individuals were arrested in Kermanshah, Tehran, and Birjand, and the homes 25 Baha’is were raided. Twenty-six Bahá'í-owned shops around the country were sealed off by authorities because the owners observed the Holy Day on 21 October. These closures occurred in Shiraz, Marvdasht, Gorgan, and Gonbad. [BWNS1215]
||Iran; Kermanshah; Tihran; Birjand; Shiraz; Marvdasht; Gorgan; Gonbad
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Bahaullah, Birth of; BWNS
|2018. 25 Jan
||The announcement of the opening of an educational centre at the Bahá'í Lotus Temple. The educational facility, which can accommodate hundreds, will be used to host camps, courses, and seminars for youth and young adults who are involved in efforts to improve their communities. With the opening of the new educational facility, many more will be able to attend these programs than was previously possible.
Shaheen Javid, General Manager of the House of Worship reported that the Temple, which opened in 1986, received 10,000–15,000 visitors on weekdays and over 35,000 on weekends.
||New Delhi; India
||Shaheen Javid; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Delhi; Lotus temple; BWNS; Statistics; Youth
|2018 23 Apr
||Afif Naeimi, the seventh and last imprisoned member of the Yaran, returned to Rajaee Shahr Prison (also known as Gohardasht Prison) near Tehran at the end of his medical leave despite suffering from life-threatening ailments.
On May 1 the judiciary’s medical experts had ruled that the 57-year-old was too ill to be incarcerated.
Naeimi, who had completed his 10-year prison sentence, should have been released by that time but the judiciary extended his term by more than nine months—the period he was out of prison on furlough receiving medical treatment. He had hypertrophy, a condition where the heart muscle thickens and he was afflicted with Syncope disease, which causes temporary losses of consciousness. [Iran Press Watch 18975; Iran Press Watch 18975]
||Yaran; Rajaei Shahr Prison; Prisons; Persecution, Iran
|2018 30 Apr
||The announcement of the election of the 12th Universal House of Justice. Those elected were Paul Lample, Chuungu Malitonga, Payman Mohajer, Shahriar Razavi, Stephen Hall, Ayman Rouhani, Stephen Birkland, Juan Francisco Mora, and Praveen Mallik. [BWNS1258]
The Twelfth International Bahá'í Convention was held from the 29th of April until the 2nd of May. In the election of the Universal House of Justice over 1,300 ballots were cast by representatives of 160 national communities. [BWNS1256, BWNS1257, BWNS1259, BWNS1261]
See Vimeo for a short film of the International Convention by Farideh Baki-Nasseri.
The film A Widening Embrace was screened at the Convention, enriching the consultations of the delegates. It is a documentary film about the community-building efforts of the Bahá'íworld. Many of the themes discussed over the days of the Convention were highlighted in the practical examples presented in the documentary which tells the story of the transformation of communities unfolding throughout the world by featuring the process in 24 communities representing different realities and contexts. The 77-minute film, which was commissioned by the Universal House of Justice, was made available in English, Spanish, French, Russian, Arabic, and Persian. [BWNS1260]
||Paul Lample; Chuungu Malitonga; Payman Mohajer; Shahriar Razavi; Stephen Hall; Ayman Rouhani; Stephen Birkland; Juan Francisco Mora; Praveen Mallik; Universal House of Justice, Election of; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Conventions, International; BWNS; Widening Embrace, A (film); Documentaries; - Institute process; Social action; Social and economic development; Farideh Baki-Nasseri
|2018 19 - 22 Nov
||The second annual Arab Sustainable Development Week was held in Cairo from 19 to 22 November to advance the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by the year 2030. More than 120 diplomats, government officials, representatives of regional and international organizations, businesses, and academics attended the event. Speakers included Arab League Secretary-General Ahmed Aboul-Gheit and Egyptian Prime Minister Mostafa Madbouly, among a number of other leaders in the Arab region.
It was the first time the Bahá'í community had an official presence at a space convened by the Arab League, a regional organization of about 20 nations in North Africa and the Middle East. Bahá'í International Community representatives were Dr. Solomon Belay, from the BIC Addis Ababa office, Shahnaz Jaberi from BIC-Bahrain and Hatem El-Hady from BIC-Egypt. The BIC statement, Summoning Our Common Will: A Baha’i Contribution to the United Nations Global Development Agenda, was distributed at the event.
||Solomon Belay; Shahnaz Jaberi; Hatem El-Hady; BIC; Arab League; Sustainable Development; Ahmed Aboul-Gheit; Mostafa Madbouly; Z****
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- Süleyman Nazif's Nasiruddin Shah ve Babiler: an Ottoman Source on Babi-Baha'i History, by Necati Alkan (2000). On the author of the 1919 Persian history "Nasiru’d-Din Shah and the Babis," including a translation of passages on Tahirih. [about]
- Akhund, Haji (Haji Mulla `Ali-Akbar Shahmirzadi), by Moojan Momen (1995). Short biography of an Iranian Hand of the Cause of God. [about]
- Alí Akbar Shahmírzádí (Hájjí Akhund), by Moojan Momen, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 1 (1985). Very brief article, short enough to qualify as "fair use." [about]
- Amín Hájjí: trustees of Huqúqu'lláh, by Moojan Momen, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 1 (1985). Very brief article, short enough to qualify as "fair use." [about]
- Attempted Assassination of Nasir al Din Shah in 1852, The: Millennialism and Violence, by Moojan Momen (2004). A new account of the events of 1852, referencing a document that has not been previously used which sheds a different light on the events; also broader context of the study of violent millennialists and contemporary incidents like Waco and Aum Shinrikyo. [about]
- Babi Attempt on the Life of the Shah, 1852: Coverage in the New York Times, by New York Times, in New York Times (1852). Five brief newspaper reports, among the earliest known references to the Báb in an American publication. [about]
- Badí` Khurasani, by Moojan Momen (1995). Short biography of Badi, a Baha'i renowned for his bravery and devotion. [about]
- Concealment and Revelation in Bahá'u'lláh's Book of the River, by Nader Saiedi, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 9:3 (1999). [about]
- Crowning Anguish: Memoirs of a Persian Princess from the Harem to Modernity 1884-1914, by Taj al-Saltana (1993). Passing references to the Babis in Amanat's introduction to, and in the autobiography of, Nasir al-Din's daughter. [about]
- Darius K. Shahrokh: Obituary, by Grace Shahrokh, in American Bahá'í (2005). Bio of the creator of Windows to the Past study series. [about]
- Dawn over Mount Hira and Other Essays, by Marzieh Gail (1976). A collection of essays on various topics of interest to Baha'i studies and history. Most of these were first published in Star of the West and World Order between 1929 and 1971. [about]
- Diary of H.M. the Shah of Persia, during his tour through Europe in 1873, The, by Nasir al-Din Shah (1874). Contains no mention of the Babi or Baha'i Faiths, but is useful for historical context, and a window into the Sháh's worldview. [about]
- Letter [on Babis and Nestorians], by Austin Wright, in Missionary Herald, 49:3 (1853). Letter from November 1852, with a brief mention of the assassination attempt on the Sháh. [about]
- Messianic Concealment and Theophanic Disclosure, by Moojan Momen, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). [about]
- Most Noble Pattern, A: Collected Essays on the Writings of the Báb, `Alí Muhammad Shirazi (1819-1850) (2012). Sixteen essays by many of the leading specialists on the sometimes very difficult and challenging writings of the Báb. Includes link to audio recordings of a descendant of the Báb reading from his works. [about]
- Pedigree of the Qajar Dynasty, by Shoghi Effendi, in The Dawn-Breakers (1932). Genealogical chart of the Qajar Dynasty [about]
- Persian Revolution of 1905-1909, The, by E. G. Browne (1910). Includes discussion of Bahá'ís and Bábís in "Attitude of Bahá’ís towards Persian Politics" (pp. 424-429) and "The Assassination of Nasiru'd-Din Shah" (60-62). Search text for Bábí for other references. [about]
- Pivot of the Universe: Nasir al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy 1831-1896, by Abbas Amanat: Review, by Sholeh A. Quinn, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 8 (1998). [about]
- Shah Abdu'llah and the Bahá'ís of Abadeh: An account of the persecution of Bahá'ís by followers of an imaginary Imam, by Aqa Mirza Qabil Abadeh'i (2001). Account of persecutions in Abadeh, Fars province, in 1901. [about]
- Short Chapter in the History of Bâbeeism in Persia, A, by Austin Wright, in Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Oriental Society (1853). Letter to the American Oriental Society recounting the continuation of Bábísm and attack on the Shah. Follow-up to Wright's first report on Bábí history, from June 1851. [about]
- Summons of the Lord of Hosts, by Bahá'u'lláh (2002). [about]
- Tablet of the River [Tigris], by Bahá'u'lláh (1997). Includes introduction by translator. [about]
- Tablet to Hasan-i-Sháhábadí, by Bahá'u'lláh (2002). A tablet from the Akka period, addressed to a certain Hasan living in Sháhábad of Arak in central Irán, in which Bahá'u'lláh comments on Muhammad as the "Seal of the Prophets." [about]
- Tablet to Násiri'd Din Sháh, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Bahá'í Scriptures (1923). [about]
- Tablet to Nasiri'd Din Shah, by Bahá'u'lláh (1997). Complete tablet, as translated by both Shoghi Effendi and E.G. Browne. With introduction by Sen McGlinn. [about]
- Tablet to Sháh-Muhammad-Amín (Amínu'l-Bayán): Excerpt, by Bahá'u'lláh and Universal House of Justice (2003). Excerpt of a tablet revealed in honour of the first Trustee of Huquq’u’lláh, surnamed the “Trusted of the Bayán," with introductory letter from the House of Justice. [about]
- Tablet to the Sultan [Nasiri'd-Din Shah]: Tablet study outline, by Jonah Winters (1999). [about]
- Traveler's Narrative, A Study Outline and Cross-Reference (2001). Summary headings and correlation of passages with The Dawn-Breakers, God Passes By, the Lawh-i-Sultán, and other works. [about]