Search for tag "Shahs"
||Birth of Fath-`Alí Khán (later Sháh) in Shíráz. He ruled from 1797 (or 1798) to 1834.
||Fath-Ali Shah; Shahs; Births and deaths; Qajar dynasty
|1798 c. Mar
||Áqá Muhammad Khán, leader of the Qájárs, proclaimed himself Sháh of Persia; beginning of Qájár dynasty. [AY213]
||Aqa Muhammad Khan; Qajar dynasty; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history
|1797. 17 Jun
||Assassination of Muhammad Sháh in Ádhirbáyján.
||Muhammad Shah; Shahs; Assassinations
|1797 c. Aug
||Crown Prince Fath-`Alí Mírzá assumed leadership of Persia. (1797 (or 1798) to 1834)
||Fath-Ali Shah; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; Qajar dynasty; History (general); Iran, General history
|1798. 21 Mar
||Fath-`Alí Khán was crowned second Qájár Sháh during Naw-Rúz festival.
||Fath-Ali Shah; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; Qajar dynasty; History (general); Iran, General history
|1799. 21 Mar
||Fath-`Alí Sháh's son, `Abbás Mírzá (aged 9), was designated Crown Prince of Persia.
||Fath-Ali Shah; Shahs; Abbas Mirza; Qajar dynasty; History (general); Iran, General history
|1808. 5 Jan
||Birth of Muhammad Mírzá (later Sháh), son of Crown Prince `Abbás Mírzá and grandson of Fath-`Alí Sháh.
||Muhammad Shah; Abbas Mirza; Fath-Ali Shah; Shahs; Qajar dynasty; Births and deaths
|1834 9 Sep
||The end of the reign of Fath-`Alí Sháh and the accession of his grandson, Muhammad Sháh. [B7; BBD83, 164; BBR153, 482]
- Fifty–three sons and 46 daughters survive Fath-`Alí Sháh. [B7]
- After his accession Muhammad Sháh executes the Grand Vizier, the Qá'im Máqám, the man who has raised him to the throne. He then installs his tutor, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, to the office (1835). [B10–11]
- See BBD164 for picture.
- See B11–122 for the relationship between the Sháh and his new Grand Vizier, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí.
- For details on the life of Hájí Mírzá Áqásí see BBD19.
||Fath-Ali Shah; Muhammad Shah; Shahs; Grand Viziers; Prime Ministers of Iran; Prime Ministers; Haji Mirza Aqasi; Iran, General history
|1844 Jul - Aug
||The intention of the Báb is to introduce the new Revelation slowly so as not to cause estrangement. He instructs them to spread out and teach His Faith and to this end He assigned each one a special task, most often to their own native provinces. [BBRSM14–16, 36; SWB119, BBR2p36, DB92–4; MH82–6; SBBH1:19]
- To Mullá Husayn He had given the task of delivering a Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh in Tihrán and going to the court of the Sháh to apprise him of the Báb's cause. Mullá Husayn is not able to gain access to the Sháh. [B48–57; BBRSM15 BKG32–3; CH22–3; DB85-87, 97; MH90–2, 102]
- Mullá Husayn carries to Tihrán a Tablet revealed by the Báb for Muhammad Sháh. This is the first of a number of unsuccessful attempts to enlist his aid. [BBRSM20–1; MH102; SWB13]
- Note: MH118-119 and DB127-128 indicate that Mullá Husayn had been in Tehran "between the months of Jámádí and Rajab". The first day of Jámádí, 1260 corresponds to 18 June, and the last day of Rajab to 15 August, 1844.
- See RB2:303, `The Báb … sent Tablets to only two monarchs of His day — Muhammad Sháh of Persia and Sultán `Abdu'l-Majíd of Turkey.'
- From Shiraz he journeys north to Isfahán where Mullá Ja'far, the sifter of wheat, is the first to embrace the Cause of the Báb in that city. Mullá Husayn then travels to Káshán, about 130 miles from Isfahán. He then goes to Qum, another 100 miles from Káshán. After Qum he goes to Tihrán. [MH98–101, DB99]
- See B53–6; DB104–7, MH104–110 for the delivery of the Báb's Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh. Mullá Husayn does not meet Bahá'u'lláh on this occasion.
- On receiving the Tablet of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh accepts His Cause. He immediately journeys to Mázindarán, His native province, to promote the Cause of the Báb. He returns after the death of the Shah in 1948 [BKG39–40; BW8:782; DB109; TN35, SoB6, BPP45, 48, SoG4]
- Mullá Husayn leaves for Khurásán, as he had been instructed, winning supporters for the Báb's Cause while there he writes to the Báb regarding these new believers and Bahá'u'lláh's immediate response to the Báb's Revelation. [B56, DB128–9, MH118]
- See MH121–2 for a discussion of the speed of Mullá Husayn's journey before the letter was dispatched to the Báb. It assumes that Mullá Husayn departed after the Báb met with all the Letters of the Living (date not before 2 July, 1844.) In fact both Mullá Husayn and Mullá 'Alíy-Bastámí had been dispatched before this meeting. [DB85-86, 92, HotD46]
|Kashan; Shiraz; Isfahan; Tihran; Mazandaran; Khurasan; Qum; Iran; Turkey
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Letters of the Living; Mulla Husayn; Bahaullah, Life of; Tablet to Bahaullah; Shahs; Mulla Jafar (sifter of wheat); Muhammad Shah; Sultan Abdul-Majid; First believers; Letters of the Living; Bab, Basic timeline; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1845. Jul and months following
||The Báb is told to attend a Friday gathering at the Mosque of Vakíl to appease the hostility and the curiosity of some of the residents of Shíráz and to clarify His position. The exact date of His attendance is unknown. He makes a public pronouncement that He is neither the representative of the Hidden Imám nor the gate to him, that is, His station is higher. [B94–8; DB151–7]
- He is released to the custody of His uncle, Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'Alí. [DB151, LTDT13]
- see DB152 for pictures of the above mosque.
- Upon hearing the news of the confinement of the Báb, Mullá Husayn and his companions leave Isfahán where they have been awaiting further instructions and travel to Shíráz. Mullá Husayn is able to meet secretly with the Báb several times in the house of His uncle. The Báb sends word to the remainder of His followers in Isfahán to leave and travel to Shíráz. [B102–3; MH128–9]
- After a time the presence of Mullá Husayn in Shíráz threatens to cause civil unrest. The Báb instructs him to go to Khurásán via Yazd and Kirmán and tells the rest of the companions to return to Isfahán. [B90, 102–3; DB170; MH130]
- This time, described as the `most fecund period' of the Báb's ministry, marks the birth of the Bábí community. [B89–90]
- The Sháh sends one of the most learned men in Persia, Siyyid Yahyáy-i-Dárábí, surnamed Vahíd, to investigate the claims of the Báb. He becomes a follower of the Báb. As a result of his conversion most of the inhabitants of the town of Nayríz later become Bábís. [B90–4; BBD216; BBRSM41; CH21; DB171–7; GPB11–12; TN7–8]
- Another learned scholar, Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Zanjání, surnamed Hujjat, becomes a believer after reading only one page of the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá'. Several thousand of his fellow townspeople become Bábís. [B100–2; BBD111; BBRSM16; GPB12]
- Mírzá Ahmad-i-Azghandí, yet another learned man, who had compiled traditions and prophecies concerning the expected Revelation, becomes a believer as well. [GPB12–13]
|Shiraz; Isfahan; Khurasan; Yazd; Kirman; Nayriz; Iran; Karbala; Iraq
||Bab, Life of; Vakil Mosque; Mosques; Hidden Imam; Mulla Husayn; Bab, Family of; Muhammad Shah; Shahs; Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Hujjat; Qayyumul-Asma (book); Mirza Ahmad-i-Azghandi; Tahirih; Mirza Ahmad-i-Azghandi
|1846. 23 Sep
||The governor, Husayn Khán, threatened by the Báb's rising popularity, orders His arrest. The chief constable, `Abdu'l-Hamíd Khán, takes the Báb into custody and escorts Him to the governor's home but finds it abandoned. He takes the Báb to his own home and learns that a cholera epidemic has swept the city and that his sons have been stricken. At the chief constable's insistence the Báb cures the boys by requesting they drink some of the water with which He has washed His own face. `Abdu'l-Hamíd resigns his post and begs the governor to release the Báb. He agrees on condition the Báb leaves Shíráz. The incident proves to be Husayn Khán's undoing: the Sháh dismisses him from office shortly after. [B104–5; BBRSM55; DB194–7; GPB13; TN9]
- See BBR170–1 and DB197 for the fate of Husayn Khán.
- DB196–7 says `Abdu'l-Hamíd Khán had only one ill son.
||Husayn Khan; Governors; Bab, Life of; Abdul-Hamid Khan; Epidemics; Muhammad Shah; Shahs
|1848 c. Jul
||Quddús is arrested and taken to Sárí where he is placed under house arrest in the home of Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, a leading cleric. [B171; BKG50; DB300]
Táhirih is arrested and is later taken to Tihrán where she is held in the home of Mahmúd Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, until her martyrdom in August 1852.
Mullá Husayn leaves the army camp near Mashhad where he has been a guest of a brother of the Sháh. He plans to make a pilgrimage to Karbalá. While making preparations for the journey he receives a Tablet from the Báb instructing him to go to Mázindarán to help Quddús, carrying a Black Standard before him. He is also instructed to wear the Báb's own green turban and to take the new name Siyyid `Alí. [B171; BKG50; DB324; MH174]
|Sari; Tihran; Mashhad; Mazandaran; Iran; Karbala; Iraq
||Quddus; Mirza Muhammad-Taqi; Tahirih; Mahmud Khan; Kalantar; Mulla Husayn; Shahs; Black Standard; Green turban; Turbans; Names and titles; Letters of the Living
|1848. 12 Sep
||The accession of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh at Tabríz. [BBR482]
- He is 17 years old. [BBR158; GPB37]
- He ruled from 1848 to 1 May 1896 when he was assassinated on the eve of his jubilee. [BBD168; BBR482]
- The first four years of his reign were marked by the `fiercest and bloodiest of the persecutions of the religion of the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh'. During the whole of his reign there were `sporadic persecutions and, in at least some cases, he himself was directly responsible for the death of the martyrs'. [BBR157]
- For the first time in the Faith's history the civil and ecclesiastical powers banded together in a systematic campaign against it, one that was to `culminate in the horrors experienced by Bahá'u'lláh in the Síyáh-Chál' and `His subsequent banishment to Iraq'. [GPB37]
- See BBRSM25 for an explanation of why the Bábí religion was a challenge to the secular regime.
- See SB86 for a reason for Násiri'd-Dín Sháh's cruelty towards the Bábís and Bahá'ís.
- See RB3:201 for an explanation of his lengthy reign.
- He chose as his prime minister Mírzá Taqí Khán-i-Faráhání, known as a great reformer and a founder of modern Iran. [BBD221; BBR160]
- It was not until the spring of 1849 that the new regime was in firm control.
- His reform antagonized many and a coalition was formed against him. One of the most active proponents was the queen mother. She convinced the Shah that he wanted his throne. In October of 1851 the shah dismissed him and exiled him to Kashan where he was murdured on the shah's orders.
|Tabriz; Iran; Iraq
||Nasirid-Din Shah; Qajar dynasty; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history; Mirza Taqi Khan-i-Farahani; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Firsts, Other
|1848. 19 Oct
||Entry of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh into Tihrán. [BBR482]
||Nasirid-Din Shah; Qajar dynasty; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history; Mirza Taqi Khan-i-Farahani; Prime ministers of Iran; Prime Ministers
|1852. 15 Aug
||Attempt on the life of the Sháh. [BBR128; BBRSM:30; BKG74–5; DB599; ESW20; GPB62; TN2930]
- See BKG74–5 for circumstances of the event.
- See BKG76 for the fate of the perpetrators.
- See BBR128–46 for reporting of the event in the West.
- Ja‘far-Qulí Khán writes immediately to Bahá'u'lláh telling Him of the event and that the mother of the Sháh is denouncing Bahá'u'lláh as the ‘would-be murderer'. Ja‘far-Qulí Khán offers to hide Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG77; DB602]
||Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Nasirid-Din Shah, Mother of; Shahs; History (general); Iran, General history; Jafar-Quli Khan; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1852. 16 Aug
||Bahá'u'lláh rides out towards the headquarters of the imperial army. At the time, He had been in ‘The Abode of the Birds’ (MurghMaḥallih), a garden which had been His summer residence. He stoped at Zargandih at the home of Mírzá Majíd Khán-i-Áhí, secretary to the Russian legation. [BKG77; DB603, AY235]
- Bahá'u'lláh was invited to remain in this home. [DB603]
- The Sháh was informed of Bahá'u'lláh's arrival and sent an officer to the legation to demand the delivery of Bahá'u'lláh into his hands. The Russian minister, Prince Dolgorukov, refused and suggested that Bahá'u'lláh be sent to the home of the Grand Vizier. [BKG77; DB603]
- Bahá'u'lláh was arrested. [BKG77; DB603]
||Bahaullah, Life of; Mirza Majid Khan-i-Ahi; Russian officials; Shahs; Prince Dolgorukov; Grand Viziers; Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
||The dismissal of Mírzá Áqá Khán, the prime minister who had directed the persecution of the Bábís that followed the attempt on the life of the Sháh.
||Mirza Aqa Khan; Prime Ministers of Iran; Prime Ministers; Nasirid-Din Shah; Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Shahs
||Badí` delivers the Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to the Sháh. He is tortured and executed. [BBRXXXIX; BKG300; BW18:383; RB3:184–6]
- For details of his torture and martyrdom see BKG300, 304–7 and RB3:186–91.
- For the account of the French Minister in Tihrán see BBR254–5.
- He is given the title Fakhru'sh-Shuhadá' (Pride of Martyrs). [BKG300]
- Shoghi Effendi listed him among the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW3:80–1]
- For the effect on Bahá'u'lláh of the martyrdom of Badí` see BKG300 and GPB199.
- See also BKG293–314; GPB199, RB3:172–203; TN589
||Badi (Mirza Aqa Buzurg-i-Nishapuri); Apostles of Bahaullah; Shahs; Nasirid-Din Shah; Lawh-i-Sultan (Tablet to Nasirid-Din Shah); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
|1896. 19 Apr
||Násiri'd-Dín Sháh was assassinated on the eve of the celebration of his jubilee. He had ascended to the throne in 1848 and by the Islamic lunar calendar it marked the 50th year of his reign. [BKG455]
BBRXXIX and BBRSM219 say it was 1 May.
- His assassin, Mírzá Ridá-yi-Kirmáni, a Pan-Islamic terrorist, was a follower of Jamálu'd-Dín-i-Afghání, one of the originators of the Constitutional movement in Iran and an enemy of the Faith. [BBRSM87; GBP296; MCS540]
- For an account of his assassination see PDC67–8.
- See BKG430–55 for a history of his reign.
- He is succeeded by his son Muzaffari'd-Dín. [GPB296]
- See also CBM54-56.
- See AY214-216.
||Nasirid-Din Shah; Shahs; Throne changes; Qajar dynasty; History (general); Iran, General history; Births and deaths; Jamalud-Din-i-Afghani; Assassinations
|1896 1 May
||Muzaffari'd-Dín became the shah of Persia. He was the son of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh. He had been sent as governor to the province of Azerbaijan in 1861 and, as the crown prince, had spent 35 years in the pursuit of pleasure. When he ascended to the throne he was unprepared for the office. In addition, the country had huge debts to both Britain and Russia.
||Muzaffarid-Din Shah; Shahs; Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history
|1906 5 Aug
||After an almost bloodless revolution Muzaffari'd-Din Sháh was forced to sign a document calling for a National Assembly to be elected from amount the working guilds, landowners merchants and the nobles. The parliament was opened on the 7th of October. [AY24]
||Iran, General history; History (general); Muzaffarid-Din Shah; Shahs
|1907 8 Jan
||The death of Muzaffari'd-Dín Sháh just a few days after he had signed the constitution. [BBR354, 482]
||Muzaffarid-Din Shah; Shahs; Qajar dynasty; Births and deaths; Iran, General history; History (general); Constitutions
|1907 19 Jan
||The accession of Muhammad-`Alí Sháh to the throne of Iran. He reigned until 1909. He attempted to rescind the constitution and abolish parliamentary government. After several disputes with the members of the Majlis in June, 1908 he bombed the Majlis building, arrested many of the deputies and closed down the assembly. In July 1909 constitutional forces deposed him and he went into exile in Russia from where he attempted to regain his throne. [BBR354, 482, AY218]
- The Bahá'í community received some measure of protection under this regime. [BBRSM:97–8]
||Muhammad-Ali Shah; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; Qajar dynasty; History (general); Iran, General history; Persecution
||Muhammad-`Alí Sháh undertakes a successful coup d'état in Iran and abolishes the Constitution. [BBR369]
||Muhammad-Ali Shah; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; Qajar dynasty; Iranian Constitution; Constitutions; History (general); Iran, General history
|1909 18 Jul
||The accession of Ahmad Sháh, the boy-king, to the throne of Iran. He was twelve years old and because of his youth a regency was established under Azudu'l-Mulk, the head of the Qájár family. Ahmad's official coronation took place on the 21st of July, 1914. His reign formerly lasted until October 1925 when he was deposed by the Majles while he was absent in Europe. He was the last of the Qajar dynasty. [BBR482; CBM57]
||Ahmad Shah; Shahs; Qajar dynasty; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history
||Ahmad Sháh (reigned 1909–25), who succeeded to the throne at age 11, was deposed in a coup d'état led by Reza Khán who appointed himself prime minister. He ruled as Reza Sháh Pahlaví between 1925–41.
||Ahmad Shah; Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Qajar dynasty; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history
|1925 31 Oct
||Ahmad Sháh was deposed and the Qájár dynasty (1785-1925) was formerly terminated by declaration of the National Consultative Assembly. He was replaced by Reza Shah Pahlavi. [BBD190; BBR482; BBRSM87, PDC66-69, AY46-47]
||Ahmad Shah; Qajar dynasty; Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; Iran, general history
|1925 13 Dec
||Ridá (or Reza) Sháh accedes to the throne of Iran. The Pahlaví dynasty commences. [BBR482]
||Reza Shah Pahlavi; Pahlavi dynasty; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history
|1932 10 Jun
||The American National Spiritual Assembly addresses a petition to the Sháh of Iran requesting that the ban on Bahá’í literature be removed and asking that its representative, Mrs Keith Ransom-Kehler, be recognized to present in person the appeal. [BW5:390–1]
||United States; Iran
||NSA; Petitions; Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Keith Ransom-Kehler; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
|1932 15 Aug
||Keith Ransom-Kehler meets the Iranian Court Minister Taymur Tash. [BW5:392]
- She presents the American petition to him asking that the ban on Bahá’í literature in Iran be lifted and receives assurances from him that this will be effected. [BW5:392]
- She made seven successive petitions addressed to the Sháh of Persia. [GPB345]
- For the history and unsuccessful outcome of this effort see BW5:391–8.
|Iran; United States
||Keith Ransom-Kehler; NSA; Petitions; Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Keith Ransom-Kehler; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
|1941 16 Sep
||In Iran, Ridá Sháh abdicates and Muhammad-Ridá Sháh ascends to the throne. His rule was to last until 1979. [BBR482]
- Ridá Sháh is overthrown by the British and Russians. [BBRSM173]
- His reign can be described in three phases:
The first phase, from1941 through 1955, was a period characterized by physical danger, during which Baha’is were scapegoated in the interactions among the government, the clerics and the people, and experienced several bloody incidents, the culmination of which was the 1955 anti-Baha’i campaign and its aftermaths.
The second phase, from the late 1950s to around 1977, marked almost two decades of relative respite from physical attacks, during which Baha’is enjoyed more security than before, without ever being officially recognized as a religious community and while their existence as Baha’is was essentially ignored or denied.
The last two years of the reign of the Shah comprised the third phase, the revival of a bloody period. [Towards a History of Iran’s Baha’i Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by
||Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history
|1979 17 Jan
||Mohammad Rezā Pahlavi, known as Mohammad Reza Shah, entitled Shāhanshāh ("Emperor" or "King of Kings"), fled Iran. The dissolution of the monarchy was complete on the 11th of February.
||Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history
||Revolutionary committees in Shahsavár, ‘Ábádán and Tabríz, Iran, order the arrest of Bahá’ís. [BW18:255]
- Among those arrested are members of local spiritual assemblies. [BW18:255]
- Bahá’í homes in Tabríz are raided and literature seized. [BW18:255]
|Shahsavar; Abadan; Tabriz; Iran
||Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution
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- Süleyman Nazif's Nasiruddin Shah ve Babiler: an Ottoman Source on Babi-Baha'i History, by Necati Alkan (2000). On the author of the 1919 Persian history "Nasiru’d-Din Shah and the Babis," including a translation of passages on Tahirih. [about]
- Babi Attempt on the Life of the Shah, 1852: Coverage in the New York Times, by New York Times, in New York Times (1852). Five brief newspaper reports, among the earliest known references to the Báb in an American publication. [about]
- Crowning Anguish: Memoirs of a Persian Princess from the Harem to Modernity 1884-1914, by Taj al-Saltana (1993). Passing references to the Babis in Amanat's introduction to, and in the autobiography of, Nasir al-Din's daughter. [about]
- Diary of H.M. the Shah of Persia, during his tour through Europe in 1873, The, by Nasir al-Din Shah (1874). Contains no mention of the Babi or Baha'i Faiths, but is useful for historical context, and a window into the Sháh's worldview. [about]
- Pedigree of the Qajar Dynasty, by Shoghi Effendi, in The Dawn-Breakers (1932). Genealogical chart of the Qajar Dynasty [about]
- Pivot of the Universe: Nasir al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy 1831-1896, by Abbas Amanat: Review, by Sholeh A. Quinn, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 8 (1998). [about]