Bahá'í Library Online
. . . .
.

Search for tag "Sin"

from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1847. Oct - Nov Táhirih is accused of instigating the assassination of her uncle and is confined to her father's house while about 30 Bábís are arrested. Four, including the assassin, are taken to Tihrán and held in the house of Khusraw Khán. [BKG41; BW18:380; DB276–8] Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia Tahirih; assassination; uncle; Babis; arrested; Khusraw Khan
1854 10 Apr - 1856 19 Mar Bahá'u'lláh suddenly leaves Baghdád and goes to Kurdistán. [BKG115; DB585; GPB120]

  • Before He left, Bahá'u'lláh asked His family to look after Mírzá Yahyá during His absence. [CB70–1; CH50–1]
Bahá'u'lláh lives for some time as a dervish in a cave on the mountain of Sar-Galú. He takes the name Darvísh Muhammad-i-Írání to conceal His true identity. [BBD214–15; BBRSM:60–1; BKG116–19; GPB120–1; TN38–9]

  • This action compares to Moses' going out to the desert of Sinai, to Buddha's retreat to the wilds of India, to Christ's walk in the wilderness and to Muhammad's withdrawal to the hills of Arabia. [BKG114]
  • Áqá Abu'l-Qásim-i-Hamadání was His only companion. Áqá Abu'l-Qásim was killed on a journey to collect money and provisions. [BKG116–17]
  • "It was this period of voluntary seclusion, following shortly after the execution of the Báb in 1850, which bequeathed to history irrevocable proof that Bahá'u'lláh and not His half-brother, Subhi-Ezel, was in reality the one celebrated by the Báb and for whom the Bábí Movement was the spiritual preparation. Tor by this act of voluntary retirement, Bahá'u'lláh gave Sebhi-Ezel unhampered opportunity to exercise the spiritual leadhership over the Bábís which the latter claimed as his right. The result, however, demonstrated Subhi-Ezel's utter incapacity to maintain unity among the Bábís, inspire them with faith and confidence sufficient to meet their many difficulties and guide them along lines of true future progress. Nother but the return of Bahá'u'lláh could re-quicken the flames of their ardour or supply them with the more universal principles of conduct and faith required to transform the Bábí Movement into a world religion." [BW2Surveyp33]
  • It was during this time that Bahá'u'lláh revealed the poem Qasídiyi-i-‘Izz-i-Varqá'íyyih. It was composed of 2,000 couplets but Bahá'u'lláh allowed only 127 to be preserved. [BBD215; BKG118; GPB123]
  • See BKG114, GPB117–19 and K1250 for reasons for Bahá'u'lláh's retirement.
  • Before and during His absence no fewer than 25 people claimed to be the One promised by the Báb. [BBRSM29, 59; EB269; GPB125]
  • See BKG115–19 and GPB120 for Bahá'u'lláh's activities while in Kurdistán.
  • See KI248–51 for Bahá'u'lláh's own account of the episode.
  • See BKG119–22 and GPB124–6 for the condition of the Bábí community in Baghdád during this period.
  • The son born to Navváb shortly after the family's arrival in Baghdád became ill and died during Bahá'u'lláh's absence. [CB71; CH51–2]
  • See SBBR2:1–28 for Bahá'u'lláh's contact with Súfís.
  • BW16:528 for an account of Daoud Toeg, who visited the caves of Sar-Galú and photographed them.
Kurdistán; Baghdád Baha'u'llah; dervish; cave; Sar-Galu; Darvish; Muhammad-i-Írani; Moses; Sinai; Buddha; Christ; Muhammad; Áqa Abu'l-Qasim-i-Hamadani; poem; Qasidiyi-i-‘Izz-i-Varqa'iyyih; Bab; Babi; son; Navvab Mirza Yahya; Sufi; Daoud Toeg; cave; Sar-Galu
1862 – 1868 Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí, a cousin of the Báb, lives in Shanghai during this period. This is the first record of a Bábí or Bahá'í living in China. [PH24]

  • From 1870 he lived in Hong Kong dealing as a merchant and was joined by his brother, Hájí Mírzá Muhammad Husayn. [PH24]
Shanghai; Hong Kong; China Haji Mirza Muhammad-‘Ali; cousin; Bab; Babi; Baha'i; Haji Mirza Muhammad Husayn
1863. 13 Aug Bahá'u'lláh and His party depart from Sámsún by steamer for Istanbul. [BKG196; GPB157]
  • They touch in Sinope, a port of call on 14 August and in Anyábulí on the 15 August. [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p43]
Sámsún; Sinope; Anyábulí; Istanbul; Constantinople;
1871. 1 Nov Birth of `Lua' Getsinger (Lucinda Louisa Aurora Moore), Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, Herald of the Covenant and Mother Teacher of the West. `Lua' Getsinger (Lucinda Louisa Aurora Moore); Disciple of `Abdu'l-Baha; Herald of the Covenant; Mother Teacher of the West
1873 8 Mar Marriage of `Abdu'l-Bahá to Munírih Khánum in the House of `Abbúd.
  • DH45 says the marriage took place in late August or September 1872.
  • See CH87–90, SES25-26, DH45–6 and RB2:208–9 for details of the wedding.
  • For the story of Munírih Khánum's life see RB2:204–9.
  • She was the daughter of Mírzá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Nahrí by his second wife. [BBD165; GPB130; RB2:204]
  • See BBD 166, BKG340–1, DB208–9 and RB2:203–4 for the story of her conception.
  • See BKG344, MA112–13 and RB2:206–7 for the story of her first marriage.
  • The marriage resulted in nine children, five of whom died in childhood: Husayn Effendi (died 1887, aged two), Mihdí (died aged two-and-a-half), Túbá, Fu'ádiyyih and Rúhangíz. Four daughters grew to adulthood. The oldest of these was Díyá'iyyih, who married Mírzá Hádí Shírází in 1895. Shoghi Effendi was their eldest child. The second daughter, Túbá Khánum, married Mírzá Muhsin Afnán. The third daughter of `Abdu'l-Bahá, Rúhá, married Mírzá Jalál, the son of Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan, the King of Martyrs. The fourth daughter, Munavvar, married Mírzá Ahmad. [ABMM]
'Akká; Munirih Khanum; Mirza Muhammad-`Aliy-i-Nahri; Diya'iyyih Khanum; Mirza Hadi Shirazi; Tuba Khanum; Mirza Muhsin Afnan; Ruha Khanum; Mirza Jalal; Mirza Muhammad-?asan; Munavvar Khanum; Mirza Ahmad
1875 The `ulamá arouse the rabble against the Bahá'ís in Sidih, Isfahán. Several Bahá'ís are imprisoned, including Nayyir and Síná. [BW18:383] Sidih; Isfahán; Nayyir; Sina
1888 Nabíl begins his chronicle, The Dawn-Breakers: Nabíl's Narrative of the Early Days of the Bahá'í Revelation. [DBXXXVII]

Jamál Effendi, accompanied by Hájí Faraju'lláh-i-Tafrishí, embarks on a long journey to the East visiting Burma, Java, Siam, Singapore, Kashmir, Tibet, Yarqand, Khuqand in Chinese Turkistan, and Afghanistan. [EB123–4; PH22]

Burma; Java; Siam; Singapore; Kashmir; Tibet; Yarqand; Khuqand; Chinese Turkistan; Afghanistan Nabíl; Jamál Effendi; Hájí Faraju'lláh-i-Tafrishí; Dawn-Breakers: Nabíl's Narrative
1897. 21 May Lua Getsinger becomes a Bahá'í in Chicago. [BFA1:XXVII] Chicago Lua Getsinger
1898. 1 Jan Eighteen people become Bahá'ís in Kenosha, Wisconsin, following the visit of Kheiralla in the autumn of 1897. [BFA1:XXVIII]
  • This marks the establishment of the third Bahá'í community in North America. [BFA1:110]
Kenosha; Wisconsin Kheiralla
1898 Jul or Aug Phoebe Hearst becomes a Bahá'í in California through the efforts of Lua and Edward Getsinger. [BFA1:XXVIII 139]
  • SBBH1:93 says this was July, based on Kheiralla's autobiography; BFA1 is based on a letter from Phoebe Hearst.
California Phoebe Hearst; Lua Getsinger; Edward Getsinger
1898. 22 Sep The first Western pilgrims depart for `Akká, travelling via New York and Paris. [BFA1:XXVIII, 140–1, 230]
  • It is arranged by Phoebe Hearst, who had already planned a journey to Egypt for the autumn. [BFA1:140]
  • There are 15 pilgrims in all. [AB68]
New York Pilgrimage; Phoebe Hearst; Lua Getsinger; Edward Getsinger; Robert Turner; BWC Pilgrimage
1898. 10 Dec The first Western pilgrims arrive in `Akká. [AB68; BBD13; BBRXXX; DH214; GPB257; SCU13]
  • They divide themselves into three parties, using Cairo as a staging post. [AB68; BFA1:143; SBBH1:93]
  • See AB68–72; BFA2:9; DH61; GPB257, 259 for those included in the pilgrimage group.
  • Included were Mrs Hearst's nieces, a few American friends and, joining in London, Mrs Mary Thornburgh-Cropper and her mother. [SCU13. CH234-236]
  • See BFA1:143–4 for those included in the first group.
  • Among the group is Robert Turner, the first member of the black race to become a Bahá'í. For 35 years, Turner faithfully served as butler to Phoebe Apperson Hearst and Senator George Hearst, parents of newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst. [AB72; BBD227; BFA1:139; GPB259]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá receives the pilgrims in the House of `Abdu'lláh Páshá. [BBD13, 108; DH61]
  • See AB68–71; BW16:104–5; CH235–6 and GPB257–9 for the pilgrims' responses to the pilgrimage.
  • Edward Getsinger makes a recording of `Abdu'l-Bahá chanting a prayer. [BFA1:160]
  • The Getsingers returned from the pilgrimage with an Arabic copy of The Kitáb-i-Aqdas which was later translated by Anton Haddad. [BFA2:11]
`Akka; Cairo; House of `Abdu'llah Pasha Robert Turner; Edward Getsinger; The Kitab-i-Aqdas; Anton Haddad; pilgrimage; BWC Pilgrimage
1899 May A council board of seven officers, a forerunner of the Local Spiritual Assembly, is established in Kenosha. [BFA1:112; GPB260] Kenosha; Wisconsin council board; Local Spiritual Assembly
1899 Oct - Nov Stoyan Vatralsky, a Harvard educated, Bulgarian Christian, attacks the Bahá'ís, `Truth-knowers', in a series of talks in a church in Kenosha, Wisconsin. [BFA1:XXIX, 114–15; SBBH2:111]
  • By this time two per cent of the population of Kenosha are Bahá'ís. [BFA1:114]
Kenosha; Wisconsin Stoyan Vatralsky; Truth-knowers
1900 8 Mar At a meeting in Kenosha, Kheiralla publicly announces his doubts about `Abdu'l-Bahá's leadership of the Bahá'í community [BFA1:XXIX; SBBH1:96; SBBH2:117]
  • He allies himself with Muhammad-`Alí. [SSBH1:96]
  • The Bahá'ís effectively divide into two camps. [SSBH1:96]
  • For the changes to the Bahá'í community as a result of this see SSBH1:96–9 and SSBH2:117–20.
Kenosha; Wisconsin Kheiralla; Muhammad-`Ali
1900 26 Apr Hájí `Abdu'l-Karím-i-Tihrání arrives in New York, the first Persian Bahá'í to visit North America, to try to bring Kheiralla back into the Faith and to explain the basic teachings of the Faith to the American believers. He is accompanied by Mirza Sinore Raffie, his translator. [BFA173–6; BFA2:17–29] New York Haji `Abdu'l-Karim-i-Tihrani; Kheiralla; Mirza Sinore Raffie
1907 Pritam Singh, an Assistant Master of Economics at Chiefs College in Lahore, accepts the Faith, the first Sikh to do so. [BFA2:269] Lahore Pritam Singh
1909 Nov Charles Mason Remey and Howard Struven leave the United States on the first Bahá'í teaching trip to circle the globe. [BFA2:348, GPB261]
  • They go to Hawaii, Japan, Shanghai, Singapore and to Burma, India and `Akká. [BFA2:348–50]
Hawaii; Japan; Shanghai; Singapore; Burma; India; `Akká Charles Mason Remey; Howard Struven; travel teaching
1912 24 Jul Talk to Theosophical Society, The Kensington, Exeter and Boylston Streets, Boston, Massachusetts. [PUP239] Boston; MA Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Theosophical Society; The Kensington
1912 15 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Chicago for Kenosha, Wisconsin. [239D:145; AB267]
  • He misses His train and tells the Bahá'ís not to be concerned over this, as there is a good reason for it; travelling on the next train they come across the wreckage of the first, which has been in a collision. [239D:145; AB267]
Chicago; Kenosha; Wisconsin `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
1913 10 Apr While walking `Abdu'l-Bahá crosses the Chain Bridge and attracts a crowd of curious onlookers who had seen His picture in the newspaper. [MRHK363]
  • He receives visitors at His hotel. Among them are Dr Agnes Goosen, the Rector of the University of Budapest, Dr Alexander Giesswein, a member of Parliament and Sirdar Omrah Singh of Punjab. Professor Julius Germanus, a young Orientalist from the Eastern Academy, brings a group of Turkish language students. {MRHK364]
  • He visits the homes of several families.
  • In the evening He speaks to 50 people at the Theosophical Meeting, praising the organization and its goals. Dr Germanus interpretes the talk into German.
Budapest; Hungary Julius Germanus; Dr Agnes Goosen; Dr Alexander Giesswein; Sirdar Omrah Singh; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
1913 15 Apr 'Abdu'l-Bahá's planned departure is delayed a second time due to a severe cold. He is attended by Mr and Mrs Stark as well as Sirda Omrah Singh. He continues to meet visitors in His hotel during this period. [MRHK369] Budapest; Hungary Mr and Mrs Stark; Sirda Omrah Singh; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
1913 23 Jul Lua Getsinger arrives at Port Said. [AB400] Port Said Lua Getsinger
1914 21 Jan Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl-i-Gulpáygání, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, passes away in Cairo. [AB404; BBD67]
  • For a brief biography see EM263–5, SDH113.
  • His resting place is now next to that of Lua Getsinger in the Bahá'í cemetery in Cairo.
  • His numerous works include Fará'id (The Peerless Gems) 1898; The Brilliant Proof; 1912; Bahá'í Proofs, 1902; and Al-Duraru'l-Bahíyih (The Shining Pearls, published in English as Miracles and Metaphors), 1900. [BBD7]
Cairo Mirza Abu'l-Fadl-i-Gulpaygani; Apostle of Baha'u'llah; Lua Getsinger; Baha'i cemetery; In Memoriam
1914 1 Nov Turkey enters the war on the side of the Central Powers.
  • Palestine is blockaded and Haifa is bombarded. [GPB304]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá sends the Bahá'ís to the Druze village of Abú-Sinán for asylum. [AB411; DH124; GPB304]
  • For `Abdu'l-Bahá in war time see CH188–228.
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá had grown and stored corn in the years leading up to the war and was now able to feed not only local people but the British army. [AB415, 418; CH210; GPB304, 306]
  • See CH209–10 for other villages inhabited by Bahá'ís.
Palestine; Abu-Sinan The Great War; Central Powers
1915 May The Bahá'ís of Haifa and `Akká return to their homes from the village of Abú-Sinán. [DH147] Haifa; `Akká; Abú-Sinán
1916 1 May Lua Getsinger, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, dies of heart failure in Cairo. [BBD87; SW7, 4:29]
  • For an her obituary see SW7, 4:29-30.
  • She is buried in the Protestant Cemetery in Cairo. In 1939 a court ruling enables the Bahá'ís to reinter her in the first Bahá'í cemetery established in Egypt. Her grave is now beside that of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl. [GPB344]
  • See also Sears and Quigley, The Flame.
Cairo Lua Getsinger; Disciple of `Abdu'l-Baha; Baha'i cemetery; Mirza Abu'l-Fadl; In Memoriam
1939 21 Feb Background Information

    "riots which broke out with exceptional fury in Ismá'ílíyyih, when angry crowds surrounded the funeral cortege of Muhammad Sulaymán, a prominent Bahá'í resident of that town, creating such an uproar that the police had to intervene, and having rescued the body and brought it back to the home of the deceased, they were forced to carry it without escort, at night, to the edge of the desert and inter it in the wilderness." [GPB367-368]

The National Spiritual Assembly of Egypt had, in respect of the decision of the 10th of May, 1925 declaring the Báhá'í Faith to be non-Muslim, petitioned the government for the right to administer laws of personal status to the Bahá'í community according to its Bahá'í Laws affecting Matters of Personal Status. On the 29th of February, 1939, the Grand Muftí ruled that the Bahá'ís were not to be considered Muslims and had no right to be buried in Muslim cemeteries. Four plots of land were allocated to serve as cemeteries for the Bahá'í community in Cairo, Alexandria, Port Said and in Ismá'ílíyyih. Immediately following this decision the remains for Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl were transferred followed by the exhumation from a Christian cemetery in Cairo the remains of Lua Getsinger and subsequent re-interment in an adjacent plot. [GPB368-369]

Cairo; Alexandria; Port Said; Ismá'ílíyyih; Egypt Lua Getsinger; Mirza Abu'l-Fadl
1940 The Grand Muftí of Egypt states that Bahá’ís cannot be buried in Muslim cemeteries, forcing the authorities to allow the Bahá’ís to have their own.
  • The graves of Mírzá Abu’l-Fadl Gulpáygání and Lua Getsinger are transferred to the cemetery near Cairo.
Egypt Gulpaygani; Lua Getsinger
1946 13 Dec The passing of Muhamman Taqí Isfahání. He had been born in Persia and was horrified by the behaviour of Mullá Huhammad Báqir (The Wolf) and Imám-Jum'íh who killed the two brothers Muhammad Hasan and Muhammad Hasan so he left for Egypt and encounter many believers on his way. He passed through Akka and met both Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'-Bahá.
  • His name is closely associated with the early progress of the Faith in Egypt. His house was the centre of activity and was were both Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl and Lua Getsinger spent their last days. He received 'Abdu'l-Bahá during His visit to Egypt. He was the chief member of the Publishing Committee and helped to translate many books into Arabic such as the Iqán and Some Answered Questions.
  • The Guardian announced his elevation to the rank of Hand of the Cause of God two days after his passing and donated a sum of money to be used for his tomb. He is buried in the Bahá'í Cemetery. [MoCxxii, BW11p500-502]
Egypt; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand; Muhamman Taqi Isfahani; Lua Getsinger; Mirza Abu'l-Fadl
1950 25 May Dr Khodadad M. Fozdar, a medical officer of the State Railways in India, arrives in Singapore, the first pioneer to the country. [BW13:393]
  • His wife, Shirin Fozdar, joins him in September 1950.
Singapore Khodadad M. Fozdar; Shirin Fozdar
1952 Mr Narain Das, a textile salesman from India working in Singapore, becomes a Bahá’í, the first person in the country to accept the Faith. A few months later Mr Teo Geok Leng, a Chinese Singaporean, becomes a Bahá’í, the first native of Singapore to accept the Faith. Singapore Narain Das; Teo Geok Leng
1952 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of Singapore City is established. [BW12:573; PH58, 67] Singapore City LSA
1953 Apr The first local spiritual assembly in Finland is established in Helsinki. Helsinki LSA find reference
1953 Aug Udai Narain Singh arrives in Sikkim and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455; PH63] Sikkim Udai Narain Singh; Knight of Baha’u’llah
1955 Sep Travelling by foot, Udai Narain Singh arrives in Tibet from Gangtok, Sikkim., and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh, his second such distinction.
  • He is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh in spring 1956. [BW13:456]
Tibet Udai Narain Singh; Knight of Baha’u’llah
1958 23 Sep Chartered planes take the conference delegates to Singapore. Singapore
1958 27 – 29 Sep The fifth Intercontinental Conference held at the mid-point of the Crusade convenes in Singapore. [BW13:331]
  • Hand of the Cause Leroy Ioas, who had been designated by the Guardian as his representative, attends, accompanied by eight other Hands of the Cause. [BW13:331–2]
  • For the message of the Custodians to the conference see MC111–6.
  • For a report of the conference see BW13:331–2.
Singapore Hand of the Cause; Leroy Ioas; Intercontinental Conference; Conference
1966 Jesus Bias Manibusan of Sinajana, Guam, the first Chamorro to become a Bahá’í, enrols. Sinajana; Guam Jesus Bias Manibusan
1971 The first summer school in Singapore is held. Singapore
1971 1 – 3 Jan The Oceanic Conference of the South China Seas is held in the Victoria Memorial Hall in Singapore. [BW15:319; VV5]
  • For pictures see BW15:302–3 and VV6.
Singapore Oceanic Conference; Conference
1971 26 – 28 Nov The fiftieth anniversary of the passing of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá is commemorated. [BW15:125–8; VV14]
  • For text of the letters of the Universal House of Justice see BW15:125–6 and MUHJ76–7.
fiftieth anniversary of the passing of ‘Abdu’l-Baha
1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Singapore is formed with its seat in Singapore. [BW15:257]
  • For picture see BW15:157.
Singapore NSA
1976 24 Apr The passing of Mark George Tobey (b. December 11, 1890 Centerville, Wisconsin – d. April 24, 1976 Basel, Switzerland) [Bahá'í News page 341, Wiki, VV119]
  • He had been introduced to the Faith by Bernard Leach. [OPOP223]
  • Another version is that In 1918 Mark Tobey came in contact with Juliet Thompson and posed for her. During the session Tobey read some Bahá'í literature and accepted an invitation to Green Acre where he converted. [Seitz, William Chapin (1980). Mark Tobey. Ayer Publishing. p. 44]
  • Tobey was one of the twentieth century’s most cosmopolitan of artists. An inveterate traveler—he eventually settled in Basel, Switzerland—he was always better known in Europe than in his homeland. His mature ‘white writing’ works are made up of pulsing webs of lines inspired by oriental calligraphy, explicitly acknowledged the direct influence of the Baha’i Faith on his painting. It has been said that Tobey “made line the symbol of spiritual illumination, human communication and migration, natural form and process, and movement between levels of consciousness.” He often stated, “that there can be no break between nature, art, science, religion, and personal life".
  • See Bahá'í World 1994-95 pg248 for an article by Anne Boyles entitled "The Language of the Heart: Arts in the Bahá'í World Community" for mention of Mark Tobey.
  • For his obituary see BW17:401–4.
  • Towards the end of his life, Tobey was the recipient of some of the highest distinctions that the European art scene of his time could bestow. He won the gold medal at the Venice Biennale in 1958—the first American painter to do so since 1895. In 1961, a major retrospective of his work was held at the Louvre in Paris, an unprecedented achievement for a living and American artist.
  • See The Journal of Bahá'í Studies, Volume 26, number 4 – Winter 2016 p94 for an article by Anne Gordon Perry entitled Anne Gould Hauberg and Mark Tobey: Lives Lived for Art, Cultivated by Spirit.
  • An exhibition, Mark Tobey: Threading Light showed at the Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice, 6 May to 10 September 2017 and at the Addison Gallery of American Art, Phillips Academy, Andover, Massachusetts, 4 November 2017–11 March 2018.
Centerville; Wisconsin; Basel; Switzerland; In Memoriam; Mark Tobey; Bernard Leach; Anne Boyles; Anne Gordon Perry; Anne Gould Hauberg; Peggy Guggenheim Collection; Addison Gallery of American Art
1976 5 – 8 Jul An International Teaching Conference is held in Helsinki, Finland, attended by some 950 Bahá’ís. [BW17:81; VV33]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:129–30.
  • For pictures see BW17:109, 112, 114–15.
Helsinki; Finland International Teaching Conference; Conference
1980 Yee Wah Sing, the first Fiji-born person to become a Bahá’í in Fiji, enrols. [BN596:14] Fiji Yee Wah Sing
1982 15 Jul In commemoration of the fiftieth anniversary of the passing of Bahíyyih Khánum, the Greatest Holy Leaf, Bahá’ís at the World Centre pray at midnight at the Shrine of the Báb and at the tomb of the Greatest Holy Leaf, commemoration services are held in many parts of the world. [BW18:53, 102]
  • For a list of references to the Greatest Holy Leaf found in English-language works see BW18:55–6.
  • For a list of works published to commemorate this anniversary see BW18:57–8.
  • For an article about her life and service see BW18:68–73.
  • Five international conferences and their satellites, held in June, August and September, are dedicated to her memory. [BW18:102]
Haifa commemoration of fiftieth anniversary of passing of Bahíyyih Khánum; the Greatest Holy Leaf; Shrine of the Báb
1988 8 Mar Shirin Fozdar, ardent champion of women’s rights and influential women’s leader, is honoured for her work for equality and women’s advancement at a ceremony organized by the Singapore Council of Women, which she founded in 1952. [BINS176:7] Singapore Shirin Fozdar; Singapore Council of Women
1990 The founding of the European Bahá'í Business Forum as an informal network. Their goal is exploring how to contribute to a more prosperous, just and sustainable civilization, through their daily work and discourse. [EBBF] Europe Baha'i Business Forum
1990 The formation of the European Bahá'í Business Forum in France with members from 26 countries in Europe and elsewhere. [VV115]
  • Formed by a group of Bahá'ís active in business and management meeting in Chamonix, France, due to concern about the decline of ethics and values in business.
  • Forum created to promote the moral and spiritual wisdom and principles of the great religious traditions of the world (sources included Judaism, Hinduism, and Christianity as well as the 19th century revelation of Baha'u'llah) such as adherence to the principles of justice, respect, trustworthiness, integrity and unity.
  • Beginning as an informal network, its membership grew requiring the election of a Governing Board.
  • Members have attached importance to sharing their broad experience and to contributing to the improvement of management in emerging free-market economies of Central and Eastern Europe. [ebbf]
Chamonix; France European Baha'i Business Forum
1990 1 - 2 Sep The European Bahá'í Business Forum is formed at a meeting in Chamonix, France, attended by people from eight countries. [BINS244:8; VV115]
  • For picture see VV115.
Chamonix; France European Business Forum
1992 23 – 26 Nov The Second World Congress was held in New York City to commemorate the centenary of the passing of Bahá'u'lláh and the completion of the Six Year Plan. It was attended by some 28,000 Bahá'ís from some 180 countries. [BBD240] [VV136-141] [BW92-3p98-101, 136]
  • Nine auxiliary conferences were held in Buenos Aires, Sydney, New Delhi, Nairobi, Panama City, Bucharest, Moscow, Apia and Singapore. [BINS283:3-4]
  • For pictures see [BINS283:9-10], [BW92-3p100] and [VV136-141]
  • "New York will become a blessed spot from which the call to steadfastness in the Covenant and Testament of God will go forth to every part of the world." - 'Abdu'l-Bahá [AWH77-8 90-1 105-6]
  • On the 25th of November a concert was held in Carnegie Hall as a birthday tribute to Dizzy Gillespie called "Celebrating the Bahá'í Vision of World Peace". [VV141]
  • On the 26th of November Bahá'ís around the world are linked together by a live satellite broadcast serving the second Bahá'í World Congress, the nine auxiliary conferences and the Bahá'í World Centre and is received by those with access to satellite dish antennas. [BINS283:1–5, 8; BINS286:10; BINS287:4]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice read on the satellite link see BW92–3:37–4.
  • For accounts of personal experiences by some of the attendees see In the Eyes of His Beloved Servants: The Second Bahá'í World Congress and Holy Year by J. Michael Kafes.
New York; Buenos Aires; Sydney; New Delhi; Nairobi; Panama City; Bucharest; Moscow; Apia; Singapore. Dizzy Gillespie; The Second World Congress; Carnegie Hall
1993 In the year EBBF was registered in Paris as an official non-profit association. Its statutes provide that membership is open to Bahá'ís and non-Bahá'ís alike. [ebbf] Paris; France European Baha'i Business Forum
1993 13 Mar Three Bahá'ís are assassinated at the Bahá'í Centre in Mdantsane, Ciskei, in a racially-motivated attack. [BW93–4:147–50] Mdantsane; Ciskei assassination of Baha'is
1999 19 Apr The Islamic Revolutionary Court in Isfahan sentenced Sina Hakiman (10 yrs), Farzad Khajeh Sharifabadi (7 yrs), Havivullhh Ferdosian Najafabadi (7 yrs) and Ziaullah Mirzapanah (3yrs) for crimes against national security. All four were among the thirty-six who were arrested in late September and in early October, 1998 in a concerted government crackdown against Bahá’í education in fourteen cities in Iran.
  • It is reported that over 500 homes were raided in an attempt to crack down on the Bahá’í Open University. Files, equipment and other property used by the University were seized. From report by Human Rights Watch Academic Freedom Committee.
Isfahan Islamic Revolutionary Court; Iranian persecution; Sina Hakiman; Farzad Khajeh Sharifabadi; Havivullhh Ferdosian Najafabadi; Ziaullah Mirzapanah Find ref
2009 2 – 3 Jul More than 20 members of the European Bahá'í Business Forum participated in the Global Ethics Forum, held at United Nations headquarters in Geneva. [BWNS722] Geneva; Global Ethics Form; European Baha'i Business Form

from the main catalogue

  1. Answered Questions, Some, by Abdu'l-Baha (1990). [about]
  2. Answered Questions, Some, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2014). New 2014 translation (with a version side-by-side with the original). [about]
  3. Application of Bahá'í Principles in a Business Context, The, by Kirsten Daly, in 75 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Australasia (1996). [about]
  4. Baha'i Faith, The: 50 Years in Singapore (2000). History of Baha'i activity and teaching in Singapore, from May 26 1950, when the first Baha’i pioneer, Dr. K.M. Fozdar, arrived in Singapore, until the year 2000. [about]
  5. Business, Development, and the Bahá'í Funds (1993). Compilation by the Office of the Treasurer on the challenge for America, business ventures and development, dependencies of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, fundraising, safeguarding contributions, and earmarking. Includes many supplemental letters from the UHJ. [about]
  6. Corporate Social Responsibility and Business Success, by Marcello Palazzi and George Starcher (1998). How social responsibility can contribute to competitiveness and success. [about]
  7. Ethics and Entrepreneurship, An Oxymoron?: A Transition to a Free Market Economy in Eastern Europe, by George Starcher (1997). The process of entrepreneurship and the importance of business ethics to entrepreneurial success, and the concept of stages of ethical consciousness and some of the reasons business ethics makes good business sense. Does not mention the Baha'i Faith. [about]
  8. Flame, The, by William Sears and Robert Quigley (1972). Biography of Lua Moore Getsinger (1871-1916), "mother-teacher of the American Baha'i community," one of the earliest pilgrims from the West to meet 'Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
  9. Four Levels of Detachment in Doris Lessing's Shikasta, The, by Phyllis Sternberg Perrakis, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 14:3-4 (2004). [about]
  10. High-Performance Organization, The: An Assessment of Virtues and Values, by Lawrence M. Miller (2001). How a people-centered organization can enhance competitiveness and job satisfaction. [about]
  11. History of EBBF, The: Twenty-Five Years of Contributing to the Discourse of Ethics in Business, by Francois Couillard, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 25:3 (2015). The European Bahá’í Business Forum, a small network of individuals dedicated to promoting ethical behavior and other Bahá’í values in the workplace, has had significant influence at the local, national, and international levels. [about]
  12. Jamál Effendi and the early history of the Bahá'í Faith in South Asia, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 9 (1999). Includes maps on Jamal Effendi's journeys in India, and journeys in Southeast Asia. [about]
  13. Learning to Read Social Reality in the Light of the Revelation: Twenty-Five Years of Contributing to the Discourse of Ethics in Business, by Haleh Arbab, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 25:3 (2015). The Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity works to learn how to advance the capacity of individuals and groups to participate in some of the prevalent discourses of society, for the betterment of the world and the growth of civilization. [about]
  14. Leroy Ioas, Hand of the Cause of God, by Anita Ioas Chapman, and Lua Getsinger, Herald of the Covenant, by Velda Piff Metelmann: Reviews, by Robert Weinberg, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 9 (1999). [about]
  15. Lua Getsinger: Herald of the Covenant, by Amine De Mille, in Bahá'í News, 489 (1971). Biography of Getsinger, with recollections of Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
  16. Management of Small Rural Businesses: Some Views of the European Bahá'í Business Forum, by Michel P. Zahrai (1998). The challenge and benefits of restoring pride in rural non-farm businesses. [about]
  17. Music Lyrics, Singing, and Dancing at Feast, by Universal House of Justice (1994). Baha'is may incorporate music, singing, and dancing into the spiritual portions of the community devotional meetings. [about]
  18. Night as Frontier: Some Implications for the Bahá'í Community, by Will C. van den Hoonaard, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 7 (1997). Sociological effects of night-shift employment and the nocturnal populace. [about]
  19. Principles of Consultation Applied to the Process of Innovation in a Corporate Environment, by Robert B. Rosenfeld and Michael H. Winger-Bearskin, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3:1 (1990). [about]
  20. Role of Business in Enhancing The Prosperity of Humankind, The, by William Walker and Jane Nelson (2001). Three articles about exploring and implementing concepts from Prosperity of Humankind, including building partnerships, toward a new concept of prosperity, preservation of wildlife, and examples of successful initiatives. [about]
  21. Sincerity: The Foundation Stone of Faith (2007). [about]
  22. Women Entrepreneurs: Catalysts for Transformation, by Diane Chamberlin Starcher (1997). Describes the dramatic rise in importance of women entrepreneurs and how feminine qualities contribute to their success. [about]
 
Tips:
Home Site Map Forum Links Copyright About Contact
.
. .