Search for tag "Sin"
|1847. Oct - Nov
||Táhirih is accused of instigating the assassination of her uncle and is confined to her father's house while about 30 Bábís are arrested. Four, including the assassin, are taken to Tihrán and held in the house of Khusraw Khán. [BKG41; BW18:380; DB276–8]
||Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia
||Tahirih; assassination; uncle; Babis; arrested; Khusraw Khan
|1862 – 1868
||Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí, a cousin of the Báb, lives in Shanghai during this period. This is the first record of a Bábí or Bahá'í living in China. [PH24]
- From 1870 he lived in Hong Kong dealing as a merchant and was joined by his brother, Hájí Mírzá Muhammad Husayn. [PH24]
|Shanghai; Hong Kong; China
||Haji Mirza Muhammad-‘Ali; cousin; Bab; Babi; Baha'i; Haji Mirza Muhammad Husayn
|1863. 13 Aug
||Bahá'u'lláh and His party depart from Sámsún by steamer for Istanbul. [BKG196; GPB157]
- They touch in Sinope, a port of call on 14 August and in Anyábulí on the 15 August.
[The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p43]
|Sámsún; Sinope; Anyábulí; Istanbul; Constantinople;
|1871. 1 Nov
||Birth of `Lua' Getsinger (Lucinda Louisa Aurora Moore), Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, Herald of the Covenant and Mother Teacher of the West.
||Lua Getsinger; Disciples of Abdul-Baha
|1873 8 Mar
||Marriage of `Abdu'l-Bahá to Munírih Khánum in the House of `Abbúd.
DH45 says the marriage took place in late August or September 1872.
- See CH87–90, SES25-26, DH45–6 and RB2:208–9 for details of the wedding.
- For the story of Munírih Khánum's life see RB2:204–9.
- She was the daughter of Mírzá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Nahrí by his second wife. [BBD165; GPB130; RB2:204]
- See BBD 166, BKG340–1, DB208–9 and RB2:203–4 for the story of her conception.
- See BKG344, MA112–13 and RB2:206–7 for the story of her first marriage.
- The marriage resulted in nine children, five of whom died in childhood: Husayn Effendi (died 1887, aged two), Mihdí (died aged two-and-a-half), Túbá, Fu'ádiyyih and Rúhangíz. Four daughters grew to adulthood. The oldest of these was Díyá'iyyih, who married Mírzá Hádí Shírází in 1895. Shoghi Effendi was their eldest child. The second daughter, Túbá Khánum, married Mírzá Muhsin Afnán. The third daughter of `Abdu'l-Bahá, Rúhá, married Mírzá Jalál, the son of Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan, the King of Martyrs. The fourth daughter, Munavvar, married Mírzá Ahmad. [ABMM]
||Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Family of; Munirih Khanum; Mirza Muhammad-Aliy-i-Nahri; Diyaiyyih Khanum; Mirza Hadi Shirazi; Tuba Khanum; Mirza Muhsin Afnan; Ruha Khanum; Mirza Jalal; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan; Munavvar Khanum; Mirza Ahmad; Genealogy
||The `ulamá arouse the rabble against the Bahá'ís in Sidih, Isfahán. Several Bahá'ís are imprisoned, including Nayyir and Síná. [BW18:383]
||Jamál Effendi, accompanied by Hájí Faraju'lláh-i-Tafrishí, embarks on a long journey to the East visiting Burma, Java, Siam, Singapore, Kashmir, Tibet, Yarqand, Khuqand in Chinese Turkistan, and Afghanistan. [EB123–4; PH22]
|| Burma; Java; Siam; Singapore; Kashmir; Tibet; Yarqand; Khuqand; Chinese Turkistan; Afghanistan
||Jamal Effendi; Haji Faraju'llah-i-Tafrishi
|1897. 21 May
||Lua Getsinger becomes a Bahá'í in Chicago. [BFA1:XXVII]
|1898. 1 Jan
||Eighteen people become Bahá'ís in Kenosha, Wisconsin, following the visit of Kheiralla in the autumn of 1897. [BFA1:XXVIII]
- This marks the establishment of the third Bahá'í community in North America. [BFA1:110]
||Ibrahim George Kheiralla
|1898 Jul or Aug
||Phoebe Hearst becomes a Bahá'í in California through the efforts of Lua and Edward Getsinger. [BFA1:XXVIII 139]
- SBBH1:93 says this was July, based on Kheiralla's autobiography; BFA1 is based on a letter from Phoebe Hearst.
||Phoebe Hearst; Lua Getsinger; Edward Getsinger
|1898. 22 Sep
||The first Western pilgrims depart for `Akká, travelling via New York and Paris. [BFA1:XXVIII, 140–1, 230]
- It is arranged by Phoebe Hearst, who had already planned a journey to Egypt for the autumn. [BFA1:140]
- There are 15 pilgrims in all. [AB68]
||Pilgrimage; Phoebe Hearst; Lua Getsinger; Edward Getsinger; Robert Turner; BWC Pilgrimage
|1898. 10 Dec
||The first Western pilgrims arrive in `Akká. [AB68; BBD13; BBRXXX; DH214; GPB257; SCU13; Bahá'í Teachings]
- They divide themselves into three parties, using Cairo as a staging post. [AB68; BFA1:143; SBBH1:93]
- See AB68–72; BFA2:9; DH61; GPB257, 259 for those included in the pilgrimage group.
- Included were Mrs Hearst's nieces, a few American friends and, joining in London, Mrs Mary Thornburgh-Cropper and her mother. [SCU13. CH234-236]
- See BFA1:143–4 for those included in the first group.
- Among the group is Robert Turner, the first member of the black race to become a Bahá'í. For 35 years, Turner faithfully served as butler to Phoebe Apperson Hearst and Senator George Hearst, parents of newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst. [AB72; BBD227; BFA1:139; GPB259]
- `Abdu'l-Bahá receives the pilgrims in the House of `Abdu'lláh Páshá. [BBD13, 108; DH61]
- See AB68–71; BW16:104–5; CH235–6 and GPB257–9 for the pilgrims' responses to the pilgrimage.
- Edward Getsinger makes a recording of `Abdu'l-Bahá chanting a prayer. [BFA1:160]
- The Getsingers returned from the pilgrimage with an Arabic copy of The Kitáb-i-Aqdas which was later translated by Anton Haddad. [BFA2:11]
|Akka; Cairo; Egypt
||Pilgrims; Pilgrimage; Firsts, Other; Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper; Robert Turner; Edward Getsinger; Lua Getsinger; Anton Haddad; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); House of Abdullah Pasha; Abdul-Baha, Voice recording of
||A council board of seven officers, a forerunner of the Local Spiritual Assembly, is established in Kenosha. [BFA1:112; GPB260]
||Kenosha; Wisconsin; United States
||Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies
|1899 Oct - Nov
||Stoyan Vatralsky, a Harvard educated, Bulgarian Christian, attacks the Bahá'ís, `Truth-knowers', in a series of talks in a church in Kenosha, Wisconsin. [BFA1:XXIX, 114–15; SBBH2:111]
- By this time two per cent of the population of Kenosha are Bahá'ís. [BFA1:114]
||Stoyan Vatralsky; Truth-knowers
|1900 8 Mar
||At a meeting in Kenosha, Kheiralla publicly announces his doubts about `Abdu'l-Bahá's leadership of the Bahá'í community [BFA1:XXIX; SBBH1:96; SBBH2:117]
- He allies himself with Muhammad-`Alí. [SSBH1:96]
- The Bahá'ís effectively divide into two camps. [SSBH1:96]
- For the changes to the Bahá'í community as a result of this see SSBH1:96–9 and SSBH2:117–20.
||Ibrahim George Kheiralla; Mirza Muhammad Ali
|1900 26 Apr
||Hájí `Abdu'l-Karím-i-Tihrání arrives in New York, the first Persian Bahá'í to visit North America, to try to bring Kheiralla back into the Faith and to explain the basic teachings of the Faith to the American believers. He is accompanied by Mirza Sinore Raffie, his translator. [BFA173–6; BFA2:17–29]
||Haji Abdul-Karim-i-Tihrani; Ibrahim George Kheiralla; Mirza Sinore Raffie
||Pritam Singh, an Assistant Master of Economics at Chiefs College in Lahore, accepts the Faith, the first Sikh to do so. [BFA2:269]
||Charles Mason Remey and Howard Struven leave the United States on the first Bahá'í teaching trip to circle the globe. [BFA2:348, GPB261]
- They go to Hawaii, Japan, Shanghai, Singapore and to Burma, India and `Akká. [BFA2:348–50]
|Hawaii; Japan; Shanghai; Singapore; Burma; India; `Akká
||Charles Mason Remey; Howard Struven; travel teaching
|1912 24 Jul
||Talk to Theosophical Society,
Exeter and Boylston Streets, Boston, Massachusetts. [PUP239]
||Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour; Theosophical Society; The Kensington
|1912 15 Sep
||`Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Chicago for Kenosha, Wisconsin. [239D:145; AB267]
- He misses His train and tells the Bahá'ís not to be concerned over this, as there is a good reason for it; travelling on the next train they come across the wreckage of the first, which has been in a collision. [239D:145; AB267]
|Chicago; Kenosha; Wisconsin
||`Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
|1913 15 Apr
||'Abdu'l-Bahá's planned departure is delayed a second time due to a severe cold. He is attended by Mr and Mrs Stark as well as Sirda Omrah Singh. He continues to meet visitors in His hotel during this period. [MRHK369]
||Stark, Mr and Mrs; Sirda Omrah Singh; Abdul-Baha, Travels of
|1913 23 Jul
||Lua Getsinger arrives at Port Said. [AB400]
|1914 21 Jan
||Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl-i-Gulpáygání, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, passes away in Cairo. [AB404; BBD67]
- For a brief biography see EM263–5, SDH113.
- His resting place is now next to that of Lua Getsinger in the Bahá'í cemetery in Cairo.
- His numerous works include Fará'id (The Peerless Gems) 1898; The Brilliant Proof; 1912; Bahá'í Proofs, 1902; and Al-Duraru'l-Bahíyih (The Shining Pearls, published in English as Miracles and Metaphors), 1900. [BBD7]
||Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Apostles of Bahaullah; Lua Getsinger; Cemeteries and graves; Bahai cemeteries; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
|1914 1 Nov
||Turkey enters the war on the side of the Central Powers.
- Palestine is blockaded and Haifa is bombarded. [GPB304]
- `Abdu'l-Bahá sends the Bahá'ís to the Druze village of Abú-Sinán for asylum. [AB411; DH124; GPB304]
- For `Abdu'l-Bahá in war time see CH188–228.
- `Abdu'l-Bahá had grown and stored corn in the years leading up to the war and was now able to feed not only local people but the British army. [AB415, 418; CH210; GPB304, 306]
- See CH209–10 for other villages inhabited by Bahá'ís.
||The Great War; Central Powers
||The Bahá'ís of Haifa and `Akká return to their homes from the village of Abú-Sinán. [DH147]
||Haifa; `Akká; Abú-Sinán
|1916 1 May
||Lua Getsinger, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, dies of heart failure in Cairo. [BBD87; SW7, 4:29]
- For an her obituary see SW7, 4:29-30.
- She is buried in the Protestant Cemetery in Cairo. In 1939 a court ruling enables the Bahá'ís to reinter her in the first Bahá'í cemetery established in Egypt. Her grave is now beside that of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl. [GPB344]
- See also Sears and Quigley, The Flame.
||Lua Getsinger; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Cemeteries and graves; Bahai cemeteries; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
|1921 28 Nov
||The Ascension of `Abdu'l-Bahá: `Abdu'l-Bahá passes away at about 1:00 a.m., in Haifa. [AB452; BBD4; BBR347; GPB311; UD170]
- For details of His passing see AB452, BW1:19-23; BW15:113-15 and GPB310-11.
- This marks the end of the Apostolic, Heroic or Primitive Age of the Bahá'í Faith and the beginning of the Transitional Formative or Iron Age. [BBD35-6]
- For a photograph of the cable sent announcing His passing see SW12, 15:245.
- See The Passing of 'Abdu'l-Bahá by Shoghi Effendi and Lady Blomfield.
- For a pen portrait of 'Abdu'l-Bahá see The Oriental Rose by Mary Hanford Ford pg 158-159
- Also see AB452-83; HLS93-100.
||Abdul-Baha, Passing of; Ages (time); Heroic Age; Formative Age; Abdul-Baha, Life of; - Basic timeline
|1921 29 Nov
||The funeral of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [BW15:115]
- For details of the funeral see AB464-74; BW1:23-6; BW15:115-19; GPB312-14; and SW12, 17:259-67.
- For Western and newspaper accounts see AB474-80; BBR347-9; BW1:26-8; and BW15:119-20.
- For eulogies to `Abdu'l-Bahá see AB481-2, BW1:28-9 and BW15 120-1.
- Ten thousand people attend `Abdu'l-Bahá's funeral. [v7]
- For a number of pictures of the funeral procession see SW12, 91:290, 292-8.
- Bahíyyih Khánum looks for instructions on where to bury `Abdu'l-Bahá and, finding none, entombs Him in a vault next to the one where the remains of the Báb lie. [AB464; GBF14]
- The Faith has spread to 35 countries. [MBW61; PP391]
- The Bahá'í property at Bahjí does not exceed a thousand square metres; the Bahá'í property on Mount Carmel is about ten thousand square metres. [PP267]
- Also see Balyuzi, `Abdu'l-Bahá; Blomfield, The Chosen Highway; Honnold, Vignettes from the Life of `Abdu'l-Bahá; SW12, 15:245 and several following issues.
|Haifa; Bahji; Mount Carmel
||Abdul-Baha, Passing of; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Bab, Shrine of
|1921 2 Dec
||Ethel Rosenberg arrives in the Holy Land, having learned on the train from Port Said of the passing of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [ER181-2]
||Ethel Rosenberg; Passing of Abdul-Baha
|1939 21 Feb
"riots which broke out with exceptional fury in Ismá'ílíyyih, when angry crowds surrounded the funeral cortege of Muhammad Sulaymán, a prominent Bahá'í resident of that town, creating such an uproar that the police had to intervene, and having rescued the body and brought it back to the home of the deceased, they were forced to carry it without escort, at night, to the edge of the desert and inter it in the wilderness." [GPB367-368]
The National Spiritual Assembly of Egypt had, in respect of the decision of the 10th of May, 1925 declaring the Báhá'í Faith to be non-Muslim, petitioned the government for the right to administer laws of personal status to the Bahá'í community according to its Bahá'í Laws affecting Matters of Personal Status. On the 29th of February, 1939, the Grand Muftí ruled that the Bahá'ís were not to be considered Muslims and had no right to be buried in Muslim cemeteries. Four plots of land were allocated to serve as cemeteries for the Bahá'í community in Cairo, Alexandria, Port Said and in Ismá'ílíyyih. Immediately following this decision the remains for Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl were transferred followed by the exhumation from a Christian cemetery in Cairo the remains of Lua Getsinger and subsequent re-interment in an adjacent plot. [GPB368-369]
|Cairo; Alexandria; Port Said; Isma'iliyyih; Egypt
||Lua Getsinger; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani
||The Grand Muftí of Egypt states that Bahá’ís cannot be buried in Muslim cemeteries, forcing the authorities to allow the Bahá’ís to have their own.
- The graves of Mírzá Abu’l-Fadl Gulpáygání and Lua Getsinger are transferred to the cemetery near Cairo.
||Gulpaygani; Lua Getsinger
|1946 13 Dec
||The passing of Muhamman Taqí Isfahání. He had been born in Persia and was horrified by the behaviour of Mullá Huhammad Báqir (The Wolf) and Imám-Jum'íh who killed the two brothers Muhammad Hasan and Muhammad Hasan so he left for Egypt and encounter many believers on his way. He passed through Akka and met both Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'-Bahá.
- His name is closely associated with the early progress of the Faith in Egypt. His house was the centre of activity and was were both Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl and Lua Getsinger spent their last days. He received 'Abdu'l-Bahá during His visit to Egypt. He was the chief member of the Publishing Committee and helped to translate many books into Arabic such as the Iqán and Some Answered Questions.
- The Guardian announced his elevation to the rank of Hand of the Cause of God two days after his passing and donated a sum of money to be used for his tomb. He is buried in the Bahá'í Cemetery. [MoCxxii, BW11p500-502]
||In Memoriam; Appointment Hand; Muhamman Taqi Isfahani; Lua Getsinger; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani
|1950 25 May
||Dr Khodadad M. Fozdar, a medical officer of the State Railways in India, arrives in Singapore, the first pioneer to the country. [BW13:393]
- His wife, Shirin Fozdar, joins him in September 1950.
||Khodadad M. Fozdar; Shirin Fozdar
||Mr Narain Das, a textile salesman from India working in Singapore, becomes a Bahá’í, the first person in the country to accept the Faith. A few months later Mr Teo Geok Leng, a Chinese Singaporean, becomes a Bahá’í, the first native of Singapore to accept the Faith.
||Narain Das; Teo Geok Leng
||The first local spiritual assembly of Singapore City is established. [BW12:573; PH58, 67]
||The first local spiritual assembly in Finland is established in Helsinki.
||Udai Narain Singh arrives in Sikkim and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455; PH63]
||Udai Narain Singh; Knight of Baha’u’llah
||Travelling by foot, Udai Narain Singh arrives in Tibet from Gangtok, Sikkim., and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh, his second such distinction.
- He is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh in spring 1956. [BW13:456]
||Udai Narain Singh; Knight of Baha’u’llah
|1957 4 Nov
||Shoghi Effendi passes away in London of coronary thrombosis after a bout of Asian influenza. [CB377; PP446]
- He was in London to purchase some furniture to complete the interior of the International Archives Building. [PP445]
- For a tribute to Shoghi Effendi written by Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum see BW13:58–226.]
- See also Rabbání, The Guardian Of The Bahá’í Faith and The Priceless Pearl.
|London; United Kingdom
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; International Archives Building; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; - Basic timeline
|1957 15 Nov
||Hands of the Cause Rúhíyyih Khánum, Mason Remey, Amelia Collins and Leroy Ioas, accompanied by Hand of the Cause Ugo Giachery, enter the apartment of Shoghi Effendi and seal with tape and wax the safe where his important documents were kept as well as the drawers to his desk. [BW13:341]
- The keys to the safe are placed in an envelope, which is sealed and signed by the five Hands and then placed in the safe of Leroy Ioas. BW13:341]
||Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Hands of the Cause; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Charles Mason Remey; Amelia Collins; Leroy Ioas; Ugo Giachery
|1957 19 Nov
||Nine Hands of the Cause are chosen by Rúhíyyih Khánum to examine Shoghi Effendi’s apartment. [BW 13:341]
- These are the five members of the International Bahá’í Council (Rúhíyyih Khánum, Mason Remey, Amelia Collins, Ugo Giachery and Leroy Ioas), an Afnán (Hasan Balyuzi), a representative of the Hands of the Western Hemisphere (Horace Holley), a representative of the Hands of the African continent (Músá Banání) and the Trustee of the Huqúqu’lláh (‘Alí Muhammad Varqá). [BW13:341]
- After seeing that the seals are intact, the Hands examine the contents of Shoghi Effendi’s safe and desk. [BW13:341]
- The nine Hands sign a document testifying that no Will or Testament of any nature executed by Shoghi Effendi has been found. This is reported to the entire body of Hands assembled in the Mansion of Bahjí. [BW13:341]
- See CB378–9 for an explanation of why Shoghi Effendi left no Will.
||Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Hands of the Cause; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; International Bahai Council; Charles Mason Remey; Amelia Collins; Ugo Giachery; Leroy Ioas; Hasan Balyuzi; Horace Holley; Musa Banani; Ali-Muhammad Varqa
|1957 25 Nov
||Nine Hands are chosen to serve as Custodians of the Faith residing in the Holy Land. [BBD57; BW13:342; DH215]
- The Hands residing in the Holy Land are established as a legal body under the title ‘The Custodians of the Bahá’í World Faith’.
- The Hands chosen as first Custodians are Rúhíyyih Khánum, Mason Remey, Amelia Collins, Leroy Ioas, Hasan Balyuzi, ‘Alí Akbar Furútan, Jalál Kházeh, Paul Haney and Adelbert Mühlschlegel. [BW13:345–6; MC40–1]
||Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Hands of the Cause; Custodians; Ruhiyyih Khanum; Charles Mason Remey; Amelia Collins; Leroy Ioas; Hasan Balyuzi; Ali Akbar Furutan; Jalal Khazeh; Paul Haney; Adelbert Muhlschlegel
|1958 23 Sep
||Chartered planes take the conference delegates to Singapore.
|1958 27 – 29 Sep
||The fifth Intercontinental Conference held at the mid-point of the Crusade convenes in Singapore. [BW13:331]
- Hand of the Cause Leroy Ioas, who had been designated by the Guardian as his representative, attends, accompanied by eight other Hands of the Cause. [BW13:331–2]
- For the message of the Custodians to the conference see MC111–6.
- For a report of the conference see BW13:331–2.
||Hand of the Cause; Leroy Ioas; Intercontinental Conference; Conference
||Jesus Bias Manibusan of Sinajana, Guam, the first Chamorro to become a Bahá’í, enrols.
||Jesus Bias Manibusan
||The first summer school in Singapore is held.
|1971 1 – 3 Jan
||The Oceanic Conference of the South China Seas is held in the Victoria Memorial Hall in Singapore. [BW15:319; VV5]
- For pictures see BW15:302–3 and VV6.
||Oceanic Conference; Conference
|1971 26 – 28 Nov
||The fiftieth anniversary of the passing of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá is commemorated. [BW15:125–8; VV14]
- For text of the letters of the Universal House of Justice see BW15:125–6 and MUHJ76–7.
||Passing of Abdul-Baha
||The National Spiritual Assembly of Singapore is formed with its seat in Singapore. [BW15:257]
- For picture see BW15:157.
|1974 21 Mar
||In its Naw-Rúz Message the Universal House of Justice announced that there would be eight International Teaching Conferences will be held during the middle part of the Five Year Plan; two for the Arctic, one in Anchorage and one in Helsinki during July 1976, one in Paris in August 1976, one in Nairobi in October 1976, one in Hong Kong in November 1976, one in Auckland and one in Bahia, Brazil in January 1977 and one in Mérida, Mexico in February 1977. The theme of these conferences was the urgent need for the Bahá'ís to ARISE to teach the Cause of Bahá'u'lláh. (Arise-Reach-Individual-Souls-Everywhere). 14,500 Bahá'ís attended.
||Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching; Arising
|1976 24 Apr
||The passing of Mark George Tobey (b. December 11, 1890 Centerville, Wisconsin – d. April 24, 1976 Basel, Switzerland) [Bahá'í News page 341, Wiki, VV119]
- He had been introduced to the Faith by Bernard Leach. [OPOP223]
- Another version is that In 1918 Mark Tobey came in contact with Juliet Thompson and posed for her. During the session Tobey read some Bahá'í literature and accepted an invitation to Green Acre where he converted. [Seitz, William Chapin (1980). Mark Tobey. Ayer Publishing. p. 44]
- Tobey was one of the twentieth century’s most cosmopolitan of artists. An inveterate traveler—he eventually settled in Basel, Switzerland—he was always better known in Europe than in his homeland.
His mature ‘white writing’ works are made up of pulsing webs of lines inspired by oriental calligraphy, explicitly acknowledged the direct influence of the Baha’i Faith on his painting. It has been said that Tobey “made line the symbol of spiritual illumination, human communication and migration, natural form and process, and movement between levels of consciousness.” He often stated, “that there can be no break between nature, art, science, religion, and personal life".
- See Bahá'í World 1994-95 pg248 for an article by Anne Boyles entitled "The Language of the Heart: Arts in the Bahá'í World Community" for mention of Mark Tobey.
- For his obituary see BW17:401–4.
- Towards the end of his life, Tobey was the recipient of some of the highest distinctions that the European art scene of his time could bestow. He won the gold medal at the Venice Biennale in 1958—the first American painter to do so since 1895. In 1961, a major retrospective of his work was held at the Louvre in Paris, an unprecedented achievement for a living and American artist.
- See The Journal of Bahá'í Studies, Volume 26, number 4 – Winter 2016 p94 for an article by Anne Gordon Perry entitled Anne Gould Hauberg and Mark Tobey: Lives Lived for Art, Cultivated by Spirit.
- An exhibition, Mark Tobey: Threading Light showed at the Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice, 6 May to 10 September 2017 and at the Addison Gallery of American Art, Phillips Academy, Andover, Massachusetts, 4 November 2017–11 March 2018.
|Centerville; Wisconsin; United States Basel; Switzerland
||In Memoriam; Mark Tobey; Bernard Leach; Anne Gould Hauberg; Arts; Painting
|1976 5 – 8 Jul
||An International Teaching Conference is held in Helsinki, Finland, attended by some 950 Bahá’ís. [BW17:81; VV33]
- For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:129–30.
- For pictures see BW17:109, 112, 114–15.
||Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching
|1988 8 Mar
||Shirin Fozdar, ardent champion of women’s rights and influential women’s leader, is honoured for her work for equality and women’s advancement at a ceremony organized by the Singapore Council of Women, which she founded in 1952. [BINS176:7]
||Shirin Fozdar; Singapore Council of Women
||The founding of the European Bahá'í Business Forum as an informal network. Their goal is exploring how to contribute to a more prosperous, just and sustainable civilization, through their daily work and discourse. [EBBF]
||Baha'i Business Forum
||The formation of the European Bahá'í Business Forum in France with members from 26 countries in Europe and elsewhere. [VV115]
- Formed by a group of Bahá'ís active in business and management meeting in Chamonix, France, due to concern about the decline of ethics and values in business.
- Forum created to promote the moral and spiritual wisdom and principles of the great religious traditions of the world (sources included Judaism, Hinduism, and Christianity as well as the 19th century revelation of Baha'u'llah) such as adherence to the principles of justice, respect, trustworthiness, integrity and unity.
- Beginning as an informal network, its membership grew requiring the election of a Governing Board.
- Members have attached importance to sharing their broad experience and to contributing to the improvement of management in emerging free-market economies of Central and Eastern Europe. [ebbf]
|Chamonix; France; Europe
||European Bahai Business Forum (EBBF); Business
|1990 1 - 2 Sep
||The European Bahá'í Business Forum is formed at a meeting in Chamonix, France, attended by people from eight countries. [BINS244:8; VV115]
||European Bahai Business Forum (EBBF); Business
|1992 23 – 26 Nov
||The Second World Congress was held in New York City to commemorate the centenary of the passing of Bahá'u'lláh and the completion of the Six Year Plan. It was attended by some 28,000 Bahá'ís from some 180 countries. [BBD240] [VV136-141] [BW92-3p98-101, 136]
- Nine auxiliary conferences were held in Buenos Aires, Sydney, New Delhi, Nairobi, Panama City, Bucharest, Moscow, Apia and Singapore. [BINS283:3-4]
- For pictures see [BINS283:9-10], [BW92-3p100] and [VV136-141]
- "New York will become a blessed spot from which the call to steadfastness in the Covenant and Testament of God will go forth to every part of the world." - 'Abdu'l-Bahá [AWH77-8 90-1 105-6]
- On the 25th of November a concert was held in Carnegie Hall as a birthday tribute to Dizzy Gillespie called "Celebrating the Bahá'í Vision of World Peace". [VV141]
- On the 26th of November Bahá'ís around the world are linked together by a live satellite broadcast serving the second Bahá'í World Congress, the nine auxiliary conferences and the Bahá'í World Centre and is received by those with access to satellite dish antennas. [BINS283:1–5, 8; BINS286:10; BINS287:4]
- For the message of the Universal House of Justice read on the satellite link see BW92–3:37–4.
- For accounts of personal experiences by some of the attendees see In the Eyes of His Beloved Servants: The Second Bahá'í World Congress and Holy Year by J. Michael Kafes.
|New York; United States; Buenos Aires; Argentina; Sydney; Australia; New Delhi; India; Nairobi; Kenya; Panama; Bucharest; Romania; Moscow; Russia; Apia; Western Samoa; Singapore
||Dizzy Gillespie; World Congresses; Carnegie Hall
|1993 In the year
||EBBF was registered in Paris as an official non-profit association. Its statutes provide that membership is open to Bahá'ís and non-Bahá'ís alike. [ebbf]
||European Bahai Business Forum (EBBF); Business
|1993 13 Mar
||Three Bahá'ís are assassinated at the Bahá'í Centre in Mdantsane, Ciskei, in a racially-motivated attack. [BW93–4:147–50]
||assassination of Baha'is
|2009 2 – 3 Jul
||More than 20 members of the European Bahá'í Business Forum participated in the Global Ethics Forum, held at United Nations headquarters in Geneva. [BWNS722]
||Geneva; Switzerland; Europe
||Global Ethics Form; European Bahai Business Forum (EBBF); Business
|2016 7 May
||The passing of Jenabe Esslemont Caldwell, 89 in Wailuku, Hawaii. (b. August 7, 1926 in Butte, Montana). He and his wife Elaine were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for pioneering to the Aleutian Islands in July, 1953 where they started a king crab and salmon cannery. They sponsored the Bahá’í singing group Windflower that toured Europe, including the United Kingdom, in the 1980s. He was the author of the books: The Story of the Bab & Baha'u'llah>,From Night to Knight, Follow the Instructions and Reflections. He is well-known for his mass teaching successes. [Bahaikipedia]
||Butte; Montana; Aleutian Islands; Wailuku; Hawaii.
||Jenabe Caldwell; Elaine Caldwell; Knights of Bahaullah; Windflower (singing group); Mass teaching
from the main catalogue
- `Abdu'l-Baha in Abu-Sinan: September 1914–May 1915, by Ahang Rabbani, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 13 (2005). The story of Abdu'l-Baha's relocating the Haifa/Akka Baha'i community of some 140 people to a nearby Druze village to keep them safe during World War I. [about]
- 'Abdu'l-Bahá, Ascension of (November 28), by Christopher Buck, in Religious Celebrations: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations (2011). [about]
- Answered Questions, Some, by Abdu'l-Baha (1990). [about]
- Answered Questions, Some, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2014). New 2014 translation (with a version side-by-side with the original). [about]
- Application of Bahá'í Principles in a Business Context, The, by Kirsten Daly, in 75 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Australasia (1996). [about]
- Arising to Act, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (2002). [about]
- Baha'i Faith, The: 50 Years in Singapore (2000). History of Baha'i activity and teaching in Singapore, from May 26 1950, when the first Baha’i pioneer, Dr. K.M. Fozdar, arrived in Singapore, until the year 2000. [about]
- Business, Development, and the Bahá'í Funds (1993). Compilation by the Office of the Treasurer on the challenge for America, business ventures and development, dependencies of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, fundraising, safeguarding contributions, and earmarking. Includes many supplemental letters from the UHJ. [about]
- Century of Light, by Universal House of Justice (2001). Survey of the history and dramatic changes of the 20th Century and the Bahá'í Faith's emergence from obscurity, "demonstrating on a global scale the unifying power with which its Divine origin has endowed it." [about]
- Chosen Highway, The, by Lady Sarah Louisa Blomfield (Sitarih Khanum) (1940). [about]
- Concept of Sin in the Bahá'í Faith, The, by Ali K. Merchant, in Global Religious Vision, 1:2 (2000). Just as Baha'is don't believe in the existence of evil as a real entity, likewise sin is but the absence of holiness. All the forces within us are God-given and thus potentially virtuous; their absence casts the shadow of sin. [about]
- Corporate Social Responsibility and Business Success, by Marcello Palazzi and George Starcher (1998). How social responsibility can contribute to competitiveness and success. [about]
- Ethics and Entrepreneurship, An Oxymoron?: A Transition to a Free Market Economy in Eastern Europe, by George Starcher (1997). The process of entrepreneurship and the importance of business ethics to entrepreneurial success, and the concept of stages of ethical consciousness and some of the reasons business ethics makes good business sense. Does not mention the Baha'i Faith. [about]
- Fiftieth Anniversary of The Master: Performance piece, by Jim Wood (1968). An artistic piece appropriate for play at the commemoration of the ascension of 'Abdu'l-Baha. Produced, performed, and narrated by Jim Wood; also read by Deborah Buttrey. [about]
- Flame, The, by William Sears and Robert Quigley (1972). Biography of Lua Moore Getsinger (1871-1916), "mother-teacher of the American Baha'i community," one of the earliest pilgrims from the West to meet 'Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
- Four Levels of Detachment in Doris Lessing's Shikasta, The, by Phyllis Sternberg Perrakis, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 14:3-4 (2004). [about]
- High-Performance Organization, The: An Assessment of Virtues and Values, by Lawrence M. Miller (2001). How a people-centered organization can enhance competitiveness and job satisfaction. [about]
- History of EBBF, The: Twenty-Five Years of Contributing to the Discourse of Ethics in Business, by Francois Couillard, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 25:3 (2015). The European Bahá’í Business Forum, a small network of individuals dedicated to promoting ethical behavior and other Bahá’í values in the workplace, has had significant influence at the local, national, and international levels. [about]
- Islam, the Baha'i Faith and the Eternal Covenant of Alast, by Susan Maneck (2009). [about]
- Jamál Effendi and the early history of the Bahá'í Faith in South Asia, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 9 (1999). Includes maps on Jamal Effendi's journeys in India, and journeys in Southeast Asia. [about]
- Joycean Modernism in a Nineteenth-Century Qur'an Commentary?: A Comparison of The Báb's Qayyūm Al-Asmā' with Joyce's Ulysses, by Todd Lawson, in Erin and Iran: Cultural Encounters between the Irish and the Iranians, ed. H. E. Chehabi and Grace Neville (2015). Comparison of the formal structure of the two works and themes such as time; oppositions and their resolution; relation between form and content; prominence of epiphany; manifestation, advent and apocalypse; and the theme of heroism, reading and identity. [about]
- Learning to Read Social Reality in the Light of the Revelation: Twenty-Five Years of Contributing to the Discourse of Ethics in Business, by Haleh Arbab, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 25:3 (2015). The Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity works to learn how to advance the capacity of individuals and groups to participate in some of the prevalent discourses of society, for the betterment of the world and the growth of civilization. [about]
- Leroy Ioas, Hand of the Cause of God, by Anita Ioas Chapman, and Lua Getsinger, Herald of the Covenant, by Velda Piff Metelmann: Reviews, by Robert Weinberg, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 9 (1999). [about]
- Lua Getsinger: Herald of the Covenant, by Amine De Mille, in Bahá'í News, 489 (1971). Biography of Getsinger, with recollections of Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
- Management of Small Rural Businesses: Some Views of the European Bahá'í Business Forum, by Michel P. Zahrai (1998). The challenge and benefits of restoring pride in rural non-farm businesses. [about]
- Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-86, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
- Music Lyrics, Singing, and Dancing at Feast, by Universal House of Justice (1994). Baha'is may incorporate music, singing, and dancing into the spiritual portions of the community devotional meetings. [about]
- Night as Frontier: Some Implications for the Bahá'í Community, by Will C. van den Hoonaard, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 7 (1997). Sociological effects of night-shift employment and the nocturnal populace. [about]
- Passing of Abdu'l-Baha, The, by Shoghi Effendi and Lady Blomfield (1922). A compilation on the last days of 'Abdu'l-Baha, his funeral, and tributes on his behalf. Later published in abridged form in World Order. [about]
- Passing of Shoghi Effendi, The: 1896-1957, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum and John Ferraby (1958). Detailed account of the final days of the life of the Guardian. [about]
- Principles of Consultation Applied to the Process of Innovation in a Corporate Environment, by Robert B. Rosenfeld and Michael H. Winger-Bearskin, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3:1 (1990). [about]
- Ridván 1996 (Four Year Plan) - To the Followers of Bahá'u'lláh in Cambodia, Hong Kong, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Macau, Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam: Bahá'í Era 153, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Country-specific portion of the annual message to the Bahá'ís of the world: East Asia. [about]
- Role of Business in Enhancing The Prosperity of Humankind, The, by William Walker and Jane Nelson (2001). Three articles about exploring and implementing concepts from Prosperity of Humankind, including building partnerships, toward a new concept of prosperity, preservation of wildlife, and examples of successful initiatives. [about]
- Sermon of the Gulf (Khutbih Tutunjiyyih): Introduction, by Khazeh Fananapazir (2000). Essay on Imám `Alí's sermon, which is also the source of Bahá'u'lláh's quote in Epistle to the Son of the Wolf, "Anticipate ye the Revelation of Him Who conversed with Moses from the Burning Bush on Sinai." [about]
- Shaykh Ahmad al-Ahsa'i and the World of Images, by Todd Lawson, in Shi‘i Trends and Dynamics in Modern Times, ed. Denis Hermann and Sabrina Mervin (2010). Characteristics and function of this world as found in the writings of Mullá Muhammad Muhsin Fayd Káshání and Shaykh Ahmad al-Ahsá'í. Does not mention the Baha'i Faith. [about]
- Sincerity: The Foundation Stone of Faith (2007). [about]
- Spiritual Approach to Microcredit Projects, A, by Michel P. Zahrai (1998). Spiritual considerations that should guide the elaboration and implementation of microcredit schemes and measure their success. [about]
- Spiritual Dimensions of Microfinance, The: Towards a Just Civilization and Sustainable Economy, by Barbara J. Rodey (2001). Prepared for the Microcredit Summit to emphasize the importance of universal spiritual principles to achieve the real benefits of microfinance services. [about]
- Symbolic Profile of the Bahá'í Faith, A, by Christopher Buck, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:4 (1998). [about]
- Tablet to the Cousin (Lawh-i-Pisar-'Amm): Wilmette Institute faculty notes, by Iraj Ayman (1999). [about]
- Three Meditations on the Eve of November Fourth, by Abu'l-Qasim Faizi (1970). Essays and poems written by Hand of the Cause A.Q. Faizi on the evening of Shoghi Effendi's death, November 4 1957. [about]
- Turning Point: Selected Messages of the Universal House of Justice and Supplementary Material 1996–2006, by Universal House of Justice (2006). Forty-three letters, plans, and documents covering the Four-Year Plan of 1996-2000. [about]
- Women Entrepreneurs: Catalysts for Transformation, by Diane Chamberlin Starcher (1997). Describes the dramatic rise in importance of women entrepreneurs and how feminine qualities contribute to their success. [about]