Search for tag "Sin"
|1797. 17 Jun
||Assassination of Muhammad Sháh in Ádhirbáyján.
||Muhammad Shah; Shahs; Assassinations
|1835 - 1836
||Siyyid 'Ali Muhammad (the Báb) moved to Bushihr to manage his uncles’ business interests in that city. He stayed there for five or six years. [HotD19, DB77note1, B39-41]
||Bab, Life of; Business; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1847. Sep or Oct
||The murder of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí, the powerful uncle of Táhirih, by Mullá `Abdu'lláh of Shíráz. [B166; BBRSM216; DB276–8]
BBRSM22 says the murder took place towards the end of October.
Mullá `Abdu'lláh indicated that he was `never a convinced Bábí'. [DB276]
||Assassinations; Mulla Abdullah; Haji Mulla Muhammad Taqi; Tahirih; Persecution, Iran; Persecution
|1847. Oct - Nov
||Táhirih was accused of instigating the assassination of her uncle, Muhammad Taqí Baraghání, and was confined to her father's house while about 30 Bábís were arrested. Four, including the assassin, were taken to Tihrán and held in the house of Khusraw Khán. [BKG41; BW18:380; DB276–8]
||Assassinations; Mulla Abdullah; Haji Mulla Muhammad Taqi; Tahirih; Khusraw Khan; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
|1847. Nov - Dec
||Bahá'u'lláh, who was living in Tihrán, visited the detainees and gave them money. [BKG41; DB278–9; GPB68]
Mullá `Abdu'lláh confessed to the murder of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí and was helped to escape. [BKG41–2; DB278]
See BKG42 for why Bahá'u'lláh was thought to have engineered his escape. Bahá'u'lláh was imprisoned for a few days for having assisted in Mullá `Abdu'lláh's escape.
This was Bahá'u'lláh's first imprisonment. [BKG41; BW18:380; DB585]
Shaykh Salib-i-Karímí, one of the imprisoned Bábís, was publicly executed in Tihrán.
He was the first to suffer martyrdom on Persian soil. His remains were interred in the courtyard of the shrine of the Imám-Zádih Zayd in Tihrán. [B166; BW18:380; DB280]
The remaining captives were returned to Qazvín. Hájí Asadu'lláh-i-Farhádí was secretly put to death in prison. Mullá Táhir-i-Shírází and Mullá Ibrahím-i-Maballátí were also put to death. [B166; BW18:380; DB280–3]
DB280–3 says `the rest of' the detainees were put to death by the relatives of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí.
||Tihran; Qazvin; Iran
||Bahaullah, Life of; Assassinations; Mulla Abdullah; Tahirih; Haji Mulla Muhammad Taqi; Cemeteries and graves; Firsts, Other; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
||Mírzá Taqí Khán was killed in the public bath in Káshán by order of the Sháh on the instigation of the Sháh's mother and Mírzá Áqá Khán. [BBR164–5; BKG72]
He chose to have his veins opened and he bled to death. [BBR164; BKG72]
Shoghi Effendi described him has being "arbitrary, bloodthirsty and reckless". [GPB4]
||Mirza Taqi Khan; Prime ministers; Assassinations; Public baths; Nasirid-Din Shah, Mother of; Mirza Aqa Khan
|1853. 26 Mar
||Five Bábís, acting on their own initiative, murdered the governor of Nayríz, providing the spark for the second Nayríz upheaval. [BBR147]
||Nayriz upheaval; Upheavals; Governors; Persecution, Iran; Persecution; Assassinations
|1863. 13 Aug
||Bahá'u'lláh and His party departed from Sámsún by steamer for Istanbul. [BKG196; GPB157]
They touched in Sinope, a port of call on the 14 of August and in Anyábulí on the 15th.
[The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p43]
||Samsun; Sinope; Anyabuli; Istanbul; Turkey
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of
|1871. 1 Nov
||Birth of `Lua' Getsinger (Lucinda Louisa Aurora Moore), Banner of the Cause (líva), Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, Herald of the Covenant and Mother Teacher of the West. [AB67}
Lua is accredited with bringing such notables as May Ellis Bolles and Mrs Phoebe Hearst. [AB67
||Hume NY; United States
||May Ellis Bolles; Mrs Phoebe Hearst; Lua Getsinger; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Births and deaths
|1873 8 Mar
||Marriage of `Abdu'l-Bahá to Munírih Khánum in the House of `Abbúd.
DH45 says the marriage took place in late August or September 1872.
See CH87–90, SES25-26, DH45–6 and RB2:208–9 for details of the wedding.
For the story of Munírih Khánum's life see RB2:204–9.
She was the daughter of Mírzá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Nahrí by his second wife. [BBD165; GPB130; RB2:204]
See BBD 166, BKG340–1, DB208–9 and RB2:203–4 for the story of her conception.
See BKG344, MA112–13 and RB2:206–7 for the story of her first marriage.
The marriage resulted in nine children, five of whom died in childhood: Husayn Effendi (died 1887, aged two), Mihdí (died aged two-and-a-half), Túbá, Fu'ádiyyih and Rúhangíz. Four daughters grew to adulthood. The oldest of these was Díyá'iyyih, who married Mírzá Hádí Shírází in 1895. Shoghi Effendi was their eldest child. The second daughter, Túbá Khánum, married Mírzá Muhsin Afnán. The third daughter of `Abdu'l-Bahá, Rúhá, married Mírzá Jalál, the son of Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan, the King of Martyrs. The fourth daughter, Munavvar, married Mírzá Ahmad. [ABMM]
||Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Family of; Munirih Khanum; Weddings; Mirza Muhammad-Aliy-i-Nahri; Diyaiyyih Khanum; Mirza Hadi Shirazi; Tuba Khanum; Mirza Muhsin Afnan; Ruha Khanum; Mirza Jalal; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Munavvar Khanum; Mirza Ahmad; Genealogy; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
|1888 (In the year)
||Jamál Effendi, accompanied by Hájí Faraju'lláh-i-Tafrishí, embarked on a long journey to the East visiting Burma, Java (Indonesia), Siam (Thailand), Singapore, Kashmir, Tibet, Yarqand, Khuqand in Chinese Turkistan, and Afghanistan. [EB123–4; PH22]
||Myanmar (Burma); Java; Indonesia; Siam (Thailand); Thailand; Singapore; Kashmir; India; Tibet; Yarqand; Khuqand; Chinese Turkistan; China; Afghanistan
||Jamal Effendi; Haji Farajullah-i-Tafrishi
|1890 (In the decade)
||Bahá'í books were published for the first time, in Bombay and Cairo. [GPB195; SA250]
||Mumbai (Bombay); India; Cairo; Egypt
||Bahai literature; Publishing; Publications; First publications; Business
|1892 (In the year)
||Mu'tuminu's-Saltanih was poisoned in Tihrán on the orders of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh. [BW18:384]
||Mutuminus-Saltanih; Nasirid-Din Shah; Assassinations
|1896. 19 Apr
||Násiri'd-Dín Sháh was assassinated on the eve of the celebration of his jubilee. He had ascended to the throne in 1848 and by the Islamic lunar calendar it marked the 50th year of his reign. [BKG455]
BBRXXIX and BBRSM219 say it was 1 May.
His assassin, Mírzá Ridá-yi-Kirmáni, a Pan-Islamic terrorist, was a follower of Jamálu'd-Dín-i-Afghání, one of the originators of the Constitutional movement in Iran and an enemy of the Faith. [BBRSM87; GBP296; MCS540]
For an account of his assassination see PDC67–8.
See BKG430–55 for a history of his reign.
He was succeeded by his son Muzaffari'd-Dín. [GPB296]
See also CBM54-56.
||Nasirid-Din Shah; Shahs; Throne changes; Qajar dynasty; History (general); Iran, General history; Births and deaths; Jamalud-Din-i-Afghani; Assassinations
|1896. 24 Jul
||Four Bahá'ís were executed in Turbat-i-Haydarí on the order of the mujtahid. [BW18:384; BBR405]
BBRXXIX says the four Bahá'ís were martyred in August.
These four together with Hájí Muhammad Sádiq are known as the Shuhadáy-i-Khamsih (Five Martyrs). [GPB296]
Their martyrdom was the result of the assassination of the Sháh, for which the Bahá'ís were erroneously blamed. [GPB296]
For Western accounts of the episode see BBR405–6.
||Haji Muhammad Sadiq; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Assassinations; Nasirid-Din Shah
|1897. 21 May
||Lua Getsinger became a Bahá'í in Chicago. She had been called Khayru’lláh’s best pupil. [BFA1:XXVII, AY59]
||Chicago; United States
||Lua Getsinger; Ibrahim George Kheiralla
|1898 Jul or Aug
||Phoebe Hearst became a Bahá'í in California through the efforts of Lua and Edward Getsinger. [BFA1:XXVIII 139]
SBBH1:93 says this was July, based on Kheiralla's autobiography; BFA1 is based on a letter from Phoebe Hearst.
||Phoebe Hearst; Lua Getsinger; Edward Getsinger
||Eighteen people became Bahá'ís in Kenosha, Wisconsin, following the visit of Kheiralla in the autumn of 1897. [BFA1:XXVIII]
This marked the establishment of the third Bahá'í community in North America. [BFA1:110]
||Ibrahim George Kheiralla
|1898. 22 Sep
||The first Western pilgrims departed for `Akká, travelling via New York and Paris. [BFA1:XXVIII, 140–1, 230]
It was arranged by Phoebe Hearst, who had already planned a journey to Egypt for the autumn. [BFA1:140, AY60]
There were 15 pilgrims in all. Among them is Ibáhím Kheiralla. [AB68; AY111]
||New York; United States
||Pilgrimage; First pilgrims; Pilgrims; Phoebe Hearst; Lua Getsinger; Edward Getsinger; Robert Turner; Ibrahim George Kheiralla
|1898. 10 Dec
||The first Western pilgrims arrived in `Akká. [AB68; BBD13; BBRXXX; DH214; GPB257; SCU13; Bahá'í Teachings]
They divided themselves into three parties, using Cairo as a staging post. [AB68; BFA1:143; SBBH1:93]
See AB68–72; BFA2:9; DH61; GPB257, 259 for those included in the pilgrimage group.
Included were Mrs Hearst's nieces, a few American friends and, joining in London, Mrs Mary Thornburgh-Cropper and her mother. [SCU13. CH234-236]
In Paris the group was joined by two nieces of Mrs Hearst, Mrs Thornburgh, her daughter Miriam Thornburgh-Cropper and May Bolls. [AB68]
There were further additions in Egypt. [AB68]
See BFA1:143–4 for those included in the first group.
Among the group was Robert Turner, the first member of the black race to become a Bahá'í. For 35 years, Turner faithfully served as butler to Phoebe Apperson Hearst and Senator George Hearst, parents of newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst. [AB72; BBD227; BFA1:139; GPB259]
`Abdu'l-Bahá received the pilgrims in the House of `Abdu'lláh Páshá. [BBD13, 108; DH61]
See AB68–71; BW16:104–5; CH235–6 and GPB257–9 for the pilgrims' responses to the pilgrimage.Edward Getsinger made a recording of `Abdu'l-Bahá chanting a prayer. [BFA1:160]
The Getsingers returned from the pilgrimage with an Arabic copy of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas which was later translated by Anton Haddad. [BFA2:11]
See Star of the West, vol. VII, No. 4 or "Lua Getsinger - Herald of the Covenant" By Amine DeMille for a description of how 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave Lua the power to speak. iiiii
||Akka; Cairo; Egypt
||Pilgrims; Pilgrimage; First pilgrims; Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper; Robert Turner; First believers by background; Edward Getsinger; Lua Getsinger; Anton Haddad; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); House of Abdullah Pasha; Abdul-Baha, Voice recording of
||A council board of seven officers, a forerunner of the Local Spiritual Assembly, was established in Kenosha. [BFA1:112; GPB260]
Those elected were not so much members of a council but rather "community officers" who carried out the decisions made at a community meeting. [BFA1p112] iiiii
||Kenosha; Wisconsin; United States
||Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; Z****
|1899 Oct - Nov
||Stoyan Vatralsky, a Harvard educated, Bulgarian Christian, attacked the Bahá'ís, `Truth-knowers', in a series of talks in a church in Kenosha, Wisconsin. [BFA1:XXIX, 114–15; SBBH2:111 SBBH1p232; SBBH1p232-238]
By this time two per cent of the population of Kenosha were Bahá'ís. [BFA1:114]
See also WOB83 for others who wrote polemics against the Bahá'í Faith.
||Kenosha; Wisconsin; United States
||Opposition; Opposition, Christian; statistics
|1900 8 Mar
||At a meeting in Kenosha, Kheiralla publicly announced his doubts about `Abdu'l-Bahá's leadership of the Bahá'í community. He also said that 'Abdu'l-Bahá was not the return of Christ has be had been teaching. [BFA1:XXIX; SBBH1:96; SBBH2:117; SBBH1p96]
He he had allied himself with Muhammad-`Alí. [SSBH1:96]
The Bahá'ís effectively divided into two camps. There had been two to three thousand believers in North America in 1900, by 1902, 1,700 had left the Faith leaving six or seven hundred of whom three hundred were "Behaists" and the rest "Abbasites" or "Behais" (followers of 'Abdu'l-Bahá). By 1906 the US Census of Religions reported that the number of Bahá'ís had risen to 1,280 and the "Behaists" numbered on forty. The Kenosha Behaists continued to exist until the early 1950s. [SSBH1:96-97; WOB82; SBBH14p7]
To counter the effects of this, Abdu'l-Baha, in 1900 and 1901,
sent teachers to America who were completely loyal to the Center
of the Covenant and well-informed on the teachings of Baha'u'llah.
They were Mirza Abu'l-Fad1 and Mirza Asad'u'llah. Mr. Chase wrote, with these teachers came the first opportunity for a correct and
intimate knowledge of the true Bahá'í teachings...rather than
psychic and occult experiments...Many persons who had conceived
views imbued with imaginations and superstitions fell away from
the Cause, but those who remained discovered such spiritual
light,...and power in the teachings, that they were deeply confirmed
in their belief, and clung to it.. ." [from a short paper
entitled 'A Brief History of the American Development of the Bahá'í
Movement,' printed in Star of the West, Volume V, number 17.]
For the changes to the Bahá'í community as a result of this schism see SSBH1:96–9 and SSBH2:117–20.
||Kenosha; Wisconsin; United States
||Ibrahim George Kheiralla; Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers
|1900 26 Apr
||On the instructions of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, Egyptian businessman Hájí `Abdu'l-Karím-i-Tihrání arrived in New York, the first Persian Bahá'í to visit North America. He had taught the Faith to Kheiralla in Egypt. His purpose was to try to bring Kheiralla back into the Faith and to explain the basic teachings of the Faith to the American believers. He was accompanied by Mirza Sinore Raffie, his translator. [BFA173–6; BFA2:17–29]
Muhammad-'Ali, having obtained Kheiralla's support, sent his son Shu'a'u'lláh to Kenosha to try to spread opposition to 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [SBBH1p240]
`Abdu'l-Karím and Shu'a'u'lláh apparently met in Kenosha. The point that they disagreed on was Kheiralla's insistence that his teachings be regarded as authoritative. [SBBH!p240]
||New York; United States
||Haji Abdul-Karim-i-Tihrani; Ibrahim George Kheiralla; Mirza Sinore Raffie; Covenant-breakers; Shuaullah
|1902 (In the year)
||Since the assassination of the Sháh's father in 1986 the Bahá'í community in Iran had been scapegoated and the oppression was increasing. In 1902 Muzaffar al-Din Sháh and his prime minister were in Paris staying at the Elysèe Palace Hotel. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had a petition for him and Lua Getsinger was asked to deliver it. She and Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney requested an audience with the Sháh but they were refused by the prime minister. She was told that he was not receiving anyone as his son was gravely ill and likely to die. Lua asked if he would see her the following day should his son be healed and consent was granted. That night the Bahá'ís of Paris held a prayer vigil till dawn. As promised, Lua was granted access and put the petition directly in the Sháh's hand. She heard him say that he would do all that was within his power but in 1903 a savage rash of persecution broke out and, upon the advice of his prime minister, the Sháh did nothing believing that it was better to let the restless population vent rage on the Bahá'ís then on the rich and powerful foreigners who might have been victimized. The prime minister was replaced in mid-1903 and the persecutions eased. In 1907 the Sháh did intervene on behalf of the Bahá'ís. [Find a grave; LDNW18-19]
||Iran, persecution; Lua Getsinger; Muzaffar al-Din Shah; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; petition; Z****
|1907 (In the year)
||Pritam Singh, an Assistant Master of Economics at Chiefs College in Lahore, accepted the Faith, the first Sikh to do so. [BFA2:269]
||Pritam Singh; Sikhism; First believers by background
||Charles Mason Remey and Howard Struven left the United States on the first Bahá'í teaching trip to circle the globe. [BFA2:348, GPB261]<
They went to Hawaii, Japan, Shanghai, Singapore and to Burma, India and `Akká. [BFA2:348–50]
||Hawaii; Japan; Shanghai; China; Singapore; Myanmar (Burma); India; Akka
||Charles Mason Remey; Howard Struven; Travel teaching
|1912 19 Apr
||Talk at Earl Hall,
Columbia University, New York. [PUP29; Mahmúd's Diary p47-48]
'Abdu'l-Bahá visited The Bowery accompanied by Edward Getsinger and Juliet Thompson as noted in her unpublished Diary. They arrived with two heavy bags of quarters to distribute to the poor. [OPOP165-168, PUP32]
||Bowery; New York; United States
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Columbia University; Abdul-Baha, Talks at universities; Charity and relief work; Edward Getsinger; Juliet Thompson
|1912 20 Apr
||`Abdu'l-Bahá arrived in Washington DC after a five hour train ride from New York by train. He was accompanied by Dr Getsinger, Dr Fareed, Mírzá Valiyu'lláh Nakhjavání and Mahmúd-i-Zarqání. [239D:37–8; AB178; SBR78, APD9]
John Bosch had travelled from California specifically to see Him. He was given a Persian name by the Master, Núrání (The Luminous). [Mahmúd's Diary p48-49]
He stayed at the Parsons' home, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, for several days and gave a talk every afternoon at 5PM. Agnes Parsons had had this home built to accommodate 'Abdu'l-Bahá. ['Abdu'l-Bahá in America: 1912-2012]
Talk at Orient-Occident-Unity Conference, Public Library Hall, Washington, D.C. [PUP35]
See AY85 for the welcome He received from the Kahn family and others including Mrs Agnes Parson, Mason Remy and Joseph Hannen.
‘Abdu’l-Bahá encouraged commercial ties between the United States and Persia. ‘For the Persians there is no government better fitted to contribute to the development of their natural resources and the helping of their national needs in a reciprocal alliance than the United States of
America; and for the Americans there could be no better industrial outlet and market than the virgin … soil of Persia. The mineral wealth of Persia is still latent and untouched. It is my hope that the great American democracy may be instrumental in developing these hidden resources and that a bond of perfect amity and unity may be established between the American republic and the government of Persia. May this bond—whether material or spiritual—be well cemented.’ [AY48]
||Washington DC; New York; United States; Iran
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places; Trains; Business
|1912 15 Sep
||In the morning`Abdu'l-Bahá spoke to Dr. William Frederick Nutt, a friend of Kheiralla. (Nutt later broke the Covenant) Observers say that both Dr. Nutt and the interpreter were left trembling after He made his remarks.
Shu'á'lláh, son of Mírzá Muhammad-'Ali was in America at the same time. The previous May he had written to the Kenosha Evening News decouncing 'Abdu'l-Bahá and proposing a meeting between himself and 'Abdu'l-Bahá to settle their differences. In July Kheiralla had written to the same newspaper in support of Shu'á'lláh. [MD264n277]
'Abdu'l-Bahá, his party of six plus Fujita departed to Kenosha but they missed their train. He told His fellow travellers not to be concerned over this, as there would be a good reason for it; travelling on the next train they come across the wreckage of the first, which has been in a collision. [239D:145; AB267]
Upon arrival they were taken to the hall of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár where they were served lunch. After lunch they went to the home of Mrs Henry Goodale.
In the evening He spoke at the Congregational Church on the unity of the Manifestations. [MD226] Now called First Congregational Church of Kenosha, 5934 8th Avenue. ['Abdu'l-Bahá in America 1912- 2012]
||Chicago; Kenosha; Wisconsin; United States
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Trains
|1913 23 Jul
||Lua Getsinger arrived at Port Said and was given permission to join 'Abdu'l-Bahá the following day. [AB400]
||Port Said; Egypt
||Lua Getsinger; Abdul-Baha in Egypt; Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Life of
|1914 21 Jan
||Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl-i-Gulpáygání, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, passed away in Cairo. [AB404; BBD67]
He became a believer in 1876.
For a brief biography see EM263–5, SDH113.
His resting place is now next to that of Lua Getsinger in the Bahá'í cemetery in Cairo.His numerous works include Fará'id (The Peerless Gems) 1898; The Brilliant Proof; 1912; Bahá'í Proofs, 1902; and Al-Duraru'l-Bahíyih (The Shining Pearls, published in English as Miracles and Metaphors), 1900. [BBD7]
See AY103, Star of the West, vol. IV, no. 19, pp. 316–7 and Bahá'í Proofs p17-18 for the story of how Ameen Fareed entered and secretly remained in Mírzá’s house, between the time of Mírzá’s death and his burial, and removed precious manuscripts which, slightly changed, he would spread among the believers in an attempt to undermine their unity at a later time.
'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl in His home in Haifa on 21 and 22 January, 1914 as reported in SoW Vol 9 No 3 April 28, 1918.
Among his works are:
- Borhān-e lāmeʿ, translated and published as The Brilliant Proof (1912),
- al-Ḥojaj al-bahīya, translated and published as Miracles and Metaphors (1981).
- A selection of his shorter works, entitled Letters and Essays (1985), is also available in English.
- His other works such as al-Farāʾed, Šarḥ-e Āyāt-e Mowarraḵa, Kašf al-ḡeṭāʾ, and a few collections of his shorter works exist in Arabic and Persian.
||Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Apostles of Bahaullah; Lua Getsinger; Cemeteries and graves; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Ameen Fareed; Covenant-breakers
|1914 Jan - Feb
||'Abdu'l-Bahá sent Lua and Dr. Getsinger on a teaching tour in India. The duration of the tour and the places visited have yet to be confirmed.
She lectured at Theosophical Society Hall in Surat on "Purity and Divinity" (22 Jan); in Bombay, she spoke in Pratana Mandir Hall for an hour on "The Bahá’í Movement—Its Rise and Progress." (24Jan) She addressed the students of the Theistic Society on "Individual Spiritual Progress" (4 Feb); and in the Ideal Seminary she spoke on "Service as an Act of Worship." (8 Feb) In addition to the public lectures, to large and enthusiastic audiences, Dr. and Mrs. Getsinger were kept busy meeting people of various creeds. Lua's most important interview, and the one which ‘Abdu’l-Bahá spoke of as a "certain definite result", was with the Maharajah of Jalowar whom He had met in London. He wished to acquaint this receptive enlightened person with the Bahá’í Teachings, and chose Lua to seek him out. The Maharajah received her most graciously, and afterwards corresponded with her, remaining a staunch friend of the Faith. [SoW vol. V, No. 2, p. 21-22; "Lua Getsinger -Herald of the Covenant" by Amine DeMille; BFA2:353]
||Surat; Bombay; India
||Maharajah of Jalowar; Lua Getsinger; Edward Getsinger; Travel teaching
|1914 1 Nov
||Turkey entered the war on the side of the Central Powers.
Palestine was blockaded and Haifa was bombarded. [GPB304]
`Abdu'l-Bahá sent the Bahá'ís to the Druze village of Abú-Sinán for asylum. [AB411; DH124; GPB304, BWNS1297]
For `Abdu'l-Bahá in war time see CH188–228.`Abdu'l-Bahá had grown and stored corn in the years leading up to the war and was now able to feed not only local people but the British army. [AB415, 418; CH210; GPB304, 306]
Properties in the villages of Asfíyá and Dálíyá near Haifa were purchased by `Abdu'l-Bahá, and, at the request of Bahá'u'lláh, bestowed upon Díyá'u'lláh and Bahí'u'lláh. Land was also acquired in the villages of Samirih, Nughayb and 'Adasíyyih situated near the Jordan. 'Adasíyyih was the village occupied by Bahá'ís of Zoroastrian heritage that produced corn for the Master's household. The village of Nughayb is were the relatives of the Holy Family lived. [CH209-210]
||Palestine; Israel; Abu-Sinan; Haifa; Asfiya; Daliya; Samirih; Nughayb ; Adasiyyih
||World War I; War (general); Druze; Abdul-Baha, Life of; British; Charity and relief work; History (General); - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Diyaullah; Bahiullah
||Lua Getsinger arrived in Haifa and remained there as a guest of the Holy Family for seven months. This was her last visit. When news came of
the possibility of America declaring war, and a United States gunboat came to the very port of Haifa, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá told her that now was the time to
leave and take news to the friends in Egypt, Europe and America who had been cut off from correspondence with the Holy Land during the war. "It is
a long time that they are without any word," He said, "and I desire to send you to them, after which you are to go and teach." [Star of the West, vol. VI, No. 12, p. 90]
||The Bahá'ís of Haifa and `Akká returned to their homes from the village of Abú-Sinán. [DH147]
||Haifa; Akka; Abu-Sinan; Palestine; Israel
||Druze; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Charity and relief work; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
||Lua Getsinger arrived in Port Said tired and exhausted. Leaving Port Said, Lua sailed to Cairo expecting to depart shortly for America, but was taken ill and was forced once more to take to her bed. She was cared for most tenderly in the home of her Bahá’í host, Mirza Taki Esphaim and his family, but her weakness lingered on through the winter. Lua went about with heroic will giving the Bahá’í teachings, her work being chiefly among the young men, as they are the only ones among the Egyptians who knew English.
In the early spring, she moved to Shoubra, a suburb of Cairo to the home of a believer who greatly desired that she should remain with his wife and family for the sake of her uplifting influence. It was here that she spent her last days. [SoW vol. VI, No. 12, p. 89-90; SoW vol. VII, No. 19; BW8p642-643]
|Port Said; Cairo; Egypt
||Mirza Taki Esphaim; Lua Getsinger
|1916 2 May
||Louisa Aurora “Lua” Moore Getsinger, (b. 1 November, 1872 in Hume, Allegany County, New York) Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, died of heart failure in Cairo. [BBD87; SW7, 4:29; Find a grave; Bahaipedia]
For an her obituary see SW7, 4:29-30.
She was buried in the Protestant Cemetery in Cairo. In 1939 a court ruling enabled the Bahá'ís to reinter her in the first Bahá'í cemetery established in Cairo, El Qahira, Egypt. Her grave was now beside that of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl. [GPB344]
See also Sears and Quigley, The Flame.
See as well Lua Getsinger: Herald of the Covenant by Velda Metelmann.
||Lua Getsinger; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Cemeteries and graves; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
|1919 13 Apr
||The passing of Phoebe Apperson Hearst (b. 3 December, 1842) in her home in Pleasanton, California during the worldwide influenza epidemic of 1918-1919. She was buried at Cypress Lawn Memorial Park, Colma, California. [AY49, Find a grave, Bahá'í Chronicles]
See AY55-> for a brief history of her life and her contribution to the progress of the Faith. She had learned of the Faith through Lua Getsinger and members of her group in the early days of the Faith in California.
‘Abdu’l-Bahá called her ‘the servant of Bahá, the “Mother of the Faithful”’. He writes that she had ‘sincerely turned unto her Master... completely faced toward the Kingdom of God ... [she] shall surely have a firm and steady footing in the Cause of God, her face shall shine forth from the Horizon of Loftiness, her fame shall be spread in the Kingdom of God, and [she] shall have a ringing voice ... and the light of her glorious deeds shall beam forth during cycles and ages.’ [AY54-55; 106-107]
||Pleasanton; California; Colma; United States
||Phoebe Hearst; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves; Lua Getsinger; Names and titles
|1920 27 Apr
||`Abdu'l-Bahá was invested with the insignia of the Knighthood of the British Empire in a ceremony in Haifa. [AB443; BBRXXX, 343-5; CH214; DH149; GPB306]
For the document recommending `Abdu'l-Bahá for knighthood, see BBR344.
The knighthood was in recognition of `Abdu'l-Bahá's humanitarian work during the war for famine relief. [AB443]
He accepted the honour as a gift from a `just king'. [AB443]
He did not use the title. [AB443]
For Lady Blomfield's account see AB443-4 and CH214-15.
See SoW vol 13 No 11 p298.
||Haifa; Abu-Sinan; Palestine; Israel
||Abdul-Baha, Knighthood (KBE); Abdul-Baha, Life of; World War I; British; Charity and relief work; Lady Blomfield; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
|1921 28 Nov
||Ascension of `Abdu'l-Bahá
`Abdu'l-Bahá passed away at about 1:00 a.m., in Haifa. [AB452; BBD4; BBR347; GPB311; UD170]
For details of His passing see DOMH210-216, AB452, BW1:19-23; BW15:113-15 and GPB310-11.
This marked the end of the Apostolic, Heroic or Primitive Age of the Bahá'í Faith and the beginning of the Transitional Formative or Iron Age. [BBD35-6]
For a photograph of the cable sent announcing His passing see SW12, 15:245.
See The Passing of 'Abdu'l-Bahá by Shoghi Effendi and Lady Blomfield.
For a pen portrait of 'Abdu'l-Bahá see The Oriental Rose by Mary Hanford Ford pg 158-159
Also see AB452-83; HLS93-100.
See GPB309-320 for a summation of the events that took place in the lifetime of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, during the Heroic Age of the Faith.
||Abdul-Baha, Passing of; Ages and Epochs; Heroic Age; Formative Age; Abdul-Baha, Life of; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Holy days; Covenant (general)
|1921 29 Nov
||The funeral of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [BW15:115]
For details of the funeral see AB464-74; BW1:23-6; BW15:115-19; GPB312-14; and SW12, 17:259-67.
For Western and newspaper accounts see AB474-80; BBR347-9; BW1:26-8; and BW15:119-20.
For eulogies to `Abdu'l-Bahá see AB481-2, BW1:28-9 and BW15 120-1.
Ten thousand people attend `Abdu'l-Bahá's funeral. [v7]
For a number of pictures of the funeral procession see SW12, 91:290, 292-8.
Bahíyyih Khánum looked for instructions on where to bury `Abdu'l-Bahá and, finding none, entombed Him in a vault next to the one where the remains of the Báb lay. [AB464; GBF14]
Also see Balyuzi, `Abdu'l-Bahá; Blomfield, The Chosen Highway; Honnold, Vignettes from the Life of `Abdu'l-Bahá; SW12, 15:245 and several following issues.
||Haifa; Bahji; Mount Carmel
||Abdul-Baha, Passing of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Bab, Shrine of; Abdul-Baha, Shrine of; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
|1921 29 Nov
||A cable was sent to London with news of `Abdu'l-Bahá's passing. Shoghi Effendi was summonsed to the office of Wellesley Tudor Pole, probably at at 61, St. James St. in London, and learned of his grandfather's passing about noon after seeing the cable on Tudor Pole's desk. [GBF13]
See GBF13, PG199 and PP39-40 for Shoghi Effendi's reaction.
||Oxford; London; United Kingdom
||Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Passing of; Shoghi Effendi at Oxford; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Wellesley Tudor Pole
|1921 2 Dec
||Ethel Rosenberg arrived in the Holy Land, having learned on the train from Port Said of the passing of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [ER181-2]
||Ethel Rosenberg; Abdul-Baha, Passing of
|1921 4 Dec
||On the seventh day after the passing of `Abdu'l-Bahá, corn was distributed in His name to about a thousand of the poor.
Up to this day 50 to 100 poor were fed daily at the Master's House. [BW15:122]
||Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Passing of; House of Abdul-Baha (Haifa)
|1921 29 Dec
||Shoghi Effendi arrived in the Holy Land from England by train from Egypt. [GBF14; PP42]
An envelope addressed to him from 'Abdu'l-Bahá is waiting for him. It contained the Will and Testament. [Ruhi8.2p2]
He is so worn and grief-stricken that he has to be assisted up the stairs and is confined to bed for a number of days. [CB285]
||United Kingdom; Egypt; Haifa
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha, Passing of
|1922 3 Jan
||The Will and Testament of `Abdu'l-Bahá was read aloud for the first time, to a group of nine men, mainly senior members of `Abdu'l-Bahá's family. [BBRSM115; CB286; ER194; GBF14; PP45]
Shoghi Effendi was not present at the reading. [CB286; ER194]
Shoghi Effendi was appointed Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith. [WT11]
Shoghi Effendi had no fore-knowledge of the institution of the Guardianship nor that he would be appointed Guardian. [CB285; PP423]
||Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Guardianship; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Passing of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Covenant (general)
|1922 6 Jan
||A memorial feast for 600 people of Haifa, `Akká and the surrounding area was held 40 days after the passing of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [BW15:122; ER195]
More than a hundred poor were also fed. [BW15:122; ERT95-6]
For details of the memorial service see ER195-9 and SW13, 2:404.
||Abdul-Baha, Passing of
|1922 7 Jan
||The Will and Testament of `Abdu'l-Bahá was read publicly at his house to an assembled gathering of Bahá'ís from many countries. [ER199-200]
Shoghi Effendi was again absent. [ER200]
The Greatest Holy Leaf sent two cables to Persia, informing the Bahá'ís that Shoghi Effendi had been appointed Guardian and instructing them to hold memorial services for `Abdu'l-Bahá. [PP47]
||Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Guardianship; Abdul-Baha, Passing of; Abdul-Baha, House of; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1939 21 Feb
||Situation in Egypt: Background Information
"riots which broke out with exceptional fury in Ismá'ílíyyih, when angry crowds surrounded the funeral cortege of Muhammad Sulaymán, a prominent Bahá'í resident of that town, creating such an uproar that the police had to intervene, and having rescued the body and brought it back to the home of the deceased, they were forced to carry it without escort, at night, to the edge of the desert and inter it in the wilderness." [GPB367-368]
The National Spiritual Assembly of Egypt had, in respect to the decision of the 10th of May, 1925 declaring the Báhá'í Faith to be non-Muslim, petitioned the government for the right to administer laws of personal status to the Bahá'í community according to its Bahá'í Laws affecting Matters of Personal Status.
On the 29th of February, 1939, the Grand Muftí ruled that the Bahá'ís were not to be considered Muslims and had no right to be buried in Muslim cemeteries. Four plots of land were allocated to serve as cemeteries for the Bahá'í community in Cairo, Alexandria, Port Said and in Ismá'ílíyyih.
Immediately following this decision the remains of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl were transferred followed by the exhumation from a Christian cemetery in Cairo the remains of Lua Getsinger and subsequent re-interment in an adjacent plot. [GPB368-369]
|Cairo; Alexandria; Port Said; Isma'iliyyih; Egypt
||Lua Getsinger; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani
|1946 13 Dec
||The passing of Muhammad Taqí Isfahání. He had been born in Persia and was horrified by the behaviour of Mullá Muhammad Báqir (The Wolf) and Imám-Jum'íh who had killed the two brothers Muhammad Husayn and Muhammad Hasan so he left for Egypt and encountered many believers on his way. He passed through Akka and met both Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'-Bahá.
His name is closely associated with the early progress of the Faith in Egypt. His house was the centre of activity and was were both Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl and Lua Getsinger spent their last days. He received 'Abdu'l-Bahá during His visit to Egypt. He was the chief member of the Publishing Committee and helped to translate many books into Arabic such as the Iqán and Some Answered Questions.
The Guardian announced his elevation to the rank of Hand of the Cause of God two days after his passing and donated a sum of money to be used for his tomb. He is buried in the Bahá'í Cemetery. [MoCxxii, BW11p500-502]
||Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Hands of the Cause, Activities; In Memoriam; Muhamman Taqi Isfahani; Lua Getsinger; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Translation
|1950 25 May
||Dr Khodadad M. Fozdar, a medical officer of the State Railways in India, arrived in Singapore, the first pioneer to the country. [BW13:393]
His wife, Shirin Fozdar, joined him in September 1950.
||Khodadad M. Fozdar; Shirin Fozdar
|1952 (In the year)
||Mr Narain Das, a textile salesman from India working in Singapore, became a Bahá’í, the first person in the country to accept the Faith. A few months later Mr Teo Geok Leng, a Chinese Singaporean, became a Bahá’í, the first native of Singapore to accept the Faith.
||First Bahais by country or area
||The first local spiritual assembly of Singapore City was established. [BW12:573; PH58, 67]
||The first local spiritual assembly in Finland was established in Helsinki.
||Udai Narain Singh arrived in Sikkim and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455; PH63]
||Udai Narain Singh; Knights of Bahaullah
||Travelling by foot, Udai Narain Singh arrived in Tibet from Gangtok, Sikkim, and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh, his second such distinction.
He was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh in spring 1956. [BW13:456]
||Tibet; Sikkim; India
||Udai Narain Singh; Knights of Bahaullah
|1957 4 Nov
||Passing of Shoghi Effendi
Shoghi Effendi passed away in London of coronary thrombosis after a bout of Asian influenza. [CB377; PP446 BW13:207-225]
He was in London to purchase some furniture to complete the interior of the International Archives Building. [PP445]
For a tribute to Shoghi Effendi written by Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum see BW13:58–226.]
See also Rabbání, The Guardian Of The Bahá’í Faith and The Priceless Pearl.
|London; United Kingdom
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; International Bahai Archives; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Appointed arm; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Covenant (general)
|1957 9 Nov
||The funeral of Shoghi Effendi took place in the Great Northern Cemetery, London. [BW13:222; PP448]
See BW13:222 for details of the funeral service.
See BW13:222–5 and PP449–50 for a description of the funeral.
For an a account of the funeral see AY314-319.
||London; United Kingdom
||Shoghi Effendi, Passing of
|1957 10 Nov
||The Hands of the Cause met in London. [TG157]
See SDSC191-195 and SDSC430 note 8 for excerpts from the transcript of the talk recorded in shorthand by Rose M Wade and given by Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum to the gathered Hands and other friends.
||London; United Kingdom
||Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum
|1957 15 Nov
||Hands of the Cause Rúhíyyih Khánum, Mason Remey, Amelia Collins and Leroy Ioas, accompanied by Hand of the Cause Ugo Giachery, entered the apartment of Shoghi Effendi and sealed with tape and wax the safe where his important documents were kept as well as the drawers to his desk. [BW13:341]
The keys to the safe were placed in an envelope, which was sealed and signed by the five Hands and then placed in the safe of Leroy Ioas. BW13:341]
||Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Charles Mason Remey; Amelia Collins; Leroy Ioas; Ugo Giachery
|1957 19 Nov
||Nine Hands of the Cause were chosen by Rúhíyyih Khánum to examine Shoghi Effendi’s apartment. [BW 13:341]
They were the five members of the International Bahá’í Council (Rúhíyyih Khánum, Mason Remey, Amelia Collins, Ugo Giachery and Leroy Ioas), an Afnán (Hasan Balyuzi), a representative of the Hands of the Western Hemisphere (Horace Holley), a representative of the Hands of the African continent (Músá Banání) and the Trustee of the Huqúqu’lláh (‘Alí Muhammad Varqá). [BW13:341]
After seeing that the seals were intact, the Hands examined the contents of Shoghi Effendi’s safe and desk. [BW13:341]
The nine Hands signed a document testifying that no Will or Testament of any nature executed by Shoghi Effendi had been found. This was reported to the entire body of Hands assembled in the Mansion of Bahjí. [BW13:341]
See CB378–9 for an explanation of why Shoghi Effendi left no Will.
||Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; International Bahai Council; Charles Mason Remey; Amelia Collins; Ugo Giachery; Leroy Ioas; Hasan Balyuzi; Horace Holley; Musa Banani; Varqa, Ali-Muhammad
|1957 25 Nov
||A proclamation was issued stating that Shoghi Effendi left no heir and made no appointment of another Guardian. [BW13:341–5; MC25–30]
See LOG310 for an explanation of the various meanings of the word ‘Guardianship’.
See CB388–9 for a discussion of the continuation of the institution of the Guardianship.
||Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Covenant (general); Hands of the Cause, Activities; Guardianship; Custodians; Appointed arm; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1957 25 Nov
||Nine Hands were chosen to serve as Custodians of the Faith residing in the Holy Land. [BBD57; BW13:342; DH215]
The Hands residing in the Holy Land were established as a legal body under the title ‘The Custodians of the Bahá’í World Faith’.
The Hands chosen as first Custodians are Rúhíyyih Khánum, Mason Remey, Amelia Collins, Leroy Ioas, Hasan Balyuzi, ‘Alí Akbar Furútan, Jalál Kházeh, Paul Haney and Adelbert Mühlschlegel. [BW13:345–6; MC40–1]
||Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Hands of the Cause, Institution; Custodians; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Charles Mason Remey; Amelia Collins; Leroy Ioas; Hasan Balyuzi; Ali Akbar Furutan; Jalal Khazeh; Paul Haney; Adelbert Muhlschlegel; Appointed arm
|1957 Nov-1963 Apr
The six year ministry of the Hands of the Cause residing in the Holy Land, or ‘Custodians’. [BW16:90; WG45–6]
This period is known as the ‘interregnum’. [BBD 120]
See BW14:467 for a summary of the work of the Hands of the Cause during this period.
The International Bahá’í Council continued to perform its duties at the World Centre under the direction of the Custodians. [BBD118]
See also The Ministry of The Custodians 1957–1963.
||Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Custodians; Interregnum; Ministry of The Custodians (book); International Bahai Council; Universal House of Justice; Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Appointed arm; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Covenant (general)
|1958 23 Sep
||Chartered planes took the conference delegates to Singapore.
|1958 27 – 29 Sep
||The fifth Intercontinental Conference was held at the mid-point of the Crusade and convened in Singapore. [BW13:331]
Hand of the Cause Leroy Ioas, who had been designated by the Guardian as his representative, attended, accompanied by eight other Hands of the Cause. [BW13:331–2]
For the message of the Custodians to the conference see MC111–6.
For a report of the conference see BW13:331–2.
||Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Leroy Ioas; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade
|1966 (In the year)
||Jesus Bias Manibusan of Sinajana, Guam, the first Chamorro to become a Bahá’í, enrolled.
||Jesus Bias Manibusan
|1971 (In the year)
||The first summer school in Singapore was held.
||First summer and winter schools
|1971 1 – 3 Jan
||The Oceanic Conference of the South China Seas was held in the Victoria Memorial Hall in Singapore. [BW15:319; VV5]
For pictures see BW15:302–3 and VV6.
||Oceanic Conference; Conference
|1971 26 – 28 Nov
||The fiftieth anniversary of the passing of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá was commemorated. [BW15:125–8; VV14]
For text of the letters of the Universal House of Justice see BW15:125–6 and MUHJ76–7.
||Abdul-Baha, Passing of
||The National Spiritual Assembly of Singapore was formed with its seat in Singapore. [BW15:257]
For picture see BW15:157.
|1974 21 Mar
||In its Naw-Rúz Message the Universal House of Justice announced that there would be eight International Teaching Conferences will be held during the middle part of the Five Year Plan; two for the Arctic, one in Anchorage and one in Helsinki during July 1976, one in Paris in August 1976, one in Nairobi in October 1976, one in Hong Kong in November 1976, one in Auckland and one in Bahia, Brazil in January 1977 and one in Mérida, Mexico in February 1977. The theme of these conferences was the urgent need for the Bahá'ís to ARISE to teach the Cause of Bahá'u'lláh. (Arise-Reach-Individual-Souls-Everywhere). 14,500 Bahá'ís attended.
||Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching; Arising; UHJ
|1976 24 Apr
||The passing of Mark George Tobey (b. December 11, 1890 Centerville, Wisconsin – d. April 24, 1976 Basel, Switzerland) [Bahá'í News page 341, Wiki, VV119]
He had been introduced to the Faith by Bernard Leach. [OPOP223]
Another version is that In 1918 Mark Tobey came in contact with Juliet Thompson and posed for her. During the session Tobey read some Bahá'í literature and accepted an invitation to Green Acre where he converted. [Seitz, William Chapin (1980). Mark Tobey. Ayer Publishing. p. 44]
Tobey was one of the twentieth century’s most cosmopolitan of artists. An inveterate traveler—he eventually settled in Basel, Switzerland—he was always better known in Europe than in his homeland.
His mature ‘white writing’ works are made up of pulsing webs of lines inspired by oriental calligraphy, explicitly acknowledged the direct influence of the Bahá'í Faith on his painting. It has been said that Tobey “made line the symbol of spiritual illumination, human communication and migration, natural form and process, and movement between levels of consciousness.” He often stated, “that there can be no break between nature, art, science, religion, and personal life".
See Bahá'í World 1994-95 pg248 for an article by Anne Boyles entitled "The Language of the Heart: Arts in the Bahá'í World Community" for mention of Mark Tobey.
For his obituary see BW17:401–4.
Towards the end of his life, Tobey was the recipient of some of the highest distinctions that the European art scene of his time could bestow. He won the gold medal at the Venice Biennale in 1958—the first American painter to do so since 1895. In 1961, a major retrospective of his work was held at the Louvre in Paris, an unprecedented achievement for a living and American artist.
See The Journal of Bahá'í Studies, Volume 26, number 4 – Winter 2016 p94 for an article by Anne Gordon Perry entitled Anne Gould Hauberg and Mark Tobey: Lives Lived for Art, Cultivated by Spirit.
An exhibition, Mark Tobey: Threading Light showed at the Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice, 6 May to 10 September 2017 and at the Addison Gallery of American Art, Phillips Academy, Andover, Massachusetts, 4 November 2017–11 March 2018.
||Centerville; Wisconsin; United States; Basel; Switzerland
||In Memoriam; Mark Tobey; Bernard Leach; Anne Gould Hauberg; Arts; Painting
|1976 5 – 8 Jul
||An International Teaching Conference was held in Helsinki, Finland, attended by some 950 Bahá’ís. [BW17:81; VV33]
For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:129–30.For pictures see BW17:109, 112, 114–15.
||Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching
|1988 8 Mar
||Shirin Fozdar, ardent champion of women’s rights and influential women’s leader, was honoured for her work for equality and women’s advancement at a ceremony organized by the Singapore Council of Women, which she founded in 1952. [BINS176:7]
||Shirin Fozdar; Women; Awards
|1990 (In the year)
||The formation of the European Bahá'í Business Forum in France with members from 26 countries in Europe and elsewhere. [VV115]
Formed by a group of Bahá'ís active in business and management meeting in Chamonix, France, due to concern about the decline of ethics and values in business.
Forum created to promote the moral and spiritual wisdom and principles of the great religious traditions of the world (sources included Judaism, Hinduism, and Christianity as well as the 19th century revelation of Bahá'u'lláh) such as adherence to the principles of justice, respect, trustworthiness, integrity and unity.
Beginning as an informal network, its membership grew requiring the election of a Governing Board.
Members have attached importance to sharing their broad experience and to contributing to the improvement of management in emerging free-market economies of Central and Eastern Europe. [ebbf]
||Chamonix; France; Europe
||European Bahai Business Forum (EBBF); Business; ebbf
|1990 1 - 2 Sep
||The European Bahá'í Business Forum was formed at a meeting in Chamonix, France, attended by people from eight countries. [BINS244:8; VV115]
For picture see VV115.
||European Bahai Business Forum (EBBF); Business
|1992 May 29
||The Chamber of Deputies of the government of Brazil paid homage to Bahá’u’lláh. [Bahá'í Newsreel Volume 3 Number 2] [UHJMessage 30Mar92]
The tribute to Bahá'u'lláh was paid at a plenary session of that body and following that session members joined Post Office officials in the formal launching of a commemorative postage stamp. [VV133]
||Bahaullah, Passing of; Holy Years; Stamps
|1992 23 – 26 Nov
||The Second World Congress was held in New York City to commemorate the centenary of the passing of Bahá'u'lláh and the completion of the Six Year Plan. It was attended by some 28,000 Bahá'ís from some 180 countries. [BBD240] [VV136-141] [BW92-3p98-101, 136]
Nine auxiliary conferences were held in Buenos Aires, Sydney, New Delhi, Nairobi, Panama City, Bucharest, Moscow, Apia and Singapore. [BINS283:3-4]
For pictures see [BINS283:9-10], [BW92-3p100] and [VV136-141]
"New York will become a blessed spot from which the call to steadfastness in the Covenant and Testament of God will go forth to every part of the world." - 'Abdu'l-Bahá [AWH77-8 90-1 105-6]
On the 25th of November a concert was held in Carnegie Hall as a birthday tribute to Dizzy Gillespie called "Celebrating the Bahá'í Vision of World Peace". [VV141]
On the 26th of November Bahá'ís around the world were linked together by a live satellite broadcast serving the second Bahá'í World Congress, the nine auxiliary conferences and the Bahá'í World Centre and it was received by those with access to satellite dish antennas. [BINS283:1–5, 8; BINS286:10; BINS287:4]
For the message of the Universal House of Justice read on the satellite link see BW92–3:37–4.
For accounts of personal experiences by some of the attendees see In the Eyes of His Beloved Servants: The Second Bahá'í World Congress and Holy Year by J. Michael Kafes.
The film, 'Abdu'l-Bahá: Mission to America, made by Elizabeth Martin, was prepared for the World Congress program and also used in the Theme Pavilion. [HNWE45]
||New York; United States; Buenos Aires; Argentina; Sydney; Australia; New Delhi; India; Nairobi; Kenya; Panama; Bucharest; Romania; Moscow; Russia; Apia; Samoa; Singapore
||World Congresses; Carnegie Hall; Centenaries; Bahaullah, Ascension of; Dizzy Gillespie; - Basic timeline, Expanded; film; 'Abdu'l-Baha: Mission to America; Elizabeth Martin
|1993 (In the year)
||EBBF was registered in Paris as an official non-profit association. Its statutes provided that membership was open to Bahá'ís and non-Bahá'ís alike. [ebbf]
||European Bahai Business Forum (EBBF); Business
|1993 13 Mar
||Three Bahá'ís were assassinated at the Bahá'í Centre in Mdantsane, Ciskei, in a racially-motivated attack. [BW93–4:147–50]
||Mdantsane; Ciskei; South Africa
|2009 2 – 3 Jul
||More than 20 members of the European Bahá'í Business Forum participated in the Global Ethics Forum, held at United Nations headquarters in Geneva. [BWNS722]
||Geneva; Switzerland; Europe
||European Bahai Business Forum (EBBF); Business; BWNS
|2015 6 Nov
||The première of Mercy's Blessing, a film by May Taherzadeh in Lilongwe, Malawi. To date it has won 12 film awards and has been distributed for use in 115 countries. [Official Web Site]
See the trailer.
||Mercys Blessing; Film; Documentaries; Arts; Awards
|2016 7 May
||The passing of Jenabe Esslemont Caldwell, 89 in Wailuku, Hawaii. (b. August 7, 1926 in Butte, Montana). He and his wife Elaine were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for pioneering to the Aleutian Islands in July, 1953 where they started a king crab and salmon cannery. They sponsored the Bahá’í singing group Windflower that toured Europe, including the United Kingdom, in the 1980s. He was the author of the books: The Story of the Báb & Bahá'u'lláh, From Night to Knight, Follow the Instructions and Reflections. He is well-known for his mass teaching successes. [Bahaikipedia]
||Butte; Montana; Aleutian Islands; Wailuku; Hawaii
||Jenabe Caldwell; Elaine Caldwell; Knights of Bahaullah; Windflower (singing group); Mass teaching
||In its Ridván Message the Universal House of Justice announced the intention of constructing a Shrine for 'Abdu'l-Bahá near the Ridván Garden on the crescent traced between the Holy Shrines in 'Akká and Haifa. The day after His passing in Haifa on 28 November 1921, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s remains were placed in a vault within the sacred Shrine of the Bab on Mount Carmel, a temporary arrangement until such time that a separate shrine would be erected in His honor.
“...Ridvan messages: As early as 1923 Shoghi Effendi sent a letter of encouragement and greeting to the American national Bahá'í convention at Ridvan. Later it was his regular practice to write a Ridvan letter to the Bahá'ís of the world summarizing the progress of the Faith in the previous year and setting out general directions for the coming year. The Universal House of Justice has continued this practice. Other Bahá'í institutions, especially national spiritual assemblies, also sometimes issue Ridvan letters." [SA241]
||Abdul-Baha, Shrine of; Abdul-Baha, Passing of
from the main catalogue
See all tags, sorted numerically or alphabetically.
- 'Abdu'l-Bahá, Ascension of (November 28), by Christopher Buck, in Religious Celebrations: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations (2011). [about]
- Answered Questions, Some, by Abdu'l-Baha (1990). [about]
- Answered Questions, Some, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2014). New 2014 translation (with a version side-by-side with the original). [about]
- Application of Bahá'í Principles in a Business Context, The, by Kirsten Daly, in 75 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Australasia (1996). [about]
- Arising to Act, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (2002). [about]
- Bahá'í Faith and Accounting, The: Is There a Link?, by Roger Doost, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:3 (1997). Summary of discussions in an accounting class about spirituality. As a system that seeks to create balance, order, and justice in human business affairs, the philosophy of accounting is in line with belief in God and Baha’i principles. [about]
- Baha'i Faith, The: 50 Years in Singapore (2000). History of Baha'i activity and teaching in Singapore, from May 26 1950, when the first Baha’i pioneer, Dr. K.M. Fozdar, arrived in Singapore, until the year 2000. [about]
- Business, Development, and the Bahá'í Funds (1993). Compilation by the Office of the Treasurer on the challenge for America, business ventures and development, dependencies of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, fundraising, safeguarding contributions, and earmarking. Includes many supplemental letters from the UHJ. [about]
- Call to the Nations, by Shoghi Effendi (1977). Selections from the writings of the Guardian chosen by the Universal House of Justice, offered as guidance at a "critical juncture" of humankind in a dark period of its history, but with a glorious day on the horizon. [about]
- Century of Light, by Universal House of Justice (2001). Survey of the history and dramatic changes of the 20th Century and the Bahá'í Faith's emergence from obscurity, "demonstrating on a global scale the unifying power with which its Divine origin has endowed it." [about]
- Concept of Sin in the Bahá'í Faith, The, by Ali K. Merchant, in Global Religious Vision, 1:2 (2000). Just as Baha'is don't believe in the existence of evil as a real entity, likewise sin is but the absence of holiness. All the forces within us are God-given and thus potentially virtuous; their absence casts the shadow of sin. [about]
- Corporate Social Responsibility and Business Success, by Marcello Palazzi and George Starcher (1998). How social responsibility can contribute to competitiveness and success. [about]
- Dawn over Mount Hira and Other Essays, by Marzieh Gail (1976). A collection of essays on various topics of interest to Baha'i studies and history. Most of these were first published in Star of the West and World Order between 1929 and 1971. [about]
- Dying for Our Sins, by Rachel Woodlock (1998). Examination of the Christian doctrine of the substitutionary atonement and whether such a doctrine has a place within a Bahá'í theological framework. [about]
- Eagle and Pillar over Shoghi Effendi's resting place, and his visits to Scotland, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum (1981). Transcript of Ruhiyyih Khanum talking about Shoghi Effendi's visits to Scotland and how the pillar and eagle came to be over his resting place [about]
- Emergence of World Civilization, The: An Exposition on Excerpts from the Writings of Shoghi Effendi, by James B. Thomas, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). [about]
- Ethics and Entrepreneurship, An Oxymoron?: A Transition to a Free Market Economy in Eastern Europe, by George Starcher (1997). The process of entrepreneurship and the importance of business ethics to entrepreneurial success, and the concept of stages of ethical consciousness and some of the reasons business ethics makes good business sense. Does not mention the Baha'i Faith. [about]
- Fiftieth Anniversary of The Master: Performance piece, by Jim Wood (1968). An artistic piece appropriate for play at the commemoration of the ascension of 'Abdu'l-Baha. Produced, performed, and narrated by Jim Wood; also read by Deborah Buttrey. [about]
- Flame, The, by William Sears and Robert Quigley (1972). Biography of Lua Moore Getsinger (1871-1916), "mother-teacher of the American Baha'i community," one of the earliest pilgrims from the West to meet 'Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
- Four Levels of Detachment in Doris Lessing's Shikasta, The, by Phyllis Sternberg Perrakis, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 14:3-4 (2004). [about]
- High-Performance Organization, The: An Assessment of Virtues and Values, by Lawrence M. Miller (2001). How a people-centered organization can enhance competitiveness and job satisfaction. [about]
- History of EBBF, The: Twenty-Five Years of Contributing to the Discourse of Ethics in Business, by Francois Couillard, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 25:3 (2015). The European Bahá’í Business Forum, a small network of individuals dedicated to promoting ethical behavior and other Bahá’í values in the workplace, has had significant influence at the local, national, and international levels. [about]
- Interdependence of Bahá'í Communities, The: Services of North American Bahá'í Women to Iran, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4:1 (1991). [about]
- Interest in Islam and the Bahá'í Faith, by Gad Gilbar (2004). Baha'i scripture permits charging interest (riba) on loans, in contrast to Islamic law which forbids it. Interest can be economically justified, and could affect the material position of the ulama and merchant classes. [about]
- Islam, the Baha'i Faith and the Eternal Covenant of Alast, by Susan Maneck (2009). [about]
- Joycean Modernism in a Nineteenth-Century Qur'an Commentary?: A Comparison of The Báb's Qayyūm Al-Asmā' with Joyce's Ulysses, by Todd Lawson, in Erin and Iran: Cultural Encounters between the Irish and the Iranians, ed. H. E. Chehabi and Grace Neville (2015). Comparison of the formal structure of the two works and themes such as time; oppositions and their resolution; relation between form and content; prominence of epiphany; manifestation, advent and apocalypse; and the theme of heroism, reading and identity. [about]
- Learning to Read Social Reality in the Light of the Revelation: Twenty-Five Years of Contributing to the Discourse of Ethics in Business, by Haleh Arbab, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 25:3 (2015). The Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity works to learn how to advance the capacity of individuals and groups to participate in some of the prevalent discourses of society, for the betterment of the world and the growth of civilization. [about]
- Leroy Ioas, Hand of the Cause of God, by Anita Ioas Chapman, and Lua Getsinger, Herald of the Covenant, by Velda Piff Metelmann: Reviews, by Robert Weinberg, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 9 (1999). [about]
- Letter on social action and public discourse, by Universal House of Justice (2017). Alternative courses of action to civil disobedience and circumscribed roles for protest. [about]
- Letter to the World's Religious Leaders, by Universal House of Justice (2002). On historic challenges that leaders of religion must respond to, if spiritual leadership is to have meaning in the new global society. [about]
- List of Baha'i Studies and Translations, by Stephen Lambden. A list of content available at Lambden's personal website, Hurqalya Publications, with select links to manuscripts, texts, introductions. Includes Shaykhi and Babi studies, bibliographies, genealogies, provisional translations. [about]
- Lua Getsinger: Herald of the Covenant, by Amine De Mille, in Bahá'í News, 489 (1971). Biography of Getsinger, with recollections of Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
- Management of Small Rural Businesses: Some Views of the European Bahá'í Business Forum, by Michel P. Zahrai (1998). The challenge and benefits of restoring pride in rural non-farm businesses. [about]
- Message on World Peace, by Universal House of Justice (2019). Letter about important steps the world made towards world peace, and the current situation, in relation to the activities the Bahá'ís are involved with. [about]
- Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
- Missing Moral Dimension, The, by Suresh Sahadevan, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 4 (1999). Today's social and economic policies are materially efficient and technically sound, but something vital is missing: graciousness within and between individuals. It may not directly result in revenue or productivity, but is crucial in the long run. [about]
- Music Lyrics, Singing, and Dancing at Feast, by Universal House of Justice (1994). Baha'is may incorporate music, singing, and dancing into the spiritual portions of the community devotional meetings. [about]
- Night as Frontier: Some Implications for the Bahá'í Community, by Will C. van den Hoonaard, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 7 (1997). Sociological effects of night-shift employment and the nocturnal populace. [about]
- Notes on Words of the Guardian, by Virginia Orbison (1956). Ten pages of notes, preserved as an appendix to Orbison's lengthy manuscript "Diary of a Pilgrimage to the Holy Land, Made by Virginia Orbison, January 15 to February 11". [about]
- One Common Faith, by Universal House of Justice (2005). Review of relevant passages from both the writings of Bahá'u'lláh and the scriptures of other faiths against the background of contemporary crises. [about]
- Paradise and Paradigm: Key Symbols in Persian Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith, by Christopher Buck (1999). Study of Baha'i and Christian symbology, the "first academic monograph comparing Christianity and the Baha'i Faith." [about]
- Passing of Abdu'l-Baha (Nov 1921) (2018). The weeks and days leading up to, during and following the passing of Abdu'l-Baha, presented as original accounts in chronological order. [about]
- Passing of Abdu'l-Baha, The, by Shoghi Effendi and Lady Blomfield (1922). A compilation on the last days of 'Abdu'l-Baha, his funeral, and tributes on his behalf. Later published in abridged form in World Order. [about]
- Passing of Shoghi Effendi, Ministry of the Hands of the Cause, and Defection of Mason Remey, The, by Shahin Vafai, in The Essence of the Covenant: Features, History, and Implications (2005). [about]
- Passing of Shoghi Effendi, The: 1896-1957, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum and John Ferraby (1958). Detailed account of the final days of the life of the Guardian. [about]
- Perfection and Refinement: Towards an Aesthetics of the Bab, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 12 (2011). The writings of the Bab have implications for the "plastic" arts; significance for native traditions; relevance to the performing arts; and the concept of refinement which comes across in both the person and the writings of the Báb. [about]
- Power and the Bahá'í community, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). While Baha'i social teachings may have sounded new and exciting a century ago, that is no longer the case today. The problem the world faces is not in the principles that would lead to a better society, but in their application. [about]
- Principles of Consultation Applied to the Process of Innovation in a Corporate Environment, by Robert B. Rosenfeld and Michael H. Winger-Bearskin, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3:1 (1990). [about]
- Pritam Singh (1998). Short biography of the first Sikh Bahá'í (1881-1959). [about]
- Responsible Entrepreneurship: Engaging SMEs in Socially and Environmentally Responsible Practices, by George Starcher (2004). The importance of reputation, and segmentation of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) according to their responsible behaviors. Presents a case for responsible entrepreneurship and summarizes how external stakeholders can engage SMEs. [about]
- Role of Business in Enhancing The Prosperity of Humankind, The, by William Walker and Jane Nelson (2001). Three articles about exploring and implementing concepts from Prosperity of Humankind, including building partnerships, toward a new concept of prosperity, preservation of wildlife, and examples of successful initiatives. [about]
- Ruhiyyih Khanum's Tribute to Shoghi Effendi at the Kampala Conference (Uganda) 26 Jan 1958, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum (1958). Notes of the moving tribute by Ruhiyyih Khanum to Shoghi Effendi immediately after his passing, given at the Kampala International Conference (Uganda), 26 January 1958 [about]
- Sermon of the Gulf (Khutbih Tutunjiyyih): Introduction, by Khazeh Fananapazir (2000). Essay on Imám `Alí's sermon, which is also the source of Bahá'u'lláh's quote in Epistle to the Son of the Wolf, "Anticipate ye the Revelation of Him Who conversed with Moses from the Burning Bush on Sinai." [about]
- Shaykh Ahmad al-Ahsa'i and the World of Images, by Todd Lawson, in Shi‘i Trends and Dynamics in Modern Times, ed. Denis Hermann and Sabrina Mervin (2010). Characteristics and function of this world as found in the writings of Mullá Muhammad Muhsin Fayd Káshání and Shaykh Ahmad al-Ahsá'í. Does not mention the Baha'i Faith. [about]
- Sincerity: The Foundation Stone of Faith (2007). [about]
- Socially Responsible Enterprise Restructuring, by George Starcher (2001). A condensation of a 130 page joint working paper of the International Labour Office and EBBF. Does not mention the Baha'i Faith. [about]
- Spiritual Approach to Microcredit Projects, A, by Michel P. Zahrai (1998). Spiritual considerations that should guide the elaboration and implementation of microcredit schemes and measure their success. [about]
- Spiritual Dimensions of Microfinance, The: Towards a Just Civilization and Sustainable Economy, by Barbara J. Rodey (2001). Prepared for the Microcredit Summit to emphasize the importance of universal spiritual principles to achieve the real benefits of microfinance services. [about]
- Station of Baha'u'llah: Three Letters, by Universal House of Justice (1991). Three letters on the station of Baha'u'llah, the souls of the Manifestations, the varying intensities of their Revelations, the phrase "most precious Being," and on teaching the Faith to Christians. [about]
- Symbolic Profile of the Bahá'í Faith, A, by Christopher Buck, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:4 (1998). [about]
- Tablet to the Cousin (Lawh-i-Pisar-'Amm): Wilmette Institute faculty notes, by Iraj Ayman (1999). [about]
- Three Meditations on the Eve of November Fourth, by Abu'l-Qasim Faizi (1970). Essays and poems written by Hand of the Cause A.Q. Faizi on the evening of Shoghi Effendi's death, November 4 1957. [about]
- Through the Eyes of Margaret Cousins: Irish and Indian Suffragette, by Keith Munro (2018). Biography of the co-founder of the Irish Women's Franchise League, a theosophist, who met both Martha Root and Shoghi Effendi. [about]
- Time of Peril, Prospects for Peace, by Glenford Mitchell (2001). Talk at the Baha'i Unity Center in Atlanta. [about]
- To Build Anew: Creating Bahá'í-inspired Enterprises, by Don Brown (2002). A study in social and economic development, applying Baha'i principles in a business how-to manual. Sample chapter: "The Enterprise and the Spiritual Principle Paradigm." [about]
- Toward a New Paradigm of Management, by George Starcher (1991). The fundamental changes taking place in management and organization in reaction to globalization and changing technology, and the new knowledge and information based economy. [about]
- Turning Point: Selected Messages of the Universal House of Justice and Supplementary Material 1996–2006, by Universal House of Justice (2006). Forty-three letters, plans, and documents covering the Four-Year Plan of 1996-2000. [about]
- Women Entrepreneurs: Catalysts for Transformation, by Diane Chamberlin Starcher (1997). Describes the dramatic rise in importance of women entrepreneurs and how feminine qualities contribute to their success. [about]