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Search for tag "Tíhran"

from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1817 Shaykh Ahmad travels to Persia and visits Shíráz and Tihrán. He is in Tihrán when Bahá'u'lláh is born. [DB13] Shiraz; Tihran; Iran Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsai; Shaykhism; Bahaullah, Birth of; Bahaullah, Life of
1844. 23 May The birth of `Abdu'l-Bahá in a rented house near the Shimrán Gate in Tihrán. He was born at midnight. [AB9, SoG3-4]
  • He is known as `Abbás Effendi outside the Bahá'í community.
  • Bahá'u'lláh gives Him the titles Ghusn-i-A`zam (the Most Great Branch), Sirru'lláh (Mystery of God) and Áqá (the Master). [BBD2, 19, 87, 89]
  • Sarkár-i-Áqá (the Honourable Master) is a title of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [BBD201]
  • He Himself chose the title `Abdu'l-Bahá (Servant of Bahá) after the passing of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBD2]
Tihran; Iran Abdul-Baha, Life of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bab, Declaration of
1844 Jul - Aug The intention of the Báb is to introduce the new Revelation slowly so as not to cause estrangement. He instructe them to spread out and heach His Faith and to this end He assigned each one a special task, most often to their own native provinces. [BBRSM14–16, 36; SWB119, BBR2p36, DB92–4; MH82–6; SBBH1:19]
  • To Mullá Husayn He had given the task of delivering a Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh in Tihrán and going to the court of the Sháh to apprise him of the Báb's cause. Mullá Husayn is not able to gain access to the Sháh. [B48–57; BBRSM15 BKG32–3; CH22–3; DB85-87, 97; MH90–2, 102]
  • Mullá Husayn carries to Tihrán a Tablet revealed by the Báb for Muhammad Sháh. This is the first of a number of unsuccessful attempts to enlist his aid. [BBRSM20–1; MH102; SWB13]
  • Note: MH118-119 and DB127-128 indicate that Mullá Husayn had been in Tehran "between the months of Jámádí and Rajab". The first day of Jámádí, 1260 corresponds to 18 June, and the last day of Rajab to 15 August, 1844.
  • See RB2:303, `The Báb … sent Tablets to only two monarchs of His day — Muhammad Sháh of Persia and Sultán `Abdu'l-Majíd of Turkey.'
  • From Shiraz he journeys north to Isfahán where Mullá Ja`far, the sifter of wheat, is the first to embrace the Cause of the Báb in that city. Mullá Husayn then travels to Káshán, about 130 miles from Isfahán. He then goes to Qum, another 100 miles from Káshán. After Qum he goes to Tihrán. [MH98–101, DB99]
  • See B53–6; DB104–7, MH104–110 for the delivery of the Báb's Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh. Mullá Husayn does not meet Bahá'u'lláh on this occasion.
  • On receiving the Tablet of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh accepts His Cause. He immediately journeys to Mázindarán, His native province, to promote the Cause of the Báb. He returns after the death of the Shah in 1948 [BKG39–40; BW8:782; DB109; TN35, SoB6, BPP45, 48, SoG4]
  • Mullá Husayn leaves for Khurásán, as he had been instructed, winning supporters for the Báb's Cause while there he writes to the Báb regarding these new believers and Bahá'u'lláh's immediate response to the Báb's Revelation. [B56, DB128–9, MH118]
  • See MH121–2 for a discussion of the speed of Mullá Husayn's journey before the letter was dispatched to the Báb. It assumes that Mullá Husayn departed after The Báb met with all the Letters of the Living (date not before 2 July, 1844.) In fact both Mullá Husayn and Mullá 'Alíy-Bastámí had been dispatched before this meeting. [DB85-86, 92, HotD46] .
Iran; Persia; Turkey; Kashan; Isfahan; Tihran; Tehran; Mazindaran; Khurasan; Qum Bab, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Letters of the Living; Mulla Husayn; Bahaullah, Life of; Tablet to Baha'u'llah; Shah; Mulla Ja`far; sifter of wheat; Muhammad Shah; Sultan Abdu'l-Majid
1846 The birth of Bahíyyih Khánum, the Greatest Holy Leaf, eldest daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and Navváb, and sister of `Abdu'l-Bahá, in Tihrán. She is later designated by Shoghi Effendi `the outstanding heroine of the Bahá'í Dispensation'. [BBD42; GPB108]
  • For a description of her nature see BK42–3.
Many Bábís go to Shíráz and meet the Báb. [B 103]

Táhirih is sent back to Baghdád from Karbalá. She is lodged first in the house of Shaykh Muhammad Shíbl and then in the house of the Muftí of Baghdád. During her time in Iraq she enlists a considerable number of followers and makes a number of enemies among the clergy [B162; DB271]

Tihran; Tehran; Shiraz; Iran; Baghdad; Karbala; Iraq Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Tahirih; Shaykh Muhammad Shibl; Mufti Baghdad
1846. c. Feb - Mar 1846 The Sháh had already instructed Manúchihr Khán to send the Báb to Tihrán. The governor, fearing for the safety of the Báb, devises a scheme to have the Báb escorted from Isfahán but returned secretly to his own residence. The Báb remains there for four months with only three of His followers apprised of His whereabouts. These four months are described as having been the calmest in His Ministry. [B113–16; DB209–11, 213; TN9–11]

The governor offers all of his resources to try to win the Sháh over to His Cause but the Báb declines his offer saying that the Cause will triumph through the `poor and lowly'. [B115–16; DB212–13]

Tihran; Isfahan; Iran Shah; Manuchihr Khan; Bab, Life of
1846. Jan Prince Dolgorukov arrives in Tihrán as the Russian ambassador. Tihran; Iran Prince Dolgorukov; Russia; Ambassadors; History (general)
1847. Feb - Mar The passing of Manúchihr Khán. His death had been predicted by the Báb 87 days earlier. The governor had made the Báb the beneficiary of his vast holdings, estimated to be 40 million francs, but his nephew Gurgín Khán appropriated everything after his death. [B116; DB213–14]
  • Before the death of Manúchihr Khán the Báb instructed His followers to disperse. [B115; DB213–14] Gurgín Khán, in his role as the new governor, informs the Sháh that the Báb is in Isfahán and has been sheltering with Manúchihr Khán. The Sháh orders that the Báb be taken to Tihrán incognito. The Báb, escorted by Nusayrí horsemen, sets out for Tihrán soon after midnight. [B116, 118; DB215–116; TN11]
Tihran; Tehran; Isfahan; Iran Manuchihr Khan; Bab, Life of; Gurgin Khan; Nusayri horsemen; Horses
1847. 21 Mar En route to Tihrán the Báb spends three nights in Káshán in the home of Hájí Mírzá Jání, a noted resident of that city who had realized in a dream that the Báb would be his quest. [B118; DB217–22] Tihrán; Tehran; Káshán; Iran; Persia Báb; Hájí Mírzá Jání; dream
1847. 28 Mar The Báb and His escort arrive at the fortress of Kinár-Gird, 28 miles from Tihrán. Muhammad Big, the head of the escort, receives a message from Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, the prime minister, telling him to take the Báb to Kulayn to await further instructions. [B119; DB225–6; GPB16] Tihrán; Tehran; Kulayn; Iran Báb; fortress Kinár-Gird; Muhammad Big; Hájí Mírzá Áqásí; prime minister
1847. 1 Apr The Báb receives a letter and gifts from Bahá'u'lláh in Tihrán delivered to His Hands by Mulla Muhammad-Mihdiy-i-Kandi. The letter cheers His heart, which has been despondent since His arrest and departure from Shíráz. [B120; DB227; GPB678] Tihrán; Tehran; Shíráz; Iran; Persia Bab; letter; gifts; Baha'u'llah
1847 c. 1 – 17 Apr One night the Báb disappears and is found the next morning on the road coming from the direction of Tihrán. A look of confidence has settled on Him and His words have a new power. [B120–1; DB228–9] Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia Bab; disappear
1847 c. Aug - Sep On her departure from Hamadán Táhirih asks most of the Arab Bábís travelling with her to return to Iraq. [B165; DB273]

Arrived in Qazvín, Táhirih refuses her estranged husband's attempts at reconciliation and lives with her father. Her father-in-law Hájí Mullá Taqí, feels insulted and denounces the Shaykhís and Bábís. [B166; DB2736]

Hamadán; Qazvín; Mashhad; Khurásán; Shíráz; Máh-Kú; Tihrán; Tehran; Iran Persia Tahirih; Arab; Babis; Haji Mulla Taqi; Shaykhis; Mulla Husayn; pilgrimage; Baha'u'llah
1847 c. Aug Mullá Husayn is residing in Mashhad, in Khurásán, where he has been since returning from Shíráz in 1845. The leader of a local rebellion wishes to enlist the Bábís on his side and seeks a meeting with Mullá Husayn. To avoid entanglement in the affair, Mullá Husayn decides to make a pilgrimage to Máh-Kú. [TB56; DB254–5; MH133–5]
  • As an act of piety, he makes the whole 1,200-mile journey on foot. Along the route he visits the Bábís and in Tihrán meets secretly with Bahá'u'lláh. No account of their interview survives. In Qazvín, Mullá Husayn meets Táhirih for the first time. [DB255; MH137]
Khurásán; Máh-Kú; Qazvín; Tihrán Mulla Husayn; Tahirih
1847. Oct - Nov Táhirih is accused of instigating the assassination of her uncle and is confined to her father's house while about 30 Bábís are arrested. Four, including the assassin, are taken to Tihrán and held in the house of Khusraw Khán. [BKG41; BW18:380; DB276–8] Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia Tahirih; assassination; uncle; Babis; arrested; Khusraw Khan
1847. Nov - Dec Bahá'u'lláh, who is living in Tihrán, visits the detainees and gives them money. [BKG41; DB278–9; GPB68]

Mullá `Abdu'lláh confesses to the murder of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí and is helped to escape. [BKG41–2; DB278]

  • See BKG42 for why Bahá'u'lláh was thought to have engineered his escape. Bahá'u'lláh is imprisoned for a few days for having assisted in Mullá `Abdu'lláh's escape.
  • This was Bahá'u'lláh's first imprisonment. [BKG41; BW18:380; DB585]
  • Shaykh Salib-i-Karímí, one of the imprisoned Bábís, is publicly executed in Tihrán.
  • He is the first to suffer martyrdom on Persian soil. His remains are interred in the courtyard of the shrine of the Imám-Zádih Zayd in Tihrán. [B166; BW18:380; DB280]
  • The remaining captives are returned to Qazvín. Hájí Asadu'lláh-i-Farhádí is secretly put to death in prison. Mullá Táhir-i-Shírází and Mullá Ibrahím-i-Maballátí are also put to death. [B166; BW18:380; DB280–3]
  • DB280–3 says `the rest of' the detainees were put to death by the relatives of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí.
Tihrán; Tehran; Qazvín; Iran; Persia Baha'u'llah; Mulla `Abdu'llah; murder; Haji Mulla Muhammad Taqi; Shaykh Salib-i-Karimi; Babis; execute; execution; martyrdom; shrine; Imam-Zadih Zayd; Haji Asadu'llah-i-Farhadi; death; prison; Mulla Tahir-i-Shirazi; Mulla Ibrahim-i-Maballati
1848. early Dec Bahá'u'lláh sets out from Tihrán with 11 companions to reinforce the Bábís at Shaykh Tabarsí. Nine miles from the fort they are arrested and taken to the town of Ámul, where they are held prisoner in the home of the deputy governor. This is Bahá'u'lláh's second imprisonment. He intervenes to spare His companions the bastinado and He alone receives it.
  • When the governor returns to his home he orders that Bahá'u'lláh and His companions be released and arranges a safe conduct for them to Tihrán. [B174; BBD44; BKG56–60; BW18:381; DB369–76; GPB68; SB7]
  • See BKG57 and DB70 for pictures.
Tihrán; Tehran; Ámul; Iran; Persia Baha'u'llah; Babis; Shaykh Tabarsi; arrest; bastinado
1848 The birth of Mírzá Mihdí, `the Purest Branch', the son of Bahá'u'lláh and Navváb. [BBD155]

Tihran; Iran Mirza Mihdi (Purest Branch); Births and deaths; Bahaullah, Family of
1848 Bahá'u'lláh plans Táhirih's escape, giving the task to Mírzá Hádíy-i-Farhádí, the nephew of Hájí Asadu'lláh-i-Farhádí. Táhirih is rescued and escorted from Qazvín to Bahá'u'lláh's home in Tihrán. [B167; BKG42; DB284–5; MF199]
  • While she is in Bahá'u'lláh's home she is visited by Vahíd and challenges him by saying `Let deeds, not words, be our adorning!' [DB285; MF200]
  • After a few days Bahá'u'lláh sends Táhirih to a place of safety before sending her on to Khurásán. [DB286–7; GPB68]
  • Note: Ma'ani says this was the house of Mírzá Áqá Khán-i Núrí, who was then living in Káshán as an exile. His sister acted as Táhirih's hostess until she left for Badasht.
Tihrán; Tehran; Qazvín; Khurásán; Iran; Persia Tahirih; escape; Mirza Hadiy-i-Farhadi; Haji Asadu'llah-i-Farhadi; Vahid
1848. 9 Apr The Báb is removed from Máh-Kú.
  • Hájí Mírzá Áqásí is alarmed by the developments at Máh-Kú and orders that the Báb be moved to Chihríq. [B131; DB259; GPB1920]
  • The Báb's presence in Máh-Kú, so close to the Russian frontier, is also a cause for concern for the Russian government. Prince Dolgorukov, the Russian Minister in Tihrán, asks that He be removed. It is likely that this request was made in 1847 but not carried out until now. [B131; BBR72; TN13]
  • The Báb had been in Máh-Kú for nine months. [DB259]
Mah-Ku; Chihriq; Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia Báb; Hájí Mírzá Áqásí; Russian; Russia; Prince Dolgorukov
1848 c. Jul Quddús is arrested and taken to Sárí where he is placed under house arrest in the home of Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, a leading cleric. [B171; BKG50; DB300]

Táhirih is arrested and is later taken to Tihrán where she is held in the home of Mahmúd Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, until her martyrdom in August 1852.

Mullá Husayn leaves the army camp near Mashhad where he has been a guest of a brother of the Sháh. He plans to make a pilgrimage to Karbalá. While making preparations for the journey he receives a Tablet from the Báb instructing him to go to Mázindarán to help Quddús, carrying a Black Standard before him. He is also instructed to wear the Báb's own green turban and to take the new name Siyyid `Alí. [B171; BKG50; DB324; MH174]

Sárí; Tehran; Tihrán; Mashhad; Mázindarán; Iran; Persia; Karbalá; Iraq Quddus; arrest; Mirza Muhammad-Taqi; Tahirih; Mahmud Khan; Kalantar; Mulla Husayn; Shah; pilgrimage; Tablet; Bab; Black Standard; green turban; new name; Siyyid `Ali
1848. 19 Oct Entry of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh into Tihrán. [BBR482]
  • MH240 says it took him 45 days to travel to Tihrán to occupy his father's throne.

    Mírzá Taqí Khán-i-Faráhání takes up post as prime minister. [BBR482]

Tihran; Iran Nasirid-Din Shah; Qajar dynasty; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Mirza Taqi Khan-i-Farahani; Prime ministers
1850. 19 or 20 Feb Martyrdom of the Seven Martyrs of Tihrán. Seven of the Bábís are executed in Tihrán on the false charge of having plotted to kill the Grand Vizier. [B182–5; BBD225; BBR100–5; BBRSM28, 216; BKG71; BW18:381; DB462; GPB47–8]

  • See BBD225, BBR100 and BW18:381 for a list of their names.
  • Three of the victims are so eager to be martyrs that they ask the executioner if they can be the first to die. [B183; BBD225; GPB47]
  • Their bodies are left in the public square for three days. [BBD225; GPB47]
  • See GPB478 for the chief features of the episode.
  • The martyrs are the ‘Seven Goats' referred to in Islamic traditions that were to ‘walk in front' of the promised Qá'im. [GPB47–8]
  • See B206–7 and BBR100–5 for the accounts of the event and responses of Prince Dolgorukov and Lt-Col Sheil.
Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia seven; Martyr; seven goats; Islam; Qá'im; Bábí; Grand Vizier; Prince Dolgorukov; Sheil
1850. 19 May The Governor sends a mob against Hujjat, which is dispersed by Mír Saláh. The Governor sends to Tihrán for reinforcements and the town Zanján is split into two camps. [BW18:381]

  • See BBD245 and GPB45 for the story of Zaynab, the Bábí woman who dressed as a man and defended the barricades.
Tihran; Zanjan; Iran Governors; Hujjat; Mir Salah; Zaynab; Gender
1850. Jun c. Mírzá Taqí Khán determines to execute the Báb to halt the progress of His religion. On his orders the Báb is taken from Chihríq to Tabríz. [B152; BBR76–7; GPB51]

  • His guard takes Him on a circuitous, much longer route through Urúmíyyih where His presence is noted by American missionaries. [B152; BBR73, 76]
  • Forty days before the Báb was to leave Chihríq He collected all His documents, Tablets, pen cases, seals and His agate rings, and put them in a coffer. He entrusted it to Mullá Báqir, one of the Letters of the Living, and instructed him to deliver it to His secretary. The secretary is instructed to proceed to Tihrán to deliver the box to ‘Jináb-i-Bahá', that is, Bahá'u'lláh. [B151–2; DB504–5; TN25–6]
  • When the box is opened they find a Tablet in the form of a pentacle with 500 verses consisting of derivatives of the word ‘Bahá'. [B151–2; DB504–5; TN25–6]
Chihriq; Tabriz; Urumiyyih; Tihran; Iran Mirza Taqi Khan; Bab, Life of; Missionaries; Mulla Muhammad Baqir-i Tabrizi; Letters of the Living; Bahaullah, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Relics; Greatest Name
1851. 2 Mar Four Bábís brought from Zanján are execute in Tihrán. [BW18:382] Tihrán; Tehran; Zanján; Iran; Persia Bábís; executed
1851 Jun c. Mírzá Taqí Khán meets with Bahá'u'lláh and tells Him that it would be advisable for Bahá'u'lláh to leave Tihrán temporarily. [BKG66; DB591]

A few days later, Bahá'u'lláh leaves Tihrán for Karbalá on pilgrimage. [BKG66; DB587]

Tihran; Iran; Karbala; Iraq Mirza Taqi Khan; Bahaullah, Life of
1852 summer Bahá'u'lláh stays at the summer residence of Ja‘far-Qulí Khán, the brother of the Grand Vizier, in Afchih, Lavásán, near Tihrán. [BKG77; DB599] Afchih; Lavásán; Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia Baha'u'llah; Ja‘far-Quli Khan; Grand Vizier
1852 days following
16 Aug
For a few days after His arrest, Bahá'u'lláh is interrogated. [TN31]

He is then taken ‘on foot and in chains, with bared head and bare feet' to Tihrán where He is cast into the Síyáh-Chál. [BKG77; DB606–7; ESW20; GPB71; TN31]

  • See BKG77–8 and DB606–8 for a description of Bahá'u'lláh's journey.
  • See CH40–1 for the effect on Bahá'u'lláh's family.
Tihran; Iran Bahallah, Life of; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Chains; Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on
1852 16 – 22 Aug A large number of Bábís are arrested in Tihrán and its environs following the attempt on the life of the Sháh. A number are executed. [BBR134–5; BW18:382]

Eighty–one, of whom 38 are leading members of the Bábí community, are thrown into the Síyáh-Chál. [BKG77]

Tihran; Iran Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Martyrs; Persecution; Imprisonments; Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on
1852 16 – 27Aug The martyrdom of Táhirih in Tihrán. [BBR172–3; BBRSM:30; BW18:382; BKG87; MF203]
  • She is martyred in the Ílkhání garden, strangled with her own silk handkerchief which she has provided for the purpose. Her body is lowered into a well which is then filled with stones. [BBD220; DB622–8; GPB75]
  • See GPB73–5 for a history of her life.
Tihran; Iran Tahirih; Martyrs
1852. Aug In Mílán, Iran, 15 Bábís are arrested and imprisoned. [BW18:382]

Many Bábís are tortured and killed in the weeks following the attempt on the life of the Sháh. [BKG84]

  • See BBR171 for the story of Mahmud Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, and his role in the arrest and execution of the Bábís.
  • See BKG84–93 for a description of the tortures and executions of Bábís. Thirty–eight Bábís are martyred.
  • See BKG86–7 and DB616–21 for the torture and martyrdom of Sulaymán Khán. Holes are gouged in his body and nine lighted candles are inserted. He joyfully dances to the place of his execution. His body is hacked in two, each half is then suspended on either side of the gate.
  • The persecutions are so severe that the community is nearly annihilated. The Bábí remnant virtually disappears from view until the 1870s. [BBRSM:30; EB269]
Mílán; Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia Bábí; arrest; torture; prison; Sháh; Mahmud Khán; Kalántar; martyr; Sulaymán Khán
1852 Aug-Dec Bahá'u'lláh's imprisonment in the Síyáh-Chál.

  • See AB10–11, BBD211–12, BKG79–83, CH41–2, DB631–3, GPB109 and RB1:9 for a description of the prison and the conditions suffered by the prisoners.
  • No food or drink is given to Bahá'u'lláh for three days and nights. [DB608]
  • Bahá'u'lláh remained in the prison for four months. [CH41; ESW20, 77; GPB104; TN31]
  • See CH42–3 for the effect of Bahá'u'lláh's imprisonment on His wife and children. Friends and and even family were afraid to be associated with His immediate family. During this period Mírzá Músá helped the family surreptitiously and Mírzá Yúsif, who was married to Bahá'u'lláh's cousin, a Russian citizen and a friend of the Russian Consul, was less afraid of repercussions for his support of them.
  • ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, as a child of eight, is attacked in the street of Tihrán. [DB616]
  • See AB11–12, RB1:9 for ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's account of His visit to His father.
  • Bahá'u'lláh's properties are plundered. [CH41; RB1:11]
  • See BBD4–5 and BKG94–8 for the story of ‘Abdu'l-Vahháb-i-Shírází who was martyred while being held in the Síyáh-Chál.
  • See BBD190, 200 and ESW77 about the two chains with which Bahá'u'lláh was burdened while in the Síyáh-Chál. Five other Bábís were chained to Him day and night. [CH41]
  • Bahá'u'lláh had some 30 or 40 companions. [BBIC:6, CH41]
  • An attempt was made to poison Him. The attempt failed but His health was impaired for years following. [BBIC:6; BKG99–100, GPB72]
Bahá'u'lláh's half-brother Mírzá Yahyá flees to Tákur and goes into hiding. He eventually goes to Baghdád. [BKG90, 107, CH41]
Tihran; Takur; Iran; Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Attempts on; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Prison; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Vahhab-i-Shirazi; Martyrs; Poison; Chains; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); - Basic timeline
1853. 24 Nov The prisoners from Nayríz and the heads of the martyrs arrive in Shíráz. More Bábís are executed and their heads sent to Tihrán. The heads are later buried at Ábádih. [BW18:382] Shíráz; Nayríz; Tihrán; Tehran; Ábádih; Iran; Persia Bábí; executed
1860. c. 1860 Mírzá Mihdí, the son of Bahá'u'lláh, is taken from Tihrán to join his family in Baghdád. He is about 12 years old. [RB3:205]

  • He travels with the second wife of Bahá'u'lláh, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá. [MMNF]
Tihran; Iran; Baghdad; Iraq Mirza Mihdi (Purest Branch); Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum)
1862 Bahá'u'lláh reveals The Kitáb-i-Íqán, ‘a comprehensive exposition of the nature and purpose of religion'. [BBD134, 162; BKG159; BBD134; BBRSM64–5; GPB138–9; RB1:158]

  • The Tablet is revealed in answer to four questions put to Bahá'u'lláh by Hájí Mírzá Siyyid Muhammad, a maternal uncle of the Báb. [BBD134, 162; BKG163–5; RB1:158]
  • It is revealed in the course of two days and two nights. [BBD 134; BKG165; GPB238; RB1:158]
  • The original manuscript, in the handwriting of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, is in the Bahá'í International Archives. [BKG165; RB1:159]
  • It is probably the first of Bahá'u'lláh's writings to appear in print. [BKG165; EB121]
  • For a discussion of the circumstances of its revelation, its content and major themes see RB1:153–97.
Baghdad; Iraq; Tihran; Tehran; Iran; Persia Bahaullah, Writings of; Kitab-i-Iqan (Book of Certitude); Muhammad, Haji Mirza Siyyid; - Basic timeline
1862. c. 1862 Bahá'u'lláh sends a ring and cashmere shawl to His niece, Shahr-Bánú, the daughter of Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan, in Tihrán to ask for her hand in marriage to ‘Abdu'l-Bahá. Shahr-Bánú's uncle, acting in place of her dead father, refuses to let her go to Iraq. [BKG342–3] Tihran; Iran; Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Rings; Shawls; Gifts; Shahr-Banu; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Abdul-Baha, Life of
1867. Jan or Feb Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí, a Bahá'í physician, is executed in Zanján. [BBR253; BKG238; BW18:383]

Áqá Najaf-‘Alíy-i-Zanjání, a disciple of Hujjat, is executed in Tihrán. [BBR254; BW18:383]

Zanján; Tihrán Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí; Bahá'í; physician; executed; Áqá Najaf-‘Alíy-i-Zanjání; Hujjat
1867 Sep - Aug 1868 Persecutions begin anew in Ádharbáyján, Zanján, Níshápúr and Tihrán. [GPB178] Ádharbayjan; Zanjan; Nishapur; Tihran; Iran Persecution
1868 Hájí Mullá `Alí-i-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí (later Hand of the Cause Hájí Ákhúnd) is imprisoned in Tihrán as a Bahá'í on the order of Mullá `Alí Kání. This is the first of many imprisonments. [EB266]
  • He was imprisoned so often that `Abdu'l-Bahá later said of him that at the first sign of disturbances, he would `put on his turban, wrap himself in his `abá and sit waiting' to be arrested. [MF11]
Tihrán; Haji Mulla `Ali-i-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi; Mulla `Ali Kani; Hand of the Cause of God
1878 to 1881 The first Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Hájí Sháh-Muhammad-i-Manshádí, or Jináb-i-Sháh Muhammad from Manshád, Yazd who had become a believer in Baghdad. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
  • His title was Amínu'l-Bayán (Trustee of the Bayán).
  • He made many journeys between Iran and the Holy Land carrying donations and petitions from the friends and returning with Tablets and news.
  • He was tasked with receiving the casket of the Báb and transferring it to the Mosque of Imámzádih Zayd in Tehran where it stayed until 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent for it for the internment.
  • Hájí Sháh-Muhammad was in 'Akká when Áqá Buzurg, entitled Badí', came to confer with Bahá'u'lláh. He and Badí met on Mount Carmel as directed by Bahá'u'lláh.
  • He was killed as a result of wounds incurred during an attack during a Kurdish revolt. [RoB3p73]
Iran; Yazd; Baghdad; Tihran Huququ'llah; Huququ'llah, Trustees of; Haji Shah-Muhammad-i-Manshadi (Aminul-Bayan); Bab, Remains of; Mosques; Firsts, Other
1879. c. 1879 Sárih Khánum, the faithful sister of Bahá'u'lláh, passes away in Tihrán. She is buried a short distance from the city. [RB1:49–50] Tihrán Sarih Khanum
1880 In the year Martyrdom of seven Bahá'ís in Sultánábád. [BW18:383]
  • Three Bahá'ís are killed on the orders of Siyyid Muhammad-Báqir-i-Mujtahid and a large number of Bahá'ís are thrown into prison. [BW18:383]
  • Sayyidih Khánum Bíbí, an old lady, is sent to Tihrán and is strangled in prison. [BW18:383]
Sultánábád; Tihrán Siyyid Muhammad-Baqir-i-Mujtahid; Sayyidih Khanum Bibi; Tuba Khanum
1882 – 1883 The Tihrán Upheaval.
  • A number of leading members of the Tihrán Bahá'í community are arrested and subsequently condemned to death. Some are confined for a period of 19 months in severe circumstances but the death sentences are not carried out. [BBR292–5; BW18:383]
  • This is occasioned by the release of Bahá'u'lláh from strict confinement and the subsequent increase in the number of pilgrims from Iran causing an upsurge of Bahá'í activities, particularly in Tihrán. [BBR292–5]
Tihrán The Tihran Upheaval
1889 Aug Bahá'ís of Sidih and Najafábád, having received no help or protection, go to Tihrán to petition the Sháh. [BW18:383] Tihrán; Sidih; Najafábád
1889. 19 Nov Birth of General Shu`á`u'lláh `Alá'í, Hand of the Cause of God, in Tihrán. Tihran Shu`a`u'llah `Ala'i; Hand of the Cause of God
1890 In the year Hájí Ákhúnd, Hájí Amín and Ibn-i-Abhar are arrested. Hájí Ákhúnd is imprisoned in Tihrán for two years; Hájí Amín is imprisoned in Qazvín for two years; and Ibn-i-Abhar is imprisoned in Tihrán for four years. [BW18:383–4]

Mírzá Mahmúd-i-Furúghí is arrested in Furúghí and sent to Mashhad. From there he is sent to Kalát-i-Nadírí where he is imprisoned for two years. [BW18:384]

In Mashhad a mob sets out to kill Mírzá Husayn-i-Bajistání but failing to find him they loot his shop. [BW18:384]

Akka; Haifa; Tihran; Qazvin; Kalat-i-Nadiri; Mashhad; Iran Haji Akhund; Haji Amin (Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani); Ibn-i-Abhar; Mahmud-i-Furughi, Mirza; Husayn-i-Bajistani, Mirza; Persecution; Persecution, Imprisonments
1890. 25 Feb Seven Bahá'ís from Sidih who had gone to Tihrán to petition the Sháh for protection secure a decree from him permitting them to return home. When they try to enter Sidih they are killed. [BBRXXIX, 285–9; BW18:383] Sidih; Tihran
1891 Apr c. Two believers were arrested during the same period. Hájí Amín was sent to the prison of Qazvín, and Hand of the Cause Ibn-i-Abhar was consigned for four years in Tíhran, in which he bore the same chains as Bahá'u'lláh did, during the Latter's imprisonment in 1852.[Essay by Mehdi Wolf] Qazvin; Tihran Haji Amin (Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani); Ibn-i-Abhar; Hands of the Cause; Chains; Imprisonments
1892 Mu'tuminu's-Saltanih is poisoned in Tihrán on the orders of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh. [BW18:384] Tihran; Iran Mutuminus-Saltanih; Nasirid-Din Shah; Killings; Poison
1896 1 May The martyrdom of Hand of the Cause of God Varqa (‘Dove’), Mírzá ‘Ali-Muhammad. (b.1856) He and his young son, Ruhu’lláh, were killed by one of the Qajar courtiers in the aftermath of the assassination of Nasir'd-Din Shah. [GPB296, BBRXXIX]
  • See World Order: Winter 1974-1975, Vol. 9 No.2 p.43 for contribution by Kazem Kazemzadeh on the martyrdom of Varqá and Ruhu'lláh.
  • For the story of their lives see MRHK405–22 and World Order: Winter 1974-1975, Vol. 9 No.2 p29-44.
  • For a Western account of the episode see BBR361–2.
  • He was posthumously named a Hand of the Cause of God by 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • ‘Abdu’l-Bahá named him posthumously as a Hand of the Cause and Shoghi Effendi designated him as one of the Apostles of Bahá-u-lláh. [EB75-97 LoF42-49, BBR361-362, SoBSNBp225-229]
  • See World Order: Winter 1974-1975, Vol. 9 No.2 p.43 for contribution by Kazem Kazemzadeh on the martyrdom of Varqá and Ruhu'lláh.
  • See Varqá and Son: The Heavenly Doves by Darius Shahrokh.
  • See also Bahá'í Chronicles.
Yazd; Tihran; Iran Hand referred to as such by ‘Abdu’l-Baha; In Memoriam; Hand of the Cause of God; Varqa
1897 In the year Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí, the first Bahá'í to have settled China, dies in Bombay on his way back to Shíráz. [PH24]

The Hands of the Cause appointed by Bahá'u'lláh are instructed by `Abdu'l-Bahá to gather to begin the consultations regarding the future organization of the Bahá'í community in Tihrán.

  • This gathering leads to the formation of the Central Spiritual Assembly of Tihrán in 1899. [BBD98, 114, 115; EB268]
Fifteen Bahá'ís are arrested in Saysán, Ádharbáyján. They are taken to Tabríz, imprisoned and fined. [BW18:384]

Three Bahá'ís are arrested in Nayríz on the orders of Áqá Najafí, the `Son of the Wolf'. [BW18:384]

The homes of several Bahá'ís in Hamadán are looted and ransacked after complaints by Jews of the town against Bahá'ís of Jewish background. [BW18:384]

China; Bombay; Tihran; Saysan; Ádharbayjan; Tabriz; Nayriz; Hamadan Haji Mirza Muhammad-Ali; Spiritual Assemblies; Aqa Najafi; Persecution; First Bahais by country or area
1897. 24 Feb Birth of Jalal Khazeh (Jalál Khádih), Hand of the Cause of God, in Tihrán. Tihran Jalal Khazeh (Jalal Khadih); Hand of the Cause of God
1898 `Abdu'l-Bahá instructs that the remains of the Báb be brought from their hiding place in Tihrán to the Holy Land. [BBD209]

Tihran; Iran Bab, Remains of; Haji Muhammad
1899. c. 1 May and period following Kheiralla returns to the United States from `Akká. [BFA1:xxix, 158]
  • His ambitions to lead the Bahá'í Faith cause a crisis in the American Bahá'í community. [BFA1:158–84; CB247–9, GPB259–260; SBBH194, 239]
  • In the coming months `Abdu'l-Bahá dispatches successive teachers to heal the rift:
    • Hájí `Abdu'l-Karím-i-Tihrání, who had taught Kheiralla the Faith, from c. 26 Apr to 5 Aug 1900. [BFA1:173–6; BFA2:17–29]
    • Hájí Hasan-i-Khurásání, from 29 Nov 1900 to Aug 1901. [BFA2:35, 389]
    • Mírzá Asadu'lláh-i-Isfahání, from 29 Nov 1900 to 12 May 1902. [BFA2:VI, 35–43ff]
    • Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl, from Aug 1901 to Dec 1904. [BFA2:XV-XVI, 80–7; BW9:855–60]
  • See BFA1:177–8 for lists of believers who sided with Kheiralla, left the Faith or remained loyal to `Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • See SBBH1:98–101 for Kheiralla's teachings.
United States; Akka Ibrahim George Kheiralla; Haji Abdul-Karim-i-Tihrani; Haji Hasan-i-Khurasani; Mirza Asadullah-i-Isfahani; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani
1900 26 Apr Hájí `Abdu'l-Karím-i-Tihrání arrives in New York, the first Persian Bahá'í to visit North America, to try to bring Kheiralla back into the Faith and to explain the basic teachings of the Faith to the American believers. He is accompanied by Mirza Sinore Raffie, his translator. [BFA173–6; BFA2:17–29] New York Haji Abdul-Karim-i-Tihrani; Ibrahim George Kheiralla; Mirza Sinore Raffie
1900 5 Aug Hájí `Abdu'l-Karím-i-Tihrání leaves the United States, his efforts to win Kheiralla back to the Faith having failed. [BFA176] New York Haji Abdul-Karim-i-Tihrani; Ibrahim George Kheiralla
1904 c. The birth of Zikrullah Khadem, Hand of the Cause of God, in Tihrán. [ZK3] Tihran; Iran Zikrullah Khadem; Births and deaths
1904 At this point there are separate Spiritual Assemblies for the Jewish and Zoroastrian Bahá'ís in Hamadán and Tihrán. [BBRSM:151; CB371; CT33]
  • See BW2:275–9 for a letter from the `Israelitish' Bahá'í Assembly of Tihrán of November 1904.
Hamadán; Tihrán; iran
1908 25 Apr Charles Mason Remey and Sidney Sprague sail from New York for Iran and Russia. [BFA2:289]
  • For details of their journey see BFA2:289–95.
  • In Tihrán Tá`irih Khánum, a Bahá'í woman with advanced ideas, hosts them at a meeting at which the women remove their veils. [BFA2:292–4]
  • They give Tá`irih Khánum the address of Isabella Brittingham and the two women begin a correspondence. [BFA2:294]
New York; Tihran Charles Mason Remey; Sidney Sprague; Tairih Khanum; Isabella Brittingham
1909 25 Nov Dr Susan Moody arrives in Tihrán. She and four Persian Bahá'í doctors start the Sehat Hospital. Because the hospital was only accessible to the wealthy she established a private practice that was open to all women regardless of their ability to pay. [BFA2:359-360]
  • She spent two days in 'Akká en route to Persia and 'Abdu'l-Bahá conferred upon her the title Amatu'l-'Alí (Handmaid of the Most High). [BFA2:358]
  • Dr Sarah A. Clock arrives from Seattle in 1911 to assist her followed by Miss Elizabeth Stewart (nurse). [BFA2:361]
Tihran; Iran Susan Moody; Sehat Hospital; Sarah A. Clock; Elizabeth Stewart; Women; Social and economic development
1910 The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Hájí Mullá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí, (Hájí Akhund). He was born in Shahmírzád around 1842/3.
  • Bahá’u’lláh had entrusted him with the sacred task of moving and hiding the remains of the Báb. In Tehran he transferred the remains to Hand of the Cause Amínu’l-Bayán who moved them through innumerable dangers to a safe hiding place in the Mosque of the Imámzádih Zayd in Tehran, where they lay concealed until the time when, at the behest of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, they were transferred to the Holy Land to be laid in their permanent resting place on the slopes of Mount Carmel. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
  • He was appointed a Hand of the Cause by Bahá’u’lláh. [LoF3-8]
Tihrán; Tehran; Shahmírzád; Hand appointed by Baha'u'llah; In Memoriam; Haji Mulla ‘Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi; Haji Akhund; Hand of the Cause of God
1910 Within a year of her arrival Dr. Susan Moody opens the Tarbíyat School for Girls in Tihrán. [BBD221–2; BFA2:360–1]
  • Miss Lillian Kappes of Hoboken, New Jersey arrives in December of 1911 to serve as a teacher. She died on the 1st of December, 1920 and was replaced by Genevieve Coy in 1922. and was followed by Adelaide Sharp in 1929 who was joined by her mother, Clara Sharp in 1931. [BFA2p361]
Tihran; Iran Tarbiyat School for Girls; Susan Moody; Lillian Kappes; Genevieve Coy; Adelaide Sharp; Clara Sharp
1910 4 Mar Hand of the Cause of God `Alí-Akhar-i-Shahmírzádí (Hájí Ákhúnd) passes away in Tihrán. [BBD14; EB266] Tihran Haji Akhund (Ali-Akhar-i-Shahmirzadi); Hands of the Cause; In Memoriam
1912 Birth of `Alí Muhammad Varqá, Hand of the Cause of God, in Tihrán. Tihran; Iran Ali-Muhammad Varqa; Hands of the Cause of God; Births and deaths
1917 Nov `Abdu'l-Bahá sends a message to the Bahá'ís of the world assuring them of His safety. [AB412]
  • The Tablet is carried by an aged Arab Bahá'í, Hájí Ramadán. It takes him 45 days to walk from `Akká to Tihrán. On his return trip he brings gold and messages. [AB412; CH206-7]
  • For text of the Tablet see CH207-8.
Haifa; Tihran `Abdu'l-Baha; World War I; Haji Ramadan
1919 13 Aug Adíb, Mírzá Hasan Táliqání, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Tihrán. [BBD98]

EB273 says he died on 2 September.

  • For a brief history of his life see EB272-3.
Tihran; Iran Adib (Haji Mirza Hasan Talaqani); Hands of the Cause; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
1919 2 Sep The passing of Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan, entitled Adíbu'l-'Ulamá, know as Adíb in Tihrán. He was born in Talaqán in 1848 and became a Bahá’í around 1889.
  • Bahá’u’lláh appointed him a Hand of the Cause of God. [SDH138-140]
  • He was one of the founders of the Tarbíyat Schools in Tihrán. He died in Tihrán. [LoF17-18]
  • Tihran; Talaqan; Iran Adib (Haji Mirza Hasan Talaqani); Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; In Memoriam
    1920 1 Dec Lillian Kappes dies of typhus fever in Tihrán. [BFA2:361; SW11, 19:324-5]
    • She had gone to Tihrán nine years previously to help set up the Tarbíyat School for Girls. [SW11, 19:3 24]
    Tihrán Lillian Kappes; Tarbiyat School for Girls; In Memoriam
    1921 spring Dr Genevieve Coy is chosen as the director of the Tarbíyat School for Girls in Tihrán to replace Lillian Kappes. [SBR203] Tihran; Iran Genevieve Coy; Tarbiyat School for Girls
    1922 24 Jan Dr Sarah A. Clock passes away in Tihrán. She had gone there in 1911 to assist Dr Moody at the Tarbíyat School. [BFA2:361; SW12, 19:309] Tihran; Iran Sarah A. Clock; Susan Moody; Tarbiyat School for Girls
    1924 18 Jul American Vice-Consul Major Robert Imbrie is murdered in Tihrán for being a Bahá'í, which he is not, straining relations between the Persian and American governments. [BBR462-5; BW18:388]
    • For a picture of the floral tribute sent to his funeral by the Bahá'ís of Persia and America see BW1:100.
    Tihran Major Robert Imbrie
    1927 Abu'l-Qásim Faizi, a 19-year-old student who had attended the Tarbiyát School in Tehran but now enrolled at the American University at Beirut visits Haifa to meet Shoghi Effendi. Like Hasan Balyuzi before him, he is immediately possessed by a great desire to serve him. [SETPE1p146-7] Haifa; Tihran; Iran; Beirut; Lebanon Abul-Qasim Faizi; Tarbiyat School; American University at Beirut; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1928 The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Mírzá 'Alí-Muhammad, known as Ibn-i-Asdaq. He was born in Mashhad in 1850/1.
  • His father was Mullá Sádiq-i- Muqaddas-i-Khursúní, referred to as a Hand of the Cause of God by 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [EM19] While still a child he suffered imprisonment with his father in Tehran.
  • He begged Bahá’u’lláh permission to be a martyr. Baha’u’llah said that if one lived right he might attain martyrdom. In 1882 Baha’u’llah conferred the station of martyr on him calling him “Shahid Ibn-i-Shahid” (“Martyr, son of the Martyr”) .”
  • He is the first of the Hands of the Cause of God named by Bahá’u’lláh.
  • ‘Abdu’l-Bahá gave him a special mission to teach members of the “ruling class” the Faith.
  • He was deeply involved in the planning and construction of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár in ‘Ishqábád.
  • Ibn-i-Asdaq, Mírzá ‘Alí-Muhammad, Hand of the Cause of God, Apostle of Bahá’u’lláh, passes away in Tihrán. [BBD115, EM176, LoF9-12, RoB4p286]
  • For details of his life see EB171–6.
  • Tihran; ; Mashhad; Iran In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause of God; Hands of the Cause of God (appointments); Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mirza Ali-Muhammad); Mulla Sadiq-i- Muqaddas-i-Khursuni
    1928 to 1938 The third Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Hájí Ghulám-Ridá (entitled Amín-i-Amín) (Trustee of the Trustee). He had been Hájí Amín's assistant for several years and so was chosen to succeed him. He had been born into the wealthy merchant class in Tehran. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
    • During his tenure steps were taken to register Bahá'í properties and endowments in Iran.
    • He died due to an illness. [BW8p659]
    Tihran; Iran Huququ'llah; Huququ'llah, Trustees of; Haji Ghulam-Rida (Amin-i-Amin)
    1928 27 May Hájí Amín, Abu’l-Hasan-i-Ardikání, Hand of the Cause of God and Apostle of Bahá’u’lláh, passes away in Tihrán. [BBD7; EB263]
    • For his biography see EB263.
    • He is named a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously by Shoghi Effendi. [BBD7; EB263]
    • See BBD7 for a picture and an account of his life.
    Tihran; Iran Haji Amin (Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani); Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; In Memoriam
    1934 The government of Iran takes several measures against the Bahá’ís throughout the country. [BW18:389]
    • Nineteen Bahá’í schools are closed in Káshán, Qazvín, Yazd, Najafábád, Ábádih and elsewhere. [ARG109]
    • Bahá’í meetings are forbidden in many towns, including Tihrán, Mashhad, Sabzivár, Qazvín and Arák.
    • Bahá’ís centres in Káshán, Hamadán and Záhidán are closed by the authorities.
    • Some Bahá’í government employees are dismissed.
    • Some Bahá’í military personnel are stripped of their rank and imprisoned.
    • Bahá’ís in many places are harassed over the filling-in of marriage certificates, census forms and other legal documents.
    Iran; Káshán; Qazvín; Yazd; Najafábád; Ábádih; Tihrán; Mashhad; Sabzivár; Arák; Hamadán; Záhidán religious persecution; Tarbiyat School
    1934 6 Dec The Tarbíyat Bahá’í Schools in Tihrán and all other Bahá'í schools across the country are closed by order of the Minister of Education (headed by 'Ali-Asghar-i-Hikmat, a well-known Azali) when they fail to open on a holy day. [BBD221–2; BW18:389; CB312; GPB363; PP308; RoB4p313]
    • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR475–9.
    Tihran Tarbiyat Bahai Schools; Bahai schools; Holy days; Persecution
    1935 The persecution against the Bahá’ís in Iran continues. [BW18:389]
    • Meetings in the Bahá’í Centre in Tihrán are banned.
    • A number of Bahá’ís in Bandar Sháh are arrested and imprisoned.
    • The secretary of the Local Spiritual Assembly of Arák is arrested.
    • Bahá’ís in Qazvín are arrested and harassed.
    • A Bahá’í in Záhidán is arrested.
    Iran; Tihrán; Bandar Sháh; Arák; Qazví; Záhidán; religious persecution; LSA
    1937 May Several prominent Bahá’ís are arrested in Yazd. [BW18:389]
    • They are imprisoned in Tihrán for four years; one dies in prison. [BW18:389]
    Yazd; Tihrán; Iran; religious persecution
    1938 Persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the country. [BW18:389]
    • Bahá’ís marrying without a Muslim ceremony are investigated, including several hundred in Tihrán alone. Most are imprisoned pending trial and are imprisoned for six to eight months afterwards and fined.
    • Bahá’í meetings in Kirmánsháh, Záhidán, Mashhad and other towns are harassed by the police.
    Iran; Tihrán; Kirmánsháh; Záhidán; Mashhad religious persecution
    1944 A Bahá’í committee in Tihrán identifies the House of Bahá’u’lláh in the city and purchases it. Tihrán House of Bahá’u’lláh
    1946 The restoration of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tihrán is completed. Tihrán House of Baha’u’llah
    1947 The Hazíratu’l-Quds of Tihrán is completed. [BW11:588] Tihrán Haziratu’l-Quds
    1948 The Bahá’í centre in Tihrán is attacked by a mob incited by Áyatu’lláh Káshání. [BW18:390] Tihran; Iran Ayatullah Kashani; Persecution; Haziratul-Quds; Destruction
    1954 spring The Síyáh-Chál is acquired by the Bahá’ís. [BW12:64–5; SE153; SS45]
    • The purchase cost is $400,000. [BW12:65]
    Tihran; Iran Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Property purchases
    1955 23 Apr Ramadán begins. Shaykh Muhammad-Taqí Falsafí makes an inflammatory speech against the Bahá’ís from a mosque in Tihrán. [BW18:390]
    • This is broadcast on national radio and stirs up the people against the Bahá’ís. [BW18:390]
    • Beatings, killings, looting and raping go on for several weeks, usually incited by the local ‘ulamá. [BW18:390–1; MC16–17; ZK215–6]
    • The House of the Báb in Shíráz is attacked and damaged by a mob led by Siyyid Núru’d-Dín, a mujtahid.
    Tihran; Shiraz; Iran Shaykh Muhammad-Taqi Falsafi; House of the Bab (Shiraz); Siyyid Nurud-Din; Persecution
    1955 2 May The police lock the doors of the National Bahá’í Centre in Tihrán thus preventing the holding of the final day of the National Bahá’í Convention. [BW18:390] Tihrán religious persecution; National Bahá’í Convention
    1955 7 May The Iranian army occupies the National Bahá’í Centre in Tihrán. [BW18:390] Tihrán religious persecution
    1955 22 May The dome of the National Bahá’í Centre in Tihrán is demolished with the personal participation of several high-ranking army officers. The publication of the pictures of this episode encourages a widespread outburst of persecution of Bahá’ís throughout Iran. [BW18:391]
    • After the coup in 1953 the Shah was indebted to the clergy for their support and so they were given a greater latitude to persecute the Bahá'ís. In an attempt to show his gratitude the Shah sent a high ranking officer to ask if they had any special requests and they called for the Bahá'í Centre in Tehran to be destroyed. The army occupied the Centre and high-ranking officers and clerics jointly demolished the dome. [Towards a History of Iran’s Baha’i Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.]
    • For pictures see BW13:293–4.
    Tihrán religious persecution
    1970 The House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tihrán undergoes major repair and a fundamental restoration of both exterior and interior parts. Tihran; Iran House of Bahaullah (Tihran); Restoration
    1973 The House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tihrán and its adjacent bírúní (reception area) are completely restored to their original structure, design and elegance. Tihrán House of Baha’u’llah
    1979 The House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tihrán is confiscated by the revolutionary government of Iran. [BW17:79] Tihrán House of Baha’u’llah; religious persecution
    1979 17 Jan Mohammad Rezā Pahlavi‎, known as Mohammad Reza Shah, entitled Shāhanshāh ("Emperor" or "King of Kings"), fled Iran. The dissolution of the monarchy was complete on the 11th of February. Tihran; Iran Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general)
    1979 Mar Yúsif Subhání, a well-known Bahá’í businessman, is imprisoned in Tihrán. [BW18:278] Iran; Tihran Persecution
    1979 24 May Shaykh Muhammad Muvahhid, a well-known Bahá’í, is kidnapped in Tihrán. [BW18:254, 294] Tihrán Shaykh Muhammad Muvahhi; religious persecution
    1979 11 Nov Dr ‘Alímurád Dávúdí, a member of the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran, is kidnapped in Tihrán and presumed dead. [BW18:254, 294] Tihran; Iran Persecution; NSA
    1979 Dec ‘Azamatu’lláh Fahandizh is executed in Tihrán. [BW18:255] Tihran; Iran Azamatullah Fahandizh; Persecution
    1981 5 Dec The Bahá'í cemetery in Tehran was seized "by order of the Revolutionary Court. Five caretakers and eight temporary workers were arrested and the cemetery was closed. [Mess63-86p510] Tihran; Iran Cemeteries and graves; Bahai cemeteries; Persecution
    1992 18 Mar The martyrdom of Mr. Bahman Samandari in the Evin prison in Tehran. Mr. Samandari was executed with no advance notice and in the absence of due process. A 52 year-old businessman from a distinguished Bahá'í family, he was buried secretly on 20 March 1992 and his family was not notified until 5 April 1992. This was the first execution in three and one-half years. It belied the public position taken by the Iránian government that the Bahá'ís were not being persecuted for their religious beliefs. [AWH118-9, VV126] Tihran; Iran Persecution; Martyrs; Evin Prison
    1993 Jun The bodies of Bahá'ís buried in the Bahá'í section of a Tihrán cemetery are exhumed and taken by lorry to unknown destinations. [BW93–4:153] Tihran; Iran Cemeteries and graves; Bahai cemeteries; Persecution
    1993 Jul A section of the Bahá'í cemetery in Tihrán is bulldozed to make way for the construction of an Islamic cultural centre. [BW93–4:140]
    • It is first thought that about two thousand Bahá'í graves are desecrated but later revealed that 15,000 graves are destroyed. [BW93–4:140; BW94–5:133]
    Tihrán
    2008 14 May The six men and women, Mr. Jamaloddin Khanjani, Mr. Afif Naeimi, Mr. Saeid Rezaie, Mr. Behrouz Tavakkoli, Mr. Vahid Tizfahm. and Mrs. Fariba Kamalabadi, all members of the national-level group that helped see to the minimum needs of Bahá’ís in Iran were arrested in their homes in Tehran. Mrs. Kamalabadi, Mr. Khanjani, and Mr. Tavakkoli have been previously arrested and then released after periods ranging from five days to four months. [BWNS632, Report] Tihran; Iran Yaran
    2010 12 Jan – 14 Jun The trial of Iran's seven Bahá'í leaders, Fariba Kamalabadi, Jamaloddin Khanjani, Afif Naeimi, Saeid Rezaie, Mahvash Sabet, Behrouz Tavakkoli, and Vahid Tizfahm begins in Tehran. The seven are charged with "espionage", "propaganda activities against the Islamic order", "the establishment of an illegal administration", "cooperation with Israel", "sending secret documents outside the country", "acting against the security of the country", and "corruption on earth". [BWNS748, BWNS778]

    • The profiles of the accused: Profiles.
    • The trial is closed to the public. A film crew and known interrogators are permitted entry. [Video "The Story of the Baha'i Seven" 13 May 2016 BIC]
    Tihran; Iran Yaran; Court cases; Imprisonments; Persecution
    2010 8 Aug The sentence of 20 years in prison is announced for members of the "Yaran-i-Iran" or "Friends of Iran" by Judge Moqayesseh. The charges were several: "espionage", "collaborating with enemy states", "insulting the sacred", "propaganda against the state" and "forming an illegal group". The prominent civil and human right lawyer who defended them was Mr Abdolfattah Soltani. He would later serve a 13-year sentence in the Evin Prison for engaging in his profession. Another member of their legal defense team was the attorney Hadi Esmailzadeh who died in 2016 while serving a 4-year prison term for defending human rights cases. The seven Bahá'í leaders are sent to Gohardasht prison, about 50 kilometers west of Tehran. [BWNS789] Tihran; Iran Yaran; Abdolfattah Soltani; Hadi Esmailzadeh; Lawyers; Persecution; Court cases; Evin Prison; Gohardasht prison
    2011 20 May Fariba Kamalabadi and Mahvash Sabet are returned to Evin Prison in Tehran. They had spent a brief spell in appalling conditions at Qarchak prison, (from 3 May) some 45 kilometers from Tehran. [BIC Evin]
    • The five men are still being held under close scrutiny in a wing of Gohardasht prison, reserved for political prisoners. [BIC Report]
    Tihran; Iran Yaran; Evin Prison; Gohardasht Prison
    2014 Nov Fariba Kamalabadi, after having her fourth request to join her daughter Taraneh for her wedding denied, writes her a letter from Evin Prison. [Iran Press Watch] Tihran; Iran Yaran; Evin Prison
    2016 24 Nov From her cell in Evin prison, In a open letter to her six-month old granddaughter, Bajar. Fariba Kamalabadi one of the members of the imprisoned Yaran of Iran, writes about the suffering of the Bahá'í citizens and of her dreams for humanity. [Iran Press Watch 16140] Tihran; Iran Persecution; Yaran; Evin Prison

    from the main catalogue

    1. Bahá'í Shrines, by John Walbridge, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). [about]
    2. History of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Tihran, Iran (1978). Brief history of the birth-place of Baha'u'llah distributed to pilgrims to the site. [about]
    3. Remains of the Bab in Tehran, The, by Ahang Rabbani (1997). Brief bio of Aqa Husayn-'Ali Nur and an extract from Khatirat Muhajiri Az Isfahan, "Memoirs of a Refugee from Isfahan," discussing the history of these remains. Includes biographical notes. [about]
    4. Tablets of Pilgrimage (Suriy-i-Hajj): Wilmette Institute faculty notes, by Iraj Ayman (1999). [about]
    5. Tehran, Iran, by Moojan Momen, in The Bahá'í Encyclopedia (2009). On the capital city of Iran and birthplace of Bahá’u’lláh, called by Him the "Land of Tá" (Ard-i-Tá), site of numerous important events in Bahá’í history. [about]
    6. Textual Context and Literary Criticism: A Case Study based on a Letter from Shoghi Effendi, by Gerald Keil, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 11 (2010). [about]
     
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