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Search for tag "Tihran"

from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1817 Shaykh Ahmad travels to Persia and visits Shíráz and Tihrán. He is in Tihrán when Bahá'u'lláh is born. [DB13] Shiraz; Tihran; Iran Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsai; Shaykhism; Bahaullah, Birth of; Bahaullah, Life of
1844. 23 May The birth of `Abdu'l-Bahá in a rented house near the Shimrán Gate in Tihrán. He was born at midnight. [AB9, SoG3-4]
  • He is known as `Abbás Effendi outside the Bahá'í community.
  • Bahá'u'lláh gives Him the titles Ghusn-i-A`zam (the Most Great Branch), Sirru'lláh (Mystery of God) and Áqá (the Master). [BBD2, 19, 87, 89]
  • Sarkár-i-Áqá (the Honourable Master) is a title of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [BBD201]
  • He Himself chose the title `Abdu'l-Bahá (Servant of Bahá) after the passing of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBD2]
Tihran; Iran Abdul-Baha, Life of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bab, Declaration of
1844 Jul - Aug The intention of the Báb is to introduce the new Revelation slowly so as not to cause estrangement. He instructs them to spread out and teach His Faith and to this end He assigned each one a special task, most often to their own native provinces. [BBRSM14–16, 36; SWB119, BBR2p36, DB92–4; MH82–6; SBBH1:19]
  • To Mullá Husayn He had given the task of delivering a Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh in Tihrán and going to the court of the Sháh to apprise him of the Báb's cause. Mullá Husayn is not able to gain access to the Sháh. [B48–57; BBRSM15 BKG32–3; CH22–3; DB85-87, 97; MH90–2, 102]
  • Mullá Husayn carries to Tihrán a Tablet revealed by the Báb for Muhammad Sháh. This is the first of a number of unsuccessful attempts to enlist his aid. [BBRSM20–1; MH102; SWB13]
  • Note: MH118-119 and DB127-128 indicate that Mullá Husayn had been in Tehran "between the months of Jámádí and Rajab". The first day of Jámádí, 1260 corresponds to 18 June, and the last day of Rajab to 15 August, 1844.
  • See RB2:303, `The Báb … sent Tablets to only two monarchs of His day — Muhammad Sháh of Persia and Sultán `Abdu'l-Majíd of Turkey.'
  • From Shiraz he journeys north to Isfahán where Mullá Ja`far, the sifter of wheat, is the first to embrace the Cause of the Báb in that city. Mullá Husayn then travels to Káshán, about 130 miles from Isfahán. He then goes to Qum, another 100 miles from Káshán. After Qum he goes to Tihrán. [MH98–101, DB99]
  • See B53–6; DB104–7, MH104–110 for the delivery of the Báb's Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh. Mullá Husayn does not meet Bahá'u'lláh on this occasion.
  • On receiving the Tablet of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh accepts His Cause. He immediately journeys to Mázindarán, His native province, to promote the Cause of the Báb. He returns after the death of the Shah in 1948 [BKG39–40; BW8:782; DB109; TN35, SoB6, BPP45, 48, SoG4]
  • Mullá Husayn leaves for Khurásán, as he had been instructed, winning supporters for the Báb's Cause while there he writes to the Báb regarding these new believers and Bahá'u'lláh's immediate response to the Báb's Revelation. [B56, DB128–9, MH118]
  • See MH121–2 for a discussion of the speed of Mullá Husayn's journey before the letter was dispatched to the Báb. It assumes that Mullá Husayn departed after The Báb met with all the Letters of the Living (date not before 2 July, 1844.) In fact both Mullá Husayn and Mullá 'Alíy-Bastámí had been dispatched before this meeting. [DB85-86, 92, HotD46] .
Iran; Turkey; Kashan; Isfahan; Tihran; Mazindaran; Khurasan; Qum Bab, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Letters of the Living; Mulla Husayn; Bahaullah, Life of; Tablet to Bahaullah; Shahs; Mulla Jafar (sifter of wheat); Muhammad Shah; Sultan Abdul-Majid; First believers
1845. 28 Jun Prince Dolgorukov is appointed Russian ambassador to Tihrán. He was previously first secretary of the Russian legation at Istanbul. He arrives in Tihrán in January 1846. Constantinople; Istanbul; Turkey; Tihran; Iran; Russia Prince Dolgorukov; Ambassadors; History (general)
1846 The birth of Bahíyyih Khánum, the Greatest Holy Leaf, eldest daughter of Bahá'u'lláh and Navváb, and sister of `Abdu'l-Bahá, in Tihrán. She is later designated by Shoghi Effendi `the outstanding heroine of the Bahá'í Dispensation'. [BBD42; GPB108]
  • For a description of her nature see BK42–3.
Many Bábís go to Shíráz and meet the Báb. [B 103]

Táhirih is sent back to Baghdád from Karbalá. She is lodged first in the house of Shaykh Muhammad Shíbl and then in the house of the Muftí of Baghdád. During her time in Iraq she enlists a considerable number of followers and makes a number of enemies among the clergy [B162; DB271]

Tihran; Tehran; Shiraz; Iran; Baghdad; Karbala; Iraq Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Tahirih; Shaykh Muhammad Shibl; Mufti Baghdad
1846. c. Feb - Mar 1846 The Sháh had already instructed Manúchihr Khán to send the Báb to Tihrán. The governor, fearing for the safety of the Báb, devises a scheme to have the Báb escorted from Isfahán but returned secretly to his own residence. The Báb remains there for four months with only three of His followers apprised of His whereabouts. These four months are described as having been the calmest in His Ministry. [B113–16; DB209–11, 213; TN9–11]

The governor offers all of his resources to try to win the Sháh over to His Cause but the Báb declines his offer saying that the Cause will triumph through the `poor and lowly'. [B115–16; DB212–13]

Tihran; Isfahan; Iran Shah; Manuchihr Khan; Bab, Life of
1846. Jan Prince Dolgorukov arrives in Tihrán as the Russian ambassador. Tihran; Iran Prince Dolgorukov; Russia; Ambassadors; History (general)
1847. Feb - Mar The passing of Manúchihr Khán. His death had been predicted by the Báb 87 days earlier. The governor had made the Báb the beneficiary of his vast holdings, estimated to be 40 million francs, but his nephew Gurgín Khán appropriated everything after his death. [B116; DB213–14]
  • Before the death of Manúchihr Khán the Báb instructed His followers to disperse. [B115; DB213–14] Gurgín Khán, in his role as the new governor, informs the Sháh that the Báb is in Isfahán and has been sheltering with Manúchihr Khán. The Sháh orders that the Báb be taken to Tihrán incognito. The Báb, escorted by Nusayrí horsemen, sets out for Tihrán soon after midnight. [B116, 118; DB215–116; TN11]
Tihran; Tehran; Isfahan; Iran Manuchihr Khan; Bab, Life of; Gurgin Khan; Nusayri horsemen; Horses
1847. 21 Mar En route to Tihrán the Báb spends three nights in Káshán in the home of Hájí Mírzá Jání, a noted resident of that city who had realized in a dream that the Báb would be his guest. [B118; DB217–22] Tihran; Kashan; Iran Bab, Life of; Haji Mirza Jani; Dreams
1847. 28 Mar The Báb and His escort arrive at the fortress of Kinár-Gird, 28 miles from Tihrán. Muhammad Big, the head of the escort, receives a message from Hájí Mírzá Áqásí, the prime minister, telling him to take the Báb to Kulayn to await further instructions. [B119; DB225–6; GPB16] Tihran; Kulayn; Iran Bab, Life of; Fortress Kinar-Gird; Muhammad Big; Haji Mirza Aqasi
1847. 1 Apr The Báb receives a letter and gifts from Bahá'u'lláh in Tihrán delivered to His Hands by Mulla Muhammad-Mihdiy-i-Kandi. The letter cheers His heart, which has been despondent since His arrest and departure from Shíráz. [B120; DB227; GPB678] Tihran; Shiraz; Iran Bab, Life of; Gifts; Bahaullah, Writings of
1847 c. 1 – 17 Apr One night the Báb disappears and is found the next morning on the road coming from the direction of Tihrán. A look of confidence has settled on Him and His words have a new power. [B120–1; DB228–9]
  • Had He and Bahá'u'lláh met secretly? See SLH51 para96.
Tihran; Iran Bab, Life of
1847 c. Aug Mullá Husayn is residing in Mashhad, in Khurásán, where he has been since returning from Shíráz in 1845. The leader of a local rebellion wishes to enlist the Bábís on his side and seeks a meeting with Mullá Husayn. To avoid entanglement in the affair, Mullá Husayn decides to make a pilgrimage to Máh-Kú. [TB56; DB254–5; MH133–5]
  • As an act of piety, he makes the whole 1,200-mile journey on foot. Along the route he visits the Bábís and in Tihrán meets secretly with Bahá'u'lláh. No account of their interview survives. In Qazvín, Mullá Husayn meets Táhirih for the first time. [DB255; MH137]
Khurasan; Mah-Ku; Qazvin; Tihran Mulla Husayn; Tahirih; Bahaullah, Life of
1847. Oct - Nov Táhirih is accused of instigating the assassination of her uncle and is confined to her father's house while about 30 Bábís are arrested. Four, including the assassin, are taken to Tihrán and held in the house of Khusraw Khán. [BKG41; BW18:380; DB276–8] Tihran; Iran Tahirih; Persecution; Assassinations; Khusraw Khan
1847. Nov - Dec Bahá'u'lláh, who is living in Tihrán, visits the detainees and gives them money. [BKG41; DB278–9; GPB68]

Mullá `Abdu'lláh confesses to the murder of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí and is helped to escape. [BKG41–2; DB278]

  • See BKG42 for why Bahá'u'lláh was thought to have engineered his escape. Bahá'u'lláh is imprisoned for a few days for having assisted in Mullá `Abdu'lláh's escape.
  • This was Bahá'u'lláh's first imprisonment. [BKG41; BW18:380; DB585]
  • Shaykh Salib-i-Karímí, one of the imprisoned Bábís, is publicly executed in Tihrán.
  • He is the first to suffer martyrdom on Persian soil. His remains are interred in the courtyard of the shrine of the Imám-Zádih Zayd in Tihrán. [B166; BW18:380; DB280]
  • The remaining captives are returned to Qazvín. Hájí Asadu'lláh-i-Farhádí is secretly put to death in prison. Mullá Táhir-i-Shírází and Mullá Ibrahím-i-Maballátí are also put to death. [B166; BW18:380; DB280–3]
  • DB280–3 says `the rest of' the detainees were put to death by the relatives of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí.
Tihran; Tehran; Qazvin; Iran; Persia Bahaullah, Life of; Mulla `Abdu'llah; murder; Haji Mulla Muhammad Taqi; Shaykh Salib-i-Karimi; Babis; execute; execution; martyrdom; shrine; Imam-Zadih Zayd; Haji Asadu'llah-i-Farhadi; death; prison; Mulla Tahir-i-Shirazi; Mulla Ibrahim-i-Maballati
1848. early Dec Bahá'u'lláh sets out from Tihrán with 11 companions to reinforce the Bábís at Shaykh Tabarsí. Nine miles from the fort they are arrested and taken to the town of Ámul, where they are held prisoner in the home of the deputy governor. This is Bahá'u'lláh's second imprisonment. He intervenes to spare His companions the bastinado and He alone receives it.
  • When the governor returns to his home he orders that Bahá'u'lláh and His companions be released and arranges a safe conduct for them to Tihrán. [B174; BBD44; BKG56–60; BW18:381; DB369–76; GPB68; SB7]
  • See BKG57 and DB70 for pictures.
Tihran; Tehran; Ámul; Iran; Persia Bahaullah, Life of; Shaykh Tabarsi; arrest; bastinado
1848 The birth of Mírzá Mihdí, `the Purest Branch', the son of Bahá'u'lláh and Navváb. [BBD155]

Tihran; Iran Mirza Mihdi (Purest Branch); Births and deaths; Bahaullah, Family of
1848 Bahá'u'lláh plans Táhirih's escape, giving the task to Mírzá Hádíy-i-Farhádí, the nephew of Hájí Asadu'lláh-i-Farhádí. Táhirih is rescued and escorted from Qazvín to Bahá'u'lláh's home in Tihrán. [B167; BKG42; DB284–5; MF199]
  • While she is in Bahá'u'lláh's home she is visited by Vahíd and challenges him by saying `Let deeds, not words, be our adorning!' [DB285; MF200]
  • After a few days Bahá'u'lláh sends Táhirih to a place of safety before sending her on to Khurásán. [DB286–7; GPB68]
  • Note: Ma'ani says this was the house of Mírzá Áqá Khán-i Núrí, who was then living in Káshán as an exile. His sister acted as Táhirih's hostess until she left for Badasht.
Tihran; Qazvin; Khurasan; Iran Tahirih; escape; Mirza Hadiy-i-Farhadi; Haji Asadu'llah-i-Farhadi; Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi)
1848. 9 Apr The Báb is removed from Máh-Kú.
  • Hájí Mírzá Áqásí is alarmed by the developments at Máh-Kú and orders that the Báb be moved to Chihríq. [B131; DB259; GPB1920]
  • The Báb's presence in Máh-Kú, so close to the Russian frontier, is also a cause for concern for the Russian government. Prince Dolgorukov, the Russian Minister in Tihrán, asks that He be removed. It is likely that this request was made in 1847 but not carried out until now. [B131; BBR72; TN13]
  • The Báb had been in Máh-Kú for nine months. [DB259]
Mah-Ku; Chihriq; Tihran; Iran Bab, Life of; Haji Mirza Aqasi; Russia; Prince Dolgorukov
1848 c. Jul Quddús is arrested and taken to Sárí where he is placed under house arrest in the home of Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, a leading cleric. [B171; BKG50; DB300]

Táhirih is arrested and is later taken to Tihrán where she is held in the home of Mahmúd Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, until her martyrdom in August 1852.

Mullá Husayn leaves the army camp near Mashhad where he has been a guest of a brother of the Sháh. He plans to make a pilgrimage to Karbalá. While making preparations for the journey he receives a Tablet from the Báb instructing him to go to Mázindarán to help Quddús, carrying a Black Standard before him. He is also instructed to wear the Báb's own green turban and to take the new name Siyyid `Alí. [B171; BKG50; DB324; MH174]

Sari; Tihran; Mashhad; Mazindaran; Iran; Karbala; Iraq Quddus; Mirza Muhammad-Taqi; Tahirih; Mahmud Khan; Kalantar; Mulla Husayn; Shahs; Black Standard; Green turban; Turbans; Names and titles
1848. 19 Oct Entry of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh into Tihrán. [BBR482]
  • MH240 says it took him 45 days to travel to Tihrán to occupy his father's throne.

    Mírzá Taqí Khán-i-Faráhání takes up post as prime minister. [BBR482]

Tihran; Iran Nasirid-Din Shah; Qajar dynasty; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Mirza Taqi Khan-i-Farahani; Prime ministers of Iran; Prime Ministers
1850. 19 or 20 Feb Martyrdom of the Seven Martyrs of Tihrán. Seven of the Bábís are executed in Tihrán on the false charge of having plotted to kill the Grand Vizier. [B182–5; BBD225; BBR100–5; BBRSM28, 216; BKG71; BW18:381; DB462; GPB47–8]

  • See BBD225, BBR100 and BW18:381 for a list of their names.
  • Three of the victims are so eager to be martyrs that they ask the executioner if they can be the first to die. [B183; BBD225; GPB47]
  • Their bodies are left in the public square for three days. [BBD225; GPB47]
  • See GPB478 for the chief features of the episode.
  • The martyrs are the ‘Seven Goats' referred to in Islamic traditions that were to ‘walk in front' of the promised Qá'im. [GPB47–8]
  • See B206–7 and BBR100–5 for the accounts of the event and responses of Prince Dolgorukov and Lt-Col Sheil.
Tihran; Iran Seven martyrs; Seven goats; Islam; Qaim; Grand Viziers; Prince Dolgorukov; Sheil
1850. 19 May The Governor sends a mob against Hujjat, which is dispersed by Mír Saláh. The Governor sends to Tihrán for reinforcements and the town Zanján is split into two camps. [BW18:381]

  • See BBD245 and GPB45 for the story of Zaynab, the Bábí woman who dressed as a man and defended the barricades.
Tihran; Zanjan; Iran Governors; Hujjat; Mir Salah; Zaynab; Gender
1850. Jun c. Mírzá Taqí Khán determines to execute the Báb to halt the progress of His religion. On his orders the Báb is taken from Chihríq to Tabríz. [B152; BBR76–7; GPB51]

  • His guard takes Him on a circuitous, much longer route through Urúmíyyih where His presence is noted by American missionaries. [B152; BBR73, 76]
  • Forty days before the Báb was to leave Chihríq He collected all His documents, Tablets, pen cases, seals and His agate rings, and put them in a coffer. He entrusted it to Mullá Báqir, one of the Letters of the Living, and instructed him to deliver it to His secretary. The secretary is instructed to proceed to Tihrán to deliver the box to ‘Jináb-i-Bahá', that is, Bahá'u'lláh. [B151–2; DB504–5; TN25–6]
  • When the box is opened they find a Tablet in the form of a pentacle with 500 verses consisting of derivatives of the word ‘Bahá'. [B151–2; DB504–5; TN25–6]
Chihriq; Tabriz; Urumiyyih; Tihran; Iran Mirza Taqi Khan; Bab, Life of; Missionaries; Mulla Muhammad Baqir-i Tabrizi; Letters of the Living; Bahaullah, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Relics; Greatest Name
1851. 2 Mar Four Bábís brought from Zanján are execute in Tihrán. [BW18:382] Tihrán; Tehran; Zanján; Iran; Persia Bábís; executed
1851 Jun c. Mírzá Taqí Khán meets with Bahá'u'lláh and tells Him that it would be advisable for Bahá'u'lláh to leave Tihrán temporarily. [BKG66; DB591]

A few days later, Bahá'u'lláh leaves Tihrán for Karbalá on pilgrimage. [BKG66; DB587]

Tihran; Iran; Karbala; Iraq Mirza Taqi Khan; Bahaullah, Life of
1852 summer Bahá'u'lláh stays at the summer residence of Ja‘far-Qulí Khán, the brother of the Grand Vizier, in Afchih, Lavásán, near Tihrán. [BKG77; DB599] Afchih; Lavasan; Tihran; Tehran; Iran; Persia Bahaullah, Life of; Jafar-Quli Khan; Grand Viziers
1852 days following
16 Aug
For a few days after His arrest, Bahá'u'lláh is interrogated. [TN31]

He is then taken ‘on foot and in chains, with bared head and bare feet' to Tihrán where He is cast into the Síyáh-Chál. [BKG77; DB606–7; ESW20; GPB71; TN31]

  • See BKG77–8 and DB606–8 for a description of Bahá'u'lláh's journey.
  • See CH40–1 for the effect on Bahá'u'lláh's family.
Tihran; Iran Bahaullah, Life of; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Chains; Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on
1852 16 – 22 Aug A large number of Bábís are arrested in Tihrán and its environs following the attempt on the life of the Sháh. A number are executed. [BBR134–5; BW18:382]

Eighty–one, of whom 38 are leading members of the Bábí community, are thrown into the Síyáh-Chál. [BKG77]

Tihran; Iran Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Martyrs; Persecution; Imprisonments; Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on
1852 16 – 27Aug The martyrdom of Táhirih in Tihrán. [BBR172–3; BBRSM:30; BW18:382; BKG87; MF203]
  • She is martyred in the Ílkhání garden, strangled with her own silk handkerchief which she has provided for the purpose. Her body is lowered into a well which is then filled with stones. [BBD220; DB622–8; GPB75]
  • See GPB73–5 for a history of her life.
Tihran; Iran Tahirih; Martyrs
1852. Aug In Mílán, Iran, 15 Bábís are arrested and imprisoned. [BW18:382]

Many Bábís are tortured and killed in the weeks following the attempt on the life of the Sháh. [BKG84]

  • See BBR171 for the story of Mahmud Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, and his role in the arrest and execution of the Bábís.
  • See BKG84–93 for a description of the tortures and executions of Bábís. Thirty–eight Bábís are martyred.
  • See BKG86–7 and DB616–21 for the torture and martyrdom of Sulaymán Khán. Holes are gouged in his body and nine lighted candles are inserted. He joyfully dances to the place of his execution. His body is hacked in two, each half is then suspended on either side of the gate.
  • The persecutions are so severe that the community is nearly annihilated. The Bábí remnant virtually disappears from view until the 1870s. [BBRSM:30; EB269]
Mílán; Tihrán; Tehran; Iran; Persia Bábí; arrest; torture; prison; Sháh; Mahmud Khán; Kalántar; martyr; Sulaymán Khán
1852 Aug-Dec Bahá'u'lláh's imprisonment in the Síyáh-Chál.

  • See AB10–11, BBD211–12, BKG79–83, CH41–2, DB631–3, GPB109 and RB1:9 for a description of the prison and the conditions suffered by the prisoners.
  • No food or drink is given to Bahá'u'lláh for three days and nights. [DB608]
  • Bahá'u'lláh remained in the prison for four months. [CH41; ESW20, 77; GPB104; TN31]
  • See CH42–3 for the effect of Bahá'u'lláh's imprisonment on His wife and children. Friends and and even family were afraid to be associated with His immediate family. During this period Mírzá Músá helped the family surreptitiously and Mírzá Yúsif, who was married to Bahá'u'lláh's cousin, a Russian citizen and a friend of the Russian Consul, was less afraid of repercussions for his support of them.
  • They were also assisted by Isfandíyár, the family's black servant that had been emancipated in 1839 on the order of Bahá'u'lláh. This man's life was in great danger. At one time they had 150 policemen looking for him but he managed to evade capture. They thought that if they questioned (tortured) Isfandíyár he would reveal Bahá'u'lláh's nefarious plots. [SoW Vol IX April 28, 1918 p38-39]
  • ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, as a child of eight, is attacked in the street of Tihrán. [DB616]
  • See AB11–12, RB1:9 for ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's account of His visit to His father.
  • Bahá'u'lláh's properties are plundered. [CH41; RB1:11]
  • See BBD4–5 and BKG94–8 for the story of ‘Abdu'l-Vahháb-i-Shírází who was martyred while being held in the Síyáh-Chál.
  • See BBD190, 200 and ESW77 about the two chains with which Bahá'u'lláh was burdened while in the Síyáh-Chál. Five other Bábís were chained to Him day and night. [CH41]
  • Bahá'u'lláh had some 30 or 40 companions. [BBIC:6, CH41]
  • An attempt was made to poison Him. The attempt failed but His health was impaired for years following. [BBIC:6; BKG99–100, GPB72]
Bahá'u'lláh's half-brother Mírzá Yahyá flees to Tákur and goes into hiding. He eventually goes to Baghdád. [BKG90, 107, CH41]
Tihran; Takur; Iran; Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Attempts on; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Prison; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Vahhab-i-Shirazi; Martyrs; Poison; Chains; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); - Basic timeline
1852 Oct Bahá'u'lláh has a vision of the Maiden, who announces to Him that He is the Manifestation of God for this Age. [BBD142–3, 212; BKG823 ESW11–12, 21 GPB101–2; KAN62]

  • This experience compares to the episode of Moses and the Burning Bush, Zoroaster and the Seven Visions, Buddha under the Bodhi tree, the descent of the Dove upon Jesus and the voice of Gabriel commanding Muhammad to ‘cry in the name of thy Lord'. [GPB93, 101]
  • The Báb repeatedly gave the year nine as the date of the appearance of ‘Him Whom God shall make manifest'. The Declaration of the Báb took place in AH 1260; year nine was therefore AH 1269, which began in the middle of October when Bahá'u'lláh had been in prison for about two months. [CB46–7]
  • Subsequently in His Writings Bahá’u’lláh declared that He was the "Promised One" of all religions, fulfilling the messianic prophecies found in world religions. He stated that being several messiahs converging one person were the spiritual, rather than material, fulfilment of the messianic and eschatological prophecies found in the literature of the major religions. His eschatological claims constitute six distinctive messianic identifications: from Judaism, the incarnation of the "Everlasting Father" from the Yuletide prophecy of Isaiah 9:6, the "Lord of Hosts"; from Christianity, the "Spirit of Truth" or Comforter predicted by Jesus in His farewell discourse of John 14-17 and the return of Christ "in the glory of the Father"; from Zoroastrianism, the return of Shah Bahram Varjavand, a Zoroastrian messiah predicted in various late Pahlavi texts; from Shi'a Islam the return of the Third Imam, Imam Husayn; from Sunni Islam, the return of Jesus, Isa; and from the Bábí religion, He whom God shall make manifest.

    While Bahá’u’lláh did not explicitly state Himself to be either the Hindu or Buddhist messiah, He did so in principle through His writings. Later, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá stated that Bahá’u’lláh was the Kalki avatar, who in the classical Hindu Vaishnavas tradition, is the tenth and final avatar (great incarnation) of Vishnu who will come to end The Age of Darkness and Destruction. Bahá’ís also believe that Bahá’u’lláh is the fulfilment of the prophecy of appearance of the Maitreya Buddha, who is a future Buddha who will eventually appear on Earth, achieve complete enlightenment, and teach the pure Dharma. Bahá’ís believe that the prophecy that Maitreya will usher in a new society of tolerance and love has been fulfilled by Bahá’u’lláh's teachings on world peace. [Bahaikipedia]

Tihran; Iran Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Birth of Revelation of; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Visions; Maid of Heaven; Angels; Year nine; - Basic timeline; Interfaith dialogue
1853. 24 Nov The prisoners from Nayríz and the heads of the martyrs arrive in Shíráz. More Bábís are executed and their heads sent to Tihrán. The heads are later buried at Ábádih. [BW18:382] Shíráz; Nayríz; Tihrán; Tehran; Ábádih; Iran; Persia Bábí; executed
1860. c. 1860 Mírzá Mihdí, the son of Bahá'u'lláh, is taken from Tihrán to join his family in Baghdád. He is about 12 years old. [RB3:205]

  • He travels with the second wife of Bahá'u'lláh, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá. [MMNF]
Tihran; Iran; Baghdad; Iraq Mirza Mihdi (Purest Branch); Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum)
1861 -1892 Bahá'u'lláh reveals The Kitáb-i-Íqán, ‘a comprehensive exposition of the nature and purpose of religion'. [BBD134, 162; BKG159; BBD134; BBRSM64–5; GPB138–9; RB1:158]

  • The Tablet is revealed in answer to four questions put to Bahá'u'lláh by Hájí Mírzá Siyyid Muhammad, a maternal uncle of the Báb. [BBD134, 162; BKG163–5; RB1:158]
  • It is revealed in the course of two days and two nights. [BBD 134; BKG165; GPB238; RB1:158]
  • The original manuscript, in the handwriting of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, is in the Bahá'í International Archives. [BKG165; RB1:159]
  • It is probably the first of Bahá'u'lláh's writings to appear in print. [BKG165; EB121]
  • For a discussion of the circumstances of its revelation, its content and major themes see RB1:153–97.
Baghdad; Iraq; Tihran; Tehran; Iran; Persia Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Kitab-i-Iqan (Book of Certitude); Haji Mirza Siyyid Muhammad; - Basic timeline; Interfaith dialogue
1862. c. 1862 Bahá'u'lláh sends a ring and cashmere shawl to His niece, Shahr-Bánú, the daughter of Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan, in Tihrán to ask for her hand in marriage to ‘Abdu'l-Bahá. Shahr-Bánú's uncle, acting in place of her dead father, refuses to let her go to Iraq. [BKG342–3] Tihran; Iran; Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Rings; Shawls; Gifts; Shahr-Banu; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Abdul-Baha, Life of
1867. Jan or Feb Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí, a Bahá'í physician, is executed in Zanján. [BBR253; BKG238; BW18:383]

Áqá Najaf-‘Alíy-i-Zanjání, a disciple of Hujjat, is executed in Tihrán. [BBR254; BW18:383]

Zanjan; Tihran; Iran Mirza Muhammad-‘Ali; Physicians; Persecution; Aqa Najaf-Aliy-i-Zanjani; Hujjat
1867 Sep - Aug 1868 Persecutions begin anew in Ádharbáyján, Zanján, Níshápúr and Tihrán. [GPB178] Adharbayjan; Zanjan; Nishapur; Tihran; Iran Persecution
1868 Hájí Mullá `Alí-i-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí (later Hand of the Cause Hájí Ákhúnd) is imprisoned in Tihrán as a Bahá'í on the order of Mullá `Alí Kání. This is the first of many imprisonments. [EB266]
  • He was imprisoned so often that `Abdu'l-Bahá later said of him that at the first sign of disturbances, he would `put on his turban, wrap himself in his `abá and sit waiting' to be arrested. [MF11]
Tihran; Iran Haji Mulla Ali-i-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi; Mulla Ali Kani; Hands of the Cause
1873 Ibn-i-Abhar is arrested in Tihrán and imprisoned for 14 months and 15 days. [BW18:383] Tihran; Iran Ibn-i-Abhar (Mulla Muhammad Taqi)
1878 to 1881 The first Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Hájí Sháh-Muhammad-i-Manshádí, or Jináb-i-Sháh Muhammad from Manshád, Yazd who had become a believer in Baghdad. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
  • His title was Amínu'l-Bayán (Trustee of the Bayán).
  • He made many journeys between Iran and the Holy Land carrying donations and petitions from the friends and returning with Tablets and news.
  • He was tasked with receiving the casket of the Báb and transferring it to the Mosque of Imámzádih Zayd in Tehran where it stayed until 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent for it for the internment.
  • Hájí Sháh-Muhammad was in 'Akká when Áqá Buzurg, entitled Badí', came to confer with Bahá'u'lláh. He and Badí met on Mount Carmel as directed by Bahá'u'lláh.
  • He was killed as a result of wounds incurred during an attack during a Kurdish revolt. [RoB3p73]
Iran; Yazd; Baghdad; Tihran Huququllah; Huququllah, Trustees of; Haji Shah-Muhammad-i-Manshadi (Aminul-Bayan); Bab, Remains of; Mosques; Firsts, Other
1879. c. 1879 Sárih Khánum, the faithful sister of Bahá'u'lláh, passes away in Tihrán. She is buried a short distance from the city. [RB1:49–50] Tihrán Sarih Khanum
1880 In the year Martyrdom of seven Bahá'ís in Sultánábád. [BW18:383]
  • Three Bahá'ís are killed on the orders of Siyyid Muhammad-Báqir-i-Mujtahid and a large number of Bahá'ís are thrown into prison. [BW18:383]
  • Sayyidih Khánum Bíbí, an old lady, is sent to Tihrán and is strangled in prison. [BW18:383]
Sultánábád; Tihrán Siyyid Muhammad-Baqir-i-Mujtahid; Sayyidih Khanum Bibi; Tuba Khanum
1882 – 1883 The Tihrán Upheaval.
  • A number of leading members of the Tihrán Bahá'í community are arrested and subsequently condemned to death. Some are confined for a period of 19 months in severe circumstances but the death sentences are not carried out. [BBR292–5; BW18:383]
  • This is occasioned by the release of Bahá'u'lláh from strict confinement and the subsequent increase in the number of pilgrims from Iran causing an upsurge of Bahá'í activities, particularly in Tihrán. [BBR292–5]
Tihrán The Tihran Upheaval
1889 Aug Bahá'ís of Sidih and Najafábád, having received no help or protection, go to Tihrán to petition the Sháh. [BW18:383] Tihrán; Sidih; Najafábád
1889. 19 Nov Birth of General Shu`á`u'lláh `Alá'í, Hand of the Cause of God, in Tihrán. Tihran; Iran Shuaullah Alai; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
1890 In the year Hájí Ákhúnd, Hájí Amín and Ibn-i-Abhar are arrested. Hájí Ákhúnd is imprisoned in Tihrán for two years; Hájí Amín is imprisoned in Qazvín for two years; and Ibn-i-Abhar is imprisoned in Tihrán for four years. [BW18:383–4]

Mírzá Mahmúd-i-Furúghí is arrested in Furúghí and sent to Mashhad. From there he is sent to Kalát-i-Nadírí where he is imprisoned for two years. [BW18:384]

In Mashhad a mob sets out to kill Mírzá Husayn-i-Bajistání but failing to find him they loot his shop. [BW18:384]

Akka; Haifa; Tihran; Qazvin; Kalat-i-Nadiri; Mashhad; Iran Haji Akhund; Haji Amin (Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani); Ibn-i-Abhar (Mulla Muhammad Taqi); Mirza Mahmud-i-Furughi; Mirza Husayn-i-Bajistani; Persecution; Persecution, Imprisonments
1890. 25 Feb Seven Bahá'ís from Sidih who had gone to Tihrán to petition the Sháh for protection secure a decree from him permitting them to return home. When they try to enter Sidih they are killed. [BBRXXIX, 285–9; BW18:383] Sidih; Tihran
1891 Apr c. Two believers were arrested during the same period. Hájí Amín was sent to the prison of Qazvín, and Hand of the Cause Ibn-i-Abhar was consigned for four years in Tíhran, in which he bore the same chains as Bahá'u'lláh did, during the Latter's imprisonment in 1852.[Essay by Mehdi Wolf] Qazvin; Tihran; Iran Haji Amin (Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani); Ibn-i-Abhar (Mulla Muhammad Taqi); Hands of the Cause; Chains; Imprisonments
1892 Mu'tuminu's-Saltanih is poisoned in Tihrán on the orders of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh. [BW18:384] Tihran; Iran Mutuminus-Saltanih; Nasirid-Din Shah; Killings; Poison
1896 1 May The martyrdom of Hand of the Cause of God Varqa (‘Dove’), Mírzá ‘Ali-Muhammad. (b.1856) He and his young son, Ruhu’lláh, were killed by one of the Qajar courtiers in the aftermath of the assassination of Nasir'd-Din Shah. [GPB296, BBRXXIX]
  • See World Order: Winter 1974-1975, Vol. 9 No.2 p.43 for contribution by Kazem Kazemzadeh on the martyrdom of Varqá and Ruhu'lláh.
  • For the story of their lives see MRHK405–22 and World Order: Winter 1974-1975, Vol. 9 No.2 p29-44.
  • For a Western account of the episode see BBR361–2.
  • He was posthumously named a Hand of the Cause of God by 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • ‘Abdu’l-Bahá named him posthumously as a Hand of the Cause and Shoghi Effendi designated him as one of the Apostles of Bahá-u-lláh. [EB75-97 LoF42-49, BBR361-362, SoBSNBp225-229]
  • See World Order: Winter 1974-1975, Vol. 9 No.2 p.43 for contribution by Kazem Kazemzadeh on the martyrdom of Varqá and Ruhu'lláh.
  • See Varqá and Son: The Heavenly Doves by Darius Shahrokh.
  • See also Bahá'í Chronicles.
Yazd; Tihran; Iran Mirza Ali-Muhammad Varqa; Ruhullah Varqa; In Memoriam; Apostles of Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed by Abdul-Baha; Hands appointed by Abdul-Baha; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Persecution; Martyrs
1897 In the year The passing of Hand of the Cause Mullá Muhammad-Ridá in a Tehran prison.
  • born in Muhammad-Ábád in the province of Yazd into a well-known family in about 1814. He is provided a good education and he becomes a divine known for his piety, eloquence and courage.
  • Becomes a follower of the Báb in the early days of the Revelation. He recognizes Bahá'u'lláh as the Promised One of the Bayan some time after 1855 upon reading Qasídiy-i-Varqá'íyyih, "Ode of the Dove". (Bahá'u'lláh had composed this ode while still in Sulaymáníyyih.)
  • He became well-known for his courage in teaching and his endurance in withstanding abuse. He was found to be picking his teeth while being bastinadoed and, while a elderly man, withstood a brutal flogging on his bare back in the prison yard. (A witness to this flogging, Ghulám-Ridá Khán, a notable of Tehran who happened to be imprisoned at the same time, became a believer upon seeing his steadfastness under the lashing.) [RoB1p84-91, EB89-111, LoF21-27]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá referred to a few of the believers posthumously as being Hands of the Cause (see MF5 and BW14p446) Adib Taherzadeh points out that "since there are one or two others by the same name (Shaykh-Ridáy-i-Yazdí) it is not possible to identify him. However, some believe strongly that he is Mullá Muhammad-i-Ridáy-i-Muhammmad-Ábádí. [RoB4p186n]
Muhammad-Abad; Yazd; Tihran; Iran Hands referred to as such by Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities
1897 In the year Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí, the first Bahá'í to have settled China, dies in Bombay on his way back to Shíráz. [PH24]

The Hands of the Cause appointed by Bahá'u'lláh are instructed by `Abdu'l-Bahá to gather to begin the consultations regarding the future organization of the Bahá'í community in Tihrán.

  • This gathering leads to the formation of the Central Spiritual Assembly of Tihrán in 1899. [BBD98, 114, 115; EB268]
Fifteen Bahá'ís are arrested in Saysán, Ádharbáyján. They are taken to Tabríz, imprisoned and fined. [BW18:384]

Three Bahá'ís are arrested in Nayríz on the orders of Áqá Najafí, the `Son of the Wolf'. [BW18:384]

The homes of several Bahá'ís in Hamadán are looted and ransacked after complaints by Jews of the town against Bahá'ís of Jewish background. [BW18:384]

China; Mumbai; India Tihran; Saysan; Adharbayjan; Tabriz; Nayriz; Hamadan; Iran Haji Mirza Muhammad-Ali (Afnan); Afnan; Spiritual Assemblies; Aqa Najafi; Persecution; First Bahais by country or area
1897. 24 Feb Birth of Jalal Khazeh (Jalál Khádih), Hand of the Cause of God, in Tihrán. Tihran; Iran Jalal Khazeh; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
1898 `Abdu'l-Bahá instructs that the remains of the Báb be brought from their hiding place in Tihrán to the Holy Land. [BBD209]

Tihran; Iran Bab, Remains of; Haji Muhammad
1899 The Consulting Assembly of Tihrán, a forerunner of the National Spiritual Assembly, is established. [EB175–6]
  • Four Hands of the Cause are permanent members; nine others are elected by special electors appointed by the Hands. [EB175–6]
Tihran; Iran National Spiritual Assemblies; Spiritual Assemblies; Hands of the Cause; Appointments
1899. c. 1 May and period following Kheiralla returns to the United States from `Akká. [BFA1:xxix, 158]
  • His ambitions to lead the Bahá'í Faith cause a crisis in the American Bahá'í community. [BFA1:158–84; CB247–9, GPB259–260; SBBH194, 239]
  • In the coming months `Abdu'l-Bahá dispatches successive teachers to heal the rift:
    • Hájí `Abdu'l-Karím-i-Tihrání, who had taught Kheiralla the Faith, from c. 26 Apr to 5 Aug 1900. [BFA1:173–6; BFA2:17–29]
    • Hájí Hasan-i-Khurásání, from 29 Nov 1900 to Aug 1901. [BFA2:35, 389]
    • Mírzá Asadu'lláh-i-Isfahání, from 29 Nov 1900 to 12 May 1902. [BFA2:VI, 35–43ff]
    • Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl, from Aug 1901 to Dec 1904. [BFA2:XV-XVI, 80–7; BW9:855–60]
  • See BFA1:177–8 for lists of believers who sided with Kheiralla, left the Faith or remained loyal to `Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • See SBBH1:98–101 for Kheiralla's teachings.
United States; Akka Ibrahim George Kheiralla; Haji Abdul-Karim-i-Tihrani; Haji Hasan-i-Khurasani; Mirza Asadullah-i-Isfahani; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani
1900 26 Apr Hájí `Abdu'l-Karím-i-Tihrání arrives in New York, the first Persian Bahá'í to visit North America, to try to bring Kheiralla back into the Faith and to explain the basic teachings of the Faith to the American believers. He is accompanied by Mirza Sinore Raffie, his translator. [BFA173–6; BFA2:17–29] New York Haji Abdul-Karim-i-Tihrani; Ibrahim George Kheiralla; Mirza Sinore Raffie
1900 5 Aug Hájí `Abdu'l-Karím-i-Tihrání leaves the United States, his efforts to win Kheiralla back to the Faith having failed. [BFA176] New York Haji Abdul-Karim-i-Tihrani; Ibrahim George Kheiralla
1904 c. The birth of Zikrullah Khadem, Hand of the Cause of God, in Tihrán. [ZK3] Tihran; Iran Zikrullah Khadem; Births and deaths
1904 At this point there are separate Spiritual Assemblies for the Jewish and Zoroastrian Bahá'ís in Hamadán and Tihrán. [BBRSM:151; CB371; CT33]
  • See BW2:275–9 for a letter from the `Israelitish' Bahá'í Assembly of Tihrán of November 1904.
Hamadan; Tihran; iran LSA
1908 25 Apr Charles Mason Remey and Sidney Sprague sail from New York for Iran and Russia. [BFA2:289]
  • For details of their journey see BFA2:289–95.
  • In Tihrán Tá`irih Khánum, a Bahá'í woman with advanced ideas, hosts them at a meeting at which the women remove their veils. [BFA2:292–4]
  • They give Tá`irih Khánum the address of Isabella Brittingham and the two women begin a correspondence. [BFA2:294]
New York; Tihran Charles Mason Remey; Sidney Sprague; Tairih Khanum; Isabella Brittingham; Women; Gender; Equality
1909 25 Nov Dr Susan Moody arrives in Tihrán. She and four Persian Bahá'í doctors start the Sehat Hospital. Because the hospital was only accessible to the wealthy she established a private practice that was open to all women regardless of their ability to pay. [BFA2:359-360]
  • She spent two days in 'Akká en route to Persia and 'Abdu'l-Bahá conferred upon her the title Amatu'l-'Alí (Handmaid of the Most High). [BFA2:358]
  • Dr Sarah A. Clock arrives from Seattle in 1911 to assist her followed by Miss Elizabeth Stewart (nurse). [BFA2:361]
Tihran; Iran Susan Moody; Sehat Hospital; Sarah A. Clock; Elizabeth Stewart; Women; Social and economic development
1910 The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Hájí Mullá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí, (Hájí Akhund). He was born in Shahmírzád around 1842/3.
  • Bahá’u’lláh had entrusted him with the sacred task of moving and hiding the remains of the Báb. In Tehran he transferred the remains to Hand of the Cause Amínu’l-Bayán who moved them through innumerable dangers to a safe hiding place in the Mosque of the Imámzádih Zayd in Tehran, where they lay concealed until the time when, at the behest of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, they were transferred to the Holy Land to be laid in their permanent resting place on the slopes of Mount Carmel. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
  • He was appointed a Hand of the Cause by Bahá’u’lláh. [LoF3-8]
Tihran; Shahmirzad; Iran Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Haji Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi; Haji Akhund
1910 Within a year of her arrival Dr. Susan Moody opens the Tarbíyat School for Girls in Tihrán. [BBD221–2; BFA2:360–1]
  • Miss Lillian Kappes of Hoboken, New Jersey arrives in December of 1911 to serve as a teacher. She died on the 1st of December, 1920 and was replaced by Genevieve Coy in 1922. and was followed by Adelaide Sharp in 1929 who was joined by her mother, Clara Sharp in 1931. [BFA2p361]
Tihran; Iran Tarbiyat School for Girls; Susan Moody; Lillian Kappes; Genevieve Coy; Adelaide Sharp; Clara Sharp
1910 4 Mar Hand of the Cause of God `Alí-Akhar-i-Shahmírzádí (Hájí Ákhúnd) passes away in Tihrán. [BBD14; EB266] Tihran; Iran Haji Akhund (Ali-Akhar-i-Shahmirzadi); Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam
1912 Birth of `Alí Muhammad Varqá, Hand of the Cause of God, in Tihrán. Tihran; Iran Ali-Muhammad Varqa; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
1917 The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-Taqíy-i-Abharí (Ibn-i-Abhar). He was born in 1853/4 in Abhar.
  • For four years he suffered in Síyáh-Chál wearing the very same chains as Bahá’u’lláh had worn in 1852.
  • His services during the time of the Master included teaching journeys through Persia, the Caucasus and India. He also made some eleven journeys to the Holy Land with the permission of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá.
  • A special service rendered by Ibn-i-Abhar was the promotion of the education of women. He and his wife played an important part in the advancement of women in Persian society.
  • In 1886 Bahá’u’lláh appointed him a Hand of the Cause. He died in 1917. [LoF13-16, BBD114, EB268]
Abhar; Tihran; Iran; Caucasus; India Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Haji Mirza Muhammad-Taqiy-i-Abhari; Ibn-i-Abhar (Mulla Muhammad Taqi); Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Chains; Women; Gender; Equality
1917 Nov `Abdu'l-Bahá sends a message to the Bahá'ís of the world assuring them of His safety. [AB412]
  • The Tablet is carried by an aged Arab Bahá'í, Hájí Ramadán. It takes him 45 days to walk from `Akká to Tihrán. On his return trip he brings gold and messages. [AB412; CH206-7]
  • For text of the Tablet see CH207-8.
Haifa; Tihran Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; World War I; Haji Ramadan
1919 13 Aug Adíb, Mírzá Hasan Táliqání, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Tihrán. [BBD98]

EB273 says he died on 2 September.

  • For a brief history of his life see EB272-3.
Tihran; Iran Adib (Haji Mirza Hasan Talaqani); Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam
1919 2 Sep The passing of Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan, entitled Adíbu'l-'Ulamá, know as Adíb in Tihrán. He was born in Talaqán in 1848 and became a Bahá’í around 1889.
  • Bahá’u’lláh appointed him a Hand of the Cause of God. [SDH138-140]
  • He was one of the founders of the Tarbíyat Schools in Tihrán. He died in Tihrán. [LoF17-18]
  • Tihran; Talaqan; Iran Adib (Haji Mirza Hasan Talaqani); Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Tarbiyat School; Bahai schools
    1920 1 Dec Lillian Kappes dies of typhus fever in Tihrán. [BFA2:361; SW11, 19:324-5]
    • She had gone to Tihrán nine years previously to help set up the Tarbíyat School for Girls. [SW11, 19:3 24]
    Tihran; Iran Lillian Kappes; Tarbiyat School for Girls; In Memoriam
    1921 spring Dr Genevieve Coy is chosen as the director of the Tarbíyat School for Girls in Tihrán to replace Lillian Kappes. [SBR203] Tihran; Iran Genevieve Coy; Tarbiyat School for Girls
    1922 24 Jan Dr Sarah A. Clock passes away in Tihrán. She had gone there in 1911 to assist Dr Moody at the Tarbíyat School. [BFA2:361; SW12, 19:309] Tihran; Iran Sarah A. Clock; Susan Moody; Tarbiyat School for Girls
    1924 18 Jul American Vice-Consul Major Robert Imbrie is murdered in Tihrán for being a Bahá'í, which he is not, straining relations between the Persian and American governments. [BBR462-5; BW18:388]
    • For a picture of the floral tribute sent to his funeral by the Bahá'ís of Persia and America see BW1:100.
    Tihran Major Robert Imbrie
    1927 Abu'l-Qásim Faizi, a 19-year-old student who had attended the Tarbiyát School in Tehran but now enrolled at the American University at Beirut visits Haifa to meet Shoghi Effendi. Like Hasan Balyuzi before him, he is immediately possessed by a great desire to serve him. [SETPE1p146-7] Haifa; Tihran; Iran; Beirut; Lebanon Abul-Qasim Faizi; Tarbiyat School; American University at Beirut; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1928 The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Mírzá 'Alí-Muhammad, known as Ibn-i-Asdaq. He was born in Mashhad in 1850/1.
  • His father was Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khursúní, referred to as a Hand of the Cause of God by 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [EM19] While still a child he suffered imprisonment with his father in Tehran.
  • He begged Bahá’u’lláh permission to be a martyr. Baha’u’llah said that if one lived right he might attain martyrdom. In 1882 Baha’u’llah conferred the station of martyr on him calling him “Shahid Ibn-i-Shahid” (“Martyr, son of the Martyr”) .”
  • He is the first of the Hands of the Cause of God named by Bahá’u’lláh.
  • ‘Abdu’l-Bahá gave him a special mission to teach members of the “ruling class” the Faith.
  • He was deeply involved in the planning and construction of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár in ‘Ishqábád.
  • Ibn-i-Asdaq, Mírzá ‘Alí-Muhammad, Hand of the Cause of God, Apostle of Bahá’u’lláh, passes away in Tihrán. [BBD115, EM176, LoF9-12, RoB4p286]
  • For details of his life see EB171–6.
  • Tihran; Mashhad; Iran In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Apostles of Bahaullah; Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mirza Ali-Muhammad); Apostles of Bahaullah; Mulla Sadiq-i- Muqaddas-i-Khursuni; Martyrs; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad
    1928 to 1938 The third Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Hájí Ghulám-Ridá (entitled Amín-i-Amín) (Trustee of the Trustee). He had been Hájí Amín's assistant for several years and so was chosen to succeed him. He had been born into the wealthy merchant class in Tehran. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
    • During his tenure steps were taken to register Bahá'í properties and endowments in Iran.
    • He died due to an illness. [BW8p659]
    Tihran; Iran Huququllah; Huququllah, Trustees of; Haji Ghulam-Rida (Amin-i-Amin)
    1928 27 May Hájí Amín, Abu’l-Hasan-i-Ardikání, Hand of the Cause of God and Apostle of Bahá’u’lláh, passes away in Tihrán. [BBD7; EB263]
    • For his biography see EB263.
    • He is named a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously by Shoghi Effendi. [BBD7; EB263]
    • See BBD7 for a picture and an account of his life.
    Tihran; Iran Haji Amin (Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani); Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; In Memoriam; Apostles of Bahaullah
    1934 The government of Iran takes several measures against the Bahá’ís throughout the country. [BW18:389]
    • Nineteen Bahá’í schools are closed in Káshán, Qazvín, Yazd, Najafábád, Ábádih and elsewhere. [ARG109]
    • Bahá’í meetings are forbidden in many towns, including Tihrán, Mashhad, Sabzivár, Qazvín and Arák.
    • Bahá’ís centres in Káshán, Hamadán and Záhidán are closed by the authorities.
    • Some Bahá’í government employees are dismissed.
    • Some Bahá’í military personnel are stripped of their rank and imprisoned.
    • Bahá’ís in many places are harassed over the filling-in of marriage certificates, census forms and other legal documents.
    Iran; Káshán; Qazvín; Yazd; Najafábád; Ábádih; Tihrán; Mashhad; Sabzivár; Arák; Hamadán; Záhidán religious persecution; Tarbiyat School
    1934 23 Oct Dr Susan Moody passes away in Iran. [BFA2:361]
    • For her services in Iran and an obituary see BW6:483–6.
    • She is buried near the graves of Lillian Kappes and Sarah Clock in the Tihrán Bahá’í cemetery. [BW6:486]
    Tihran; Iran Susan Moody; Lillian Kappes; Sarah Clock; In Memoriam; Cemeteries and graves
    1934 6 Dec The Tarbíyat Bahá’í Schools in Tihrán and all other Bahá'í schools across the country are closed by order of the Minister of Education (headed by 'Ali-Asghar-i-Hikmat, a well-known Azali) when they fail to open on a holy day. [BBD221–2; BW18:389; CB312; GPB363; PP308; RoB4p313]
    • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR475–9.
    Tihran Tarbiyat Bahai Schools; Bahai schools; Holy days; Persecution
    1935 The persecution against the Bahá’ís in Iran continues. [BW18:389]
    • Meetings in the Bahá’í Centre in Tihrán are banned.
    • A number of Bahá’ís in Bandar Sháh are arrested and imprisoned.
    • The secretary of the Local Spiritual Assembly of Arák is arrested.
    • Bahá’ís in Qazvín are arrested and harassed.
    • A Bahá’í in Záhidán is arrested.
    Iran; Tihrán; Bandar Sháh; Arák; Qazví; Záhidán; religious persecution; LSA
    1937 May Several prominent Bahá’ís are arrested in Yazd. [BW18:389]
    • They are imprisoned in Tihrán for four years; one dies in prison. [BW18:389]
    Yazd; Tihrán; Iran; religious persecution
    1938 Persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the country. [BW18:389]
    • Bahá’ís marrying without a Muslim ceremony are investigated, including several hundred in Tihrán alone. Most are imprisoned pending trial and are imprisoned for six to eight months afterwards and fined.
    • Bahá’í meetings in Kirmánsháh, Záhidán, Mashhad and other towns are harassed by the police.
    Iran; Tihrán; Kirmánsháh; Záhidán; Mashhad religious persecution
    1944 A Bahá’í committee in Tihrán identifies the House of Bahá’u’lláh in the city and purchases it. Tihrán House of Bahá’u’lláh
    1946 The restoration of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tihrán is completed. Tihrán House of Baha’u’llah
    1947 The Hazíratu’l-Quds of Tihrán is completed. [BW11:588] Tihran; Iran Haziratul-Quds
    1948 The Bahá’í centre in Tihrán is attacked by a mob incited by Áyatu’lláh Káshání. [BW18:390] Tihran; Iran Ayatullah Kashani; Persecution; Haziratul-Quds; Destruction
    1952 26 Aug The martyrdom of Nuri'd-Dín Fath-'Azam near Tehran. [BW12p690-692] Tihran; Iran Persecution; Martyrs; Nurid-Din Fath-Azam
    1954 spring The Síyáh-Chál is acquired by the Bahá’ís. [BW12:64–5; SE153; SS45]
    • The purchase cost is $400,000. [BW12:65]
    Tihran; Iran Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Property purchases
    1955 23 Apr Ramadán begins. Shaykh Muhammad-Taqí known as "Falsafí" makes an inflammatory speech against the Bahá’ís from a mosque in Tihrán. [BW18:390]
    • This is broadcast on national radio and stirs up the people against the Bahá’ís. [BW18:390]
    • Beatings, killings, looting and raping go on for several weeks, usually incited by the local ‘ulamá. [BW18:390–1; MC16–17; ZK215–6]
    • The House of the Báb in Shíráz is attacked and damaged by a mob led by Siyyid Núru’d-Dín, a mujtahid.
    Tihran; Shiraz; Iran Shaykh Muhammad-Taqi Falsafi; Bab, House of (Shiraz); Siyyid Nurud-Din; Persecution
    1955 2 May The police lock the doors of the National Bahá’í Centre in Tihrán thus preventing the holding of the final day of the National Bahá’í Convention. [BW18:390] Tihrán religious persecution; National Bahá’í Convention
    1955 7 May The Iranian army occupies the National Bahá’í Centre in Tihrán. [BW18:390] Tihrán religious persecution
    1955 22 May The dome of the National Bahá’í Centre in Tihrán is demolished with the personal participation of several high-ranking army officers. The publication of the pictures of this episode encourages a widespread outburst of persecution of Bahá’ís throughout Iran. [BW18:391]
    • After the coup in 1953 the Shah was indebted to the clergy for their support and so they were given a greater latitude to persecute the Bahá'ís. In an attempt to show his gratitude the Shah sent a high ranking officer to ask if they had any special requests and they called for the Bahá'í Centre in Tehran to be destroyed. The army occupied the Centre and high-ranking officers and clerics jointly demolished the dome. [Towards a History of Iran’s Baha’i Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.]
    • For pictures see BW13:293–4.
    Tihrán religious persecution
    1970 The House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tihrán undergoes major repair and a fundamental restoration of both exterior and interior parts. Tihran; Iran House of Bahaullah (Tihran); Restoration
    1971 16 Oct The inauguration of Shahyad Tower ("King's Memorial Tower") in Tehran. The tower was built in honour of the shah on the occasion of the commemoration of the 2,500th anniversary of the Persian Empire and has become an iconic symbol of the city of Tehran. It has been described as being a tower, an arch, a gate and an obelisk in one and is 50 meters (164 ft) tall and completely clad in some eight thousand blocks of cut marble from Isfahan Province. The main financing was provided by a group of five hundred Iranian industrialists.

    After the Revolution in 1979 it was renamed The Azadi Tower (Liberty Tower) and was, in turn, the gathering place of the "rebels" in 1979 and for those protesting the results of the election in 2009.

    The architect, Hossein Amanat was only 24 years old and a recent graduate when he won the competition for the project. In addition to having a remarkable career in designing buildings for commercial, educational and residential use, he is the architect for such Bahá'í projects as the Universal House of Justice Building, the Centre for the Study of the Holy Texts, the International Teaching Centre and the Mashriqu’l-Adhka in Samoa. He left Iran in 1978 and took up residence in Vancouver in 1980. [Hossein Amanat website]

    Tihran; Iran Hossein Amanat (Husayn Amanat); Architecture; Architects
    1973 The House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tihrán and its adjacent bírúní (reception area) are completely restored to their original structure, design and elegance. Tihrán House of Baha’u’llah
    1979 The House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tihrán is confiscated by the revolutionary government of Iran. [BW17:79] Tihrán House of Baha’u’llah; religious persecution
    1979 17 Jan Mohammad Rezā Pahlavi‎, known as Mohammad Reza Shah, entitled Shāhanshāh ("Emperor" or "King of Kings"), fled Iran. The dissolution of the monarchy was complete on the 11th of February. Tihran; Iran Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general)
    1979 Mar Yúsif Subhání, a well-known Bahá’í businessman, is imprisoned in Tihrán. [BW18:278] Iran; Tihran Persecution
    1979 24 May Shaykh Muhammad Muvahhid, a well-known Bahá’í, is kidnapped in Tihrán. [BW18:254, 294] Tihrán Shaykh Muhammad Muvahhi; religious persecution
    1979 11 Nov Dr ‘Alímurád Dávúdí, a member of the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran, is kidnapped in Tihrán and presumed dead. [BW18:254, 294] Tihran; Iran Persecution; NSA
    1979 Dec ‘Azamatu’lláh Fahandizh is executed in Tihrán. [BW18:255] Tihran; Iran Azamatullah Fahandizh; Persecution
    1981 5 Dec The Bahá'í cemetery in Tehran was seized "by order of the Revolutionary Court. Five caretakers and eight temporary workers were arrested and the cemetery was closed. [Mess63-86p510] Tihran; Iran Cemeteries and graves; Bahai cemeteries; Persecution
    1992 18 Mar The martyrdom of Mr. Bahman Samandari in the Evin prison in Tehran. Mr. Samandari was executed with no advance notice and in the absence of due process. A 52 year-old businessman from a distinguished Bahá'í family, he was buried secretly on 20 March 1992 and his family was not notified until 5 April 1992. This was the first execution in three and one-half years. It belied the public position taken by the Iránian government that the Bahá'ís were not being persecuted for their religious beliefs. [AWH118-9, VV126] Tihran; Iran Persecution; Martyrs; Evin Prison
    1993 Jun The bodies of Bahá'ís buried in the Bahá'í section of a Tihrán cemetery are exhumed and taken by lorry to unknown destinations. [BW93–4:153] Tihran; Iran Cemeteries and graves; Bahai cemeteries; Persecution
    1993 Jul A section of the Bahá'í cemetery in Tihrán is bulldozed to make way for the construction of an Islamic cultural centre. [BW93–4:140]
    • It is first thought that about two thousand Bahá'í graves are desecrated but later revealed that 15,000 graves are destroyed. [BW93–4:140; BW94–5:133]
    Tihrán
    2008 14 May The six men and women, Mr. Jamaloddin Khanjani, Mr. Afif Naeimi, Mr. Saeid Rezaie, Mr. Behrouz Tavakkoli, Mr. Vahid Tizfahm. and Mrs. Fariba Kamalabadi, all members of the national-level group that helped see to the minimum needs of Bahá’ís in Iran were arrested in their homes in Tehran. Mrs. Kamalabadi, Mr. Khanjani, and Mr. Tavakkoli have been previously arrested and then released after periods ranging from five days to four months. [BWNS632, Report] Tihran; Iran Yaran
    2009 11 May After a year in jail without formal charges the Bahá'í leaders face an additional accusation, 'the spreading of corruption on earth,' which goes by the term 'Mofsede fel-Arz' in Persian and carries the threat of death under the penal code of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Prior to this new charge they had been accused of 'espionage for Israel, insulting religious sanctities and propaganda against the Islamic Republic.' [BIC Report] Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution; Court cases
    2009 10 Jul Iranian officials tell the families of the seven Baha'i leaders being held in Evin prison in Tehran that their trial has been delayed. No new trial date was given. [BWNS723] Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution; Court cases
    2009 17 Aug The trial of seven Baha'i leaders imprisoned in Iran is further postponed until 18 October. [BWNS727] Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution; Court cases
    2009 18 Oct Attorneys and families of the seven arrive at court in Tehran for the trial to be told that it would not take place. No new date is set. [BIC Report] Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution; Court cases
    2010 12 Jan – 14 Jun The trial of Iran's seven Bahá'í leaders, Fariba Kamalabadi, Jamaloddin Khanjani, Afif Naeimi, Saeid Rezaie, Mahvash Sabet, Behrouz Tavakkoli, and Vahid Tizfahm begins in Tehran. The seven are charged with "espionage", "propaganda activities against the Islamic order", "the establishment of an illegal administration", "cooperation with Israel", "sending secret documents outside the country", "acting against the security of the country", and "corruption on earth". [BWNS748, BWNS778]

    • The profiles of the accused: Profiles.
    • The trial is closed to the public. A film crew and known interrogators are permitted entry. [Video "The Story of the Baha'i Seven" 13 May 2016 BIC]
    Tihran; Iran Yaran; Court cases; Imprisonments; Persecution
    2010 10 May New information is obtained regarding the conditions in which the seven Bahá'í prisoners are being held-two small rancid-smelling cells. They have not been given beds or bedding. There is no natural light in their cells so when the light is turned off during the day they are held in darkness. [Video "The Story of the Baha'i Seven" 13 May 2016 BIC] Tihran; Iran Yaran
    2010 8 Aug The sentence of 20 years in prison is announced for members of the "Yaran-i-Iran" or "Friends of Iran" by Judge Moqayesseh. The charges were several: "espionage", "collaborating with enemy states", "insulting the sacred", "propaganda against the state" and "forming an illegal group". The prominent civil and human right lawyer who defended them was Mr Abdolfattah Soltani. He would later serve a 13-year sentence in the Evin Prison for engaging in his profession. Another member of their legal defense team was the attorney Hadi Esmailzadeh who died in 2016 while serving a 4-year prison term for defending human rights cases. The seven Bahá'í leaders are sent to Gohardasht prison, about 50 kilometers west of Tehran. [BWNS789] Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution; Court cases; Evin Prison; Gohardasht prison; Abdolfattah Soltani; Hadi Esmailzadeh; Human rights
    2010 15 Sep In the face of the chorus of condemnation for the 20-year sentence for the seven Bahá'í leaders from governments and human rights organizations around the world, the Appeals court reduces their sentences are reduced from 20 to 10 years by removing charges such as “Espionage and Collaboration with Israel”. This was verbally released to Ms. Sabet’s lawyer. [BWNS793, BIC Report] Tihran; Iran Yaran; Court cases; Persecution
    2011 30 Mar Six months after Iran's Appeal Court reduced their sentences from 20 to 10 years, the seven Baha'i leaders were told that the Appeals Court sentence was recognized as being in contrast with the Law and that their original 20-year sentences have been reinstated. [BWNS814] Tihran; Iran Yaran; Court cases; Persecution
    2011 20 May Fariba Kamalabadi and Mahvash Sabet are returned to Evin Prison in Tehran. They had spent a brief spell in appalling conditions at Qarchak prison, (from 3 May) some 45 kilometers from Tehran. [BIC Evin]
    • The five men are still being held under close scrutiny in a wing of Gohardasht prison, reserved for political prisoners. [BIC Report]
    Tihran; Iran Yaran; Evin Prison; Gohardasht Prison
    2011 25 May Fariba Kamalabadi and Mahvash Sabet were transferred from appalling conditions at Qarchak prison to Evin prison in Tehran. [BWNS826] Qarchak; Iran; Tihran Qarchak prison; Evin prison; Yaran
    2013 14 May The Bahá'í International Community launches the Five Years Too Many campaign to protest the 20-year prison sentences given to the Bahá'í leaders in Iran, the longest sentence given to prisoners of conscience under the current regime. The harshness of the sentences reflect the Government’s resolve to oppress completely the Iranian Bahá'í community, which faces a systematic, “cradle-to-grave” persecution that is among the most serious examples of state-sponsored religious persecution in the world today. [Five Years Too Many, BWNS954] Tihran; Iran Yaran
    2014 Nov Fariba Kamalabadi, after having her fourth request to join her daughter Taraneh for her wedding denied, writes her a letter from Evin Prison. [Iran Press Watch] Tihran; Iran Yaran; Evin Prison
    2015 14 May A global campaign called "Seven Days in Remembrance of Seven Years in Prison for the Seven Baha'i Leaders" to call attention to the long and unjust imprisonment of seven Iranian Baha'i leaders is launched on the seventh anniversary of their arrest. Each day of the week-long campaign, starting 14 May 2015, was dedicated to one member of the seven: Mahvash Sabet, Fariba Kamalabadi, Jamaloddin Khanjani, Afif Naeimi, Saeid Rezaie, Behrouz Tavakkoli, and Vahid Tizfahm. [7 Days] Tihran; Iran Yaran
    2016 29 Apr In observance of the eighth anniversary of the arrest and incarceration of seven Iranian Baha’i leaders, the Baha’i International Community is launching a global campaign calling for their immediate release. Taking the theme “Enough! Release the Baha’i Seven,” the campaign will emphasize the fact that, under Iran’s own national penal code, the seven are now overdue for conditional release. [Enough!]
    • A special campaign page has been established with information about their current legal situation and other resources. [Enough! Release the Bahá'í Seven].
    • The campaign includes an account on FaceBook.
    • and a Twitter handle. The hashtag for the campaign is: #ReleaseBahai7Now.
    Tihran; Iran Yaran
    2016 13 May Fariba Kamalabadi, while on a five-day furlough from Evin Prison, meets with former Tehran MP Faezeh Hashemi. It is the first temporary leave she has been granted during her eight years of imprisonment.

    Faezeh Hashemi is the activist daughter of former President Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani and she previously shared a prison cell with Kamalabadi in Evin Prison. Hashemi is strongly condemned by politicians and religious leaders. A high-ranking member of the Iranian Judiciary vows that action will be taken against her. Despite the widespread criticism she has received from powerful quarters in Iran, Faezeh Hashemi publicly defends her decision to meet with Kamalabadi. [Iran Press Watch, from NY Times, BWNS1108]

    Tihran; Iran Yaran
    2016 24 Nov From her cell in Evin prison, In a open letter to her six-month old granddaughter, Bajar. Fariba Kamalabadi one of the members of the imprisoned Yaran of Iran, writes about the suffering of the Bahá'í citizens and of her dreams for humanity. [Iran Press Watch 16140] Tihran; Iran Yaran; Evin Prison
    2017 19 Sep The release of Mahvash Sabet, one of the seven members of the former leadership group of the Baha'is in Iran known as the Yaran, after 10 years of confinement in Iran's notorious Evin and Raja'i Shahr prisons. She was arrested in March 2008 and is now 64 years old. Mrs. Sabet distinguished herself by the loving care and kindness she extended to her fellow prisoners. As has occurred with prisoners of conscience, writers, thought-leaders, and poets who have been wrongly imprisoned throughout history, the power of Mrs. Sabet's ideas and beliefs was only amplified by her persecution. The plight of its author attracted attention to this deeply moving collection of poetry, inspiring PEN International to feature Mrs. Sabet in a campaign to defend persecuted writers. Her poems also inspired a musical composition by award-winning composer Lasse Thoresen, performed at an international music festival in Oslo earlier this year. [BWNS1198]
  • See Prison Poems.
  • See CNN article Writing to survive: Baha'i woman's poetry was her best friend in Iranian jail.
  • Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution; Court cases
    2017 near the end of Oct Fariba Kamalabadi, a member of the former leadership group of the Baha’is called the "Yaran", concluded her ten-year prison sentence. She was the second individual from among the former Yaran to be released. She, along with five others, were arrested on the 14th of May, 2008. Mrs. Kamalabadi had graduated from high school with honours but was barred from attending university because of her Faith. In her mid-30s, she embarked on an eight-year period of informal study and ultimately received an advanced degree in developmental psychology from the Bahá’í Institute of Higher Education (BIHE), an alternative institution established by the Bahá’í community of Iran to provide higher education for its young people. She worked as a developmental psychologist before her arrest and imprisonment. She is also married with three children. Along with the deprivations of imprisonment itself, (She had spent 2 1/2 years of the 10-year sentence in solitary confinement.) Mrs. Kamalabadi was also deprived of irreplaceable family moments, including the birth of her first grandchild and the weddings of her daughters. She was 55 years old upon her release. [BWNS1217]
    • See Huffington Post for an article entitled "Iran’s Baha’i Problem" by Payam Akhavan about the visit of Ms. Faezeh Hashemi, the well-known daughter of former Iranian President Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, who made a visit to her home while she was on leave from prison.
    • Ms Hashemi, herself a former MP, was heavily criticized after she met with Ms Kamalabadi. See the article in The Guardian for details.
    Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution; Court cases
    2017 5 Dec The release of Behrooz Tavakkoli, 66, from prison after serving a 10-year term. He was the third member of the Yaran to be released. [Iran Press Watch18533; Iran Press Watch18536; BWNS1225] Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution; Court cases

    from the main catalogue

    1. Bahá'í Shrines, by John Walbridge, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). [about]
    2. History of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Tihran, Iran (1978). Brief history of the birth-place of Baha'u'llah distributed to pilgrims to the site. [about]
    3. Massacres de Babis en Perse, by A.L.M. Nicolas (1936). On events in 1903 in Rasht, Isfahan, Yazd, and Tehran, written by a French consul in Iran. [about]
    4. Remains of the Bab in Tehran, The, by Ahang Rabbani (1997). Brief bio of Aqa Husayn-'Ali Nur and an extract from Khatirat Muhajiri Az Isfahan, "Memoirs of a Refugee from Isfahan," discussing the history of these remains. Includes biographical notes. [about]
    5. Tablet Concerning Covenant-Breakers: Excerpt, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1998). Translation, posted to email list, of a portion of a Tablet revealed on the occasion of the expulsion of Tamaddunu'l-Mulk, who had caused dissension in Tehran around 1913. [about]
    6. Tablets of Pilgrimage (Suriy-i-Hajj): Wilmette Institute faculty notes, by Iraj Ayman (1999). [about]
    7. Tehran, Iran, by Moojan Momen, in The Bahá'í Encyclopedia (2009). On the capital city of Iran and birthplace of Bahá’u’lláh, called by Him the "Land of Tá" (Ard-i-Tá), site of numerous important events in Bahá’í history. [about]
    8. Textual Context and Literary Criticism: A Case Study based on a Letter from Shoghi Effendi, by Gerald Keil, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 11 (2010). [about]
     
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