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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1848 c. Jul Quddús is arrested and taken to Sárí where he is placed under house arrest in the home of Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, a leading cleric. [B171; BKG50; DB300]

Táhirih is arrested and is later taken to Tihrán where she is held in the home of Mahmúd Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, until her martyrdom in August 1852.

Mullá Husayn leaves the army camp near Mashhad where he has been a guest of a brother of the Sháh. He plans to make a pilgrimage to Karbalá. While making preparations for the journey he receives a Tablet from the Báb instructing him to go to Mázindarán to help Quddús, carrying a Black Standard before him. He is also instructed to wear the Báb's own green turban and to take the new name Siyyid `Alí. [B171; BKG50; DB324; MH174]

Sari; Tihran; Mashhad; Mazindaran; Iran; Karbala; Iraq Quddus; Mirza Muhammad-Taqi; Tahirih; Mahmud Khan; Kalantar; Mulla Husayn; Shahs; Black Standard; Green turban; Turbans; Names and titles
1895. 23 Jun Birth of Leonora Stirling Armstrong, pioneer American Bahá'í, regarded as the Mother of South America, in upstate New York. New York; United States Leonora Holsapple Armstrong; Names and titles
1928 The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Mírzá 'Alí-Muhammad, known as Ibn-i-Asdaq. He was born in Mashhad in 1850/1.
  • His father was Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khursúní, referred to as a Hand of the Cause of God by 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [EM19] While still a child he suffered imprisonment with his father in Tehran.
  • He begged Bahá’u’lláh permission to be a martyr. Baha’u’llah said that if one lived right he might attain martyrdom. In 1882 Baha’u’llah conferred the station of martyr on him calling him “Shahid Ibn-i-Shahid” (“Martyr, son of the Martyr”) .”
  • He is the first of the Hands of the Cause of God named by Bahá’u’lláh.
  • ‘Abdu’l-Bahá gave him a special mission to teach members of the “ruling class” the Faith.
  • He was deeply involved in the planning and construction of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár in ‘Ishqábád.
  • Ibn-i-Asdaq, Mírzá ‘Alí-Muhammad, Hand of the Cause of God, Apostle of Bahá’u’lláh, passes away in Tihrán. [BBD115, EM176, LoF9-12, RoB4p286]
  • For details of his life see EB171–6.
  • Tihran; Mashhad; Iran In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Apostles of Bahaullah; Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mirza Ali-Muhammad); Apostles of Bahaullah; Mulla Sadiq-i- Muqaddas-i-Khursuni; Names and titles; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad
    1932 23 Nov George Adam Benke passes away in Sofia, Bulgaria.
    • Shoghi Effendi calls him the first European martyr. [LDG1:263; MC359]
    • For his obituary see BW5:416–18.
    Sofia; Bulgaria George Adam Benke; Names and titles; Firsts, Other
    1933 23 Oct Keith Ransom-Kehler dies of smallpox in Isfahán. [BW5:24, 398]
    • For her obituary see BW5:389–410.
    • She is buried near the grave of the King of Martyrs. [BW5:398]
    • For a picture of her grave see BW5:399.
    • Shoghi Effendi names her America’s ‘first and distinguished martyr’. [BW5:398]
    • Shoghi Effendi elevates her to the rank of Hand of the Cause on 28 October, 1933. [BW5:398, MoCxxii]
    • For her mission in Iran see BW5:23–7.
    • See also PP306–7.
    • See Other People Other Places by Marzieh Gail (pages 176-181) for a pen portrait of Keith Ransom-Kehler .
    Isfahan; Iran Keith Ransom-Kehler; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Cemeteries and graves; Names and titles; Firsts, Other
    1940 1 Mar May Bolles Maxwell passes away in Buenos Aires. [BBD153; BW8:631 TG49]
    • Shoghi Effendi awards her the honour of a ‘martyr’s death’ and a Disciple of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [BW8:631; MA38]
    • She was the first Bahá'í on European soil and the "mother" of both the French and the Canadian Bahá'í communities. [PP149]
    • For the story of her life see BW17:437–8.
    • Shoghi Effendi asks her husband, Sutherland Maxwell, to design her tomb, which is to be a ‘historic centre’ for ‘pioneer Bahá’í activity’. [BW8:642]
    • For an account of the erection of the monument to her see PSBW83–6.
    Buenos Aires; Argentina May Maxwell (Bolles); Births and deaths; Names and titles; Sutherland Maxwell; Architecture; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; First Bahais by country or area
    1940 27 Dec Elizabeth Cheney, the ‘spiritual mother of Paraguay’, arrives in Paraguay, the first pioneer to the country. Paraguay Elizabeth Cheney; Names and titles; First travel teachers and pioneers
    1953 26 Aug Ella Bailey passes away in Tripoli. [BW12:687]
    • She is 88 years old.
    • She is elevated to the rank of the martyrs. [MBW170]
    • For the story of her life see PSBW131–42.
    • For her obituary see BW12:685–8.
    Tripoli; Libya Ella Bailey; Names and titles
    1980 17 Oct Leonora Armstrong, the ‘spiritual mother of South America’ and the first Latin American pioneer, passes away in Bahia, Brazil. She had served on the Continental Board of Counsellors from her appointment in 1973. [Mess63-86p248; BW18:738; VV32]
    • For her obituary see BW18:733–738.
    Bahia; Brazil Leonora Holsapple Armstrong; Names and titles

    from the main catalogue

    1. Bahá'í Faith in the Arabic Speaking Middle East, The: Part 1 (1753-1863), by Ramsey Zeine, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). [about]
    2. Baha'u'llah: The Desire of the World, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum (1982). Materials for the contemplation of God and His Manifestation for this day, compiled from the Words of Bahá’u’lláh. [about]
    3. Christianity from a Bahá'í Perspective, by Robert Stockman (1998). Includes two topics: "A Baha'i approach to the Bible" and "Baha'i Writings on Jesus Christ." [about]
    4. List of Baha'i Studies and Translations, by Stephen Lambden. A list of content available at Lambden's personal website, Hurqalya Publications, with select links to manuscripts, texts, introductions. Includes Shaykhi and Babi studies, bibliographies, genealogies, provisional translations. [about]
    5. Persian and Arabic names, by Hasan M. Balyuzi and Marzieh Gail, in The Báb (1973). Explanations of the elaborate system of Persian names and titles used in the nineteenth century. [about]
    6. Personal Names and Titles in Islamic and Baha'i Usage, by John Walbridge, in Essays and Notes on Babi and Baha'i History (2002). [about]
    7. Tablet of the Centennial, by Shoghi Effendi (1998). An epistle to the Persian-speaking Baha'is. Includes English translation of Muhammad Varqa's "Le Style persan du Gardien." [about]
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