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|1813. c. 1813
||Birth of Muhammad Husayn-i-Bushrú'í (Mullá Husayn).
||At the age of 12 Mulla Husayn finished his studies in Bushíhr and went to Mashhad, the most prestigious centre of religious study in Iran. In 1830-1 he relocated to Karbala to study under Siyyid Kázim. [MH7-8; MH113]
||Karbila; Mashhad; Bushihr
||Mulla Husayn; Siyyid Kazim; Z*
||Birth of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Husayn, Mahbúbu'sh-Shuhadá' (`Beloved of Martyrs'), in Isfahán.
||Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs
||Birth of Ahmad, son of the Báb. He passes away shortly after he is born. [B46]
- DB74 for a picture of his resting-place.
- The Báb dreams that He drinks a few drops of blood from the wounds of the martyred Imám Husayn. After this dream He feels that the Spirit of God has taken possession of His soul. [BBRSM14; DB253]
||Ahmad (son of the Bab); Bab, Family of; Cemetaries and graves; Dreams; Imam Husayn
|1843 10 Jan
||The Báb dreams that He drinks a few drops of blood from the wounds of the martyred Imám Husayn. After this dream He feels that the Spirit of God has taken possession of His soul. [BBRSM14; DB253, HotD23-24
- His wife had an indication of His calling after having seen Him wrapt in prayer during the night. [HotD27]
||Bab, Life of; Dreams; Blood; Imam Husayn
|1844. 22 Jan
||Mullá Husayn returns to Karbalá after a journey of two years in Persia. He has been on a mission in Isfahán and Mashhad where he has successfully defended the views of his master, Siyyid Kázim, before the leading clerics of those cities. [MH49]
- After a period of mourning and 40 days of prayer and fasting in the vicinity of the shrine in Najaf he sets out for Persia in the company of his brother and his nephew following the last wishes of Siyyid Kázim that his followers quit Karbalá and search for the Promised One. The party go to Búshihr and then on to Shíráz. [MH50–55, HotD28]
- See SI dustjacket for a photo of the Shrine of Imam 'Ali.
|Karbalá; Isfahán; Mashhad; Najaf; Búshihr; Shíráz; Iraq; Iran; Persia
||Mulla Husayn; Siyyid Kazim; mourning; fasting
|1844. 22 May
||Declaration of the Báb's Mission
Two hours and eleven minutes after sunset Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad makes His declaration to Mullá Husayn-i-Bushrú'í.
- See SI231 for information on the anticipated return of the Hidden Imam. See BBR2pg42-3 and DB57 for a list of signs by which the Promised One would be known.
- See BW5p600-4 for a brief biography of William Miller the founder of the Adventist sect who, after intense study of the Bible, had predicted the return of Christ on March 21, 1844. See BW5p604 for mention of other Christians who made similar predictions.
- See DB383 and BBR2pg25 for information on Mulla Husayn-i-Bushru’i. See CoB110 for the significance of the first believer.
- See SBBH1:14 for a possible explanation for Mullá Husayn's presence in Shíráz at this time.
- Nabíl-i-A`zam relates that Mullá Husayn was welcomed at the Báb's mansion by Mubárak, His Ethiopian servant. [DB53]
- He reveals the first chapter of the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá' (the Commentary on the Súrih of Joseph. The entire text will later be translated by Táhirih. [B19–21; BBD190–1; BBRSM14–15; BKG28; BW12:85–8; BWMF16; DB52–65, 264, 216, BBR2pg14-15, GPB23, 73; MH56–71; SBBH17, HotD30]
- Bahá'u'lláh has described this book as being `the first, the greatest, and mightiest of all books' in the Bábí Dispensation. [GPB23]
- See SBBH5pg1 for discussion on the Qayyumu’l-Asma’.
- This text was the most widely circulated of all the Báb's writings and came to be regarded as the Bábí Qur'an for almost the entirety of His mission. [BBRSM32]
- This date marks the end of the Adamic Cycle of approximately six thousand years and the beginning of the Bahá'í Cycle or Cycle of Fulfilment. [BBD9, 35, 72; GPB100] Shoghi Effendi is quoted as saying that this is the second most important anniversary on the Bahá'í calendar. ZK320
- The beginning of the Apostolic, Heroic or Primitive Age. [BBD35, 67]
- See MH86–7 for an explanation of the implication of the word `Báb' to the Shí'í Muslims.
- Three stages of the Báb's Revelation:
- He chooses the title `Báb' and Mullá Husayn is given the title Bábu'l-Báb (the gate of the Gate).
- In the second year of the Revelation (from His confinement in the house of His uncle in Shíráz) He takes the title of Siyyid-i-dhikr (dhikr means `remembrance of God') and gives the title `Báb' to Mullá Husayn. At Fort Tabarsí Mullá Husayn is called `Jináb-i Báb' by his companions.
- At His public declaration the Báb declares Himself to be the promised Qá'im. [MH87–8]
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Declaration of; Holy days; Bab, Writings of; Mulla Husayn; Qayyumul-Asma (book); Surih of Joseph; Tahirih; Bab, Life of; Cycles; Ages (time); Qaim; Promised One; - Basic timeline; Mubarak
|1844 Jul - Aug
||Forty days after the Declaration of the Báb, the second Letter of the Living, Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí, has a vision that leads him to Mullá Husayn and he accepts the Báb. During this period of waiting for the second person to recognize the Báb, He called Mulla Husayn to His house several times. He always comes at night and stays until dawn. [HotD41]. Sixteen others recognize Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad as the Promised One. The 18 are later designated `Letters of the Living'. [BBD138, B21–7; DB63–71, 80–2; MH73–81, MH121, SBBH1:16–17, GPB7-8]
- See RB2:145–6 for the fate of the Letters of the Living.
- See B26–7, BBD138, DB80–1, MH81 for a list of the Letters of the Living.
- See BBRSM24–5 for more on the Letters of the Living.
- See BBRSM24–5 for a discussion of the special places occupied by Quddús, Mullá Husayn and Táhirih.
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Declaration of; Mulla Ali Bastami; Dreams; Mulla Husayn; Letters of the Living; Quddus; Tahirih
|1844 Jul - Aug
||The intention of the Báb is to introduce the new Revelation slowly so as not to cause estrangement. He instructs them to spread out and teach His Faith and to this end He assigned each one a special task, most often to their own native provinces. [BBRSM14–16, 36; SWB119, BBR2p36, DB92–4; MH82–6; SBBH1:19]
- To Mullá Husayn He had given the task of delivering a Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh in Tihrán and going to the court of the Sháh to apprise him of the Báb's cause. Mullá Husayn is not able to gain access to the Sháh. [B48–57; BBRSM15 BKG32–3; CH22–3; DB85-87, 97; MH90–2, 102]
- Mullá Husayn carries to Tihrán a Tablet revealed by the Báb for Muhammad Sháh. This is the first of a number of unsuccessful attempts to enlist his aid. [BBRSM20–1; MH102; SWB13]
- Note: MH118-119 and DB127-128 indicate that Mullá Husayn had been in Tehran "between the months of Jámádí and Rajab". The first day of Jámádí, 1260 corresponds to 18 June, and the last day of Rajab to 15 August, 1844.
- See RB2:303, `The Báb … sent Tablets to only two monarchs of His day — Muhammad Sháh of Persia and Sultán `Abdu'l-Majíd of Turkey.'
- From Shiraz he journeys north to Isfahán where Mullá Ja`far, the sifter of wheat, is the first to embrace the Cause of the Báb in that city. Mullá Husayn then travels to Káshán, about 130 miles from Isfahán. He then goes to Qum, another 100 miles from Káshán. After Qum he goes to Tihrán. [MH98–101, DB99]
- See B53–6; DB104–7, MH104–110 for the delivery of the Báb's Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh. Mullá Husayn does not meet Bahá'u'lláh on this occasion.
- On receiving the Tablet of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh accepts His Cause. He immediately journeys to Mázindarán, His native province, to promote the Cause of the Báb. He returns after the death of the Shah in 1948 [BKG39–40; BW8:782; DB109; TN35, SoB6, BPP45, 48, SoG4]
- Mullá Husayn leaves for Khurásán, as he had been instructed, winning supporters for the Báb's Cause while there he writes to the Báb regarding these new believers and Bahá'u'lláh's immediate response to the Báb's Revelation. [B56, DB128–9, MH118]
- See MH121–2 for a discussion of the speed of Mullá Husayn's journey before the letter was dispatched to the Báb. It assumes that Mullá Husayn departed after The Báb met with all the Letters of the Living (date not before 2 July, 1844.) In fact both Mullá Husayn and Mullá 'Alíy-Bastámí had been dispatched before this meeting. [DB85-86, 92, HotD46]
|Iran; Turkey; Kashan; Isfahan; Tihran; Mazindaran; Khurasan; Qum
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Letters of the Living; Mulla Husayn; Bahaullah, Life of; Tablet to Bahaullah; Shahs; Mulla Jafar (sifter of wheat); Muhammad Shah; Sultan Abdul-Majid; First believers
|1844 30 Sep
||The Báb receives the letter from Mullá Husayn giving Him details of his journey and meeting with Bahá'u'lláh and others he had contacted.
- Nabíl indicates that the Báb received the letter on 9 October (26 Ramadan) and that it was a deciding factor in His decision to undertake the pilgrimage. [DB126–7, 129]
- Balyuzi says soon after the Báb received the letter, `in the month of September' He left Shíráz'. [B57]
- GPB8-9 says He received the letter in the month of Sha'bán, 1260 (16 August to 13 September, 1844).
- See MH119 where the author speculates that if the letter arrived on 16 Ramadan (29 September) and the Báb departed from the port of Búshihr on the 19th of Ramadan (2 October, 1844), He had to have been in Búshihr when He received the letter.
||Bab, Life of; Mulla Husayn; Bahaullah, Life of; Pilgrimage
|1844 2 or 3 Oct
||The Báb departs from Búshihr on His pilgrimage. [B57; MH119, 121, GPB9]
- He instructs His followers to await His arrival in Karbalá. [DB86, 87; MH122; SBBH1:23]
- He has been awaiting the letter from Mullá Husayn before starting on His pilgrimage. [DB123; MH117]
- The vessel taking the Báb to Jiddah is probably the Arab sailing-boat named Futúh-ar-Ras`ul. [B69]
- He joined the company of a group of pilgrims from Fárs. [DB76-77]
|Karbala; Iraq; Jiddah; Saudi Arabia
||Bab, Life of; Mulla Husayn; Ships
|1844 c. 20 Dec
||The Báb makes a declaration of His mission by standing at the Ka`bih, holding the ring of the door and repeating three times that He is the Qá'im.
- He makes an open challenge to Mírzá Muhammad-Husayn-i-Kirmání, known as Muhít, of the Shaykhí school and sends an invitation to the Sharíf of Mecca to embrace the new Revelation. The Sharíf is too busy to respond. [B71-74; BW12:89; DB134–8; GPB9, 89]
|Mecca; Saudi Arabia
||Bab, Life of; Kabih; Qaim; Mirza Muhammad-Husayn-i-Kirmani (Muhit); Shaykhism; Sharif of Mecca
|1845. 23 Jun
||The governor of Fárs, Husayn Khán, has Quddús, Mullá Sádiq-i-Khurásání, Mullá `Alí-Akbar-i-Ardistání and Mullá Abú-Tálib arrested, tortured and expelled from Shíráz. [B78; BBR69; BW18:380; DB145–8; GPB11, BBR1pxxviii]
- Note: B78 says that Mullá Abú-Tálib was not among the group.
- Note: DB146 note2 says "According to A. L. M. Nicolas’ “Siyyid ‘Alí-Muhammad dit le Báb” (footnote 175, p. 225), this meeting took place on August 6, 1845 A.D."
- The London Times of November 1st and November 19, 1945 reports that this took place on the 23rd of June. [B76, BBR1p69,82]
- The governor of Fárs, Hasayn Khán orders that the Báb be arrested and brought to Shíráz. [B84; BW18:380; DB148–50; GPB11] Búshihr,
- The Báb leaves Búshihr for Shíráz on an unknown date. [B 105]
|Fars; Iran; Shiraz; Iran; Bushihr
||Governors; Husayn Khan; Quddus; Ismullahul-Asdaq (Mulla Sadiq Khurasani); Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Ardistani; Mulla Abu-Talib; Persecution; Husayn Khan
|1845. Jul and months following
||The Báb is told to attend a Friday gathering at the Mosque of Vakíl to appease the hostility and the curiosity of some of the residents of Shíráz and to clarify His position. The exact date of His attendance is unknown. He makes a public pronouncement that He is neither the representative of the Hidden Imám nor the gate to him, that is, His station is higher. [B94–8; DB151–7]
- He is released to the custody of His uncle, Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'Alí. [DB151, LTDT13]
- see DB152 for pictures of the above mosque.
- Upon hearing the news of the confinement of the Báb, Mullá Husayn and his companions leave Isfahán where they have been awaiting further instructions and travel to Shíráz. Mullá Husayn is able to meet secretly with the Báb several times in the house of His uncle. The Báb sends word to the remainder of His followers in Isfahán to leave and travel to Shíráz. [B102–3; MH128–9]
- After a time the presence of Mullá Husayn in Shíráz threatens to cause civil unrest. The Báb instructs him to go to Khurásán via Yazd and Kirmán and tells the rest of the companions to return to Isfahán. [B90, 102–3; DB170; MH130]
- This time, described as the `most fecund period' of the Báb's ministry, marks the birth of the Bábí community. [B89–90]
- The Sháh sends one of the most learned men in Persia, Siyyid Yahyáy-i-Dárábí, surnamed Vahíd, to investigate the claims of the Báb. He becomes a follower of the Báb. As a result of his conversion most of the inhabitants of the town of Nayríz later become Bábís. [B90–4; BBD216; BBRSM41; CH21; DB171–7; GPB11–12; TN7–8]
- Another learned scholar, Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Zanjání, surnamed Hujjat, becomes a believer after reading only one page of the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá'. Several thousand of his fellow townspeople become Bábís. [B100–2; BBD111; BBRSM16; GPB12]
- Mírzá Ahmad-i-Azghandí, yet another learned man, who had compiled traditions and prophecies concerning the expected Revelation, becomes a believer as well. [GPB12–13]
|Shiraz; Isfahan; Khurasan; Yazd; Kirman; Nayriz; Iran; Karbala; Iraq
||Bab, Life of; Vakil Mosque; Mosques; Hidden Imam; Mulla Husayn; Bab, Family of; Muhammad Shah; Shahs; Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Hujjat; Qayyumul-Asma (book); Mirza Ahmad-i-Azghandi; Tahirih; Mirza Ahmad-i-Azghandi
|1846. 23 Sep
||The governor, Husayn Khán, threatened by the Báb's rising popularity, orders His arrest. The chief constable, `Abdu'l-Hamíd Khán, takes the Báb into custody and escorts Him to the governor's home but finds it abandoned. He takes the Báb to his own home and learns that a cholera epidemic has swept the city and that his sons have been stricken. At the chief constable's insistence the Báb cures the boys by requesting they drink some of the water with which He has washed His own face. `Abdu'l-Hamíd resigns his post and begs the governor to release the Báb. He agrees on condition the Báb leaves Shíráz. The incident proves to be Husayn Khán's undoing: the Sháh dismisses him from office shortly after. [B104–5; BBRSM55; DB194–7; GPB13; TN9]
- See BBR170–1 and DB197 for the fate of Husayn Khán.
- DB196–7 says `Abdu'l-Hamíd Khán had only one ill son.
|Shiraz; Iran; Persia
||Husayn Khan; Governors; Bab, Life of; Abdul-Hamid Khan; Epidemics; Muhammad Shah; Shahs
|1847. Feb - Mar
||The passing of Manúchihr Khán. His death had been predicted by the Báb 87 days earlier. The governor had made the Báb the beneficiary of his vast holdings, estimated to be 40 million francs, but his nephew Gurgín Khán appropriated everything after his death. [B116; DB213–14]
- Before the death of Manúchihr Khán the Báb instructed His followers to disperse. [B115; DB213–14] Gurgín Khán, in his role as the new governor, informs the Sháh that the Báb is in Isfahán and has been sheltering with Manúchihr Khán. The Sháh orders that the Báb be taken to Tihrán incognito. The Báb, escorted by Nusayrí horsemen, sets out for Tihrán soon after midnight. [B116, 118; DB215–116; TN11]
|Tihran; Tehran; Isfahan; Iran
||Manuchihr Khan; Bab, Life of; Gurgin Khan; Nusayri horsemen; Horses
|1847 c. Aug
||Mullá Husayn is residing in Mashhad, in Khurásán, where he has been since returning from Shíráz in 1845. The leader of a local rebellion wishes to enlist the Bábís on his side and seeks a meeting with Mullá Husayn. To avoid entanglement in the affair, Mullá Husayn decides to make a pilgrimage to Máh-Kú. [TB56; DB254–5; MH133–5]
- As an act of piety, he makes the whole 1,200-mile journey on foot. Along the route he visits the Bábís and in Tihrán meets secretly with Bahá'u'lláh. No account of their interview survives. In Qazvín, Mullá Husayn meets Táhirih for the first time. [DB255; MH137]
|Khurasan; Mah-Ku; Qazvin; Tihran
||Mulla Husayn; Tahirih; Bahaullah, Life of
|1848. 20 March
||Mullá Husayn and his companion, walking from Mashhad, arrive at Máh-Kú on the eve of Naw-Rúz. The Báb meets them at the gate and together they celebrate Naw-Rúz, the fourth after the declaration of the Báb. Mullá Husayn stays the night at the fortress. He remains with the Báb for nine days. [B131; DB257, 262; MH138, 143]
- MH137 says Mullá Husayn arrived in Tabríz on 21 March.
- See DB255–7 for story of the dream of `Alí Khán, the prison warden, preceding the arrival of Mullá Husayn at Máh-Kú. From this time on the pilgrims are allowed unrestricted access to the Báb. [DB258]
- The warden requests that the Báb marry his daughter. [DB259; MH143]
|Mashhad; Mah-Ku; Iran
||Mulla Husayn; Bab
|1848. 30 Mar
||Mullá Husayn departs for Mázindarán, setting out on foot as the Báb has directed. [DB260; MH144]
- The Báb tells him to visit the Bábís in Khuy, Urúmíyyih, Marághih, Mílán, Tabríz, Zanján, Qazvín and Tihrán before proceeding to Mázindarán. In Mázindarán he is to find `God's hidden treasure'. [DB260; MH144]
- In Tihrán he again meets Bahá'u'lláh. [DB261; MH148]
|Mazindaran; Khuy; Urumiyyih; Maraghih; Milan; Tabriz; Zanjan; Qazvin; Tehran; Iran; Persia
||Mulla Husayn; Bahaullah, Life of; Bab, Life of
|1848. late Spring
||Mullá Husayn goes to the house of Quddús in Bárfurúsh, Mázindarán, and realizes that the `hidden treasure' is his recognition of the station of Quddús. [DB261–5; MH148–54]
Mullá Husayn proceeds to Mashhad and builds a `Bábíyyih', a centre for the Bábís, as instructed by Quddús. He and Quddús take up residence in it and begin to teach the Bábí religion.
- See DB288–90 and MH158–68 for the result of this effort.
- Among those who come to the Bábíyyih is Sám Khán, the chief of police. [MH158]
- See MH156 for a picture of the Bábíyyih.
|Barfurush; Mazindaran; Mashhad; Iran; Persia
||Mulla Husayn; Quddus; Babi centre
||Quddús leaves Mashhad for Badasht. Mullá Husayn is prevented from attending. He is invited to stay in the camp of the soldiers garrisoned in the area to control a local revolt. The invitation amounts to a confinement but he is able to teach the soldiers while so confined. [BKG50; DB290; MH165–6]
- MH160 says that it was at this time that the Báb wrote to all the believers in Persia and Iraq instructing them to go to the aid of Mullá Husayn and Quddús in the `Land of Khá (Khurásán). DB269ff implies this letter was written in 1845.
|Mashhad; Badasht; Iran; Persia
||Quddus; Mulla Husayn; soldiers; confinement
|1848 c. Jul
||Quddús is arrested and taken to Sárí where he is placed under house arrest in the home of Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, a leading cleric. [B171; BKG50; DB300]
Táhirih is arrested and is later taken to Tihrán where she is held in the home of Mahmúd Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, until her martyrdom in August 1852.
Mullá Husayn leaves the army camp near Mashhad where he has been a guest of a brother of the Sháh. He plans to make a pilgrimage to Karbalá. While making preparations for the journey he receives a Tablet from the Báb instructing him to go to Mázindarán to help Quddús, carrying a Black Standard before him. He is also instructed to wear the Báb's own green turban and to take the new name Siyyid `Alí. [B171; BKG50; DB324; MH174]
|Sari; Tihran; Mashhad; Mazindaran; Iran; Karbala; Iraq
||Quddus; Mirza Muhammad-Taqi; Tahirih; Mahmud Khan; Kalantar; Mulla Husayn; Shahs; Black Standard; Green turban; Turbans; Names and titles
|1848. 21 Jul
||Mullá Husayn and his 202 companions leave Mashhad for Mázindarán under the Black Standard. They will arrive in September. [BBRSM26, 216]
||Mashhad; Mázindarán; Iran; Persia
|1848. Jul - Sep
||Mullá Husayn and his companions, marching to Mázindarán, are joined by Bábís who had been at Badasht as well as newly-converted Bábís. [B171–2]
- Their numbers swell into hundreds, possibly 300 and beyond. [B172; BKG50]
- The Black Standard is raised on the plain of Khurásán. [B171, 176–7; BBD46; BBRSM52; MH175]
- The Black Standard will fly for some 11 months. [B176–7; DB351]
- See DB326 and MH177–83 for details of the journey.
- See MH182 for Mullá Husayn's prophecy of the death of Muhammad Sháh.
|Mazindaran; Badasht; Khurasan; Iran; Persia
||Mulla Husayn; Babis; Black Standard; Prophecies; death; Muhammad Shah
|1848. 10 Oct
||Mullá Husayn and his company arrive near Bárfurúsh. The Sa`ídu'l-`Ulamá, threatened by their presence, has stirred up the townspeople, who go out to meet them. Some three or four miles from the city they clash and seven of Mullá Husayn's companions are killed. [B172; BW18:381; DB329–31; MH192–3]
MH188 says that the journey from Mashhad had taken 83 days.
- In the ensuing battle, the townspeople are worsted. They beg for peace and a truce is agreed. [B172; DB336; MH197]
- It was here that Mullá Husayn cut a man, a musket and a tree with one blow from his sword. [B172; DB 330–1; MH193]
- Mullá Husayn and his companions take shelter in a caravanserai. Three young men who mount the roof to raise the call to prayer are each met with a bullet and killed. Mullá Husayn gives the command to attack the townspeople, who are again routed. [BW18:381; DB337–8; MH201–5]
- Mullá Husayn and his companions are offered safe passage by the town's leaders if they will leave Bárfurúsh. They agree but are attacked by their escort, Khusraw-i-Qádí-Kalá'í and his hundred men. [B172; DB338–42; MH206–9]
|Barfurush; Iran; Persia
||Mulla Husayn; Saidul-Ulama
|1848. Oct - May 1849
||The siege of the Shrine of Shaykh Tabarsí.
- See BBD217, BW18:381, DB345–413 and MH221–85 for chronicle of events.
- The episode lasts seven months. [BBRSM26; BW18:381]
- See BBRSM26 for the Bábís' intentions.
- See DB343–5 for pictures and DB348, MH217–18 for sketches.
- See MH212 for a diagram of the fortifications.
- Bahá'u'lláh visits the fortress and approves the fortifications. [BKG51, DB347–9; MH227]
- He advises Mullá Husayn to seek the release of Quddús. Mullá Husayn sets out immediately and secures the release of Quddús, who has been in detention for 95 days. [B173; BKG51; DB349–50; MH227]
- Quddús arrives towards the end of the year. Some sources say October 20. [B173]
- See DB352–4 for the entry of Quddús into Shaykh Tabarsí. His arrival brings the number of Bábís in the shrine to 313. [DB354]
- Note: BBRSM26 and MH233–4 say that the number of defendants rose to 500–600 individuals.
- 37 per cent of the identified participants were of the `ulamá class. [BBRSM50]
- The siege begins with the arrival of `Abdu'lláh Khán's forces on 19 December.
- it is said that 2000 soldiers were involved in the siege.
||Shaykh Tabarsi; Bahaullah, Life of; fortress; Mulla Husayn; Quddus
||Le Journal de Constantinople 1848-1851 (second entry dated March 24 1849 and third dated March 29 1849)|
|1849. 11 Jan
||Quddús and Mullá Husayn lead a night attack on the encamped army. Two hundred and two Bábís disperse the camp. [BW18:381; BD365; MH254]
DB 368 says this occurred on 21 December 1848.
||Quddus; Mulla Husayn; Armies; Shaykh Tabarsi; Swords
|1849. 27 Jan
||The arrival of reinforcements for the besiegers under the leadership of ‘Abbás-Qulí Khán-i-Láríjání. [BW18:381; DB378–9; MH263]
- This is the third army to be mustered.
- The water supply is again cut off and Mullá Husayn orders that a well be dug and a bath constructed. [DB379; MH263]
||Abbas-Quli Khan-i-Larijani; Armies; Mulla Husayn; Shaykh Tabarsi
|1849. 1 Feb
||The well is completed. Mullá Husayn performs his ablutions and puts on clean clothes and the turban of the Báb. [DB379; MH264–6]
||Mulla Husayn; Turbans; Relics; Shaykh Tabarsi
|1849. 2 Feb
||Soon after midnight, Mullá Husayn leads a charge of 313 men that again routs the king's army. He is struck in the chest by a bullet and dies. His body is carried back to the fort and buried. Ninety other Bábís are also wounded, about 40 of whom die. [B174; BW18:381; DB379–82; MH266–70]
- Mullá Husayn is 36 years old at the time of his death. [DB383; MH272]
- See DB382–3 for an account of his life.
- See DB415–16 for an account of the heroics of Mullá Husayn.
- See DB381–2 and MH265–70 for an account of the death and burial of Mullá Husayn.
- See SDH13–14 for an account of his death by Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá.
- Seventy–two of the original 313 inhabitants of the fort had been martyred by this time. [DB382]
- It takes the army 45 days to reassemble its forces. [DB384; MH277]
||Mulla Husayn; Mihdi-Quli Mirza; Martyrs; Shaykh Tabarsi
|1849. c. 11 Mar
||On learning through a traitor of the death of Mullá Husayn, ‘Abbás-Qulí Khán launches a fresh attack on the fort. [DB384–6]
- DB386 says this was 10 days before Naw-Rúz.
- Nineteen Bábís led by Mírzá Muhammad-Báqir overcome the attackers. [DB386–8]
||Abbas-Quli Khan-i-Larijani; Armies; Mulla Husayn; Shaykh Tabarsi
|1849. 26 Nov
||The Báb sends Mullá Ádí-Guzal to the graves of Quddús and Mullá Husayn to make a pilgrimage on His behalf [DB431]
||Bab, Life of; Mulla Adi-Guzal; Cemeteries and graves; Quddus; Mulla Husayn; Pilgrimage
|1851. 1 May
||Áqá Husayn is blown from a canon in Yazd. [BW18:382]
||Áqa Husayn; Canons; Persecution
|1851 5 Oct
||Shaykh Hasan-i-Zunúzí, the Báb's amanuensis, had been sent from the Báb's side in Chihríq to live in Karbilá at a time just before the incident at Shaykh Tabarsí when all available believers were being dispatched to assist Quddús. Here, the Báb told him, he would meet the promised Husayn. Although he had never met Bahá'u'lláh before, on this day he recognized Him as He walked by the inner courtyard of the Shrine of the Imám Husayn. [BKG67–8]
- There is a Shíh tradition that, in the Latter Days, 'Alí would re-appear twice, once before Muhammad and once after Husayn. The Báb's name was 'Alí-Muhammad and Bahá'u'lláh's name was Husayn-Alí, hence the prophecy was fulfilled. Shaykh Hasan wants to proclaim the advent of the Promised One however Bahá'u'lláh advises him that it is not yet time.[OPOP163, DB31-33]
||Shaykh Hasan-i-Zunuzi; Bab, Life of; amanuensis; Bahaullah, Life of; Imam Husayn; shrine
|1853. 12 Jan
||Bahá'u'lláh and His family depart for Baghdád after a one month respite in the home of his half-brother Mírzá Ridá-Qulí. During the three-month journey Bahá'u'lláh is accompanied by His wife Navváb, (Who was six weeks from giving birth upon departure.) His eldest son ‘Abdu'l-Bahá (9), Bahíyyih Khánum (7) and two of His brothers, Mírzá Músá and Mírzá Muhammad-Qulí. Mírzá Mihdí (2), was very delicate was left behind with the grandmother of Àsíyih Khánum. They are escorted by an officer of the Persian imperial bodyguard and an official representing the Russian legation. [BKG102–5; GPB108]
- CH44–5 says the family had ten days after Bahá'u'lláh's release to prepare for the journey to Iraq.
- ‘Never had the fortunes of the Faith proclaimed by the Báb sunk to a lower ebb'. [DB651]
- This exile compares to the migration of Muhammad, the exodus of Moses and the banishment of Abraham. [GPB107–8]
- See BKG104 and GPB108–9 for conditions on the journey.
- Bahá'u'lláh's black servant, Isfandíyár, who had managed to evade capture during this dark period, after he had paid all the debts to various merchants, went to Mazandaran where he was engaged by the Governor. Years later when his master made a pilgrimage to Iraq Isfandíyár met Bahá'u'lláh and stated his preference to return to His service. Bahá'u'lláh said that he owed his master a debt of gratitude and could not leave his employ without his permission. It was not granted and Isfandíyár returned to Mazandaran and stayed with the Governor until his passing. [SoW IX 28 April, 1918 p38-39]
- Also see
A Gift of Love Offered to the Greatest Holy Leaf (Gloria Faizi, 1982), by Hand of the Cause Abu'l-Qasim Faizi, which includes a brief summary of the character of Isfandiyar and his services to the Holy Family on pages 14-16.
|Íran; Persia; Baghdad; Iraq
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mirza Rida-Quli; Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Abdul-Baha, Life of; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Mirza Musa; Mirza Muhammad-Quli; Russia; Isfandiyar
|1855. 15 Oct 1855 or 1856
||Birth of Robert Turner, first black American Bahá'í.
||USA; America; United States
||Robert Turner; Bahá'í
|1862 – 1868
||Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí, a cousin of the Báb, lives in Shanghai during this period. This is the first record of a Bábí or Bahá'í living in China. [PH24]
- From 1870 he lived in Hong Kong dealing as a merchant and was joined by his brother, Hájí Mírzá Muhammad Husayn. [PH24]
|Shanghai; Hong Kong; China
||Haji Mirza Muhammad-Ali (Afnan); Afnan; Bab, Family of; Haji Mirza Muhammad Husayn (Afnan); First Bahais by country or area
|1868. c. Jul
||Principal Bahá'ís in Baghdád are arrested by the Turkish authorities and exiled to Mosul and other places. RB2:333 indicates this took place towards the end of Bahá'u'lláh's stay in Adrianople.[BBR265; BKG247; CH129–30; RB2:333]
- About 70 people are exiled. [GPB178; RB2:334] Estimate given by Hájí Mirzá Haydar-;Alí is 80. (DOH12]
- See BKG184 for an illustration of Mosul.
- See BKG183 for a description of the city.
- See RB2:334 for the hardships suffered by the exiles.
- They remained in Mosul for some 20 years until Bahá'u'lláh advised the community to disband (1885-1886). Their hardship was lessened by generous contributions from the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs. A charity fund was established, the first fund of that kind in any Bahá'í community. [RB2:334–6]
|Baghdad; Mosul; Iraq
||Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Persecution; Charity and relief work; Funds; Firsts, Other
||Franz Josef, Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, makes a pilgrimage to Jerusalem but fails to enquire after Bahá'u'lláh. [KAN116]
|1872 Last months
||Munírih Khánum arrives in `Akká. She stays in the house of Mírzá Músá for several months. [MKBM]
- Note: BKG347 suggests she arrived some time after February 1873.
||Munirih Khanum; Mirza Musa
|1879. 12 Mar
||The arrest of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Hasan, the `King of Martyrs', and Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Husayn, the `Beloved of Martyrs'. [BBD 130]
||Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs
|1879. 17 Mar
||The martyrdom of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Hasan, the `King of Martyrs', and Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Husayn, the `Beloved of Martyrs'. [BW18:383]
- Their martyrdom is instigated by Mír Muhammad-Husayn, the Imám-Jum`ih, stigmatized by Bahá'u'lláh as the `she-serpent', who owes the brothers a large sum of money. [GPB200–1, ARG172, SDH104]
- Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir, the `Wolf', pronounces the death sentence on the two brothers and the Zillu's-Sultán ratifies the decision. [GPB201]
- The brothers are put in chains, decapitated and dragged to the Maydán-i-Sháh for public viewing. [GPB201]
- For Western accounts of their martyrdom see BBR274–6.
- See SDH112 for the story of the pilgrimage of their families to the Holy Land.
- See BW11:594 for a picture of the memorial to the King and the Beloved of Martyrs.
||Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs ; Mir Muhammad-Husayn; Shaykh Muhammad-Baqir; Wolf; Zillus-Sultan
|1886 In the year
||Birth of Músá Banání, Hand of the Cause of God, in Baghdád.
||Musa Banani; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
||Mírzá Músá, Áqáy-i-Kalím, the faithful brother of Bahá'u'lláh, passes away in `Akká. [BBD166; BKG369; DH57]
- He is buried in the Bahá'í section of the Muslim cemetery. [DH81]
- He was designated by Shoghi Effendi as one of the 19 Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBD166; BW3:80–1]
||Mirza Musa; Aqay-i-Kalim; Apostles of Bahaullah; Karbalai Hasan Khan; Karbalai Sadiq; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves
|1890 In the year
||Hájí Ákhúnd, Hájí Amín and Ibn-i-Abhar are arrested. Hájí Ákhúnd is imprisoned in Tihrán for two years; Hájí Amín is imprisoned in Qazvín for two years; and Ibn-i-Abhar is imprisoned in Tihrán for four years. [BW18:383–4]
Mírzá Mahmúd-i-Furúghí is arrested in Furúghí and sent to Mashhad. From there he is sent to Kalát-i-Nadírí where he is imprisoned for two years. [BW18:384]
In Mashhad a mob sets out to kill Mírzá Husayn-i-Bajistání but failing to find him they loot his shop. [BW18:384]
|Akka; Haifa; Tihran; Qazvin; Kalat-i-Nadiri; Mashhad; Iran
||Haji Akhund; Haji Amin (Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani); Ibn-i-Abhar (Mulla Muhammad Taqi); Mirza Mahmud-i-Furughi; Mirza Husayn-i-Bajistani; Persecution; Persecution, Imprisonments
||`Abdu'l-Bahá goes to Haifa and Mount Carmel and isolates Himself in a small apartment in the stone building west of the lower cave of Elijah. [DH59, 188]
Áqá Murtadá of Sarvistán, who has been in prison for five years, is executed in Shíráz. [BW18:384]
Anton Haddad arrives in the United States. [BFA1:26]
- He is probably the first Bahá'í to reach American soil. [BFA1:26]
|Mount Carmel; Shíráz; USA
||lower cave of Elijah; Áqá Murtadá of Sarvistán; Anton Haddad
|1892. 20 Dec
||Ibrahim Kheiralla arrives in New York. [BBD129; BFA1:26; SSBH1:88]
- See BFA1 for Kheiralla's life, work for the Bahá'í Faith and defection.
|New York; USA
||Ibrahim George Kheiralla
||Mrs Kate C. Ives of Orleans, Cape Cod, Massachusetts becomes a Bahá'í, making her the first woman born in the United States to accept the Bahá'í Faith. [BFA1:37]
||Orleans; Cape Cod; Massachusetts; USA
|1898. 1 Jun
||Áqá Ghulám-Husayn-i-Banádakí is killed by a mob in Yazd after refusing to deny his faith. [BW18:384]
|1900. 4 Nov
||The arrival Persian teachers in America. Mírzá Asadu'lláh (1826-1930) and Hájí Hasan-i-Khurásání. Their task was to consolidate the American community and to address the effects of Kheiralla's disaffection.
- 'Abdu'l-Bahá provided them with two translators, Mírzá Husayn Rúhí, a young Persian Bahá'í who has learned English in Egypt and Mírzá Burzurg.
- Mírzá Asadu'lláh spent three weeks in New York then relocated to Chicago where he stayed for eighteen months. [BFA2p35-37]
|New York; United States
||Mirza Asadullah-i-Isfahani; Haji Hasan-i-Khurasani; Mirza Husayn Ruhi; Mirza Burzurg
|1909 25 Nov
||Dr Susan Moody arrives in Tihrán. She and four Persian Bahá'í doctors start the Sehat Hospital. Because the hospital was only accessible to the wealthy she established a private practice that was open to all women regardless of their ability to pay. [BFA2:359-360]
- She spent two days in 'Akká en route to Persia and 'Abdu'l-Bahá conferred upon her the title Amatu'l-'Alí (Handmaid of the Most High). [BFA2:358]
- Dr Sarah A. Clock arrives from Seattle in 1911 to assist her followed by Miss Elizabeth Stewart (nurse). [BFA2:361]
||Susan Moody; Sehat Hospital; Sarah A. Clock; Elizabeth Stewart; Women; Social and economic development
||Ghodsea Khanoum Ashraf (Qudsíyyih Ashraf) arrives in the United States, the first Persian woman to travel to the country. [BFA2:358]
- See Ahmad Sohrab's letter to her in SW6, 10:77–9.
||Ghodsea Khanoum Ashraf (Qudsiyyih Ashraf); Ahmad Sohrab
||Within a year of her arrival Dr. Susan Moody opens the Tarbíyat School for Girls in Tihrán. [BBD221–2; BFA2:360–1]
- Miss Lillian Kappes of Hoboken, New Jersey arrives in December of 1911 to serve as a teacher. She died on the 1st of December, 1920 and was replaced by Genevieve Coy in 1922. and was followed by Adelaide Sharp in 1929 who was joined by her mother, Clara Sharp in 1931. [BFA2p361]
||Tarbiyat School for Girls; Susan Moody; Lillian Kappes; Genevieve Coy; Adelaide Sharp; Clara Sharp
|1911 22 Aug - 3 Sep
||`Abdu'l-Bahá took up residence at Thonon-les-Bains on Lake Leman (Lake Geneva). [AB140; GPB280; SBR219]
- While there He encountered Zillu's-Sultán, the eldest son of the Sháh of the time, Násirid-Dín Sháh. It was he who had ratified the execution of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs and at least 100 others. The whole family was in exile in Geneva at this time. 'Abdu'l-Bahá was very courteous to this man who had been such an inveterate enemy of the Cause. [DJT172] .
- The Master sent for Juliet Thompson who had been waiting in London for His permission to join Him.
- During His stay he had a visit from Annie Boylan, a member of the New York community that was experiencing disharmony. Unaware of Bahá'í election procedures, a group that was unhappy with the disunity and ineffectiveness of the Council had organized a vote to be rid of several of its Council members. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had written to the community a short time before recommending that the Council be expanded from 9 to 27 members so that all factions could be represented. He also recommended that women be included on the Council and that the name be changed to "the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of New York". This apparently addressed the problem of disunity because the New York community went on to contribute significantly to the progress of the Faith on a national level. [DJT181, BFA2p338]
- Horace Holley, who lived at Quattro Torri, Siena, Italy at the time, along with his wife Bertha Herbert and baby daughter Hertha, visited 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the 29th and 30th of August. Please see his Religion for Mankind p 232-237 for a pen portrait of 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
- He met with Elizabeth Stewart and Lillian Kappes who were on their way to Tehran. [find reference]
- It would appear that He returned to Marseilles and travelled to London by sea. [SCU22-23]
|Thonon-les-Bains; Lake Leman; Marseilles; France; Switzerland; Italy; London; United Kingdom; New York; United States
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; Unity; Zillus-Sultan; Persecution; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Juliet Thompson; Horace Holley; Elizabeth Stewart; Lillian Kappes; Ships
||Mr Husayn Uskuli and two Bahá'ís friends arrive in Shanghai from 'Ishqábád. His family joins him. [PH28-29, BW13p871-872]
||Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Shanghai; China
||Mírzá Husayn-i-Hudá is martyred in Urúmíyyih. [BW18:387]
|| Urúmíyyih; Iran;
||Mirza Husayn-i-Huda; martyr
||The United States census shows 2,884 Bahá'ís. [BBRSM:105; SBBH1:117]
|1917 9 Dec
||General Allenby enters Jerusalem. [AB425]
- Major Wellesley Tudor Pole risks court martial to alert the British Cabinet of the danger to `Abdu'l-Bahá. [ER169]
||General Allenby; Major Wellesley Tudor Pole; Abdul-Baha, Life of
||The tombs of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs in Isfahán are demolished by a mob. [BBR437]
- For Western responses see BBR437-9.
||Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Persecution; Cemeteries and graves
|1921 29 May
||Alessandro Bausani, the Italian Bahá'í who was an Islamic scholar, linguist and historian of comparative religions, is born in Rome.
|1921 Late in the year
||Mírzá Husayn Tútí arrives in the Philippines, the earliest known visit by a Bahá'í to this country. He stays for four months.
||Mirza Husayn Tuti
|1922 24 Jan
||Dr Sarah A. Clock passes away in Tihrán. She had gone there in 1911 to assist Dr Moody at the Tarbíyat School. [BFA2:361; SW12, 19:309]
||Sarah A. Clock; Susan Moody; Tarbiyat School for Girls
||The Guardian sends `Abdu'l-Husayn, Ávárih, to Europe to deepen the believers. [CB335, SBR68]
- For his life and eventual Covenant-breaking see CB334-42 and PP120.
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Avarih (Abdul-Husayn); Covenant-breakers
|1924 22 Jun
||áqá Husayn-`Alí is martyred in Firúzábád, Fárs, Iran. [BW18:388]
||Firuzabad; Fars; Iran
||aqa Husayn-`Ali; Iranian persecution
||Shoghi Effendi announces the defection of 'Abdu'l-Husayn Ávarih. He had been a very successful teacher and the author of a book on the history of the Faith but opposed Shoghi Effendi's efforts to build the Administrative Order. He was insistent that the Universal House of Justice be formed at that time. He was denounced by the believers in Egypt and Iran. [SETPE1p149, BA137-139, Ruhi8.2-20, CoC294-296]
- After his defection he became a Muslim and an opponent of the Baha'i Faith. He returned to Tehran and spent the rest of his life as a secondary school teacher. During this period he wrote many works of poetry and prose, including Kashf al-Hial, a three volume work refuting the Bahá'í Faith. [Wikipedia]
||Covenant-breakers; Avarih (Abdul-Husayn); Abd al-Hosayn Ayati
|1928 26 Oct-13 Nov
||The case of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád is taken before the fourteenth session of the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations. [BW3:207]
- The right of the Bahá’ís to the House is upheld and the government of Iraq is strongly pressed to find a solution but the House is not returned to the Bahá’ís. [BW3:207–9; GBF35; PP96–7]
- For Shoghi Effendi’s comment on these developments see BW3:206–9.
- The Shí’ís turn the House into a Husayníyyih, where the martyrdom of the Imám Husayn is mourned. [BBD113–14]
||House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); Bahaullah, Houses of; League of Nations; Imam Husayn
|1934 23 Oct
||Dr Susan Moody passes away in Iran. [BFA2:361]
- For her services in Iran and an obituary see BW6:483–6.
- She is buried near the graves of Lillian Kappes and Sarah Clock in the Tihrán Bahá’í cemetery. [BW6:486]
||Susan Moody; Lillian Kappes; Sarah Clock; In Memoriam; Cemeteries and graves
||Husayn Uskuli, a Bahá’í resident in Shanghai, travels to Taiwan, the first Bahá’í known to visit the island. [PH28]
||Shoghi Effendi sent the following cable to the Bahá'í world: "My faithless brother Husayn, after long period of dishonourable conduct, has abandoned the Master's home to consort with his sister and other Covenant-breakers". [Bahá'í News, No. 174, p.2]
||Covenant-breakers; Husayn Ali Rabbani
|1950 20 Jan
||World Religion Day is first observed in the United States. [BBD242]
- Its purpose is to associate the term ‘world religion’ with the Bahá’í Faith. [BBD242]
||World Religion Day; Firsts, Other
|1951 2 Aug
||Músá and Samí‘ih Banání; their daughter, Violette and her husband, ‘Alí Nakhjavání; their baby daughter, Bahíyyih; and Philip Hainsworth from England arrive in Kampala, the first pioneers to Uganda.
||Musa Banani; Samiih Banani; Violette Nakhjavani; Ali Nakhjavani; Philip Hainsworth; First Bahais by country or area
|1951 3 Aug
||The establishment of the Faith in Uganda with the arrival of Mr. and Mrs. Músá Banání, Mrs. Violette and Mr. Ali Nakhjavani, of Iran, with their baby daughter Bahiyyih, and Mr. Philip Hainsworth arrived in Kampala. [Wiki Bahá'í Uganda]
||Kampala; Uganda; Africa
||Musa Banani; Violette Nakhjavani; Ali Nakhjavani; Bahiyyih Nakhjavani; Philip Hainsworth; Knights of Bahaullah
|1952 29 Feb
||Shoghi Effendi appoints the second contingent of Hands of the Cause of God. [BW12:375–6; CT202–3 MBW20–1; PP254; ZK47]
- They are Fred Schopflocher, Corinne True, Dhikru’lláh Khádem, Shu’á’u’lláh ‘Alá’í, Adelbert Mühlschlegel, Músá Banání and Clara Dunn. [BW12:375–6; MWB19–20]
- Shoghi Effendi describes their two-fold function: propagation of the Faith and preservation of its unity. [BW12:376; MBW21]
||Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, Contingents; Hands of the Cause, Second Contingent; Fred Schopflocher; Corinne True; Dhikrullah Khadem; Shuaullah Alai; Adelbert Muhlschlegel; Musa Banani; Clara Dunn
|1952 8 Oct
||Shoghi Effendi announces his decision to launch ‘the fate-laden, soul-stirring, decade-long world-embracing Spiritual Crusade’ in the coming year. [BW12:253–5; MBW411
- For the objectives of the Crusade see BW12:256–14.
- Among the goals to be achieved is the construction of the International Bahá’í Archives building. [BBD22; DH168; MBW43]
- He calls upon the Hands of the Cause to appoint during Ridván 1954 five auxiliary boards to act as their adjuncts or deputies to work with the national spiritual assemblies to execute the projected national plans. [MBW44, BW13p335]
||Ten Year Crusade; International Bahai Archives; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Auxiliary Board Members and assistants; NSA
|1953 12–18 Feb
||The first Intercontinental Teaching Conference is convened by the British National Spiritual Assembly in Kampala, Uganda. [BW12:121, MBW135-140]
- For Shoghi Effendi’s message to the conference see BW12:121–4.
- For a report of the conference see BW12:124–30.
- It is attended by ten Hands of the Cause, Bahá’ís from 19 countries and representatives of over 30 tribes. [PP413]
- Over a hundred new African believers attend as personal guests of the Guardian. [PP413]
- With this conference the Ten Year World Crusade is launched. [BBRSM158–9; BW12:253; MBW41]
||Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Guardianship; Ten Year Crusade; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching; First conferences
||The Ten Year Crusade (1953-1963) is launched. See MBW151-156, MBW151 Also see Ali Nakhjavani's paper for The 22nd Hasan M. Balyuzi Memorial Lecture entitled
The Ten Year Crusade.
The four primary goals of the plan were outlined as follows:
- the development of institutions at the World Centre
- consolidation of the twelve countries where the Faith was well established
- consolidation of all other territories already open
- the opening of the remaining "chief virgin territories" around the globe (131)
“…Sometimes people strive all their lives to render outstanding service. Here is the time and opportunity to render historic services; in fact the most unique in history, aiding in the fulfillment of Daniel’s Prophecies of the Last Day, and the 1335 days, when men are to be blessed by the Glory of the Lord, covering the entire globe—which is the real goal of the Ten Year Crusade. [DG54-55]
To those Bahá’ís who arose to open new territories to the Faith during the Ten Year Crusade, the title 'Knight of Bahá’u’lláh' was given. In 1992, the Roll of Honour containing the names of all the Knights of Bahá’u’lláh was deposited beneath the entrance door to the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh.
A map of goals for the Ten Year World Crusade by Shoghi Effendi can be found in Bahá'í World, Vol. 12 (April 1950-1954). Electronic versions, in both medium and large format can be found here.
The achievements of the Ten Year Crusade were celebrated at the Most Great Jubilee in April and May 1963, which commemorated the Centenary of the Declaration of Baha’u’llah’s Mission. Two historic events transpired during that time: the International Convention, convened in Haifa, Israel, to elect the first Universal House of Justice; and the World Congress held in London, England.
- See The Journal of Bahá'í Studies Vol 14, no. 3-4, 2004 for the essay The Ten Year Crusade by Ali Nakhjavani.
||Ten Year Crusade; Teaching Plans
|1954 6 Apr
||Shoghi Effendi announces the creation of five Auxiliary Boards with the following number of members: Asia 7; America 9; Europe 9; Africa 9; Australia 2. [MBW59]
- Their function is to ‘act as deputies of the Hands in their respective continents’, to ‘aid and advise them in the effective prosecution of the’ and to assist them ‘in the discharge of their dual and sacred task of safe-guarding the Faith and of promoting its teaching activities’. [MBW63]
- See also BBD26; BBRSM127; MC3.
- These boards were mandated with the propagation of the Faith.
||Auxiliary Board Members and assistants; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Ten Year Crusade
|1954 26 May
||Shoghi Effendi, Rúhíyyih Khánum and Leroy Ioas return the visit of President Ben Zvi by visiting him in Jerusalem. [GBF140; PP293–4]
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; ; Leroy Ioas; Ben Zvi; Presidents
|1956 25 Feb
||Husayn Uskuli, (b. 1875) long-time pioneer to Shanghai from ‘Ishqábád, passes away in Shanghai at the age of 82 and is buried in the Kiangwan Cemetery in Shanghai. [PH29, BW13p871-873]
- He heard about the Faith at the age of 18 from Mírzá Haydar-'Alí. After his marriage he moved to 'Ishqábád where he was very active in the community. After his move to Shanghai his home was the centre of activity and hospitality for all those passing through. He was the only foreign-born Bahá'í to remain in China after the regime change. The xenophobic attitude of the government precluded any meaningful contact with the local citizenry.
- He was survived by four daughters and a son.
|Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Shanghai; China
||Husayn Uskuli; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
|1957 19 Nov
||Nine Hands of the Cause are chosen by Rúhíyyih Khánum to examine Shoghi Effendi’s apartment. [BW 13:341]
- These are the five members of the International Bahá’í Council (Rúhíyyih Khánum, Mason Remey, Amelia Collins, Ugo Giachery and Leroy Ioas), an Afnán (Hasan Balyuzi), a representative of the Hands of the Western Hemisphere (Horace Holley), a representative of the Hands of the African continent (Músá Banání) and the Trustee of the Huqúqu’lláh (‘Alí Muhammad Varqá). [BW13:341]
- After seeing that the seals are intact, the Hands examine the contents of Shoghi Effendi’s safe and desk. [BW13:341]
- The nine Hands sign a document testifying that no Will or Testament of any nature executed by Shoghi Effendi has been found. This is reported to the entire body of Hands assembled in the Mansion of Bahjí. [BW13:341]
- See CB378–9 for an explanation of why Shoghi Effendi left no Will.
||Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; International Bahai Council; Charles Mason Remey; Amelia Collins; Ugo Giachery; Leroy Ioas; Hasan Balyuzi; Horace Holley; Musa Banani; Ali-Muhammad Varqa
|1958 26 Jan
||The foundation stone of the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár of Africa is laid by Hands of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and Músá Banání. [BW13:317]
||Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Kampala; Foundation stones; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Musa Banani
|1958 21–24 Mar
||The second Intercontinental Conference held at the mid-point of the Crusade convenes in Sydney, Australia. [BW13:319]
- Hand of the Cause Charles Mason Remey, who had been designated by the Guardian as his representative and who is the architect of the Mother Temple of Australasia, attends, accompanied by four other Hands of the Cause. [BW13:317]
- For the message of the Custodians to the conference see MC72–5.
- For a report of the conference see BW13:319–21.
||Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Charles Mason Remey; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Sydney; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Ten Year Crusade; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architecture; Architects
|1963 20 Apr
||The Ten Year Crusade is successfully completed. The achievements of the Ten Year Crusade were celebrated at the Most Great Jubilee in April and May 1963, which commemorated the Centenary of the Declaration of Baha’u’llah’s Mission. Two historic events transpired during that time: the International Convention, convened in Haifa, Israel, to elect the first Universal House of Justice; and the World Congress held in London, England.
- For a summary of achievements during the Crusade see BW13:459–60.
- For countries, islands and dependencies opened to the Faith during the Crusade see BW13:461–2. (259)
- For number of localities in which Bahá’ís reside in different parts of the world see BW13:462. (from 2,000 to more than 11,000)
- For languages into which Bahá’í literature has been translated see BW13:462–4.
- For races represented in the Bahá’í world community see BW13:464.
- For national spiritual assemblies at the end of the plan see BW13:468–9. (from 12 to 56)
||Ten Year Crusade; Most Great Jubilee; International conventions
||Jesus Bias Manibusan of Sinajana, Guam, the first Chamorro to become a Bahá’í, enrols.
||Jesus Bias Manibusan
||The National Spiritual Assembly of Zambia is formed with its seat in Lusaka. [BW14:97]
|1971 4 Sep
||Músá Banání, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Kampala, Uganda. (b.1886) [BW15:42; VV7]
- For his obituary see BW15:421–423.
- Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
||Musa Banani; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Second Contingent
|1971 16 Oct
||The inauguration of Shahyad Tower ("King's Memorial Tower") in Tehran. The tower was built in honour of the shah on the occasion of the commemoration of the 2,500th anniversary of the Persian Empire and has become an iconic symbol of the city of Tehran. It has been described as being a tower, an arch, a gate and an obelisk in one and is 50 meters (164 ft) tall and completely clad in some eight thousand blocks of cut marble from Isfahan Province. The main financing was provided by a group of five hundred Iranian industrialists.
After the Revolution in 1979 it was renamed The Azadi Tower (Liberty Tower) and was, in turn, the gathering place of the "rebels" in 1979 and for those protesting the results of the election in 2009.
The architect, Hossein Amanat was only 24 years old and a recent graduate when he won the competition for the project. In addition to having a remarkable career in designing buildings for commercial, educational and residential use, he is the architect for such Bahá'í projects as the Universal House of Justice Building, the Centre for the Study of the Holy Texts, the International Teaching Centre and the Mashriqu’l-Adhka in Samoa. He left Iran in 1978 and took up residence in Vancouver in 1980.
[Hossein Amanat website]
||Hossein Amanat (Husayn Amanat); Architecture; Architects
|1973 18 Sep
||Husayn Amánat is appointed architect of the Seat of the Universal House of Justice. [BW16:133; DH172; VV37]
||Universal House of Justice, Seat; Hossein Amanat (Husayn Amanat); Architecture; Architects
|1974 7 Feb
||The construction of the Seat of the Universal House of Justice is initiated with the acceptance of the design conceived by architect Husayn Amánat. [BW17:73]
||Hossein Amanat (Husayn Amanat); Universal House of Justice, Seat; Architecture
|1975 1 Jan
||Shidan and Susan Kouchekzadeh, an Iranian-British couple pioneering in Sierra Leone, arrive in Conakry, the first Bahá’ís to settle in Guinea.
||Shidan Kouchekzadeh; Susan Kouchekzadeh; pioneer
|1975 5 Jun
||Excavation of the site of the Seat of the Universal House of Justice begins. [BW16:133; BW18:465]
- See BW16:399–404 for an article on the Seat by architect Husayn Amánat.
- See BW17:301 for the significance of the seat.
||Hossein Amanat (Husayn Amanat); Universal House of Justice, Seat; Architecture; Architects
|1983 23 Aug
||Seyyed Hussein Musavi Tabrizi, the Attorney General of Iran, declared all Bahá'í administrative activities illegal, thus requiring the dissolution of the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran, along with some 400 Local Assemblies which operated under its jurisdiction. [Iran Press Watch]
||Seyyed Hussein Musavi Tabrizi; Attorney General
|1986 19 Oct
||Lorraine Kahn of Pine Springs, Arizona, is elected a delegate to the United States National Convention, the first Navajo woman to serve in this capacity. [BINS161:19]
||Lorraine Kahn; National Convention
|1989 6 May
||The Bahá’í World Centre receives one of six awards given by the Council for a Beautiful Israel in a ceremony in Jerusalem. [BINS199:2]
||Council for a Beautiful Israel
|1993 15 Apr
||The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Stanley Bagley, (b.2 February, 1912). He had been a pioneer Belgium, France, Guadeloupe, Martinique, the United States as well as Sicily where he and his family received the Knighthood for their service. [BW93-94p319]
||In Memoriam; Stanley Bagley; Knights of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
||The dedication of the first academic chair in Bahá'í studies in Israel at Hebrew University of Jerusalem with the appointment of Prof. Moshe Sharon. The position was made possible because of an anonymous donation. [Jerusalem Post, June 7, 1999, BWNS84]
||Chair in Bahai Studies; Hebrew University of Jerusalem; Universities; Moshe Sharon; Firsts, Other; Donations
|2000 17 - 21 Dec
||The first International Conference on Modern Religions and Religious Movements in Judaism Christianity and Islam and the Bábí-Bahá’í Faiths was held in Jerusalem with about 90 persons in attendance. [BWNS84]
||Conferences, Interfaith; Interfaith dialogue; Judaism; Christianity; Islam; Firsts, Other
|2008 1 - 2 Nov
||The first of 41 Regional Conferences held over a four month period to mark the mid-point of the Five Year Plan held in Lusaka, Zambia. [Lusaka, BWNS642]
from the main catalogue
- Answered Questions, Some: A Philosophical Perspective, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 10 (2009). Philosophical foundations of the Bahá’í teachings, including ontology, theology, epistemology, philosophical anthropology and psychology, and personal and social ethics. [about]
- Aqa Husayn Ashchi's narrative, by Universal House of Justice and Ahang Rabbani (1996). A letter to the House requesting permission to translate and publish Aqa Husayn Ashchi's narrative and their response. [about]
- Bahá'í Faith in Iran, The, by John Walbridge, in Essays and Notes on Babi and Bahá'í History (2002). Includes essay "Three Clerics and a Prince of Isfahan: background to Bahá'u'lláh's Epistle to the Son of the Wolf" and bios of Ayatollah Khomeini and Zill al-Sultan. [about]
- Bahá'í History in the Formative Age: The World Crusade 1953-1963, by Graham Hassall, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 6:4 (1995). [about]
- Bausani, Alessandro, by Biancamaria Scarcia Amoretti, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2008). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
- Course on Bahá'í Symbolism, by Ernesto Fernandez (2013). Symbolic forms in the Writings and Baha'i architectural systems, and their analogues in universal religious symbolism. Includes Spanish translation, "Curso de simbología bahá ́í." [about]
- Daniel's Prophecies, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). [about]
- Divide and Rule: The Creation of the Alawi State after World War I, by Necati Alkan, in Fikrun wa Fann ("Art and Thought") (2013). Summary of 20th-century history of the Nusayri/Alawi Shi'i movement in Syria and Turkey. (No mention of Baha'is.) [about]
- Dying for God: Martyrdom in the Shii and Babi Religions, by Jonah Winters (1997). Religious and cultural meanings of martyrdom/witnessing, and their role in Babi history. [about]
- Fighting for the Nuṣayrī Soul: State, Protestant Missionaries and the ʿAlawīs in the Late Ottoman Empire, by Necati Alkan, in Die Welt des Islams, 52 (2012). Overview of the Alawites/Nusayris (Syrian Shi'is) in the start of the 19th century, political attitudes in Syria and Istanbul, and the influence of Protestant missionaries. [about]
- "I am all the Prophets": The Poetics of Pluralism in Bahá'í Texts, by Juan Cole, in Poetics Today, 14:3 (1993). Literary analysis of a passage from Tablet of Blood (Súriy-i-Damm) in which Bahá'u'lláh identifies Himself with all the past Prophets and their sufferings, depicting himself mortally wounded on the field of battle, like Imám Husayn. [about]
- Letters of the Quranic Dispensation and Letters of the Living (huruf), by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, 4 (2003). Some meanings of the term huruf ("letters") in Baha'i texts, including Letters of the Bayan, Letters of the Living, and Letters of the Quranic Dispensation. [about]
- Lifetime with Bahá'u'lláh, A: Events in Baghdad, Istanbul, Edirne and ‘Akká while in the Company of Bahá'u'lláh, by Aqa Husayn Ashchi, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 14 (2007). One-third of a lengthy primary-source history, annotated by translator. [about]
- Map of Goals for the Ten Year World Crusade, by Shoghi Effendi, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 12 (April 1950-1954) (1956). Shoghi Effendi's map of progress goals for the Ten Year World Crusade, 1953-1963. [about]
- Memories of Ashchi: Background, by Ahang Rabbani and Sen McGlinn (1999). Background information on and a start at translation of the narratives of Aqa Husayn Ashchi. [about]
- Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-86, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
- Metaphor and the Language of Revelation, by Ross Woodman, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:1 (1997). [about]
- Mulla Husayn, by Lowell Johnson (1982). A biography of Mulla Husayn, the first Letter of the Living. [about]
- Mulla Husayn Bushru'i: The Indomitable, by Darius Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1992). Life story of the first believer in the Bab. [about]
- Mulla Husayn Bushrui, by Moojan Momen and Todd Lawson, in World Religions: Belief, Culture, and Controversy (2011). [about]
- Namibia, Pacific Islands, Queen Marie, and Emeric Sala (2005). [about]
- Notes on Judaism from a Bahá'í Perspective, by Robert Stockman (1998). Overview of Judaism with many comments on Baha'i teachings on Jewish history and prophets; includes chronology of Judaism. [about]
- Objectives and Tasks of Ten-Year Spiritual Global Crusade of the Bahá'í World Faith, by Shoghi Effendi, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 12 (April 1950-1954) (1956). [about]
- Origins of the Bahá'í Concept of Unity and Causality: A Brief Survey of Greek, Neoplatonic, and Islamic Underpinnings, by Babak Rod Khadem, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). [about]
- Poetry on the Ten Year Crusade: 1953-1963: Pioneering Over Four Epochs: Section VIII Poetry, by Ron Price, in Pioneering Over Four Epochs: An Autobiographical Study and A Study in Autobiography, Section VIII: Poetry (2006). The poetry here is related to the 10 Year Crusade: 1953-1963. I began my pioneering life during this period and this poetry brings together secular, Baha'i and personal history. [about]
- Prince of Martyrs, The: A brief account of the Imam Husayn, by Abu'l-Qasim Faizi (1977). The story of the Third Imam, whose death in the year 680 became a pivotal event for Shi'i Islam. [about]
- Progress Bahá'í World Crusade 1953-1958, by Shoghi Effendi, in The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1963: Information Statistical and Comparative (1963). Statistical information such as LSA incorporation, temple construction, etc. [about]
- Prophecy of Daniel; Modifications of Baha'u'llah and the New Era, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Two topics: the fulfilment of the Biblical prophecy of Daniel concerning 1,335 days, and modifications made to Baha'u'llah and the New Era. [about]
- Roll of Honor Bahá'í World Crusade 1953-1963, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 20 (1986-1992) (1998). A scroll listing the names of the Knights of Baha'u'llah. [about]
- Significance of some Sites Mentioned in Memorials of the Faithful, by Foad Seddigh, in Lights of Irfan, 17 (2016). Abdu'l-Baha cited many villages and cities: the Most Great House in Baghdád; the ruins of Madaen which Baha'u'llah visited many times; Sheikh Tabarsi's tomb; the city of Mosul which is built on the ruins of the ancient city of Nineveh. [about]
- Story of Mulla Husayn. Life of the first Baha'i. Speaker not known. [about]
- Tablet of Patience (Surih Sabr): Declaration of Bahá'u'lláh and Selected Topics, by Foad Seddigh, in Lights of Irfan, 15 (2014). This significant Tablet from Ridvan 1863 covers the Seal of the Prophets, appearance and presence of God, resurrection, and the Qayyum al-Asma. Includes context of Baha'u'llah's life and troubles during this period. [about]
- Tablet of Visitation for Imám Husayn, by Bahá'u'lláh (2002). Tablet in honor of Imam Husayn, the prince of martyrs, with whom Baha'u'llah identified in a mystical connection. [about]
- Tablet to 'Ustad Husayn-i-Khayyát, by Abdu'l-Bahá. Short one-paragraph Tablet concerning the grades or degrees of certainty. [about]
- Tablet to Hájí Muhammad-Nasír-i-Qazvíní: Excerpts, by Bahá'u'lláh (1986). Excerpts translated by Christopher Buck in Studies in Bábí and Bahá’í History vol. 3 (Kalimát Press, 1986) and by Shoghi Effendi in Gleanings from the Writings of Bahá’u’lláh. [about]
- Tablet to Shaykh Kazim-i-Samandar II, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Eminent Bahá'ís in the Time of Bahá'u'lláh (1985). [about]
- Tablet to Varqá Regarding the Prince and King of Martyrs, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Eminent Bahá'ís in the Time of Bahá'u'lláh with some Historical Background (1985). Short tablet of tribute to the King and Beloved of the Martyrs, from H. M. Balyuzi's Eminent Bahá’ís. [about]
- Ten Year Crusade, The, by Ali Nakhjavani, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 14:3-4 (2004). [about]
- The Báb; Husayn Bushru'i; Ruh al-Quddus; Tahirih, by Moojan Momen and Todd Lawson, in Holy People of the World: A Cross-Cultural Encyclopedia (2004). [about]
- Various questions: Psychic powers, Persepolis, portrait of Mulla Husayn, etc., by Universal House of Justice (2007). Answers to: psychic powers and "natural" healing; 'Abdu'l-Bahá's statement on Persepolis; inauthenticity of a portrait of Mullá Husayn; a passage on childhood; list of sites for future Houses of Worship; Prayer of the Báb; and a jungle story. [about]
- Virgin countries and territories opened during the first year of the 10 Year Crusade 1953-1954, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 12 (April 1950-1954) (1956). [about]
- Virgin Territories Opened by the Knights of Baha'u'llah 1953-1990, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 20 (1986-1992) (1998). List of names and dates of pioneers and the NSAs responsible for opening territories. [about]
- Windows to the Past, by Darius Shahrokh (1992). Deepening talks on 25 topics about Baha'i history and teachings, downloadable in MP3 audio format and PDF transcripts. [about]
- Wronged One, The: Shí'í Narrative Structure in Bahá'u'lláh's Tablet of Visitation for Mullá Husayn, by William F. McCants, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). [about]