Search for tag "USA"
|1813. c. 1813
||Birth of Muhammad Husayn-i-Bushrú'í (Mullá Husayn).
||Mulla Husayn; Births and deaths; Letters of the Living
||At the age of 12 Mulla Husayn finished his studies in Bushíhr and went to Mashhad, the most prestigious centre of religious study in Iran. In 1830-1 he relocated to Karbala to study under Siyyid Kázim. [MH7-8; MH113]
||Karbala; Iraq; Mashhad; Bushihr; Iran
||Mulla Husayn; Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti
||Birth of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Husayn, Mahbúbu'sh-Shuhadá' (`Beloved of Martyrs'), in Isfahán.
||Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Births and deaths
||Birth of Ahmad, son of the Báb. He passes away shortly after he is born. [B46-47]
- DB74 for a picture of his resting-place.
||Ahmad (son of the Bab); Bab, Life of; Bab, Family of; Cemeteries and graves; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Dreams; Imam Husayn; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1843 10 Jan
||The Báb dreams that He drinks a few drops of blood from the wounds of the martyred Imám Husayn. After this dream He feels that the Spirit of God has taken possession of His soul. [BBRSM14; DB253, HotD23-24
- His wife had an indication of His calling after having seen Him wrapt in prayer during the night. [HotD27]
||Bab, Life of; Dreams; Blood; Imam Husayn
|1844. 22 Jan
||Mullá Husayn returns to Karbalá after a journey of two years in Persia. He has been on a mission in Isfahán and Mashhad where he has successfully defended the views of his master, Siyyid Kázim, before the leading clerics of those cities. [MH49]
- After a period of mourning and 40 days of prayer and fasting in the vicinity of the shrine in Najaf he sets out for Persia in the company of his brother and his nephew following the last wishes of Siyyid Kázim that his followers quit Karbalá and search for the Promised One. The party go to Búshihr and then on to Shíráz. [MH50–55, HotD28]
- See SI dustjacket for a photo of the Shrine of Imam 'Ali.
|Karbala; Isfahan; Mashhad; Najaf; Bushihr; Shiraz; Iraq; Iran
||Mulla Husayn; Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti
|1844. 22 May
||Declaration of the Báb's Mission
Two hours and eleven minutes after sunset Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad makes His declaration to Mullá Husayn-i-Bushrú'í.
“I am, I am, I am, the promised One! I am the One whose name you have for a thousand years invoked, at whose mention you have risen, whose advent you have longed to witness, and the hour of whose Revelation you have prayed God to hasten. Verily I say, it is incumbent upon the peoples of both the East and the West to obey My word and to pledge allegiance to My person.” [DB315-316]
- See SI231 for information on the anticipated return of the Hidden Imam. See BBR2pg42-3 and DB57 for a list of signs by which the Promised One would be known.
- See BW5p600-4 for a brief biography of William Miller the founder of the Adventist sect who, after intense study of the Bible, had predicted the return of Christ on March 21, 1844. See BW5p604 for mention of other Christians who made similar predictions.
- See DB383 and BBR2pg25 for information on Mulla Husayn-i-Bushru’i. See CoB110 for the significance of the first believer.
- See SBBH1:14 for a possible explanation for Mullá Husayn's presence in Shíráz at this time.
- Nabíl-i-A`zam relates that Mullá Husayn was welcomed at the Báb's mansion by Mubárak, His Ethiopian servant. [DB53]
- He reveals the first chapter of the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá' (the Commentary on the Súrih of Joseph. The entire text will later be translated by Táhirih. [B19–21; BBD190–1; BBRSM14–15; BKG28; BW12:85–8; BWMF16; DB52–65, 264, 216, BBR2pg14-15, GPB23, 73; MH56–71; SBBH17, HotD30]
- Bahá'u'lláh has described this book as being `the first, the greatest, and mightiest of all books' in the Bábí Dispensation. [GPB23]
- See SBBH5pg1 for discussion on the Qayyumu’l-Asma’.
- This text was the most widely circulated of all the Báb's writings and came to be regarded as the Bábí Qur'an for almost the entirety of His mission. [BBRSM32]
- This date marks the end of the Adamic Cycle of approximately six thousand years and the beginning of the Bahá'í Cycle or Cycle of Fulfilment. [BBD9, 35, 72; GPB100] Shoghi Effendi is quoted as saying that this is the second most important anniversary on the Bahá'í calendar. ZK320
- The beginning of the Apostolic, Heroic or Primitive Age. [BBD35, 67]
- See MH86–7 for an explanation of the implication of the word `Báb' to the Shí'í Muslims.
- Three stages of the Báb's Revelation:
- He chooses the title `Báb' and Mullá Husayn is given the title Bábu'l-Báb (the gate of the Gate).
- In the second year of the Revelation (from His confinement in the house of His uncle in Shíráz) He takes the title of Siyyid-i-dhikr (dhikr means `remembrance of God') and gives the title `Báb' to Mullá Husayn. At Fort Tabarsí Mullá Husayn is called `Jináb-i Báb' by his companions.
- At His public declaration the Báb declares Himself to be the promised Qá'im. [MH87–8]
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Declaration of; Holy days; Bab, Writings of; Mulla Husayn; Qayyumul-Asma (book); Surih of Joseph; Tahirih; Bab, Life of; Cycles; Ages and Epochs; Heroic age; Qaim; Promised One; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bab, Basic timeline; Mubarak; Letters of the Living
|1844 Jul - Aug
||Forty days after the Declaration of the Báb, the second Letter of the Living, Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí, has a vision that leads him to Mullá Husayn and he accepts the Báb. During this period of waiting for the second person to recognize the Báb, He called Mulla Husayn to His house several times. He always comes at night and stays until dawn. [HotD41]. Sixteen others recognize Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad as the Promised One. The 18 are later designated `Letters of the Living'. [BBD138, B21–7; DB63–71, 80–2; MH73–81, MH121, SBBH1:16–17, GPB7-8]
- See RB2:145–6 for the fate of the Letters of the Living.
- See B26–7, BBD138, DB80–1, MH81 for a list of the Letters of the Living.
- See BBRSM24–5 for more on the Letters of the Living.
- See BBRSM24–5 for a discussion of the special places occupied by Quddús, Mullá Husayn and Táhirih.
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Declaration of; Mulla Ali Bastami; Dreams; Mulla Husayn; Letters of the Living; Quddus; Tahirih; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1844 Jul - Aug
||The intention of the Báb is to introduce the new Revelation slowly so as not to cause estrangement. He instructs them to spread out and teach His Faith and to this end He assigned each one a special task, most often to their own native provinces. [BBRSM14–16, 36; SWB119, BBR2p36, DB92–4; MH82–6; SBBH1:19]
- To Mullá Husayn He had given the task of delivering a Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh in Tihrán and going to the court of the Sháh to apprise him of the Báb's cause. Mullá Husayn is not able to gain access to the Sháh. [B48–57; BBRSM15 BKG32–3; CH22–3; DB85-87, 97; MH90–2, 102]
- Mullá Husayn carries to Tihrán a Tablet revealed by the Báb for Muhammad Sháh. This is the first of a number of unsuccessful attempts to enlist his aid. [BBRSM20–1; MH102; SWB13]
- Note: MH118-119 and DB127-128 indicate that Mullá Husayn had been in Tehran "between the months of Jámádí and Rajab". The first day of Jámádí, 1260 corresponds to 18 June, and the last day of Rajab to 15 August, 1844.
- See RB2:303, `The Báb … sent Tablets to only two monarchs of His day — Muhammad Sháh of Persia and Sultán `Abdu'l-Majíd of Turkey.'
- From Shiraz he journeys north to Isfahán where Mullá Ja'far, the sifter of wheat, is the first to embrace the Cause of the Báb in that city. Mullá Husayn then travels to Káshán, about 130 miles from Isfahán. He then goes to Qum, another 100 miles from Káshán. After Qum he goes to Tihrán. [MH98–101, DB99]
- See B53–6; DB104–7, MH104–110 for the delivery of the Báb's Tablet to Bahá'u'lláh. Mullá Husayn does not meet Bahá'u'lláh on this occasion.
- On receiving the Tablet of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh accepts His Cause. He immediately journeys to Mázindarán, His native province, to promote the Cause of the Báb. He returns after the death of the Shah in 1948 [BKG39–40; BW8:782; DB109; TN35, SoB6, BPP45, 48, SoG4]
- Mullá Husayn leaves for Khurásán, as he had been instructed, winning supporters for the Báb's Cause while there he writes to the Báb regarding these new believers and Bahá'u'lláh's immediate response to the Báb's Revelation. [B56, DB128–9, MH118]
- See MH121–2 for a discussion of the speed of Mullá Husayn's journey before the letter was dispatched to the Báb. It assumes that Mullá Husayn departed after the Báb met with all the Letters of the Living (date not before 2 July, 1844.) In fact both Mullá Husayn and Mullá 'Alíy-Bastámí had been dispatched before this meeting. [DB85-86, 92, HotD46]
|Kashan; Shiraz; Isfahan; Tihran; Mazandaran; Khurasan; Qum; Iran; Turkey
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Letters of the Living; Mulla Husayn; Bahaullah, Life of; Tablet to Bahaullah; Shahs; Mulla Jafar (sifter of wheat); Muhammad Shah; Sultan Abdul-Majid; First believers; Letters of the Living; Bab, Basic timeline; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1844 30 Sep
||The Báb receives the letter from Mullá Husayn giving Him details of his journey and meeting with Bahá'u'lláh and others he had contacted.
- Nabíl indicates that the Báb received the letter on 9 October (26 Ramadan) and that it was a deciding factor in His decision to undertake the pilgrimage. [DB126–7, 129]
- Balyuzi says soon after the Báb received the letter, `in the month of September' He left Shíráz'. [B57]
- GPB8-9 says He received the letter in the month of Sha'bán, 1260 (16 August to 13 September, 1844).
- See MH119 where the author speculates that if the letter arrived on 16 Ramadan (29 September) and the Báb departed from the port of Búshihr on the 19th of Ramadan (2 October, 1844), He had to have been in Búshihr when He received the letter.
|Shiraz; Bushihr; Iran
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Mulla Husayn; Bahaullah, Life of; Letters of the Living
|1844 2 or 3 Oct
||The Báb departs from Búshihr on His pilgrimage. [B57; MH119, 121, GPB9]
- He instructs His followers to await His arrival in Karbalá. [DB86, 87; MH122; SBBH1:23]
- He has been awaiting the letter from Mullá Husayn before starting on His pilgrimage. [DB123; MH117]
- The vessel taking the Báb to Jiddah is probably the Arab sailing-boat named Futúh-ar-Ras`ul. [B69]
- He joined the company of a group of pilgrims from Fárs. [DB76-77]
|Karbala; Iraq; Jiddah; Saudi Arabia
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Mulla Husayn; Ships
|1844 c. 20 Dec
||The Báb makes a declaration of His mission by standing at the Ka`bih, holding the ring of the door and repeating three times that He is the Qá'im.
- He makes an open challenge to Mírzá Muhammad-Husayn-i-Kirmání, known as Muhít, of the Shaykhí school and sends an invitation to the Sharíf of Mecca to embrace the new Revelation. The Sharíf is too busy to respond. [B71-74; BW12:89; DB134–8; GPB9, 89]
|Mecca; Saudi Arabia
||Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Kabih; Qaim; Mirza Muhammad-Husayn-i-Kirmani (Muhit); Shaykhism; Sharif of Mecca; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1845. 23 Jun
||The governor of Fárs, Husayn Khán, has Quddús, Mullá Sádiq-i-Khurásání, Mullá `Alí-Akbar-i-Ardistání and Mullá Abú-Tálib arrested, tortured and expelled from Shíráz. [B78; BBR69; BW18:380; DB145–8; GPB11, BBR1pxxviii]
- Note: B78 says that Mullá Abú-Tálib was not among the group.
- Note: DB146 note2 says "According to A. L. M. Nicolas’ “Siyyid ‘Alí-Muhammad dit le Báb” (footnote 175, p. 225), this meeting took place on August 6, 1845 A.D."
- The London Times of November 1st and November 19, 1945 reports that this took place on the 23rd of June. [B76, BBR1p69,82]
- The governor of Fárs, Hasayn Khán orders that the Báb be arrested and brought to Shíráz. [B84; BW18:380; DB148–50; GPB11] Búshihr,
- The Báb leaves Búshihr for Shíráz on an unknown date. [B 105]
|Fars; Iran; Shiraz; Iran; Bushihr
||Governors; Husayn Khan; Quddus; Ismullahul-Asdaq (Mulla Sadiq Khurasani); Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Ardistani; Mulla Abu-Talib; Husayn Khan; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
|1845. Jul and months following
||The Báb is told to attend a Friday gathering at the Mosque of Vakíl to appease the hostility and the curiosity of some of the residents of Shíráz and to clarify His position. The exact date of His attendance is unknown. He makes a public pronouncement that He is neither the representative of the Hidden Imám nor the gate to him, that is, His station is higher. [B94–8; DB151–7]
- He is released to the custody of His uncle, Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'Alí. [DB151, LTDT13]
- see DB152 for pictures of the above mosque.
- Upon hearing the news of the confinement of the Báb, Mullá Husayn and his companions leave Isfahán where they have been awaiting further instructions and travel to Shíráz. Mullá Husayn is able to meet secretly with the Báb several times in the house of His uncle. The Báb sends word to the remainder of His followers in Isfahán to leave and travel to Shíráz. [B102–3; MH128–9]
- After a time the presence of Mullá Husayn in Shíráz threatens to cause civil unrest. The Báb instructs him to go to Khurásán via Yazd and Kirmán and tells the rest of the companions to return to Isfahán. [B90, 102–3; DB170; MH130]
- This time, described as the `most fecund period' of the Báb's ministry, marks the birth of the Bábí community. [B89–90]
- The Sháh sends one of the most learned men in Persia, Siyyid Yahyáy-i-Dárábí, surnamed Vahíd, to investigate the claims of the Báb. He becomes a follower of the Báb. As a result of his conversion most of the inhabitants of the town of Nayríz later become Bábís. [B90–4; BBD216; BBRSM41; CH21; DB171–7; GPB11–12; TN7–8]
- Another learned scholar, Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Zanjání, surnamed Hujjat, becomes a believer after reading only one page of the Qayyúmu'l-Asmá'. Several thousand of his fellow townspeople become Bábís. [B100–2; BBD111; BBRSM16; GPB12]
- Mírzá Ahmad-i-Azghandí, yet another learned man, who had compiled traditions and prophecies concerning the expected Revelation, becomes a believer as well. [GPB12–13]
|Shiraz; Isfahan; Khurasan; Yazd; Kirman; Nayriz; Iran; Karbala; Iraq
||Bab, Life of; Vakil Mosque; Mosques; Hidden Imam; Mulla Husayn; Bab, Family of; Muhammad Shah; Shahs; Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Hujjat; Qayyumul-Asma (book); Mirza Ahmad-i-Azghandi; Tahirih; Mirza Ahmad-i-Azghandi
|1846. 23 Sep
||The governor, Husayn Khán, threatened by the Báb's rising popularity, orders His arrest. The chief constable, `Abdu'l-Hamíd Khán, takes the Báb into custody and escorts Him to the governor's home but finds it abandoned. He takes the Báb to his own home and learns that a cholera epidemic has swept the city and that his sons have been stricken. At the chief constable's insistence the Báb cures the boys by requesting they drink some of the water with which He has washed His own face. `Abdu'l-Hamíd resigns his post and begs the governor to release the Báb. He agrees on condition the Báb leaves Shíráz. The incident proves to be Husayn Khán's undoing: the Sháh dismisses him from office shortly after. [B104–5; BBRSM55; DB194–7; GPB13; TN9]
- See BBR170–1 and DB197 for the fate of Husayn Khán.
- DB196–7 says `Abdu'l-Hamíd Khán had only one ill son.
||Husayn Khan; Governors; Bab, Life of; Abdul-Hamid Khan; Epidemics; Muhammad Shah; Shahs
|1847. Feb - Mar
||The passing of Manúchihr Khán. His death had been predicted by the Báb 87 days earlier. The governor had made the Báb the beneficiary of his vast holdings, estimated to be 40 million francs, but his nephew Gurgín Khán appropriated everything after his death. [B116; DB213–14]
- Before the death of Manúchihr Khán the Báb instructed His followers to disperse. [B115; DB213–14] Gurgín Khán, in his role as the new governor, informs the Sháh that the Báb is in Isfahán and has been sheltering with Manúchihr Khán. The Sháh orders that the Báb be taken to Tihrán incognito. The Báb, escorted by Nusayrí horsemen, sets out for Tihrán soon after midnight. [B116, 118; DB215–116; TN11]
|Tihran; Isfahan; Iran
||Manuchihr Khan; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Bab, Life of; Gurgin Khan; Nusayri horsemen; Horses
|1847 c. Aug
||Mullá Husayn is residing in Mashhad, in Khurásán, where he has been since returning from Shíráz in 1845. The leader of a local rebellion wishes to enlist the Bábís on his side and seeks a meeting with Mullá Husayn. To avoid entanglement in the affair, Mullá Husayn decides to make a pilgrimage to Máh-Kú. [TB56; DB254–5; MH133–5]
- As an act of piety, he makes the whole 1,200-mile journey on foot. Along the route he visits the Bábís and in Tihrán meets secretly with Bahá'u'lláh. No account of their interview survives. In Qazvín, Mullá Husayn meets Táhirih for the first time. [DB255; MH137]
|Khurasan; Mah-Ku; Qazvin; Tihran
||Mulla Husayn; Tahirih; Bahaullah, Life of
|1848. 20 March
||Mullá Husayn and his companion, walking from Mashhad, arrive at Máh-Kú on the eve of Naw-Rúz. The Báb meets them at the gate and together they celebrate Naw-Rúz, the fourth after the declaration of the Báb. Mullá Husayn stays the night at the fortress. He remains with the Báb for nine days. [B131; DB257, 262; MH138, 143]
- MH137 says Mullá Husayn arrived in Tabríz on 21 March.
- See DB255–7 for story of the dream of `Alí Khán, the prison warden, preceding the arrival of Mullá Husayn at Máh-Kú. From this time on the pilgrims are allowed unrestricted access to the Báb. [DB258]
- The warden requests that the Báb marry his daughter. [DB259; MH143]
|Mashhad; Mah-Ku; Iran
||Mulla Husayn; Bab, Life of
|1848. 30 Mar
||Mullá Husayn departs for Mázindarán, setting out on foot as the Báb has directed. [DB260; MH144]
- The Báb tells him to visit the Bábís in Khuy, Urúmíyyih, Marághih, Mílán, Tabríz, Zanján, Qazvín and Tihrán before proceeding to Mázindarán. In Mázindarán he is to find `God's hidden treasure'. [DB260; MH144]
- In Tihrán he again meets Bahá'u'lláh. [DB261; MH148]
|Mazandaran; Khuy; Urumiyyih; Maraghih; Milan; Tabriz; Zanjan; Qazvin; Iran
||Mulla Husayn; Bahaullah, Life of; Bab, Life of
|1848. late Spring
||Mullá Husayn goes to the house of Quddús in Bárfurúsh, Mázindarán, and realizes that the `hidden treasure' is his recognition of the station of Quddús. [DB261–5; MH148–54]
Mullá Husayn proceeds to Mashhad and builds a `Bábíyyih', a centre for the Bábís, as instructed by Quddús. He and Quddús take up residence in it and begin to teach the Bábí religion.
- See DB288–90 and MH158–68 for the result of this effort.
- Among those who come to the Bábíyyih is Sám Khán, the chief of police. [MH158]
- See MH156 for a picture of the Bábíyyih.
|Barfurush; Mazandaran; Mashhad; Iran
||Mulla Husayn; Quddus; Babi centre; Letters of the Living
||Quddús leaves Mashhad for Badasht. Mullá Husayn is prevented from attending. He is invited to stay in the camp of the soldiers garrisoned in the area to control a local revolt. The invitation amounts to a confinement but he is able to teach the soldiers while so confined. [BKG50; DB290; MH165–6]
- MH160 says that it was at this time that the Báb wrote to all the believers in Persia and Iraq instructing them to go to the aid of Mullá Husayn and Quddús in the `Land of Khá (Khurásán). DB269ff implies this letter was written in 1845.
|Mashhad; Badasht; Iran
||Quddus; Mulla Husayn
|1848 c. Jul
||Quddús is arrested and taken to Sárí where he is placed under house arrest in the home of Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, a leading cleric. [B171; BKG50; DB300]
Táhirih is arrested and is later taken to Tihrán where she is held in the home of Mahmúd Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, until her martyrdom in August 1852.
Mullá Husayn leaves the army camp near Mashhad where he has been a guest of a brother of the Sháh. He plans to make a pilgrimage to Karbalá. While making preparations for the journey he receives a Tablet from the Báb instructing him to go to Mázindarán to help Quddús, carrying a Black Standard before him. He is also instructed to wear the Báb's own green turban and to take the new name Siyyid `Alí. [B171; BKG50; DB324; MH174]
|Sari; Tihran; Mashhad; Mazandaran; Iran; Karbala; Iraq
||Quddus; Mirza Muhammad-Taqi; Tahirih; Mahmud Khan; Kalantar; Mulla Husayn; Shahs; Black Standard; Green turban; Turbans; Names and titles; Letters of the Living
|1848. 21 Jul
||Mullá Husayn and his 202 companions leave Mashhad for Mázindarán under the Black Standard. They will arrive in September. [BBRSM26, 216]
||Mashhad; Mazandaran; Iran
||Mulla Husayn; Black Standard
|1848. Jul - Sep
||Mullá Husayn and his companions, marching to Mázindarán, are joined by Bábís who had been at Badasht as well as newly-converted Bábís. [B171–2]
- Their numbers swell into hundreds, possibly 300 and beyond. [B172; BKG50]
- The Black Standard is raised on the plain of Khurásán. [B171, 176–7; BBD46; BBRSM52; MH175]
- The Black Standard will fly for some 11 months. [B176–7; DB351]
- See DB326 and MH177–83 for details of the journey.
- See MH182 for Mullá Husayn's prophecy of the death of Muhammad Sháh.
|Mazandaran; Badasht; Khurasan; Iran
||Mulla Husayn; Babis; Black Standard; Prophecies; Muhammad Shah; Conference of Badasht
|1848. 10 Oct
||Mullá Husayn and his company arrive near Bárfurúsh. The Sa`ídu'l-`Ulamá, threatened by their presence, has stirred up the townspeople, who go out to meet them. Some three or four miles from the city they clash and seven of Mullá Husayn's companions are killed. [B172; BW18:381; DB329–31; MH192–3]
MH188 says that the journey from Mashhad had taken 83 days.
- In the ensuing battle, the townspeople are worsted. They beg for peace and a truce is agreed. [B172; DB336; MH197]
- It was here that Mullá Husayn cut a man, a musket and a tree with one blow from his sword. [B172; DB 330–1; MH193]
- Mullá Husayn and his companions take shelter in a caravanserai. Three young men who mount the roof to raise the call to prayer are each met with a bullet and killed. Mullá Husayn gives the command to attack the townspeople, who are again routed. [BW18:381; DB337–8; MH201–5]
- Mullá Husayn and his companions are offered safe passage by the town's leaders if they will leave Bárfurúsh. They agree but are attacked by their escort, Khusraw-i-Qádí-Kalá'í and his hundred men. [B172; DB338–42; MH206–9]
|1848. Oct - May 1849
||The siege of the Shrine of Shaykh Tabarsí
- See BBD217, BW18:381, DB345–413 and MH221–85 for chronicle of events.
- The episode lasts seven months. [BBRSM26; BW18:381]
- See BBRSM26 for the Bábís' intentions.
- See DB343–5 for pictures and DB348, MH217–18 for sketches.
- See MH212 for a diagram of the fortifications.
- Bahá'u'lláh visits the fortress and approves the fortifications. [BKG51, DB347–9; MH227]
- He advises Mullá Husayn to seek the release of Quddús. Mullá Husayn sets out immediately and secures the release of Quddús, who has been in detention for 95 days. [B173; BKG51; DB349–50; MH227]
- Quddús arrives towards the end of the year. Some sources say October 20. [B173]
- See DB352–4 for the entry of Quddús into Shaykh Tabarsí. His arrival brings the number of Bábís in the shrine to 313. [DB354]
- Note: BBRSM26 and MH233–4 say that the number of defendants rose to 500–600 individuals.
- 37 per cent of the identified participants were of the `ulamá class. [BBRSM50]
- The siege begins with the arrival of `Abdu'lláh Khán's forces on 19 December.
- it is said that 2000 soldiers were involved in the siege.
||Shaykh Tabarsi; Bahaullah, Life of; Mulla Husayn; Quddus; Letters of the Living; - Basic timeline, Expanded
||Le Journal de Constantinople 1848-1851 (second entry dated March 24 1849 and third dated March 29 1849)|
|1849. 11 Jan
||Quddús and Mullá Husayn lead a night attack on the encamped army. Two hundred and two Bábís disperse the camp. [BW18:381; BD365; MH254]
DB 368 says this occurred on 21 December 1848.
||Quddus; Mulla Husayn; Armies; Shaykh Tabarsi; Swords
|1849. 27 Jan
||The arrival of reinforcements for the besiegers under the leadership of ‘Abbás-Qulí Khán-i-Láríjání. [BW18:381; DB378–9; MH263]
- This is the third army to be mustered.
- The water supply is again cut off and Mullá Husayn orders that a well be dug and a bath constructed. [DB379; MH263]
||Abbas-Quli Khan-i-Larijani; Armies; Mulla Husayn; Shaykh Tabarsi
|1849. 1 Feb
||The well is completed. Mullá Husayn performs his ablutions and puts on clean clothes and the turban of the Báb. [DB379; MH264–6]
||Mulla Husayn; Turbans; Relics; Shaykh Tabarsi
|1849. 2 Feb
||Soon after midnight, Mullá Husayn leads a charge of 313 men that again routs the king's army. He is struck in the chest by a bullet and dies. His body is carried back to the fort and buried. Ninety other Bábís are also wounded, about 40 of whom die. [B174; BW18:381; DB379–82; MH266–70]
- Mullá Husayn is 36 years old at the time of his death. [DB383; MH272]
- See DB382–3 for an account of his life.
- See DB415–16 for an account of the heroics of Mullá Husayn.
- See DB381–2 and MH265–70 for an account of the death and burial of Mullá Husayn.
- See SDH13–14 for an account of his death by Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá.
- Seventy–two of the original 313 inhabitants of the fort had been martyred by this time. [DB382]
- It takes the army 45 days to reassemble its forces. [DB384; MH277]
||Mulla Husayn; Mihdi-Quli Mirza; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Shaykh Tabarsi; Letters of the Living
|1849. c. 11 Mar
||On learning through a traitor of the death of Mullá Husayn, ‘Abbás-Qulí Khán launches a fresh attack on the fort. [DB384–6]
- DB386 says this was 10 days before Naw-Rúz.
- Nineteen Bábís led by Mírzá Muhammad-Báqir overcome the attackers. [DB386–8]
||Abbas-Quli Khan-i-Larijani; Armies; Mulla Husayn; Shaykh Tabarsi
|1849. 26 Nov
||The Báb sends Mullá Ádí-Guzal to the graves of Quddús and Mullá Husayn to make a pilgrimage on His behalf [DB431]
||Bab, Life of; Mulla Adi-Guzal; Cemeteries and graves; Quddus; Mulla Husayn; Pilgrimage
|1851 5 Oct
||Shaykh Hasan-i-Zunúzí, the Báb's amanuensis, had been sent from the Báb's side in Chihríq to live in Karbilá at a time just before the incident at Shaykh Tabarsí when all available believers were being dispatched to assist Quddús. Here, the Báb told him, he would meet the promised Husayn. Although he had never met Bahá'u'lláh before, on this day he recognized Him as He walked by the inner courtyard of the Shrine of the Imám Husayn. [BKG67–8]
- There is a Shíh tradition that, in the Latter Days, 'Alí would re-appear twice, once before Muhammad and once after Husayn. The Báb's name was 'Alí-Muhammad and Bahá'u'lláh's name was Husayn-Alí, hence the prophecy was fulfilled. Shaykh Hasan wants to proclaim the advent of the Promised One however Bahá'u'lláh advises him that it is not yet time.[OPOP163, DB31-33]
||Shaykh Hasan-i-Zunuzi; Bab, Life of; amanuensis; Bahaullah, Life of; Imam Husayn; Prophecies
|1853. 12 Jan
||Bahá'u'lláh and His family depart for Baghdád after a one month respite in the home of his half-brother Mírzá Ridá-Qulí. During the three-month journey Bahá'u'lláh is accompanied by His wife Navváb, (Who was six weeks from giving birth upon departure.) His eldest son ‘Abdu'l-Bahá (9), Bahíyyih Khánum (7) and two of His brothers, Mírzá Músá and Mírzá Muhammad-Qulí. Mírzá Mihdí (2), was very delicate and so was left behind with the grandmother of Àsíyih Khánum. They are escorted by an officer of the Persian imperial bodyguard and an official representing the Russian legation. [BKG102–5; GPB108]
- CH44–5 says the family had ten days after Bahá'u'lláh's release to prepare for the journey to Iraq.
- ‘Never had the fortunes of the Faith proclaimed by the Báb sunk to a lower ebb'. [DB651]
- This exile compares to the migration of Muhammad, the exodus of Moses and the banishment of Abraham. [GPB107–8]
- See BKG104 and GPB108–9 for conditions on the journey.
- Bahá'u'lláh's black servant, Isfandíyár, who had managed to evade capture during this dark period, after he had paid all the debts to various merchants, went to Mazandaran where he was engaged by the Governor. Years later when his master made a pilgrimage to Iraq Isfandíyár met Bahá'u'lláh and stated his preference to return to His service. Bahá'u'lláh said that he owed his master a debt of gratitude and could not leave his employ without his permission. It was not granted and Isfandíyár returned to Mazandaran and stayed with the Governor until his passing. [PUP428; SoW IX 28 April, 1918 p38-39]
- Also see A Gift of Love Offered to the Greatest Holy Leaf (compiled and edited by Gloria Faizi, 1982), by Hand of the Cause Abu'l-Qasim Faizi, which includes a brief summary of the character of Isfandiyar and his services to the Holy Family on pages 14-16.
|Iran; Baghdad; Iraq
||Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mirza Rida-Quli; Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Abdul-Baha, Life of; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Mirza Musa; Mirza Mihdi; Mirza Muhammad-Quli; Isfandiyar; Russian officials; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1862 – 1868
||Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí, a cousin of the Báb, lives in Shanghai during this period. This is the first record of a Bábí or Bahá'í living in China. [PH24]
- From 1870 he lived in Hong Kong dealing as a merchant and was joined by his brother, Hájí Mírzá Muhammad Husayn. [PH24]
|Shanghai; Hong Kong; China
||Haji Mirza Muhammad-Ali (Afnan); Haji Mirza Muhammad Husayn (Afnan); Afnan; Bab, Family of; First Bahais by country or area
|1868. c. Jul
||Principal Bahá'ís in Baghdád are arrested by the Turkish authorities and exiled to Mosul and other places. RB2:333 indicates this took place towards the end of Bahá'u'lláh's stay in Adrianople.[BBR265; BKG247; CH129–30; RB2:333]
- About 70 people are exiled. [GPB178; RB2:334] Estimate given by Hájí Mirzá Haydar-;Alí is 80. (DOH12]
- See BKG184 for an illustration of Mosul.
- See BKG183 for a description of the city.
- See RB2:334 for the hardships suffered by the exiles.
- They remained in Mosul for some 20 years until Bahá'u'lláh advised the community to disband (1885-1886). Their hardship was lessened by generous contributions from the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs. A charity fund was established, the first fund of that kind in any Bahá'í community. [RB2:334–6]
|Baghdad; Mosul; Iraq
||Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Charity and relief work; Funds; Firsts, Other; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
||Franz Josef, Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, makes a pilgrimage to Jerusalem but fails to enquire after Bahá'u'lláh. [KAN116]
||Jerusalem; Israel; Hungary
||Franz Josef; Bahaullah, Life of; Tablets to kings and rulers
|1872 Last months
||Munírih Khánum arrives in `Akká. She stays in the house of Mírzá Músá for several months. [MKBM]
- Note: BKG347 suggests she arrived some time after February 1873.
||Munirih Khanum; Mirza Musa
|1879. 12 Mar
||The arrest of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Hasan, the `King of Martyrs', and Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Husayn, the `Beloved of Martyrs'. [BBD 130]
||Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs
|1879. 17 Mar
||The martyrdom of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Hasan, the `King of Martyrs', and Hájí Siyyid Muhammad-Husayn, the `Beloved of Martyrs'. [BW18:383]
- Their martyrdom is instigated by Mír Muhammad-Husayn, the Imám-Jum`ih, stigmatized by Bahá'u'lláh as the `she-serpent', who owes the brothers a large sum of money. [GPB200–1, ARG172, SDH104]
- Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir, the `Wolf', pronounces the death sentence on the two brothers and the Zillu's-Sultán ratifies the decision. [GPB201]
- The brothers are put in chains, decapitated and dragged to the Maydán-i-Sháh for public viewing. [GPB201]
- For Western accounts of their martyrdom see BBR274–6.
- See SDH112 for the story of the pilgrimage of their families to the Holy Land.
- See BW11:594 for a picture of the memorial to the King and the Beloved of Martyrs.
||Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Mir Muhammad-Husayn; Shaykh Muhammad-Baqir; Wolf; Zillus-Sultan
|1886 In the year
||Birth of Músá Banání, Hand of the Cause of God, in Baghdád.
||Musa Banani; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
||Mírzá Músá, Áqáy-i-Kalím, the faithful brother of Bahá'u'lláh, passed away in `Akká. [BBD166; BKG369; DH57]
- He was buried in the Bahá'í section of the Muslim cemetery. [DH81]
- He was designated by Shoghi Effendi as one of the 19 Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBD166; BW3:80–1]
||Mirza Musa; Aqay-i-Kalim; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves; In Memoriam
|1890 In the year
||Hájí Ákhúnd, Hájí Amín and Ibn-i-Abhar are arrested. Hájí Ákhúnd is imprisoned in Tihrán for two years; Hájí Amín is imprisoned in Qazvín for two years; and Ibn-i-Abhar is imprisoned in Tihrán for four years. [BW18:383–4]
Mírzá Mahmúd-i-Furúghí is arrested in Furúghí and sent to Mashhad. From there he is sent to Kalát-i-Nadírí where he is imprisoned for two years. [BW18:384]
In Mashhad a mob sets out to kill Mírzá Husayn-i-Bajistání, but failing to find him they loot his shop. [BW18:384]
|Tihran; Qazvin; Kalat-i-Nadiri; Mashhad; Iran
||Haji Akhund (Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi); Haji Amin (Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani); Ibn-i-Abhar (Mulla Muhammad Taqi); Mirza Mahmud-i-Furughi; Mirza Husayn-i-Bajistani; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution
|1900 4 or 29 Nov
||The arrival Persian teachers in America, Mírzá Asadu'lláh-i-Isfahání (1826-1930) and Hájí Hasan-i-Khurásání. Their task was to consolidate the American community and to address the effects of Kheiralla's disaffection. [BFA2:VI; 35–43ff]
- 'Abdu'l-Bahá provided them with two translators, Mírzá Husayn Rúhí, a young Persian Bahá'í who has learned English in Egypt and Mírzá Burzurg.
- Mírzá Asadu'lláh spent three weeks in New York then relocated to Chicago where he stayed for eighteen months. He did not accompany 'Abdu'l-Bahá to America, however, shortly after His return, Mírzá Asadu'lláh and his son insisted on going to the West and did so against 'Abdu'l-Bahá's wishes. Both he and his son were expelled from the Faith. [APD143; AY119]
|New York; Chicago; United States
||Haji Hasan-i-Khurasani; Mirza Asadullah-i-Isfahani; Mirza Husayn Ruhi; Mirza Burzurg; Covenant-breakers
|1909 25 Nov
||Dr Susan Moody, a famed American homeopathist, arrived in Tihrán. She and four Persian Bahá'í doctors start the Sehat Hospital. Because the hospital was only accessible to the wealthy she established a private practice that was open to all women regardless of their ability to pay. [BFA2:359-360]
- She spent two days in 'Akká en route to Persia and 'Abdu'l-Bahá conferred upon her the title Amatu'l-'Alí (Handmaid of the Most High). [BFA2:358]
- Dr Sarah A. Clock arrives from Seattle in 1911 to assist her followed by Miss Elizabeth Stewart (nurse). [BFA2:361]
||Susan Moody; Sehat Hospital; Sarah A. Clock; Elizabeth Stewart; Women; Social and economic development; Homeopathy; Names and titles
||Within a year of her arrival Dr. Susan Moody opens the Tarbíyat School for Girls in Tihrán. [BBD221–2; BFA2:360–1]
Those serving at the school were:
- Miss Lillian Kappes of Hoboken, New Jersey arrived in December of 1911 to serve as a teacher. She died on the 1st of December, 1920 of typhus and was buried there.
- She was replaced by Genevieve Coy, a qualified psychologist, a Ph.D. in 1922 who was followed by Adelaide Sharp in 1929. Her mother, Clara Sharp joined her in 1931. [BFA2p361, AY233]
- Elizabeth Stewart who served as a nurse at the school accompanied Lillian Kappes on her arrival. Miss Stewart served until 1924 when she returned to Philadelphia where she died in 1926. [ABF43]
- Munírih Khánum Ayádí, the mother of Dr Karím Ayádí (later famed as the Shah much-trusted doctor) was Persia’s first official Director of the Tarbíyat School for Girls. She was widely recognized as exceptional, at a time when Persia’s Bahá’í women were only gradually emerging from their earlier state under Islam. Much respected by the men, her attitude toward them was one of total equality. Her greatness was in herself, her devotion to the Faith absolute, and she was made a member of such advanced committees as the Bahá’í Women’s Committee. Her views were moderated by her sense of humour, which included self-deprecation, so that she never subjected you to her piety. One day during the Bahá’í Fast ,she asked Marzieh Gall: ‘Do you think God would notice if I ducked into that room and sneaked a few puffs of tobacco?’ [AY333]
||Tarbiyat School; Bahai schools; Susan Moody; Lillian Kappes; Genevieve Coy; Adelaide Sharp; Clara Sharp; Elizabeth Stewart; Women; Equality; Gender; Social and economic development; Munirih Khanum; Karim Ayadi
|1911 22 Aug - 3 Sep
||`Abdu'l-Bahá took up residence at Thonon-les-Bains on Lake Leman (Lake Geneva). [AB140; GPB280; SBR219]
- While there He encountered Zillu's-Sultán, the eldest son of the Sháh of the time, Násirid-Dín Sháh. It was he who had ratified the execution of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs and at least 100 others. The whole family was in exile in Geneva at this time. 'Abdu'l-Bahá was very courteous to this man who had been such an inveterate enemy of the Cause. [DJT172, AY19, GPB201] .
- The Master sent for Juliet Thompson who had been waiting in London for His permission to join Him.
- During His stay he had a visit from Annie Boylan, a member of the New York community that was experiencing disharmony. Unaware of Bahá'í election procedures, a group that was unhappy with the disunity and ineffectiveness of the Council had organized a vote to be rid of several of its Council members. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had written to the community a short time before recommending that the Council be expanded from 9 to 27 members so that all factions could be represented. He also recommended that women be included on the Council and that the name be changed to "the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of New York". This apparently addressed the problem of disunity because the New York community went on to contribute significantly to the progress of the Faith on a national level. [DJT181, BFA2p338]
- Horace Holley, who lived at Quattro Torri, Siena, Italy at the time, along with his wife Bertha Herbert and baby daughter Hertha, visited 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the 29th and 30th of August. Please see his Religion for Mankind p 232-237 for a pen portrait of 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
- He met with Elizabeth Stewart and Lillian Kappes who were on their way to Tehran. [find reference]
- It would appear that He returned to Marseilles and travelled to London by sea. [SCU22-23]
|Thonon-les-Bains; Lake Leman; Marseille; France; Switzerland; Italy; London; United Kingdom; New York; United States
||Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; Unity; Zillus-Sultan; Persecution; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Juliet Thompson; Horace Holley; Elizabeth Stewart; Lillian Kappes; Ships
|1911 23 Aug
||'Abdu'l-Bahá went for a carriage ride in the nearby hills. ["With 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Switzerland" by Juliet Thompson, SoW Vol 2 no 14 (Nov 23, 1911) p9-13, ABF15]
- Later that day, by chance, 'Abdu'l-Bahá encountered the Persian prince, Sultán-Mas'ud Mírzá Zillu's-Sultán (1850-1918), the eldest son of Násirid-/dín Sháh, (1850-1918) in the Parc Hotel. He was in voluntary exile in Europe accompanied by his four sons. At various times, he had been the governor or governor-general of various provinces in Iran from 1862 to 1907 and had persecuted the Bahá'ís zealously. He was responsible for ratifying the execution of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs in 1879. Upon meeting 'Abdu'l-Bahá he presented his excuses but 'Abdu'l-Bahá forgave him by saying "All those things are in the past. Never think of them again." [DJT172-3, ABF17]
- Annie Boylan arrived in Thonon-les-Bains from America by way of Lausanne. 'Abdu'l-Bahá is reported to have told her that the building of the Shrine of the Báb was the fulfillment of the prophecy that "the Lord would come and rebuild the temple that had been torn down". He added that the Tomb of the Báb and that of Bahá'u'lláh were considered the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkar. [SoW vol 11. no. 1 (March 21, 1920) p1-15, ABF18]
|Thonon-les-Bains; France; Isfahan; Iran
||Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Zillus-Sultan; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Annie Boylan; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Other; Persecution
|1911 28 Aug
||In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá's visitor was Sultán-Husayn Mírzá, the eldest son of Zillu's-Sultán. Between 1879 and 1906 he had served as either governor or deputy governor of Khuzestán, Lorestán, Yazd, Fárs, Burujerd and Kurdistan. He was responsible for the martyrdoms in Yazd in 1891 and again in 1903. He had been exiled with his father in 1908.
- As a footnote, in his latter years he became a devoted Bahá'í. [DJT206]
Later He gave a talk in Arabic that was published in its entirety by the leading Egyptian newspaper, Al-Ahram. [ABF45-48, SoW vol 5 no 10, Far Stretching River (translation by Mohsen Enayat)]
|Thonon-les-Bains; France; Yazd; Iran
||Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Sultan-Husayn Mirza; Mohsen Enayat; Seven martyrs of Yazd; Seven martyrs; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Yazd upheaval
|1911 31 Aug- 4 Sep
||During His stay in Geneva 'Abdu'l-Bahá most likely returned the visits of Zillu's-Sultán Sultán-Mas'úd Mírzá and his four sons, Sultán-Husayn Mírzá, Bahrám Mírzá, Fírúz Mírzá, and Ismá'íl Mírzá. [DJT214-215, ABF54-60]
||Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Zillus-Sultan; Sultan-Masud Mirza; Sultan-Husayn Mirza
||Mr Husayn Uskuli and two Bahá'ís friends arrive in Shanghai from 'Ishqábád. His family joins him. [PH28-29, BW13p871-872]
||Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Shanghai; China
|1917 9 Dec
||General Allenby enters Jerusalem. [AB425]
- Major Wellesley Tudor Pole risks court martial to alert the British Cabinet of the danger to `Abdu'l-Bahá. [ER169]
||General Allenby; Major Wellesley Tudor Pole; Abdul-Baha, Life of; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
||The tombs of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs in Isfahán are demolished by a mob. [BBR437]
- For Western responses see BBR437-9.
||Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Cemeteries and graves; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution; Persecution, Mobs
|1921 29 May
||Alessandro Bausani, the Italian Bahá'í who was an Islamic scholar, linguist and historian of comparative religions, is born in Rome.
|1921 After the passing of 'Abdu'l-Bahá
||'Aqá Jamál Burújirdí had been a member of the Islamic clergy in Burujerd and was widely known and revered across Iran as a gifted teacher of the Faith.
During the lifetime of Bahá'u'lláh he received much praise and various honorary titles such as Ismu'lláh'u'l-Jamál (The Name of God Jamál) due to his many services. He broke the Covenant after the ascension of Bahá'u'lláh and rose in opposition to the Centre of the Covenant.
During his visit to 'Akká following the passing of Bahá'u'lláh he made contact with Mírzá Muhammad-Alí with the goal of securing a prominent place in the administration of the faith under his leadership, all the while feigning loyalty to 'Abdu'l-Bahá for decades.
In God Passes By p247-248 Shoghi Effendi says of Mírzá Muhammad-Alí and those who tried to assist him in his nefarious efforts, "Closely-knit by one common wish and purpose; indefatigable in their efforts; assured of the backing of the powerful and perfidious Jamál-i-Burújirdí and his henchmen, Ḥájí Ḥusayn-i-Káshí, Khalíl-i-Khú’í and Jalíl-i-Tabrízí who had espoused their cause; linked by a vast system of correspondence with every center and individual they could reach; seconded in their labours by emissaries whom they dispatched to Persia, ‘Iráq, India and Egypt; emboldened in their designs by the attitude of officials whom they bribed or seduced, these repudiators of a divinely-established Covenant arose, as one man, to launch a campaign of abuse and vilification which compared in virulence with the infamous accusations which Mírzá Yaḥyá and Siyyid Muḥammad had jointly levelled at Bahá’u’lláh."
He was publically unmasked after the Covenant-breakers printed letters with falsehoods and misleading statements and became known in the Bahá'í community as "Hyena" or "Old Hyena" (pír-i-kaftár). He died in poverty and disgrace in Iran. The date of his death is not known. [M9YA6-7, 432, RoB2p118-9, 264-267, MMoB104-105, CB165-166, 209-15, Biographies of Jamal-i-Burujirdi]
- He was the recipient of many tablets from both Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'l-Bahá, one of which can be found in Gleanings from the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh p5-9 and a more complete provisional translation of the original tablet can be found here.
||Jamal-i-Burujirdi; Covenant-breakers; Haji Husayn-i-Kashi; Khalil-i-Khui; Jalil-i-Tabrizi; Names and titles
|1921 Late in the year
||Mírzá Husayn Tútí arrives in the Philippines, the earliest known visit by a Bahá'í to this country. He stays for four months.
||Mirza Husayn Tuti
|1922 24 Jan
||Dr Sarah A. Clock passes away in Tihrán. She had gone there in 1911 to assist Dr Moody at the Tarbíyat School. [BFA2:361; SW12, 19:309]
||Sarah A. Clock; Susan Moody; Tarbiyat School; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
||The Guardian sends `Abdu'l-Husayn, Ávárih, to Europe to deepen the believers. [CB335, SBR68]
- For his life and eventual Covenant-breaking see CB334-42 and PP120.
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Avarih (Abdul-Husayn); Covenant-breakers
|1926 25 Jan
||The passing of Professor Edward Granville Browne, (b. on the family estate in Gloucestershire, 7 February, 1862. d. near Cambridge). He is buried at Elswick Cemetery in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England. Find a grave.
Browne was a British orientalist who published numerous articles and books of academic value in the areas of Persian history and literature. He had a number of private interviews with Bahá’u’lláh at Bahjí in 1890. He was the only Westerner to have met Bahá’u’lláh and to have left a description of the experience (see Scholar Meets Prophet: Edward Granville Browne and Bahá'u'lláh).
In 1912-13, while `Abdu'l-Bahá was in Europe, Browne visited him in London and Paris. These visits were supplemented by some correspondence between the two. Other Bahá'ís, including Montford Mills, also visited and corresponded with Browne from time to time. When `Abdu'l-Bahá passed away in 1921, Browne penned a sympathetic obituary. He also wrote a pen-portrait of Àbdu'l-Bahá. [Bahá'í Tributes]
- Charles Melville, Professor of Persian History at Pembroke College in Cambridge headed the Browne Archive Project to digitize Browne's diaries and notes.
- See Encounter with Bahá'u'lláh, a short video about Browne's life and his famous interview.
- Religious Systems of the World: A Contribution to the Study of Comparative Religion (1889)
- A Traveller's Narrative Written to Illustrate the Episode of the Báb (1891) A history by`Abdu'l-Bahá which Browne translated and extensively annotated.
- Tarikh-i-Jadid or New History of Mirza`Ali Muhammad the Báb (1893) by Mirza Husayn Hamadani translated by E.G.Browne.
- Hájjí Mírzá Jani Kashani wrote a substantial history of the Bábi Faith sometime between 1850-1852. (He was martyred in 1852.) These memoirs as they were copied and re-copied and spawned a great many versions which differed particularly in their portrayal of Subh-i-Azál and Bahá'u'lláh, depending on the editor’s loyalty.
- In about 1880 Mírzá Husayn Hamadani with the support of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl took some version of Mírzá Jani's 1851 account and worked it up into a new history, The Tárikh-i-Jadíd. He did this at the request of a Zoroastrian, Manakji, who then added a preface, an epilogue, and an unknown number of amendments to the text and then published it under his own name.
- Nabil-i-Akbar, in response to a commission by Bahá'u'lláh, made a revision of this work somewhere between 1880-1883 which is known as The Táríkh-i Badí‘-i Bayání.
- Browne used two these two manuscripts, The Tárikh-i-Jadíd and The Táríkh-i Badí‘-i Bayání to write the single volume The New History (tarikh-i-jadid) of Mírzá Ali-Muhammed, the Báb. In referring to Mírzá Jani's history throughout the footnotes, he was not aware of the problems of discerning what represents the original memoirs and what others have added.
- A Year Among the Persians (1893) Vividly describes his adventures, including his encounters with the Bahá'ís and Azalís during his time in Persian from October 1887 to September 1888.
- A chapter from the history of Cannabis Indica (1897)
- A Literary History of Persia From Firdawsí to Sa'dí (in four volumes) (1902-24)
- The Persian Revolution of 1905–1909 (1910) About the Persian Constitutional Revolution, of which Browne was an ardent supporter.
- He published, in Persian, the text of The Kitab-i-Nuqtatu'l-Kaf, being the earliest History of the Bábís compiled by Hájji Mírzá Jání of Kásgán between the years 1850 and 1852, edited from the unique Ms. Suppl. Persan 1071. (1910) This was a work that he had done at an earlier date. It was published at the instigation of Mirza Muhammad Qazvini, a well-known Iranian literary critic and Azalí sympathizer, who wrote the Persian Introduction to this volume. After the publication of this work, `Abdu'l-Bahá wrote to a number of Iranian Bahá'ís, urging them to compile material to refute its contents. One such work was Dashf al-Ghitá by Mírzá Abul-Fazl Gulpáyigání. [RR232]
[See The History and Provenance of an Early Manuscript of the Nuqtat al-kaf dated 1268 (1851-52) by William F. McCants and Kavian Sadeghzade Milani and
Nuqtat al-Káf by Kavian Sadeghzade Milani as well as
Nuqtat al-Kaf and the Babi Chronicle Traditions by Juan Cole;
The Bab's Stay in Kashan: A Historiographical Analysis of the Kitab-i-Nuqtatu'l-Kaf Based on the Kashan Pericope by Kavian Milani; MCS517; 541]
- The Persian Constitutional Movement (1918) [MCS544]
- Materials for the Study of the Babi Religion (1918) The book represented no great amount of original work on Browne's part since it was mainly documents that he had collected.
- Arabian Medicine (1921) [Browne, Edward Granville by Moojan Momen]
- See MCS529-545 for a discussion of Browne's lack of objectivity and his partisanship as a reseacher that lead to his committing some serious errors in his work on the Bábí-Bahá'í Faith.
||Edward Granville Browne; In Memoriam; Montford Mills; Hajji Mirza Jani Kashani; Subh-i-Azal ; Mirza Husayn Hamadani ; Mirza Abu'l-Fadl; Manakji; Nabil-i-Akbar; Abdu'l-Baha; William F. McCants; Kavian Sadeghzade Milani; Juan Cole; Moojan Momen; Z****
||Shoghi Effendi announces the defection of 'Abdu'l-Husayn Ávarih. He had been a very successful teacher and the author of a book on the history of the Faith but opposed Shoghi Effendi's efforts to build the Administrative Order. He was insistent that the Universal House of Justice be formed at that time. He was denounced by the believers in Egypt and Iran. [SETPE1p149, BA137-139, Ruhi8.2-20, CoC294-296]
- After his defection he became a Muslim and an opponent of the Baha'i Faith. He returned to Tehran and spent the rest of his life as a secondary school teacher. During this period he wrote many works of poetry and prose, including Kashf al-Hial, a three volume work refuting the Bahá'í Faith. [Wikipedia]
||Covenant-breakers; Avarih (Abdul-Husayn); Abd al-Hosayn Ayati
|1928 26 Oct-13 Nov
||The case of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád is taken before the fourteenth session of the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations. [BW3:207]
- The right of the Bahá’ís to the House is upheld and the government of Iraq is strongly pressed to find a solution but the House is not returned to the Bahá’ís. [BW3:207–9; GBF35; PP96–7]
- For Shoghi Effendi’s comment on these developments see BW3:206–9.
- The Shí’ís turn the House into a Husayníyyih, where the martyrdom of the Imám Husayn is mourned. [BBD113–14]
||House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); League of Nations; Imam Husayn
|1934 23 Oct
||Dr Susan Moody passes away in Iran. [BFA2:361]
- For her services in Iran and an obituary see BW6:483–6.
- She is buried near the graves of Lillian Kappes and Sarah Clock in the Tihrán Bahá’í cemetery. [BW6:486]
||Susan Moody; Lillian Kappes; Sarah Clock; In Memoriam; Cemeteries and graves
||Husayn Uskuli, a Bahá’í resident in Shanghai, travels to Taiwan, the first Bahá’í known to visit the island. [PH28; The Taiwan Bahá'í Chronicle by Barbara R. Sims p3]
||Husayn Uskuli; Z****
||Shoghi Effendi sent the following cable to the Bahá'í world: "My faithless brother Husayn, after long period of dishonourable conduct, has abandoned the Master's home to consort with his sister and other Covenant-breakers". [Bahá'í News, No. 174, p.2]
||Covenant-breakers; Husayn Ali Rabbani
|1951 2 Aug
||Músá and Samí‘ih Banání; their daughter, Violette and her husband, ‘Alí Nakhjavání; their baby daughter, Bahíyyih; and Philip Hainsworth from England arrive in Kampala, the first pioneers to Uganda.
||Musa Banani; Samiih Banani; Violette Nakhjavani; Ali Nakhjavani; Philip Hainsworth; First Bahais by country or area
|1951 3 Aug
||The establishment of the Faith in Uganda with the arrival of Mr. and Mrs. Músá Banání, Mrs. Violette and Mr. Ali Nakhjavani, of Iran, with their baby daughter Bahiyyih, and Mr. Philip Hainsworth arrived in Kampala. [Wiki Bahá'í Uganda]
||Kampala; Uganda; Africa
||Musa Banani; Violette Nakhjavani; Ali Nakhjavani; Bahiyyih Nakhjavani; Philip Hainsworth; Knights of Bahaullah
|1952 29 Feb
||Shoghi Effendi appoints the second contingent of Hands of the Cause of God. [BW12:375–6; CT202–3 MBW20–1; PP254; ZK47]
- They are Fred Schopflocher, Corinne True, Dhikru’lláh Khádem, Shu’á’u’lláh ‘Alá’í, Adelbert Mühlschlegel, Músá Banání and Clara Dunn. [BW12:375–6; MWB19–20]
- Shoghi Effendi describes their two-fold function: propagation of the Faith and preservation of its unity. [BW12:376; MBW21]
||Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, Contingents; Hands of the Cause, Second Contingent; Fred Schopflocher; Corinne True; Dhikrullah Khadem; Shuaullah Alai; Adelbert Muhlschlegel; Musa Banani; Clara Dunn
|1952 8 Oct
||Shoghi Effendi announces his decision to launch ‘the fate-laden, soul-stirring, decade-long world-embracing Spiritual Crusade’ in the coming year. [BW12:253–5; MBW411
- For the objectives of the Crusade see BW12:256–14.
- Among the goals to be achieved is the construction of the International Bahá’í Archives building. [BBD22; DH168; MBW43]
- He calls upon the Hands of the Cause to appoint during Ridván 1954 five auxiliary boards to act as their adjuncts or deputies to work with the national spiritual assemblies to execute the projected national plans. [MBW44, BW13p335]
||Ten Year Crusade; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; International Bahai Archives; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Auxiliary Board Members and assistants; Appointed arm; NSA; Teaching plans; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1953 12–18 Feb
||The first Intercontinental Teaching Conference is convened by the British National Spiritual Assembly in Kampala, Uganda. [BW12:121, MBW135-140]
- For Shoghi Effendi’s message to the conference see BW12:121–4.
- For a report of the conference see BW12:124–30.
- It is attended by ten Hands of the Cause, Bahá’ís from 19 countries and representatives of over 30 tribes. [PP413]
- Over a hundred new African believers attend as personal guests of the Guardian. [PP413]
- With this conference the Ten Year World Crusade is launched. [BBRSM158–9; BW12:253; MBW41]
|Kampala; Uganda; Africa
||Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Guardianship; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade; Teaching; First conferences
||The Ten Year Crusade (1953-1963) is launched. See MBW151-156, MBW151 Also see Ali Nakhjavani's paper for The 22nd Hasan M. Balyuzi Memorial Lecture entitled
The Ten Year Crusade.
The four primary goals of the plan were outlined as follows:
- the development of institutions at the World Centre
- consolidation of the twelve countries where the Faith was well established
- consolidation of all other territories already open
- the opening of the remaining "chief virgin territories" around the globe (131)
“…Sometimes people strive all their lives to render outstanding service. Here is the time and opportunity to render historic services; in fact the most unique in history, aiding in the fulfillment of Daniel’s Prophecies of the Last Day, and the 1335 days, when men are to be blessed by the Glory of the Lord, covering the entire globe—which is the real goal of the Ten Year Crusade. [DG54-55]
To those Bahá’ís who arose to open new territories to the Faith during the Ten Year Crusade, the title 'Knight of Bahá’u’lláh' was given. In 1992, the Roll of Honour containing the names of all the Knights of Bahá’u’lláh was deposited beneath the entrance door to the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh.
A map of goals for the Ten Year World Crusade by Shoghi Effendi can be found in Bahá'í World, Vol. 12 (April 1950-1954). Electronic versions, in both medium and large format can be found here.
The achievements of the Ten Year Crusade were celebrated at the Most Great Jubilee in April and May 1963, which commemorated the Centenary of the Declaration of Baha’u’llah’s Mission. Two historic events transpired during that time: the International Convention, convened in Haifa, Israel, to elect the first Universal House of Justice; and the World Congress held in London, England.
- See The Journal of Bahá'í Studies Vol 14, no. 3-4, 2004 for the essay The Ten Year Crusade by Ali Nakhjavani.
||Ten Year Crusade; Teaching Plans; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1953 3 – 6 May
||The All-America Intercontinental Teaching Conference is held in Chicago. [BW12:133]
- For the texts of Shoghi Effendi’s messages to the conference see BW12:133–41 and MBW142–6.
- Twelve Hands of the Cause are present. [BW12:143]
- At the conference, five members of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States resign from that body in order to go pioneering: Elsie Austin, Dorothy Baker, Matthew Bullock, Mamie Seto and Dr William Kenneth Christian. [ZK102]
- Extract from the cecond message to All-American Intercontinental Conference from Shoghi Effendi... [MBW150]
.....the lands contributed in Latin America for a similar purpose approximate one-half of a million square meters, ninety thousand of which have been set aside near Santiago, Chile, for the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár of South America..
|Chicago; United States; Santiago; Chile; America
||Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade; Teaching; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Pioneering; Elsie Austin; Dorothy Baker; Matthew Bullock; Mamie Seto; William Kenneth Christian; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Santiago; Purchases and exchanges
|1953 21 – 26 Jul
||The European Intercontinental Teaching Conference is held in Stockholm. [BW12:167]
- For Shoghi Effendi’s message to the conference see BW12:167–71.
- For a report of the conference see BW12:171–8.
- Fourteen Hands of the Cause are present. [BW12:171]
- 374 Bahá’ís from 30 countries attend, of these 110 come from the ten goal countries. [BW12:171]
|Stockholm; Sweden; Europe
||Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade; Teaching; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities
|1953 7 – 15 Oct
||The Asian Intercontinental Teaching Conference is held in New Delhi. [BW12:178]
- For Shoghi Effendi’s message to the conference see BW12:178–81.
- For a report of the conference see BW12:181–8.
- This is the first international Bahá’í gathering ever to be held in the East. [BW12:181; SBR171]
- It is attended by 489 Bahá’ís representing 31 countries. [BW 12:181]
- The design for the International Bahá’í Archives is revealed to the Bahá’ís of the world for the first time at this conference. [DH168]
|New Delhi; India; Asia
||Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade; International Bahai Archives; Teaching; First conferences
|1953 14 Oct
||Shoghi Effendi announces the settling of 13 further Knights of Bahá’u’lláh, with 178 territories now open to the Faith. [MBW173]
||Knights of Bahaullah; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Statistics; Growth; Ten Year Crusade
|1953 11 Nov
||Shoghi Effendi announces the settling of a further contingent of Knights of Bahá’u’lláh in 21 virgin areas, bringing the number of territories open to the Faith to 200. [MBW52–3]
||Knights of Bahaullah; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Statistics; Growth; Ten Year Crusade
|1954 6 Apr
||Shoghi Effendi announces the creation of five Auxiliary Boards with the following number of members: Asia 7; America 9; Europe 9; Africa 9; Australia 2. [MBW59]
- Their function is to ‘act as deputies of the Hands in their respective continents’, to ‘aid and advise them in the effective prosecution of the’ and to assist them ‘in the discharge of their dual and sacred task of safe-guarding the Faith and of promoting its teaching activities’. [MBW63]
- See also BBD26; BBRSM127; MC3.
- These boards were mandated with the propagation of the Faith.
||Auxiliary Board Members and assistants; Appointed arm; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Ten Year Crusade
|1954 26 May
||Shoghi Effendi, Rúhíyyih Khánum and Leroy Ioas return the visit of President Ben Zvi by visiting him in Jerusalem. [GBF140; PP293–4]
||Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Leroy Ioas; Ben Zvi; Presidents
|1954 1 Oct
||Shoghi Effendi announces that there are Bahá’ís in 235 countries and territories and over 3000 centres around the world. [MBW69–70]
||Statistics; Growth; Ten Year Crusade
|1954. 22 Oct
||Mr and Mrs Suleimani arrive by ship in Keelung, Taiwan. They will spend the rest of their lives there. The Suleimanis, originally from Iran, had lived for about 28 years in Shanghai where Mrs Ridvaniyyih Suleimani's father, Mr Husayn Ouskouli Uskuli (or Uskui) had long resided and conducted a business. Mr and Mrs Suleimani had left Shanghai permanently in 1950 because of the difficult situations for foreigners in China but Mr Ouskouli decided to stay on and won the admiration of the Guardian. He died in Shanghai at the age of 86. [The Taiwan Bahá'í Chronicle by Barbara R. Sims p3]
||Keelung; Taiwan; Shanghai; China
||Knights of Bahaullah; Mr and Mrs Suleimani; Husayn Ouskouli; Z****
||Shoghi Effendi announces that the Bahá’í Faith is represented in 236 countries, in 3,200 locations, by over 40 ethnic groups. Bahá’í literature is translated into 176 languages. [MBW76–8]
||Statistics; Growth; Ten Year Crusade
|1956 25 Feb
||Husayn Uskuli, (b. 1875) long-time pioneer to Shanghai from ‘Ishqábád, passes away in Shanghai at the age of 82 and is buried in the Kiangwan Cemetery in Shanghai. [PH29, BW13p871-873]
- He heard about the Faith at the age of 18 from Mírzá Haydar-'Alí. After his marriage he moved to 'Ishqábád where he was very active in the community. After his move to Shanghai his home was the centre of activity and hospitality for all those passing through. He was the only foreign-born Bahá'í to remain in China after the regime change. The xenophobic attitude of the government precluded any meaningful contact with the local citizenry.
- He was survived by four daughters and a son.
|Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Shanghai; China
||Husayn Uskuli; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
||Shoghi Effendi calls for the convocation of a series of Intercontinental Conferences to be held successively in Kampala, Uganda; Sydney, Australia; Chicago, United States; Frankfurt, Germany; and Djakarta, Indonesia. [BW13:311–12; MBW125]
||BWC; Kampala; Uganda; Sydney; Australia; Chicago; United States; Frankfurt; Germany; Djakarta; Indonesia
||Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade
|1957 19 Nov
||Nine Hands of the Cause are chosen by Rúhíyyih Khánum to examine Shoghi Effendi’s apartment. [BW 13:341]
- These are the five members of the International Bahá’í Council (Rúhíyyih Khánum, Mason Remey, Amelia Collins, Ugo Giachery and Leroy Ioas), an Afnán (Hasan Balyuzi), a representative of the Hands of the Western Hemisphere (Horace Holley), a representative of the Hands of the African continent (Músá Banání) and the Trustee of the Huqúqu’lláh (‘Alí Muhammad Varqá). [BW13:341]
- After seeing that the seals are intact, the Hands examine the contents of Shoghi Effendi’s safe and desk. [BW13:341]
- The nine Hands sign a document testifying that no Will or Testament of any nature executed by Shoghi Effendi has been found. This is reported to the entire body of Hands assembled in the Mansion of Bahjí. [BW13:341]
- See CB378–9 for an explanation of why Shoghi Effendi left no Will.
||Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; International Bahai Council; Charles Mason Remey; Amelia Collins; Ugo Giachery; Leroy Ioas; Hasan Balyuzi; Horace Holley; Musa Banani; Varqa, Ali-Muhammad
|1958 23–28 Jan
||The first Intercontinental Conference held at the mid-point of the Crusade convenes in Kampala, Uganda. [BW13:317]
- Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, who had been designated by the Guardian as his representative, attends, accompanied by Dr Lutfu’lláh Hakím.
- For the message of the Custodians to the conference see MC56–60.
- For a report of the conference see BW13:317.
|Kampala; Uganda; Africa
||Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Lutfullah Hakim; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade; First conferences
|1958 26 Jan
||The foundation stone of the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár of Africa is laid by Hands of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and Músá Banání. [BW13:317]
||Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Kampala; Foundation stones and groundbreaking; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Musa Banani
|1958 21–24 Mar
||The second Intercontinental Conference held at the mid-point of the Crusade convenes in Sydney, Australia. [BW13:319]
- Hand of the Cause Charles Mason Remey, who had been designated by the Guardian as his representative and who is the architect of the Mother Temple of Australasia, attends, accompanied by four other Hands of the Cause. [BW13:317]
- For the message of the Custodians to the conference see MC72–5.
- For a report of the conference see BW13:319–21.
|Sydney; Australia; Australasia
||Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Charles Mason Remey; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Sydney; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architecture; Architects
|1958 2–4 May
||The third Intercontinental Conference held at the mid-point of the Crusade convenes in Wilmette, Illinois. [BW13:323]
- Hand of the Cause Dr Ugo Giachery, who had been designated by the Guardian as his representative, attends, accompanied by four other Hands of the Cause. [BW13:323]
- For the message of the Custodians to the conference see MC90–8.
- For a report of the conference see BW13:323–5.
|Wilmette; Illinois; United States; America
||Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Ugo Giachery; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade
|1958 25–29 Jul
||The fourth Intercontinental Conference held at the mid-point of the Crusade convenes in Frankfurt, Germany. [BW13:327]
- Amelia Collins, who had been designated by the Guardian as his representative, attends, accompanied by ten other Hands of the Cause. [BW13:327]
- For the message of the Custodians to the conference see MC102–6.
- For a report of the conference see BW13:327–9.
|Frankfurt; Germany; Europe
||Amelia Collins; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade
|1958 14 Sep c.
||A week before the fifth Intercontinental conference is due to convene in Djakarta, Indonesia, the government withdraws the permit to hold the conference. [BW13:331]
- For the story of why the permit was revoked see DM83–5.
- The cancellation of the conference in Djakarta begins a period of severe repression of the Faith in Indonesia which eventually leads to the Faith being banned in 1962. [DM85, 88]
||Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade
|1958 27 – 29 Sep
||The fifth Intercontinental Conference held at the mid-point of the Crusade convenes in Singapore. [BW13:331]
- Hand of the Cause Leroy Ioas, who had been designated by the Guardian as his representative, attends, accompanied by eight other Hands of the Cause. [BW13:331–2]
- For the message of the Custodians to the conference see MC111–6.
- For a report of the conference see BW13:331–2.
||Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Leroy Ioas; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade
||The Custodians announce that the number of national and regional spiritual assemblies has risen to 31, the Faith is established in 255 countries, Bahá’ís live in over 5,200 localities and have formed nearly 1,275 local spiritual assemblies, and Bahá’í literature has been translated into 261 languages. [MC137–8]
||Custodians; Statistics; Growth; Ten Year Crusade
||The Custodians announce that the Bahá’í Faith is represented in over 256 territories and is established in over 5,800 localities; there are 31 national spiritual assemblies and nearly 1,500 local spiritual assemblies; and Bahá’í literature is in 268 languages. [Mc183–96]
||Custodians; Growth; Statistics; Ten Year Crusade
|1963 20 Apr
||The Ten Year Crusade is successfully completed. The achievements of the Ten Year Crusade were celebrated at the Most Great Jubilee in April and May 1963, which commemorated the Centenary of the Declaration of Baha’u’llah’s Mission. Two historic events transpired during that time: the International Convention, convened in Haifa, Israel, to elect the first Universal House of Justice; and the World Congress held in London, England.
- For a summary of achievements during the Crusade see BW13:459–60.
- For countries, islands and dependencies opened to the Faith during the Crusade see BW13:461–2. (259)
- For number of localities in which Bahá’ís reside in different parts of the world see BW13:462. (from 2,000 to more than 11,000)
- For languages into which Bahá’í literature has been translated see BW13:462–4.
- For races represented in the Bahá’í world community see BW13:464.
- For national spiritual assemblies at the end of the plan see BW13:468–9. (from 12 to 56)
|Worldwide; BWC; London; United Kingdom
||Ten Year Crusade; Most Great Jubilee; Conventions, International; Growth; Statistics; Teaching plans; - Basic timeline, Expanded
||The Universal House of Justice releases statistics on the growth and spread of the Bahá’í Faith at Ridván. [BW14:124–35]
||Statistics; Growth; Ten Year Crusade
||Jesus Bias Manibusan of Sinajana, Guam, the first Chamorro to become a Bahá’í, enrols.
||Jesus Bias Manibusan
||The National Spiritual Assembly of Zambia is formed with its seat in Lusaka. [BW14:97]
|1971 4 Sep
||Músá Banání, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Kampala, Uganda. (b.1886) [BW15:42; VV7]
- For his obituary see BW15:421–423.
- Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
||Musa Banani; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Second Contingent
|1971 16 Oct
||The inauguration of Shahyad Tower ("King's Memorial Tower") in Tehran. The tower was built in honour of the shah on the occasion of the commemoration of the 2,500th anniversary of the Persian Empire and has become an iconic symbol of the city of Tehran. It has been described as being a tower, an arch, a gate and an obelisk in one and is 50 meters (164 ft) tall and completely clad in some eight thousand blocks of cut marble from Isfahan Province. The main financing was provided by a group of five hundred Iranian industrialists.
After the Revolution in 1979 it was renamed The Azadi Tower (Liberty Tower) and was, in turn, the gathering place of the "rebels" in 1979 and for those protesting the results of the election in 2009.
The architect, Hossein Amanat was only 24 years old and a recent graduate when he won the competition for the project. In addition to having a remarkable career in designing buildings for commercial, educational and residential use, he is the architect for such Bahá'í projects as the Universal House of Justice Building, the Centre for the Study of the Holy Texts, the International Teaching Centre and the Mashriqu’l-Adhka in Samoa. He left Iran in 1978 and took up residence in Vancouver in 1980.
[Hossein Amanat website]
||Hossein Amanat (Husayn Amanat); Architecture; Architects
|1973 18 Sep
||Husayn Amánat is appointed architect of the Seat of the Universal House of Justice. [BW16:133; DH172; VV37]
||Universal House of Justice, Seat of; Hossein Amanat (Husayn Amanat); Architecture; Architects
|1974 7 Feb
||The construction of the Seat of the Universal House of Justice is initiated with the acceptance of the design conceived by architect Husayn Amánat. [BW17:73]
||Hossein Amanat (Husayn Amanat); Universal House of Justice, Seat of; Architecture
|1975 5 Jun
||Excavation of the site of the Seat of the Universal House of Justice begins. [BW16:133; BW18:465]
- See BW16:399–404 for an article on the Seat by architect Husayn Amánat.
- See BW17:301 for the significance of the seat.
||Hossein Amanat (Husayn Amanat); Universal House of Justice, Seat of; Architecture; Architects
|1984 1 Sep
||The House of Worship in Apia, Western Samoa, the Mother Temple of the Pacific, is dedicated in the presence of Hand of the Cause of God Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, Hand of the Cause Dr Ugo Giachery, His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II and more than a thousand Bahá’ís from 45 countries. [BW19:100–1; VV64]
- For a report of the dedication see BW19:552–3.
- For the text of the address of His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II see BW19:556.
- For pictures see BW19:553 and VV64.
- Marble for the House of Worship was cut and chiseled by Margraf, a firm from Chiampo, Italy formerly known as Industria Marmi Vincentini. [BWNS1223]
Location: Apia, Samoa (9km south of the city)
Foundation Stone: Laid by Malietoa Tanumafili II and Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum on 27 January 1979. She placed a small casket of Dust from the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh in a niche in a stone.
Site Dedication:1 September 1984
Architect Husayn Amanat
Seating: 500 - 700
Dimensions: Top of the dome to ground: 28m (92ft)
References: BW16p488-489, BW17p371-374, BW18p104, 585-588, BW19p547-557,
|Apia; Samoa; Pacific; Chiampo; Italy
||Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Ugo Giachery; Malietoa Tanumafili II of Western Samoa; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Apia; Dedications; Marble; Husayn Amanat; Malietoa Tanumafili II; Architects; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster; Bahaullah, Shrine of; BWNS; - Basic timeline, Expanded
|1989 6 May
||The Bahá’í World Centre receives one of six awards given by the Council for a Beautiful Israel in a ceremony in Jerusalem. [BINS199:2]
||World Centre; Awards
|1991 25 Jan
||Mottahedeh Development Services was established by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of the United States as a non-profit agency to promote social and economic development to benefit individuals of any race, creed, or nationality. The agency name honours more than fifty years of dedicated service by Mildred and Rafi Mottahedeh, two pioneers in social and economic development.
- Mottahedeh Development Services was organized as a charitable organization under US law. [MDS]
||NSA USA; Social and economic development; Mildred Mottahedeh; Rafi Mottahedeh
||The dedication of the first academic chair in Bahá'í studies in Israel at Hebrew University of Jerusalem with the appointment of Prof. Moshe Sharon. The position was made possible because of an anonymous donation. [Jerusalem Post, June 7, 1999, BWNS84]
||Chair in Bahai Studies; Hebrew University of Jerusalem; Universities; Moshe Sharon; Firsts, Other; Donations; BWNS
|2000 17 - 21 Dec
||The first International Conference on Modern Religions and Religious Movements in Judaism Christianity and Islam and the Bábí-Bahá’í Faiths was held in Jerusalem with about 90 persons in attendance. [BWNS84]
||Conferences, Interfaith; Interfaith dialogue; Judaism; Christianity; Islam; Firsts, Other; BWNS
|2008 1 - 2 Nov
||The first of 41 Regional Conferences held over a four month period to mark the mid-point of the Five Year Plan held in Lusaka, Zambia. [Lusaka, BWNS642]
||Regional Conferences; BWNS
from the main catalogue
See all tags, sorted numerically or alphabetically.
- Answered Questions, Some: A Philosophical Perspective, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 10 (2009). Philosophical foundations of the Bahá’í teachings, including ontology, theology, epistemology, philosophical anthropology and psychology, and personal and social ethics. [about]
- Aqa Husayn Ashchi's narrative, by Universal House of Justice and Ahang Rabbani (1996). A letter to the House requesting permission to translate and publish Aqa Husayn Ashchi's narrative and their response. [about]
- Bahá'í Faith in Iran, The, by John Walbridge, in Essays and Notes on Babi and Bahá'í History (2002). Includes essay "Three Clerics and a Prince of Isfahan: background to Bahá'u'lláh's Epistle to the Son of the Wolf" and bios of Ayatollah Khomeini and Zill al-Sultan. [about]
- Bahá'í History in the Formative Age: The World Crusade 1953-1963, by Graham Hassall, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 6:4 (1995). [about]
- Bausani, Alessandro, by Biancamaria Scarcia Amoretti, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2008). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
- Bushrú'í, Mullá Muhammad Husayn, by Denis MacEoin, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 4 (1990). Very brief article, short enough to qualify as "fair use." [about]
- Course on Bahá'í Symbolism, by Ernesto Fernandez (2013). Symbolic forms in the Writings and Baha'i architectural systems, and their analogues in universal religious symbolism. Includes Spanish translation, "Curso de simbología bahá ́í." [about]
- Daniel's Prophecies, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). [about]
- Dawn over Mount Hira and Other Essays, by Marzieh Gail (1976). A collection of essays on various topics of interest to Baha'i studies and history. Most of these were first published in Star of the West and World Order between 1929 and 1971. [about]
- Declaration of the Bab (Poetic), by David Merrick (2008). A poetic meditation on Mulla Husayn's transformation at the Declaration of the Bab. [about]
- Demographics of the United States National Spiritual Assembly, by Archives Office of the United States Bahá'í National Center (2016). Percentage of women, African-Americans, Native Americans, Asian Americans, and Latino Americans serving on the U.S. and Canadian NSAs from 1922-2015. [about]
- Die Perser: von den Anfängen bis zur Gegenwart, by Alessandro Bausani (1965). Brief overview of the early years of the Baha'i Faith. [about]
- Dying for God: Martyrdom in the Shii and Babi Religions, by Jonah Winters (1997). Religious and cultural meanings of martyrdom/witnessing, and their role in Babi history. [about]
- Historia de la Religión desde la Perspectiva Bahá'í, by Alessandro Bausani (2003). [about]
- "I am all the Prophets": The Poetics of Pluralism in Bahá'í Texts, by Juan Cole, in Poetics Today, 14:3 (1993). Literary analysis of a passage from Tablet of Blood (Súriy-i-Damm) in which Bahá'u'lláh identifies Himself with all the past Prophets and their sufferings, depicting himself mortally wounded on the field of battle, like Imám Husayn. [about]
- Interdependence of Bahá'í Communities, The: Services of North American Bahá'í Women to Iran, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4:1 (1991). [about]
- Islam in the History of Religions, by Alessandro Bausani, in Problems and Methods in the History of Religions (1972). Methodological reflection on the question: how much does the study of so-called "superior" religions fit into the history of religions as a unitary discipline? [about]
- Letters of the Quranic Dispensation and Letters of the Living (huruf), by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, 4 (2003). Some meanings of the term huruf ("letters") in Baha'i texts, including Letters of the Bayan, Letters of the Living, and Letters of the Quranic Dispensation. [about]
- Lifetime with Bahá'u'lláh, A: Events in Baghdad, Istanbul, Edirne and ‘Akká while in the Company of Bahá'u'lláh, by Aqa Husayn Ashchi, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 14 (2007). One-third of a lengthy primary-source history, annotated by translator. [about]
- Map of Goals for the Ten Year World Crusade, by Shoghi Effendi, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 12 (April 1950-1954) (1956). Shoghi Effendi's map of progress goals for the Ten Year World Crusade, 1953-1963. [about]
- Memories of Ashchi: Background, by Ahang Rabbani and Sen McGlinn (1999). Background information on and a start at translation of the narratives of Aqa Husayn Ashchi. [about]
- Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
- Metaphor and the Language of Revelation, by Ross Woodman, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:1 (1997). [about]
- Moody, Susan, by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram (1998). [about]
- Moody, Susan I., 1851-1934: Obituary, by Miriam Haney, in The Bahá'í Magazine, 25:12 (1935). Tribute to a travel-teacher who was especially known for bringing education and medical care to women and girls in Iran, and who helped found the Tarbiyat School for Girls. [about]
- Mulla Husayn, by Lowell Johnson (1982). A biography of Mulla Husayn, the first Letter of the Living. [about]
- Mulla Husayn Bushru'i: The Indomitable, by Darius Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1992). Life story of the first believer in the Bab. [about]
- Mulla Husayn Bushrui, by Moojan Momen and Todd Lawson, in World Religions: Belief, Culture, and Controversy (2011). [about]
- Namibia, Pacific Islands, Queen Marie, and Emeric Sala (2005). [about]
- Notes on Judaism from a Bahá'í Perspective, by Robert Stockman (1998). Overview of Judaism with many comments on Baha'i teachings on Jewish history and prophets; includes chronology of Judaism. [about]
- Obituary: Alessandro Bausani (1921-1988), by Heshmat Moayyad, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 10 (2001). [about]
- Objectives and Tasks of Ten-Year Spiritual Global Crusade of the Bahá'í World Faith, by Shoghi Effendi, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 12 (April 1950-1954) (1956). [about]
- Origins of the Bahá'í Concept of Unity and Causality: A Brief Survey of Greek, Neoplatonic, and Islamic Underpinnings, by Babak Rod Khadem, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). [about]
- Poetry on the Ten Year Crusade: 1953-1963: Pioneering Over Four Epochs: Section VIII Poetry, by Ron Price, in Pioneering Over Four Epochs: An Autobiographical Study and A Study in Autobiography, Section VIII: Poetry (2006). The poetry here is related to the 10 Year Crusade: 1953-1963. I began my pioneering life during this period and this poetry brings together secular, Baha'i and personal history. [about]
- Prince of Martyrs, The: A brief account of the Imam Husayn, by Abu'l-Qasim Faizi (1977). The story of the Third Imam, whose death in the year 680 became a pivotal event for Shi'i Islam. [about]
- Progress Bahá'í World Crusade 1953-1958, by Shoghi Effendi, in The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1963: Information Statistical and Comparative (1963). Statistical information such as LSA incorporation, temple construction, etc. [about]
- Prophecy of Daniel; Modifications of Baha'u'llah and the New Era, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Two topics: the fulfilment of the Biblical prophecy of Daniel concerning 1,335 days, and modifications made to Baha'u'llah and the New Era. [about]
- Roll of Honor Bahá'í World Crusade 1953-1963, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 20 (1986-1992) (1998). A scroll listing the names of the Knights of Baha'u'llah. [about]
- Significance of some Sites Mentioned in Memorials of the Faithful, by Foad Seddigh, in Lights of Irfan, 17 (2016). Abdu'l-Baha cited many villages and cities: the Most Great House in Baghdád; the ruins of Madaen which Baha'u'llah visited many times; Sheikh Tabarsi's tomb; the city of Mosul which is built on the ruins of the ancient city of Nineveh. [about]
- Story of Mulla Husayn. Life of the first Baha'i. Speaker not known. [about]
- Tablet of Patience (Surih Sabr): Declaration of Bahá'u'lláh and Selected Topics, by Foad Seddigh, in Lights of Irfan, 15 (2014). This significant Tablet from Ridvan 1863 covers the Seal of the Prophets, appearance and presence of God, resurrection, and the Qayyum al-Asma. Includes context of Baha'u'llah's life and troubles during this period. [about]
- Tablet of Visitation for Imám Husayn, by Bahá'u'lláh (2002). Tablet in honor of Imam Husayn, the prince of martyrs, with whom Baha'u'llah identified in a mystical connection. [about]
- Tablet to 'Ustad Husayn-i-Khayyát, by Abdu'l-Bahá. Short one-paragraph Tablet concerning the grades or degrees of certainty. [about]
- Tablet to Hájí Muhammad-Nasír-i-Qazvíní: Excerpts, by Bahá'u'lláh (1986). Excerpts translated by Christopher Buck in Studies in Bábí and Bahá’í History vol. 3 (Kalimát Press, 1986) and by Shoghi Effendi in Gleanings from the Writings of Bahá’u’lláh. [about]
- Tablet to Shaykh Kazim-i-Samandar II, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Eminent Bahá'ís in the Time of Bahá'u'lláh (1985). [about]
- Tablet to Varqá Regarding the Prince and King of Martyrs, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Eminent Bahá'ís in the Time of Bahá'u'lláh with some Historical Background (1985). Short tablet of tribute to the King and Beloved of the Martyrs, from H. M. Balyuzi's Eminent Bahá’ís. [about]
- Ten Year Crusade, The, by Ali Nakhjavani, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 14:3-4 (2004). [about]
- The Báb; Husayn Bushru'i; Ruh al-Quddus; Tahirih, by Moojan Momen and Todd Lawson, in Holy People of the World: A Cross-Cultural Encyclopedia (2004). [about]
- Various questions: Psychic powers, Persepolis, portrait of Mulla Husayn, etc., by Universal House of Justice (2007). Answers to: psychic powers and "natural" healing; 'Abdu'l-Bahá's statement on Persepolis; inauthenticity of a portrait of Mullá Husayn; a passage on childhood; list of sites for future Houses of Worship; Prayer of the Báb; and a jungle story. [about]
- Virgin countries and territories opened during the first year of the 10 Year Crusade 1953-1954, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 12 (April 1950-1954) (1956). [about]
- Virgin Territories Opened by the Knights of Baha'u'llah 1953-1990, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 20 (1986-1992) (1998). List of names and dates of pioneers and the NSAs responsible for opening territories. [about]
- Windows to the Past, by Darius Shahrokh (1992). Deepening talks on 25 topics about Baha'i history and teachings, downloadable in MP3 audio format and PDF transcripts. [about]
- Wronged One, The: Shí'í Narrative Structure in Bahá'u'lláh's Tablet of Visitation for Mullá Husayn, by William F. McCants, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). On the martyrdom of Mulla Husayn, the structure of sacrificial and devotional narratives, and Shi'i antecedents. [about]