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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1840 The British fleet take `Akká from the Egyptians. [BBR202] Akka; Israel; Egypt; United Kingdom History (general)
1845. 1 Nov The Times of London carries an item on the arrest and torture of Quddús, Mullá Sádiq-i-Khurásání, Mullá `Alí-Akbar-i-Ardistání and Mullá Abú-Tálib in Shíráz in June. This is the first known printed reference to the Revelation. A similar article is reprinted on 19 November. [B76–7; BBR4, 69] Shiraz; Iran; London; United Kingdom Quddus; Ismullahul-Asdaq (Mulla Sadiq Khurasani); Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Ardistani; Mulla Abu-Talib; Times (newspaper); Newspaper articles; Firsts, Other First newspaper story of the events of the Bábí Faith
1855 5 Mar Birth of John Henry Hyde Dunn, Hand of the Cause, in London. London; United Kingdom John Henry Hyde Dunn; birth; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
1869. 12 May Birth of Clara Davis Dunn, Hand of the Cause, in London. London; United Kingdom Clara Dunn; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
1872 31 May Birth of Thomas Breakwell, considered the first English Bahá'í, in Woking, Surrey, England. Woking; Surrey; United Kingdom Thomas Breakwell; Births and deaths
1874. 19 May Birth of John Ebenezer Esslemont, Hand of the Cause of God, in Aberdeen, Scotland. Aberdeen; Scotland; United Kingdom Esslemont; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
1888 29 Mar The first lecture in the West on the Bahá'í Faith (`Bábism') is given by E. G. Browne at the Essay Society, Newcastle, England. [SCU12] Newcastle; United Kingdom Edward Granville Browne; Firsts, Other
1889 Jun E. G. Browne gives a paper on the Bahá'í Faith (`Bábism') at the Royal Asiatic Society, London.

London; United Kingdom Edward Granville Browne; Royal Asiatic Society
1891 (In the year) A Traveller's Narrative is published in two volumes by the Cambridge University Press. [BBD226; EGB55]

It is an historical account written by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá around 1886 and first published anonymously in Persian in 1890. The English translation was prepared by Professor Edward G. Browne and first published by Cambridge University Press in 1891.

Cambridge; United Kingdom Travelers Narrative (book); Publications; First publications
1891. 15 Feb First public lecture in the West on the Bahá'í Faith, given by E. G. Browne at the Southplace Institute, London.
  • He gave a lecture to Pembroke College Literary Society in England (Martletts), at which the Faith was discussed at length.
London; United Kingdom Edward Granville Browne; Southplace Institute; Firsts, Other
1891 after 19 May Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Lawh-i-Times, Tablet to the Times in which He recounts the circumstances of the martyrdoms in Yazd. [RB4:348–50, BW18p976-7, Essay by Mehdi Wolf] Akka; London; United Kingdom; Yazd; Iran Bahji; Times (newspaper); Newspapers; Media; Lawh-i-Times (Tablet to the Times); Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Seven martyrs of Yazd; Seven martyrs; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
1895. c. summer Miss Marion Brown becomes a Bahá'í in London, the first European to accept the Bahá'í Faith. [BFA1:37] London; United Kingdom Marion Brown; First Bahais by country or area
1899 Summer Ethel Jenner Rosenberg accepts the Bahá'í Faith, the first English woman to become a Bahá'í in her native land. [AB73–4; ER39; GPB260; SBR20, 33; SEBW55-64, SCU17]
  • For her biography see Rob Weinberg's, Ethel Jenner Rosenberg.
  • She visited 'Abdu'l-Bahá several times in the first decade of the century. [SCU17]
United Kingdom Ethel Rosenberg; First Bahais by country or area
1900 26 Nov Agnes Alexander accepts the Faith in Rome after hearing the message from Mrs Dixon. She stays in Rome for three months studying prophecies then travels to Paris for further study with May Bolles for another three and one half months. She leaves Paris in the Spring of 1901 for London, New England, Oakland, Ca and finally Honolulu. [BFA1p159] Rome; Italy; Paris; France; Oakland; California; London; United Kingdom; Honolulu; Hawaii Agnes Alexander; May Maxwell (Bolles)
1901 22 Jan The passing of Queen Victoria.
  • Of all the leaders addressed by Bahá'u'lláh only she is reputed to have made a courteous reply. [CBM47; PDC65]
  • See CBM47–8 for Bahá'u'lláh's prophecy concerning the success of her reign.
London; United Kingdom Queen Victoria; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
1902 8 May May Bolles marries Sutherland Maxwell in London and moves to Montreal. [BW8:635; GPB260]
  • BFA2:156 says they married `late' in 1902.
London; United Kingdom; Montreal; Canada May Maxwell (Bolles); Sutherland Maxwell
1908 Mar The book Some Answered Questions is published simultaneously in the United States and in Great Britain in English. [AB82; BBD212–13; BFA2:238]
  • The Persian edition is published the same year. [AB82]
  • It is the only pilgrims' notes to be considered part of Bahá'í sacred literature. [BFA2:238; BW12:98–107, ABF8]
United States; United Kingdom Some Answered Questions; Pilgrims notes; Publications; Translation; Authenticity
1911. 26 - 29 Jul The First Universal Races Congress was held at the University of London. It was the first important conference in which the British Bahá'ís participated. It was an international symposium on the theme of the brotherhood of humankind and attracted leading politicians, theologians and scholars from the whole of the British Empire and from Europe as well as North America. During the Congress itself there were several presentations from Bahá'ís including the reading of a letter from 'Abdu'l-Bahá who was in Egypt at the time. [NBAD45]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Letter.
  • See SoW Vol II No 9 for a report by Wellesley Tudor-Pole, an article by Thorton Chase as well as the letter from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to the conference.
  • A bibliography of the presentions, papers and contributions and secondary literature by Ralph Dumain can be found here.
London; United Kingdom Conferences, Racial amity; Race amity; Race (general); Race unity; Firsts, Other
1911 11 Aug The beginning of `Abdu'l-Bahá's first Western tour. [AB139]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá departs from Egypt with a party of four on the S. S. Corsica for Marseilles, Thonon-les-Bains and London. [AB139; GPB280; SBR22, SoW Vol2 no.10 (8 September, 1911) p7]
  • Subsequent research has shown that the ship was not the S.S. Corsica as stated in GPB280 but rather the L'Orenoque. See 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Paris page 6 note 47.
  • See BW1:130 for a list of cities He visits between 1911 and 1913.
  • It is believed that funds for ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s teaching journeys to the West were provided by an oil-rich believer in Baku. [AY11]
Baku; Alexandria; Egypt; Marseilles; Thonon-les-Bains; France; London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha in Egypt; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; S. S. Corsica; Orenoque; Ships; Funds; Donations; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded
1911 18 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá had an exchange of telegrams with Wellesley Tudor Pole from the Theosophical Summer School in Derbyshire, England where he had just presented a lecture on the Bahá'í Faith. [ABF9-10, SoW Vol 2 no10 p.7] Marseille; France; Derbyshire; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Wellesley Tudor Pole; Theosophical Society
1911 22 Aug - 3 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá took up residence at Thonon-les-Bains on Lake Leman (Lake Geneva). [AB140; GPB280; SBR219]
  • While there He encountered Zillu's-Sultán, the eldest son of the Sháh of the time, Násirid-Dín Sháh. It was he who had ratified the execution of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs and at least 100 others. The whole family was in exile in Geneva at this time. 'Abdu'l-Bahá was very courteous to this man who had been such an inveterate enemy of the Cause. [DJT172, AY19, GPB201] .
  • The Master sent for Juliet Thompson who had been waiting in London for His permission to join Him.
  • During His stay he had a visit from Annie Boylan, a member of the New York community that was experiencing disharmony. Unaware of Bahá'í election procedures, a group that was unhappy with the disunity and ineffectiveness of the Council had organized a vote to be rid of several of its Council members. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had written to the community a short time before recommending that the Council be expanded from 9 to 27 members so that all factions could be represented. He also recommended that women be included on the Council and that the name be changed to "the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of New York". This apparently addressed the problem of disunity because the New York community went on to contribute significantly to the progress of the Faith on a national level. [DJT181, BFA2p338]
  • Horace Holley, who lived at Quattro Torri, Siena, Italy at the time, along with his wife Bertha Herbert and baby daughter Hertha, visited 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the 29th and 30th of August. Please see his Religion for Mankind p 232-237 for a pen portrait of 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • He met with Elizabeth Stewart and Lillian Kappes who were on their way to Tehran. [find reference]
  • It would appear that He returned to Marseilles and travelled to London by sea. [SCU22-23]
Thonon-les-Bains; Lake Leman; Marseille; France; Switzerland; Italy; London; United Kingdom; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; Unity; Zillus-Sultan; Persecution; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Juliet Thompson; Horace Holley; Elizabeth Stewart; Lillian Kappes; Ships
1911 24 Aug Tammaddun'ul-Mulk and Juliet Thompson arrived in Thonon-les-Bains from London via Geneva. She had landed in Southampton on board the Lusitania from America on the 25th of July.

Juliet Thompson had been in Paris in 1899 and had been part of the nascent Bahá'í community there along with May Maxwell and Lua Getsinger. In addition, she had met 'Abdu'l-Bahá in 'Akká in 1909.

  • She, like many others, was anxious to know when He might come to America. He replied that the unity of the believers would be His invitation. There had been strong differences of opinion among the believers in America and one of those points was in their understanding of the station of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. Some believed Him to be an ordinary man who, through spiritual practice, had attained HIs station, implying that all could do the same. Others insisted that He was the return of Christ. The differences among the believers in New York was such that an election for the New York Bahá'í Board of Council had been influenced to excluded one of the incumbents. 'Abdu'l-Bahá insisted that the Board be increased to 19 members to ensure his re-election. [ABF19]
London; United Kingdom; Thonon-les-Bains, France Tammaddunul-Mulk; Juliet Thompson; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
1911 4 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in London accompanied by His secretary, Mírzá Mahmúd and Khusraw, His servant. [ABL53, AB140; GBP280; SBR22, 148, BW4p378, In the Footsteps of the Master p.5]
  • CH149 says He arrived 8 September and 3 September as per the UK Bahá'í site.
  • Those Bahá'ís who assembled to meet him were listed as: Lady Blomfield (in whose home at 97 Cadogan Gardens He stayed), Mrs Thornburg-Cropper, Miss Ethel Rosenberg, Miss Gamble, Miss Herrick, Mrs Scaramucci, Miss Elsie Lee, Mr Catanach, Mr Cuthbert, Mr and Mrs Jenner, Miss Yandell, Miss Julia Culver, Mrs Stannard, Mr and Mrs Eric Hammond, The Rev Harrold Johnston, The Rev Cooper Hunt, Miss Juliet Thompson, Mrs Louise Waite, Mrs Movius, Mrs Claudia Coles, Mr Mountfort Mills, Mr Mason Remey and Miss Drake Wright. Mr and Mrs Dreyfus-Barney provided translation. In addition there were a number of Persians who took the opportunity to meet Him. [BW4p377]
  • As described by Lady Blomfield those who came to see him were: "Ministers and missionaries, Oriental scholars and occult students practical men of affairs and mystics, Anglican-Catholics and Nonconformists, Theosophists and Hindus, Christian Scientists and doctors of medicine, Muslims, Buddhists, and Zoroastrians. There also called: politicians, Salvation Army soldiers, and other workers for human good, women suffragists, journalists, writers, poets and healers dress-makers and great ladies, artists and artisans, poor workless people and prosperous merchants, members of the dramatic and musical world, these all came; and none were too lowly nor too great to receive the sympathetic consideration of this holy Messenger, who was ever giving His life for others' good." In addition there was a representation from the Bramo-Somaj Society, a Hindu reform group. [CH150-152]
  • See BW4p377 where Lady Blomfield reports that Prince Jalalu'd-Dawlih entreated to be received by 'Abdu'l-Bahá and when in His presence fell prostrate and implored pardon for his crimes. (see 1891 19 May) [BW4p377]
  • Among the list of visitors were: Professor Edward Granville Browne, Mr Tudor-Pole, Emmeline Pankhurst, a British political activist and leader of the British suffragette movement who helped women win the right to vote. [BW4p377]
  • See BW4p381 for the story of a homeless, suicidal man who had seen a picture of 'Abdu'l-Bahá in a newspaper in a shop window.
  • See BW4p382-383 for the story of the persistent journalist who imposed upon the appointment of two ladies from Scotland who had journeyed all that day and intended to make the return voyage that same evening.
  • For details of His stay in England see AB140–58 and GPB283–5.
  • It is implied that 'Abdu'l-Bahá was attended by Dr Lutfu-lláh Hakím while in London. [BW4p380]
  • During His stay in London 'Abdu'l-Bahá received death threats by anonymous letter and he was advised to give up He planned journey to Egypt. He ignored them. [BW4p 387]
  • During His stay in London He has professional photographs of Himself taken by the Irish photographer, James Lafayette (1853-1923). "...to have a picture of oneself is to emphasise the personality, which is merely the lamp, and is quite unimportant. The light burning within the lamp has the only real significance." [SBR25, BW4p383-384, ABF84]
London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Pictures and portraits; Portraits; Abdul-Baha, Death threats to; Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper; Ethel Rosenberg; Juliet Thompson; Louise Waite; Mountfort Mills; Charles Mason Remey; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Jalalud-Din-Dawlih; Mirza Mahmud-i-Zarqani; Khusraw; Edward Granville Browne; Wellesley Tudor Pole; Emmeline Pankhurst; Lutfullah Hakim; James Lafayette
1911 5 Sep ‘Abdu’l-Bahá was interviewed by the editor of The Christian Commonwealth, Mr Albert Dawson, and later met with the Rev R. J. Campbell. The Christian Commonwealth was a weekly newspaper. On 13 September it printed, on its front cover, an article which included the interview between ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and Rev R. J. Campbell that had taken place on 5 September. The following week the front cover had another article, entitled ‘The Vanishing of the Veil’, about ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s visit to St John’s, Westminster. Other issues also had substantial articles about His visits. [In the Footsteps of the Master p.7] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Interviews; Newspaper articles
1911. 8 Sep 'Abdu’l-Bahá visited the home of Miss Ethel Jenner Rosenberg for a Unity meeting at White Lodge, 8 Sunnyside, Wimbledon (since demolished). [ABL44-45, In the Footsteps of the Master p.9] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Ethel Rosenberg
1911 9 Sep ‘Abdu’l-Bahá visited the home of Mrs Thornburgh-Cropper at 31 Evelyn Mansions, Carlisle Place, Victoria.

In the afternoon ‘Abdu’l-Bahá visited the home of Miss Anett Schepel and Miss Alice Buckton, Vanners, Byfleet, Surrey (since demolished), some 20 miles out of London. He spoke with a number of working women from the Passmore Edwards' Settlement who were visiting while on holidays. (The Passmore Edwards' Settlement began in 1890 as one of the first “settlements” run by socially-conscious middle-class educators for the benefit of local working people and their children.)

Alice Mary Buckton (1867-1944) wrote many plays and poems. Her play Eager Heart was seen by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá on His second visit to England. She became a member of the Froebelian Society which was formed to reform educational methods. She persuaded Anett Schepel who had worked at Pestalozzi-Froebel Haus in Germany to move to England and together they worked to improve child education, opening a school in St John’s Wood. [ABL85-86, In the Footsteps of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá p9-10]

Byfleet; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
1911 10 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá gives His first public address in the West in the City Temple Church in Holborn, London to an audience of over 2,000 people. He proclaimed that “This is a new cycle of human power…the gift of God in this enlightened age is the knowledge of the oneness of mankind and the fundamental oneness of religion.” [ABL17-20, AB140; BW2:227; GPB283–4, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p11]
  • He spoke at the invitation of The Reverend R J Campbell. Mr. Wellesly Tudor-Pole read the translation. [CH154]
    • For the text of His talk see AB140–2.
    • For the words He wrote in the pulpit Bible see AB145. The church was bombed in World War II and the pulpit Bible was destroyed. The church was rebuilt in 1958.
    • For a photo see BWNS792.
  • London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches; Firsts, Other; BWNS
    1911 13 Sep Mrs Thornburgh-Cropper gave a reception for ‘Abdu’l-Bahá at her home 31 Evelyn Mansions, Carlisle Place, Victoria for about 45 people. [ABS46-47, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p12]
    • Note: Star of the West Vol. II No. 11, records this meeting as having taken place on 12th September.
    London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper
    1911 17 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá addresses the congregation of St John's, Westminster, His second address to a Western audience. He also met with members of the Salvation Army who were singing outside. [ABL21-25, AB145; SBR8, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p13]
    • For text of His talk see AB147–8.
    • He spoke at the invitation of Archdeacon of Westminster, Albert Wilberforce, grandson of famed abolitionist William Wilberforce. The invitation had been extended to Him during a private audience in the home of Lady Blomfield. [CH153-154]
    • 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent an invitation to the Archdeacon asking him to meet with Him. He turned Him down with a message, "We are all one behind the veil." 'Abdu'l-Bahá replied, "...and the veil is thinning quite." When Wilberforce met with 'Abdu'l-Bahá he found that there was no separation between them. [Ahmad Sohrab's Diary - The Great Tour p99]
    • See also Star of the West Vol. II No. 12, p. 12.
    Westminster; London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; ; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches
    1911. 22 Sep ‘Abdu’l-Bahá visited the home of Misses Marion Jack and Elizabeth Herrick, at 10 Cheniston Gardens, Wright's Lane (sometimes given as 137a High Street, Kensington. About 80 people were present. [ABL48-49, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p14]
    • The talk was stenographically recorded and published as Discourse by 'Abdu'l-Bahá at the Unity Meeting of Misses Jack and Herrick. September 22nd, 1911. For full text see NBAD233-234.
    London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Elizabeth Herrrick; Marion Jack; Publications
    1911 23–25 Sep Abdu’l-Bahá travelled by train from London to Bristol going from Paddington to Bristol Temple Meads. He stayed at the Clifton Guest House at 17 Royal Crescent which was owned by Major Wellesley Tudor Pole. He departed for London by train on the morning of the 25th of September. [AB156, ABL81-84, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p15-16]
    • See also Star of the West Vol II No. 12.
    • During His stay in Bristol He had a photograph taken. [ABF84]
    Bristol; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Wellesley Tudor Pole; Trains; Abdul-Baha, Pictures and portraits
    1911 28 Sep 'Abdu'l-Bahá visited Byfleet for a second time by motorcar. He stayed the night and returned the evening of the next day. [ABL86, 99, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p.17]
    • Mrs Thornburgh Cropper had place her motorcar at His service. She and Ethel Rosenberg who had visited Him in 'Akká were lovingly attentive to Him. [BW4p384]
    Byfleet; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Cars
    1911 29 Sep A farewell reception was given for 'Abdu'l-Bahá in the hall of the Passmore Edwards' Settlement in Tavistock Place. It was attended by a capacity crowd of some 460 people. [ABL31-39, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p.18] Byfleet; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
    1911 30 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá addresses the Theosophical Society in London, His last talk in England on this visit. He met the Theosophical society at their new Headquarters at the express request of their president Mrs. Annie Besant. After a general history of the movement and sympathetic words of welcome by Mr. A. P. Sinnett, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá rose and delivered to the crowded assembly an address upon the distinctive notes of the Bahá’í teaching, warmly commending the eagerness of the Society in its search for Truth. [ABL26-30, 58 AB152, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p.19] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at other places; Theosophical Society; Annie Besant
    1911 1 Oct A young Persian couple asked 'Abdu'l-Bahá to marry them. The union was blessed at the Higher Thought Centre, 10 Cheniston Gardens, Kensington. The bride, Regina Núr Mahal Khánum, had travelled from Baghdad to meet and marry her bridegroom, Mírzá Yuhanna Dáwud. [AB:77, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p.20] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 2 Oct Abdu’l-Bahá breakfasted with the Lord Mayor of London at the Mansion House, City of London. The Lord Major of London at the time of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s visit was Sir Thomas Vezey Strong (1858- 1920). He was a teetotaler and a temperance advocate. He traded in paper and was the holder of a number of honours. [In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p.20] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Mayor of London; Mayors
    1911 3 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves London for Paris. [AB154; SBR25, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p22]
    • See ABL113 for details of His last day in London. He left from Victoria Station.
    • He was accompanied by many Bahá'ís from England who attended many of the public meeting at which He spoke in Paris. This group included Marion Jack. [NBAD47]
    • He remains in Paris for nine weeks. [AB159; GPB280]
    • For details of His visit see AB159–68.
    • For `Abdu'l-Bahá's talks given in Paris see PT.
    London; United Kingdom; Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Marion Jack; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of
    1912 5 Dec `Abdu'l-Bahá sails on the S. S. Celtic from New York to Liverpool. [239D:193–4; AB337; GPB281]
    • For `Abdu'l-Bahá's final words to the Bahá'ís, spoken while on board ship, see PUP468.
    • For Ahmad Sohrab's account of the sea crossing see SW3, 16:2.
    New York; United States; Liverpool; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Ships; S. S. Celtic; Ahmad Sohrab; Abdul-Baha, Life of
    1912 13 Dec `Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in Liverpool aboard the S. S. Celtic at about 9PM. He is met by dozens of Bahá'ís from Liverpool, Manchester and Leads as well as Hippolyte Drefus-Barney who had come from Paris. [AB343; SBR38, ABTM273-4] Liverpool; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; S. S. Celtic; Ships
    1912 14 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá stayed in Liverpool at the Adelphi Hotel. His first talk was to the Theosophical Society. [ABTM274, SoW Vol III No17 9Jan1913 p3] Liverpool; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Hotels; Theosophical Society
    1912 15 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke at Pembroke Chapel and was introduced by Rev Donald Fraser. [ABTM275, SoW Vol III No 17 9Jan1913 p4] Liverpool; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912 16 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá and his entourage departed Liverpool for London by train from the Lime Street Station. When they arrive at Euston Station they are met by a group of about 50 Bahá'ís. He is taken by motorcar to the home of Lady Blomfield at 97 Cadogan Gardens which she again offered to Him during His stay in London. After resting He gave a talk to newspaper reporters and later gave a talk to the gathering of Bahá'ís. [AB343, ABTM276] Liverpool; London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Trains; Cars; Lady Blomfield
    1912 17 De A Bahá'í arrived from Ireland to see 'Abdu'l-Bahá, possibly Joan Waring, after travelling all day and all night.
    • He made comments on the character of the American people.
    • In the afternoon He spoke to a large gathering at Caxton Hall in Westminster. [SoW Vol III no 19 2Mar1913 p3-4, ABTM276-277]
    London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912 18 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá gives a talk at which E. G. Browne is present. He visits `Abdu'l-Bahá several more times while in London. [SoW Vol III no19 2Mar1913 p4, AB346, ABTM277-278]

    Hájí Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardakání (Hájí Amín) arrives in London from Paris with three young Persian. He spoke neither English nor French and had had some difficulty in getting from Paris to London. He crossed the English Channel and then found himself back in Paris. His second attempt was successful. [SoW Vol III no19 2Mar1913 p4, AB346–7, ABTM278]

    London; United Kingdom; Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Edward Granville Browne; Haji Amin (Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani)
    1912 19 Dec Hájí Amín, the Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh, presented 'Abdu'l-Bahá with a gift from a poor workman in 'Ishqábád. He had nothing monetary to offer so he gave Hájí Amín his mid-day meal, two small loaves of bread and an apple wrapped in a handkerchief. 'Abdu'l-Bahá took the offering tenderly, ate a small piece of the stale bread and gave the rest to be passed around to the rest of the table. [SoW Vol III No 19 2Mar1913 p5, ABTM278] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Gifts; Huququllah; Haji Amin
    1912. 20 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá interviewed E. S. (Ethel Stefana) Stevens who had come from Southhampton to meet Him. Three years prior she had spent 3 or 4 months in 'Akka and Haifa gathering material for her book, published in 1911, about the second coming of Christ. [SoW Vol III no 19 2Mar1913 p6] Mountain of God]

    He discussed the question of "spiritual communication" and gave the prerequisites. [SoW Vol III no 19 2Mar1913 p6]

    In the evening He was driven to Westminster for a meeting at the Palace Hotel, His first public talk since returning to London. [SoW Vol III no 19 2Mar1913 p6, [SoW Vol III no 17 19Jan1913 p510]

    London; Westminster; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Ethel Stevens
    1912 21 or 22 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá witnessed His first dramatic performance. It was a mystery Christmas play entitled Eager Heart written by Miss Alice Buckton and performed at the Church House, Westminster before an audience of 1,200. [SoW Vol III no 19 2March1913 p 7, CH154, AB34]
    • He is reported to have said, perhaps on another occasion, "The stage will be the pulpit of the future". [Quoted by Loulie Mathews in The Magazine of the Children of the Kingdom, Vol 4, No. 3 (June 1923, p69]
    • Star of the West, Vol. 19 no. 11 Feb1929, p.341 quotes 'Abdu'l-Bahá as saying: "drama is of the utmost importance. It has been a great educational power in the past; it will be so again,". [BW1994-1995p255]
    Westminster; London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Drama; Arts
    1912 c. Dec On another occasion He gave an outline for a play to his hostess for the evening, Mrs Gabrielle Enthoven, which He called Drama of the Kingdom. It was put to print by Lady Blomfield's daughter, Mary Basil Hall, approved by the Reviewing Committees for the National Assemblies of both the British Isles and the United States and Canada. It was published in 1933. In 1994 a production based on this outline was premiered in Perth, Australia entitled The Face of Glory: A Musical Rendezvous with the Soul. [CH155-156, Bahá'ís and the Arts: Language of the Heart by Ann Boyles, also published in 1994-95 edition of The Bahá'í World, pp. 243-272] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Drama; Mary Basil Hall; Lady Blomfield; Publications
    1912 24 Dec `Abdu'l-Bahá received many expensive Christmas gifts; He turned them all away by returning them and asking the donors to sell them and give the money to the poor.

    That evening He visited the Salvation Army Shelter in Westminster. That night there were 1,000 men present. After His talk He departed but not before leaving twenty gold sovereigns and many handfuls of silver with Col Spencer for a similar dinner to be held on New Year's Eve. [ABTM282-283]

    London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Charity and relief work; Gifts
    1912. 29 Dec In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá received a visit from the Maharajah or Jhalawar. [ABTM283]

    In the afternoon He spoke at the home of Miss Annie Gamble. [SoW Vol. 9 No 2 9Apr1918 p 24]

    In the evening He gave a talk at the King's Weigh House Methodist Church hosted by Rev E W Lewis. [SoW Vol. 4 No 17 19Jan1914 p284-285]

    London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Maharajahs
    1912. 30 Dec The 19 Day Feast was held at the home of Mrs Robinson. [AB352] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912 31 Dec `Abdu'l-Bahá visits Oxford at the invitation of Dr T. K. Cheyne to address a meeting at Manchester College. [BW4p384-385, AB352–354, ABIM284, Journey West 20130210, [Ahmad Sohrab's Diary - The Great Tour p99]
    • For biographical information see a paper by Crawford Howell Toy entitled Thomas Kelly Cheyne.
    • See Hurqalya Publications for a translation by Stephen Lambden of a Tablet to Dr Cheyne as well as the address to Manchester College.
    • After the visit of 'Abdu'l-Bahá the elderly and infirmed professor, who was unable to walk and had difficulty speaking, went on to write the book, The Reconciliation of Races and Religions.
    • A paper by Judy Greenway, a grand neice of Elizabeth Gibson entitled "From the Wilderness to the Beloved City: Elizabeth Gibson Cheyne" pays tribute to the woman whom 'Abdul'-Bahá lauded. This paper was given at the invitation of the Oxford Bahá’í Community in December 2012, as part of the celebration of the centenary of Abdu’l-Bahá’s visit to Oxford.
    Oxford; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; T. K. Cheyne; Elizabeth Gibson; Elizabeth Gibson Cheyne; Stephen Lambden; Judy Greenway
    1913. 5 Jan The Master spoke at the home of Miss Herrick's to some 150 people. He gave a very "spiritual" lecture about the negligence of the people about God and their submerging in the sea of materialism. London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1913 6 Jan `Abdu'l-Bahá and His party, Síyyíd Asadu'lláh-i-Qumí, His attendant, Ahmad Sohrab, His interpreter and Mírzá Mahmúd-i-Zarqání, His secretary, depart by train and arrive in Edinburgh's Waverly Station in the late afternoon. [SCU68]

    Also with 'Abdul-Bahá during His time in Edinburgh were Lady Blomfield and Alice Buckton and a young Persian student, Lutful'lláh Hakím.

    On the train He told the story of Miss Wardlaw-Ramsay of the Church Missionary Society who was a missionary in 'Acca for some 40 years. She was antagonistic to the Cause but the Master showed her all manner of kindness because she was very faithful to her Christ. When she left Akka and returned to Scotland He gave a party for her. [Ahmad Sohrab's Diary, Edinburgh, 1913 p5]

    Upon arrival He is taken to the home of Mrs Jane Elizabeth Whyte (neé Barbour) (1857-1944) at 7 Charlotte Square. She had met 'Abdu'l-Bahá before. She and her friend, Mrs Thornburgh-Cropper, had been invited to visit her sister who was on an extended stay in Egypt during the winter of 1905-6. In March they made a visit to 'Akká. By 1912 she had become a member of the "Council" established to promote the Faith in Britain. The Whytes, along with the Theosophical Society, had been instrumental in arranging Abdu'l-Bahá's visit to Edinburgh.

    Mrs Whyte's account of her meeting in 1906 is in her book Seven Candles of Unity, pp 47-49. and in her book entitled Seven Candles of Unity: the Story of 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Edinburgh (London: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1991). [Scottish Women: A Documentary History, 1780-1914 by Esther Breitenbach and Linda Fleming p.213]

    Her husband, Mr Alexander Whyte (1837-1921) was a Scottish divine; a minister of the Free Church of Scotland, he became colleague and successor of Dr R S Candlish at Free St Georges (now St George's West, 58 Shandwick Place), and then principal and professor of New Testament literature at New College, Edinburgh. [AB355, 363–8; SBR26]

    Miss Isobel Fraser served as the advance publicity agent for the visit.

    Edinburgh; Scotland; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Isobel Fraser; Trains
    1913. 7 Jan 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke to a crowd of several hundred Theosophists. The Theosophical Society (founded 1875) promoted brotherhood, the importance of Eastern philosophies and the search for spiritual and psychic truths. Edinburgh had one of the most active centres in Europe.

    In the late morning they had a tour of Outlook Tower, 549 Castlehill, Edinburgh EH1 2ND. Outlook Tower was an educational institution which taught astronomy, natural geography, cartology etc. The tour guide was Sir Patrick Geddes (1854-1932) who was a Scottish biologist and botanist, known also as an innovative thinker in the fields of urban planning and education; as a town-planner in Palestine he had involvement in the cypress avenue leading up to the Shrine of the Báb, and he also planned a Bahá'í House of Worship in India. [AB447, Leroy Ioas, p218, SCU68, 73-82]

    In the evening 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke to the Esperanto Society at Freemason's Hall, 96 George Street, Edinburgh EH2 3DH. There were 1,000 people in the hall and some 300 outside. This was His first public address in Scotland. [ABTM294, Ahmad Sohrab's Diary, Edinburgh, 1913]

    Edinburgh; Scotland; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Esperanto; Theosophical Society; Patrick Geddes, Sir
    1913 8 Jan 'Abdu'l-Bahá was given a tour of the Edinburgh College of Arts conducted by the President. (74 Lauriston Place, Edinburgh EH3 9DF) This was followed by a tour of a school in the poorer district, North Canongate School.

    In the afternoon He spoke to a capacity attendance at Rainy Hall, New College, the Mound, Edinburgh EH1 2LX.

    'Abdu'l-Bahá attended a charity performance of Handel's Messiah at St Giles Cathedral. (Royal Mile, Edinburgh EH1 1RE) St. Giles was also known as the High Kirk of Edinburgh. It was Edinburgh's religious focal point for at least 900 years.

    And the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together: for the mouth of the Lord hath spoken it. (Isaiah 40:5) [Ahmad Sohrab's Diary, Edinburgh, 1913, ABTM297, SCU85-100]

    Edinburgh; Scotland; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; St Giles Cathedral; Handels Messiah; Edinburgh College of Arts; North Canongate School
    1913. 9 Jan After a morning of receiving visitors 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke to a woman's group that included those of a wide spectrum of conviction on the role of women from suffragists to suffragettes to those opposed of giving women the vote.

    'Abdu'l-Bahá visited the painter, John Duncan, (1866 Dundee-1945) a foremost Celtic revivalist painter, on the Management Board of the College of Arts, who was guided along by Patrick Geddes. He married Christine Allen in 1912 and immediately moved to 29 Bernard's Crescent as his home and studio, where this visit took place. Both were members of the Theosophical Society. Christine Duncan née Allen (c1886-) was a spiritualist with connections to Wellesley Tudor Pole and Alice Buckton.

    He was driven north of the city to see the Forth Railway Bridge, Edinburgh EH30 9TB. This engineering marvel, stretching 2.5 km from South to North Queensferry opened on the 4th of March 1890 and has been designated as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. [UNESCO]

    'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke at the Theosophical Society meeting at 28 Great King Street, Edinburgh EH3 6QN. "Several hundred" attended. [Ahmad Sohrab's Diary, Edinburgh, 1913 p.14, SCU101-107]

    Edinburgh; Scotland; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Theosophical Society; John Duncan; Christine Duncan
    1913 10 Jan `Abdu'l-Bahá returns to London departing Waverly Station at 11 AM and arriving at Euston at 7 PM. He returned to the home of Lady Blomfield at 97 Cadogan Gardens. She devotedly placed her whole apartment at His disposal, whilst she herself (certainly in 1913) stayed a few moments away with Lady Elcho in 62 Cadogan Square (now likely 58). [AB368, SCU109-113, Ahmad Sohrab's Diary, Edinburgh, 1913, David Merrick p8] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1913. 11 Jan 'Abdu'l-Bahá was most anxious that follow-up be done in Scotland. In and interview with Miss Buckton and Miss Schepel He encouraged them to go as soon as possible. [Ahmad Sohrab's Diary, Edinburgh, 1913, David Merrick p17]
    • 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke at Caxton Hall in Westminster and after entertained a small crowd of people at His residence where He recounted stories of Bahá'ulláh's suffering. [AB368, ABTM299]
    London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1913. 12 Jan He attended a dinner party at the home of Sir Richard and Lady Shapely. Dinner was followed by a talk. [AB369, ABTM299] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1913. 13 Jan 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke at Cadogan Gardens on the darkness of superstitions and imitations. [AB369, ABTM299] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Superstitions
    1913. 14 Jan 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke in the East End of London at a Congregational Church. [CH168, AB369, ABTM299] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Churches
    1913 15 Jan `Abdu'l-Bahá travels to Bristol and stays at the Clifton Guest House which belonged to Mr and Mrs Tudor-Pole. He was accompanied by the Persian ambassador, Dúst-Muhammad Khán. In the evening He addressed a meeting in the Guest House. [AB369] Bristol; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Wellesley Tudor Pole; Dust-Muhammad Khan
    1913 16 Jan `Abdu'l-Bahá returns to London and spoke at 97 Cadogan Gardens. He spoke about the diversity of those entering the Faith and the recommended way to conduct a meeting. [AB370, ABTM302-303] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1913 18 Jan `Abdu'l-Bahá received guests from the Muslim Community of Britain and was asked to speak at the Shah Jehan Mosque at Woking, one of the two mosques in England at the time and the first built in England and perhaps Western Europe. He spoke on the subject of the Unity of Religions and translation was done by Mírzá Ahmad Sohrab. [CH152, AB370, BW3p278-279, BW4p377]
    • Note ABTM303 reports that this event took place on the 17th of January.
    • Dr. Gottlieb Wilhelm Leitner (1840–1899) was the builder of the Oriental Institute, founded to train Asians living in Europe for the learned professions, to the study of linguistics and culture, and for the teaching of languages to Europeans who wished to travel to the East. To cater for the spiritual needs of students of all major faiths and to provide for any who lived within reach, Dr. Leitner intended to build a synagogue, a church, a temple and a mosque. Only the Shah Jehan Mosque was completed. (Oct-Nov 1889). The Institute relied too heavily upon Dr. Leitner’s personal enthusiasm and wealth and it did not survive his early death in March of 1899. The Mosque was closed and practically empty between 1899 and 1912. Khwaja Kamal-ud-Din, a prominent Kashmiri lawyer and founder of the Woking Muslim Mission, worked to repair and re-open the Mosque in 1913. It was the first formal place of Islamic worship in England and became a centre of Islam in the UK. [Dr. Gottlieb Wilhelm Leitner]
    • For a photo of the gathering see BW3p280 or BWNS818.
    Woking; Surrey; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Mosques; Unity of religion; Interfaith dialogue; BWNS
    1913 19 Jan 'Abdu'l-Bahá was the guest of Rev Dr R J Campbell for luncheon. A number of divines had also been invited. [AB371] London; Woking; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1913 20 Jan Dr Felix Mosscheles held a reception for 'Abdu'l-Bahá in his home that was attended by a number of notable people.

    'Abdu'l-Bahá was the guest of a Rajput prince who gave a dinner party for Him.

    In the evening He spoke at the Higher Thought Centre, His last engagement in London. [AB371]

    London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1913 21 Jan `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves London for Paris. [AB371]
    • The visit to Paris lasts several weeks. [AB372; SBR220]
    London; United Kingdom; Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1914 9 Jan John Ferraby, Hand of the Cause of God, is born in Southsea, England. Southsea; United Kingdom John Ferraby; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1914 4 Aug England declares war on Germany. United Kingdom; Germany; Europe World War I; War (general); History (general)
    1917. 2 Nov The Balfour Declaration was a letter sent to Lord Walter Rothschild by British Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour declaring support for the establishment of a ‘national home for the Jewish people’ in what was to become the British Mandate of Palestine. It was the first official declaration of political support for Jewish independence and is viewed by some as paving the way for the legal foundations of the modern State of Israel as evidenced by the level of international diplomacy that went into securing the letter. In the context of WWI which was still raging at the time, it offered Britain the opportunity for a stake in the Middle East in the expected wake of the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. It also marked one of the first major successes of the political Zionist movement which had officially been established with the First Zionist Congress in 1897.

    Given that the Balfour Declaration was not a unilateral document on behalf of the British but rather something which had been agreed upon privately by allied diplomats before it was issued, it is viewed as the beginning of a legal process, which involved the San Remo conference of 1920 where the Declaration was officially adopted by the allied powers and latter, the creation of the British Mandate for Palestine in 1922.

    The implementation of the Declaration was not without its failings. It provided for the safeguarding of the rights of the residents of Palestine saying ‘nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine’. In the run up to WWII that the British wanted to placate the Arab leadership in the Mandate. They issued a White Paper limiting Jewish immigration to the Mandate to fifteen thousand every year for five years, ultimately refusing entry to thousands of Jewish refugees from Europe, many of whom would tragically die in the Holocaust.

    Palistine; Israel Balfour Declaration; Jews; Judaism; History (general); United Kingdom
    1919 19 Aug The Anglo-Persian agreement was signed whereby Persia would get advisors for every department and give every concession to England. It effectively made Persia a British protectorate and eliminated the Russian influence that had been established by the earlier Anglo-Russian pact. The United States Government was much displeased, for this represented a breach of ‘open covenants openly arrived at’, one of Wilson’s Fourteen Points, and represented a continuation of the secret diplomacy of former times. The price of this agreement, according to one official, was £500,000 paid out to one prominent official, and £300,000 to another.

    When the Persians discovered by what dubious means this Agreement was contrived, they arose in fury, there was a coup d’état with the backing of the Cossack Brigade, Siyyid Zia-ed-Din came to power (1921) and abrogated the Agreement. Then he himself would be overthrown, and replaced by Reza Khan of the Cossack Brigade as Minister of War and Commander in Chief. Thus an illiterate one-time army private, once a sentry at a hospital gate, would eventually (1925) become a powerful Shah. [AY172, 210]

    Iran; United Kingdom Anglo-Persian agreement; British history; History (general); Iran, General history
    1920 20 Apr Shoghi Effendi left Haifa to take up his studies at Balliol College in Oxford. As instructed by 'Abdu'l-Bahá he stayed in a sanitarium in Neuilly (Maison d'Hydrothérapie et de convalescence du Parc de Neuilly, 6 Boulevard du Château, Neuilly-sur-Seine) before leaving for England in July. [SEO58]
    • See AY179-186 for and account of Shoghi Effendi's stay in the Paris area. According to Marzieh Gail he was probably in the area from about the 9th of April until the 13th of July.
    Haifa; Oxford; United Kingdom; Neuilly; France Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Balliol College
    1920 Oct Shoghi Effendi enters Balliol College, Oxford University. [CB284; DH149; GBF11-12]
    • For his purpose in going to Oxford see GBF12.
    • For his time in Oxford see PP34-8.
    • A Q Faizi is reported to have said, during a talk to pilgrims in May-June, 1965 that "Shoghi Effendi was sent to Oxford to protect him from potential enemies, not to learn English or be educated." [SDSC273]
    Oxford; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Balliol College; Oxford University; Universities; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1921 29 Nov A cable is sent to London with news of `Abdu'l-Bahá's passing. Shoghi Effendi is summonsed to the office of Wellesley Tudor Pole, probably at at 61, St. James St. in London, and learns of his grandfather's passing about noon after seeing the cable on Tudor Pole's desk. [GBF13]
    • See GBF13 and PP39-40 for Shoghi Effendi's reaction.
    London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Passing of; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Wellesley Tudor Pole; Z****
    1921 16 Dec Shoghi Effendi leaves England for Haifa in the company of Lady Blomfield and his sister Rouhangeze [Rúhangíz]. Lady Blomfield stayed on in the Holy Land for several months to assist Shoghi Effendi in his new role as the Guardian. [GBF13-14; PP42; SBR66]
    • Owing to passport difficulties Shoghi Effendi cannot leave sooner. [GBF13; PP42; SBR66]
    London; United Kingdom; Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Lady Blomfield; Rouhangeze (Ruhangiz); Shoghi Effendi, Family of
    1921 29 Dec Shoghi Effendi arrives in the Holy Land from England by train from Egypt. [GBF14; PP42]
    • An envelope addressed to him from 'Abdu'l-Bahá is waiting for him. It contained the Will and Testament. [Ruhi8.2p2]
    • He is so worn and grief-stricken that he has to be assisted up the stairs and is confined to bed for a number of days. [CB285]
    United Kingdom; Egypt; Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha, Passing of
    1922 Apr Shoghi Effendi sends verbal messages through Consul Schwarz to Germany and Ethel Rosenberg to Britain to form local spiritual assemblies and to arrange for the election of a national spiritual assembly in each country. [CB293; ER209, 211-12; PP56]

    To the United States and Canada he sends a message to transform the 'Executive Board' into a legislative institution. [CB293; CT160; ER211-12; PP56]

    Germany; United Kingdom; United States; Canada Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Consuls; Albert Schwarz; Ethel Rosenberg; National Spiritual Assemblies; Local Spiritual Assemblies; Spiritual Assemblies; Executive Board
    1922 Late May The communities of London, Manchester and Bournemouth elect a Bahá'í Spiritual Assembly for England. [ER213; SBR28, 67]
    • This is also known as the Spiritual Assembly for London and the All-England Bahá'í Council. [ER2 13; SBR67]
    • See ER213 and SBR28 for membership.
    London; Manchester; Bournemouth; United Kingdom Spiritual Assemblies; All-England Bahai Council
    1922 6 Jun The All-England Bahá'í Council meets for the first time. [SBR28; UD9, 468]
    • ER2 13 says it first met 17 June.
    • The meeting is held in the home of Mrs Thornburgh-Cropper. [SBR28, 67]
    United Kingdom All-England Bahai Council; Firsts, Other; Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper
    1923 Early Sep J. E. Esslemont's Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era is published in Britain by George Allen and Unwin. [DJEE28; RG77]
    • Shoghi Effendi views this as a landmark in British Bahá'í history. [UD97]
    • Over the years he encourages its translation into dozens of languages. [RG77]
    • See DJEE37-8 for the importance of this work.
    United Kingdom Esslemont; Bahaullah and the New Era (book); Introductory; Publications; Translation
    1923 13 Oct The National Spiritual Assembly of Britain meets for the first time, at the home of Ethel Rosenberg. [ER228; UD13, 163]
    • It becomes the National Spiritual Assembly of the British Isles in 1930 and the National Spiritual Assembly of the United Kingdom in 1972.
    United Kingdom NSA; Ethel Rosenberg; NSA of UK
    1924 22 Sep-3 Oct The conference `Some Living Religions within the British Empire' is held in London. [BW2:225; ER233; GPB342]
    • For details of the planning of the conference and its outcome see ER231-5.
    • For Shoghi Effendi's attitude to the conference see UD17, 19, 21-2, 245.
    • Two papers about the Bahá'í Faith are read at the conference, one by Horace Holley read by Mountfort Mills and the other by Rúhí Afnán. [BW2:225; ER232-3; SBR73]
    • For texts of the papers see BW2:227-42.
    • Note that a paper was delivered by Richard St. Barbe Baker. As a result of attending the conference he met a Bahá'í and dedicated the rest of his life in service to the Cause. [Baha'i Chronicles]
    London; United Kingdom Conferences, Other; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Horace Holley; Mountfort Mills; Ruhi Afnan; Afnan; Richard St Barbe Baker; Interfaith dialogue
    1926 2 and 4 Aug Two Bahá’í Esperanto conventions are held in conjunction with the Eighteenth Universal Esperanto Congress in Scotland. [BW2:266] Scotland; United Kingdom Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Other; Esperanto
    1927 29 Apr The British delegates, at their first National Convention, elects ten members as there is an equal number of votes for ninth and tenth places. [ER253; UD70–1]
    • One of the members is a Rev. Biggs. [ER253; UD71]
    • Shoghi Effendi writes on 13 May recommending that next year the number of members be strictly confined to nine. In an earlier letter written on his behalf he explained that all of the delegates were to choose nine members of the National Assembly from all of those eligible. Prior to that time the understanding was that, for example, the London delegates would vote for a proportional number of persons from the London area, the Manchester delegates would choose a number of members based on their proportion of the total Bahá'í population. [ER253; UD70, SETEP1p140]
    United Kingdom NSA; Elections; Conventions, National; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; First conventions
    1929 Sep Shoghi Effendi sails from England to Cape Town and proceeds overland to Cairo. [PP180–1, SETPE1p163]
    • He travelled through East Africa passing through Rhodesia where he visited the grave of Cecil Rhodes and further north in Rhodesia to see the Victoria Falls.
    • He rode as a passenger through part of East Africa with an English hunter and travelled on a train for some five hundred miles.
    • He crossed the Nile River through a papyrus swamp on a ferry.
    • He was back in Haifa by October. [SETPE1p163]
    United Kingdom; Cape Town; South Africa; Cairo; Egypt; Africa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1929 9 Sep The British Bahá’ís open their new centre, at Walmar House, Upper Regent Street, London. [PSBW46–7] London; United Kingdom Bahai centres
    1930 7 Oct Ruth White writes to the High Commissioner of Palestine stating that she has sent a photograph of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Will and Testament to Dr Ainsworth Mitchell in England who had declared it a forgery. The High Commissioner requests she sends that same evidence to him and he forwards it to the Governor of Haifa who requests to meet with Shoghi Effendi and allow an expert to examine the original. The expert declares the Will authentic. [SETPET1p157] Haifa; Israel; United Kingdom Covenant-breakers; Ruth White; Abdul-Baha, Will and testament of; Authenticity; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; High Commisioners
    1930 17 Nov Ethel Rosenberg, (b.6 August, 1858, Bath) Disciple of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, ‘England’s outstanding Bahá’í pioneer worker’, passes away in London. [BW4:118–19; ER274–5]

    She became a Bahá’í around 1899 and went on her first pilgrimage in 1901. While ‘Abdu’l-Bahá was in London, Ethel Rosenberg was His social secretary, arranging appointments for the Master. ‘Abdu’l-Bahá asked Ethel Rosenberg and a number of other people to form a committee to decide what to do about collecting funds and publishing Bahá’í books. Their first published book was ‘Abdu’l-Bahá in London. She made her third pilgrimage in November 1921, but arrived just after ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s passing. Shoghi Effendi sent her home with instructions to call for the election the first National Spiritual Assembly of England. She served on this body for a number of years. Shoghi Effendi named her an ‘Apostle of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’. [In the Footsteps of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá p9]

    London; United Kingdom Ethel Rosenberg; In Memoriam; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Births and deaths
    1936 summer Britain holds its first Bahá’í summer school. [GT137; UD109] United Kingdom First summer and winter schools; Summer schools
    1936 3–16 Jul The World Congress of Faiths is held in London under the auspices of the World Fellowship of Faiths. [GPB342; GT123]
    • Shoghi Effendi is asked in a personal letter from the chairman of the Congress, Sir Francis Younghusband, to contribute a paper, a task Shoghi Effendi delegates to George Townshend. [GT123; UD104]
    • George Townshend reads the paper ‘Bahá’u’lláh’s Ground Plan of World Fellowship’, which has been approved by Shoghi Effendi. [BW7:635; GT132–3]
    • For text of the paper see BW6:614–19.
    • For the conference programme see BW7:634–45.
    London; United Kingdom World Congress of Faiths; Francis Younghusband; George Townshend; Interfaith dialogue; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1937 The British Bahá’í Publishing Trust is founded. [BBRSM184; BW9:32; GT138–42] United Kingdom Publishing Trusts
    1938 15 Mar Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper (Maryam Khánum), the first Bahá’í of the British Isles, passes away in Kensington, London. She was known to her friends as Minnie and first heard of the Bahá’í Faith in 1898 when she was 41. She was an American living in London and had been married to an Englishman. Shortly after reading about the Báb in an encyclopedia, by coincidence, she was invited by her friend Phoebe Hearst to be part of the first group of Western Bahá’í pilgrims to visit ‘Abdu’l-Bahá in the Holy Land. She is considered to be the first person to become a Bahá’í in the UK and throughout her life was a very active member of the community. She was a member of the first elected National Spiritual Assembly of England (later Great Britain). She made her motor-car available to ‘Abdu’l-Bahá during His visits. [SBR30, BW4p375, In the Footsteps of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá p9]
    • For details of her life see BSR17–30.
    • For her obituary see BW8:649–51.
    • Notes: It is possibly she, rather than her mother, Mrs Thornburgh, who is referred to as a Disciple of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá in BW3:84–5. The picture is not that of Mrs Thornburgh-Cropper.
    London; United Kingdom Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam
    1939 Apr The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the British Isles incorporates after a long and difficult struggle. [BW8:161–2; UD127] United Kingdom NSA of UK; Incorporation; Recognition
    1939 Aug The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the British Isles incorporate as an unlimied non-profit company under the Companies Act of 1929. GPB336 United Kingdom NSA of UK; Incorporation; Recognition
    1939 3 Sep World War II begins with Britain and France declaring war on Germany after Germany invades Poland. Europe; Germany; United Kingdom; France; Poland World War II; History (general); 20th century; War (general)
    1939 31 Dec Lady Blomfield, entitled Sitárih Khánum, passes away in London. [BW8:651; SEBW109] London; United Kingdom Lady Blomfield; In Memoriam
    1940s early The publication in Iran of Amir Kabir and Iran, considered perhaps the most influential scholarly work of history published prior to the Islamic Revolution, by Fereidoon Adamiyyat, one of the most influential and widely acknowledged Iranian historians of the 20th century. The book argues that British intelligence officers were behind a plot which led to the creation of the Bahá'í Faith. [Iran Press Watch] Iran; United Kingdom Amir Kabir; Conspiracy theories
    1940 15 May Shoghi Effendi determines to go to England; Shoghi Effendi and Rúhíyyih Khánum leave Haifa for Italy en route to London. [PP 178]
    • For the difficulties and dangers of this journey see PP178–80.
    • A few days after their arrival Rúhíyyih Khánum travels to Genoa to meet her father, Sutherland Maxwell who had arrived on the S.S. Rex from Montreal. After the passing of his wife Mr. Maxwell had been invited by Shoghi Effendi to come and live in Haifa. [PP178]
    Haifa; Genoa; Italy; London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; World War II; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1940 25 May Shoghi Effendi and Rúhíyyih Khánum leave for England via Menton and Marseilles after having obtained a visa for Britain in Rome. A few days later the Italians enter the war against the Allies. [PP179] Rome; Italy; Menton; Marseilles; France; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; World War II
    1940 28 Jul Shoghi Effendi, Rúhíyyih Khánum and Sutherland Maxwell leave England for South Africa. [PP180]
    • This is the only route open back to Palestine, as Italy’s entrance into the war has closed the Mediterranean to Allied ships. [PP180]
    • The trip across Africa takes them to Stanleyville, Congo; Juba in the Sudan; down the Nile to Khartoum and back to Palestine through Cairo. [PP180–1, TG159]
    United Kingdom; Africa; South Africa; Congo; Sudan; Egypt Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum, Journeys of; Sutherland Maxwell; World War II; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1943 The publication of A Commentary on the Will and Testament of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá written by David Hofman by a new publisher, George Ronald. They went on to publish books on business ethics, comparative religion, studies of sacred texts, Islam, poetry, music, novels, biography and philosophy as well as a number of other subjects. George Ronald is primarily a publisher of books related to the history, teachings, doctrines and personalities of the Bahá’í Faith. See the reference for a list of Bahá'í books published up to 2013. [George Ronald A Bibliographic History by Jan Jasion]
    • A current catalogue can be found at their website.
    United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; George Ronald; Firsts, Other; Publishing; Publications
    1944 Ridván The Bahá'ís of the British Isles launched a Six Year Plan (1944-1950). [Ruhi 8.2 p46] United Kingdom Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National
    1944 May The British at national convention decide to ask the Guardian for their own Six Year Plan. [UDXVI]
    • He responds immediately by setting them the task of forming 19 assemblies spread over England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland and Eire. [UD173]
    • Shoghi Effendi describes this as ‘their first collective enterprise’. [UDXVI, 173–4]
    • See also BBRSM158, 185
    United Kingdom; Ireland Conventions, National; Teaching Plans, National; Firsts, Other; LSA
    1945 The World Forestry Charter Gathering is founded in Britain by Richard St Barbe Baker. [VV106; WH75] United Kingdom Richard St Barbe Baker; Environment
    1949 The pamphlet written by by George Townshend to all Christians under the title “The Old Churches and the New World Faith” was sent out to 10,000 so-called “responsible people” in the British Isles on the occasion of his resignation from the church. [UD470] Ireland; United Kingdom George Townshend; Christianity; Interfaith dialogue
    1950 Apr Shoghi Effendi announces the Africa Campaign in a cable to the British national convention. [BW12:52; UD245–6]
    • The British community is to lead the campaign supported by the Bahá’ís of the United States and Egypt. [UD245]
    • For the objectives of the campaign see UD245–6.
    • For the importance of the enterprise see UD260–3.
    • The plan is to be launched after a year’s respite but the British Bahá’ís begin to implement the plan immediately. [CB317]
    • At the time of the Campaign there was "one National Spiritual Assembly with its seat in Cairo, Egypt, the opening of 12 countries to the light of the Faith, and some 50 localities established throughout its vast lands." [Message from the Universal House of Justice To the Friends gathered at the Bahá’í International Conference at Lagos dated 19 August, 1982.]
    Africa; United Kingdom; United States; Egypt Teaching Plans; Africa Campaign
    1950 Jul The British Six Year Plan is successfully completed. [BW11:25; MBW4] United Kingdom Teaching plans; Teaching Plans, National
    1951 Ridván The Bahá'ís of the British Isles launched a Two Year Plan (1951-1953). [Ruhi 8.2 p46] United Kingdom Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National
    1951 Ridván Several National Spiritual Assemblies-Britain, Egypt, India, Iran and the United States, join forces in their first collaborative teaching effort called the Africa Campaign (1951-1953). [Ruhi 8.2 p46, BBRSM158, MBW135-140] Africa; United Kingdom; United States; Egypt; India; Iran Teaching Plans; Africa Campaign
    1953 Sep Brigitte Hasselblatt arrives in Shetland and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Shetland Islands; Scotland; United Kingdom Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Sep Brigitte Lundblade (nee Hasselblatt), (b. 1923 - d. 17 May 2008) arrived in the Shetland Islands and was later honoured with being named as Knight of Bahá'u'lláh. [Bahaikipedia] Shetland Islands; Scotland; United Kingdom Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1957 4 Nov Passing of Shoghi Effendi

    Shoghi Effendi passes away in London of coronary thrombosis after a bout of Asian influenza. [CB377; PP446]

    • He was in London to purchase some furniture to complete the interior of the International Archives Building. [PP445]
    • For a tribute to Shoghi Effendi written by Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum see BW13:58–226.]
    • See also Rabbání, The Guardian Of The Bahá’í Faith and The Priceless Pearl.
    London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; International Bahai Archives; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Appointed arm; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1957 9 Nov The funeral of Shoghi Effendi took place in the Great Northern Cemetery, London. [BW13:222; PP448]
    • See BW13:222 for details of the funeral service.
    • See BW13:222–5 and PP449–50 for a description of the funeral.
    • For an a account of the funeral see AY314-319.
    London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Passing of
    1957 10 Nov The Hands of the Cause meet in London. [TG157]
    • See SDSC191-195 and SDSC430 note 8 for excerpts from the transcript of the talk recorded in shorthand by Rose M Wade and given by Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum to the gathered Hands and other friends.
    London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum
    1958 1 Nov The monument marking Shoghi Effendi’s resting place is completed. [MC117]
    • Dust from the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh is placed in the foundations. [MC117]
    • For a description of the resting place see BBD194–5 and MC135–6.
    • The monument is paid for from a Memorial Fund established after Shoghi Effendi’s passing. Money in excess of the amount required is spent on the teaching work and on the construction of the Temples. [MC132]
    • Marble for the monument came from Chiampo, Italy as for the Archives Building, the Shine of the Báb, the Seat of the Universal House of Justice, The Terraces project, the Monument Gardens and the Houses of Worship in India and Samoa. [BWNS1223]
    London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Resting place of; Bahaullah, Shrine of; BWNS
    1961 5 Nov The Hands of the Cause issue a message from their fifth Conclave. [MC313–23]
    • They call for the election of the Universal House of Justice at a convention to be held in the Holy Land on the first, second and third days of Ridván 1963. [CB392; MC321]
    • They ask the electors to leave the Hands free to ‘discharge their duties’. [MC321]
    • The celebration of the Most Great Jubilee, the Centenary of the Declaration of Bahá’u’lláh, is to be held in London rather than Baghdád, owing to the situation in the Middle East. [MC322]
    Akka; Baghdad; Iraq; London; United Kingdom Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Hands of the Cause, Conclaves; Bahji; Most Great Jubilee; World congresses; Centenaries; Universal House of Justice, Election of; UHJ
    1963 20 Apr The Ten Year Crusade is successfully completed. The achievements of the Ten Year Crusade were celebrated at the Most Great Jubilee in April and May 1963, which commemorated the Centenary of the Declaration of Baha’u’llah’s Mission. Two historic events transpired during that time: the International Convention, convened in Haifa, Israel, to elect the first Universal House of Justice; and the World Congress held in London, England.
    • For a summary of achievements during the Crusade see BW13:459–60.
    • For countries, islands and dependencies opened to the Faith during the Crusade see BW13:461–2. (259)
    • For number of localities in which Bahá’ís reside in different parts of the world see BW13:462. (from 2,000 to more than 11,000)
    • For languages into which Bahá’í literature has been translated see BW13:462–4.
    • For races represented in the Bahá’í world community see BW13:464.
    • For national spiritual assemblies at the end of the plan see BW13:468–9. (from 12 to 56)
    Worldwide; BWC; London; United Kingdom Ten Year Crusade; Most Great Jubilee; Conventions, International; Growth; Statistics; Teaching plans; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1963 28 Apr - 2 May The first Bahá’í World Congress, the ‘Most Great Jubilee’, is held in London to celebrate the centenary of the declaration of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW14:57]
    • For a detailed account and many pictures see BW14:57–80.
    • For the programme of speakers see BW14:60–1.
    • Some 6,000 Bahá’ís attend.
    London; United Kingdom Most Great Jubilee; World Congresses; Centenaries; Bahaullah, Declaration of; First conferences; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1967. 25 Dec The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Charles Dunning (b.27 March, 1885 need Leeds). [BW14p305-308] Cardiff; Wales; United Kingdom Knights of Bahaullah; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1973 5 Sep John Ferraby, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Cambridge, England. (b. 9 January,1914) [BW16:511, VV8]
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
    • For his obituary see BW16:511–12.
    Cambridge; United Kingdom John Ferraby; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Third Contingent
    1975 5 Feb A strip of land facing the resting place of Shoghi Effendi is bought by the Universal House of Justice to ensure protection of the site. [BW16:134; BW17:82; VV22] London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Resting place of
    1976 12 Sep His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II of Western Samoa visits the resting place of Shoghi Effendi. [BW17:69; VV22] Samoa; London; United Kingdom Malietoa Tanumafili II of Western Samoa; Shoghi Effendi, Resting place of
    1977 16 – 17 Apr The first annual Bahá’í Studies Seminar supported by the Departments of Religious Studies and of Sociology at the University of Lancaster, England, takes place. [BW18:204] Lancaster; United Kingdom Bahai Studies, Associations for; Firsts, Other
    1977 Jun At the behest of the Universal House of Justice, two conferences are held for Persian-speaking Bahá’ís resident in Europe, one in Germany and one in London. [BW17:194] Germany; London; United Kingdom; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Conferences, Persian-speaking Bahais; Persian diaspora
    1979 6 May Bernard Leach CBE, internationally known potter, artist and author, passes away in St Ives, Cornwall. [BW18:669–71]
    • See AY50 for the significance of the name of the village of St. Ives.
    St Ives; Cornwall; United Kingdom Bernard Leach; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1979. 24 Oct The publication of the compilation Inspiring the Heart by the Universal House of Justice. This compilation was published as a book by the Baha'i Publishing Trust of the United Kingdom in 1981. [Messages63-86p430] BWC; United Kingdom Inspiring the Heart (book); Publications; Compilations; Universal House of Justice
    1980 12 Feb Hasan M. Balyuzi, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in London. (b. 7 September, 1908) [BW18:635; VV52]
    • For his obituary see BW18:635–51 and SBBR5:XI–XX.
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
    London; United Kingdom Hasan Balyuzi; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam
    1982 9 Jun The passing of Richard Edward St. Barbe Baker (b. 9 October, 1889 West End, Hampshire, England d. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan) He was one of the foremost world famous environmentalists of the twentieth century, an ecologist, conservationist, forester, vegetarian, horseman, apiarist, author of some thirty books and numerous articles and a committed Bahá’í who rendered service to the Bahá’í Faith for more than fifty years.

    He formally founded the Men of the Trees organization in England in 1924 and it soon spread to many other countries. (Shoghi Effendi enrolled as the first life member of the Men of the Trees.) Now known in many countries as the International Tree Foundation, it has a large membership of women and men from all walks of life. In 1978 Charles, Prince of Wales, became the society’s patron. [Baha'i Chronicles, BW18p802-805]

    Hampshire; United Kingdom; Saskatoon; Saskatchewan; Canada Richard St Barbe Baker; Men of the Trees; International Tree Foundation; Environment; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves
    1983 The Association for Bahá’í Studies, English-Speaking Europe, is established in the Republic of Ireland.
    • Responsibility for the Association is transferred to the United Kingdom in 1989.
    Ireland; United Kingdom; Europe Bahai Studies, Associations for
    1987 autumn The Post Office of the United Kingdom issues a commemorative stamp honouring Bernard Leach, Bahá’í and world-renowned potter. [BINS173:8] United Kingdom Bernard Leach; Stamps; Artists; Arts
    1988 ‘Arts for Nature’, a fund-raising programme held to benefit the work of the World Wide Fund for Nature, is held in London with the collaboration of the Bahá’í International Community. [AWH61; VV106] London; United Kingdom Bahai International Community; Arts; Nature; World Wide Fund for Nature; Environment
    1989 4 – 6 Nov The European Bahá’í Youth Council, comprising seven youth and appointed by the Universal House of Justice to coordinate those European youth activities that have a continental impact, meets for the first time, in London. [BINS213:4; BW93–4:121] London; United Kingdom; Europe European Bahai Youth Council; Youth
    1989 15 Dec A World Forestry Charter Gathering organized by the Offices of Public Information in London and New York takes place in London. [AWH75; BINS214:1–2]
    • It commemorates the centenary of the birth of Richard St Barbe Baker, the Bahá’í environmentalist who founded the Gatherings in 1945.
    London; United Kingdom Richard St Barbe Baker; Environment
    1992 3 – 6 Feb The Association of Bahá'í Publishers and Distributors is established at a Bahá'í Publishers' Conference in Oakham, England, with its headquarters in the Netherlands. [BINS273:4-5; VV71] Oakham; United Kingdom; Netherlands Publishing Trusts; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Other
    1992 May 29 The Centenary of the Ascension of Bahá'u'lláh is commemorated at the Guardian's Resting Place in London. London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Resting place of; Centenaries; Bahaullah, Ascension of Find ref
    1992 18 Jun The passing of Counsellor Isobel Sabri, member of the International Teaching Centre in England. She was born in California in 1924. Letter from the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada to all Local Spiritual Assemblies date the 16th of October 1992. [VV124] California; United States; United Kingdom Counsellors; Isobel Sabri; International Teaching Centre, Members of; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1992 15 Sep Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum was officially invited to open the Exhibition of Bahá'í Manuscripts at the British Museum in London. [VV134] London; United Kingdom Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Exhibitions of Bahai manuscripts and relics; British Museum
    1994 Jul 20 – 25 The European Bahá'í Youth Council sponsors five regional ‘Shaping Europe' conferences, in Berlin, Bucharest, St Petersburg, Barcelona and Wolverhampton, United Kingdom. [BINS323:3–5; BW94–5:177–8, 189] Berlin; Germany; Bucharest; Romania; St Petersburg; Russia; Barcelona; Portugal; Wolverhampton; United Kingdom; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth
    1994 Jul 28 The World Forestry Charter Gatherings, established by Richard St. Barbe Baker in 1945, are re-instituted by the Bahá'í International Community's Office of the Environment at a luncheon at St James's Palace, London. [AWH75; BW94–5:112–13, 142–3; OC6,2:1; VV106]
  • For pictures see BW94–5:143 and OC6,2:1, 12.
    London; United Kingdom Environment; Richard St Barbe Baker
    1999 21 Jun The passing of Meherangiz Munsiff in London (b. 23 November, 1923 Bombay, India) Born into a Bahá'í family she travelled in India with Martha Root at the age of 14 years. She was appointed Knight of Bahá'u'lláh for the French Cameroons. In addition she visited more than 150 countries to teach and assist in the development of Bahá'í communities and was know as a lecturer and an activist among the international humanitarian community. [The Bahá'í World99-00p308-309] London; United Kingdom Meherangiz Munsiff; First Bahais by country or area
    1999 15 - 18 Aug The third conference was held Sidcot, Avon, United Kingdom, jointly with the Bahá'í Agency for Social and Economic Development - UK. It brought together 44 participants from 13 countries on 5 continents, as well as internet connection with an additional 70 "electronic" conference participants in 29 countries, for a total of 114 participants from 38 countries, including 8 in Africa. (From web site) United Kingdom Social and economic development; Bahai Agency for Social and Economic Development; Conferences, Bahai Find ref
    2000 Nov Early in 2000 the eagle from the Guardian's Resting Place was stolen and the monument damaged in the process. Its replacement was accompanied by an understandably stricter measure of security.

    When Shoghi Effendi was interred in November 1957 London's Great Northern Cemetery (since renamed New Southgate Cemetery) was larger than it is now. Over the years parts were sold off for development, and it was in response to this process that a sizeable portion around the Guardian's Resting Place was subsequently bought for the Faith so that it could be preserved and developed suitably. The cemetery opened a new entrance and the one through which the Guardian's funeral cortege passed fell into disuse. The gates and pillars of this entrance were purchased by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United Kingdom, acting on behalf of the Universal House of Justice, and a long process to have them reinstalled in a more suitable place came to fruition in 1998. [Reference links no longer in existence.]

    London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Resting place of; Cemeteries and graves; Vandalism; Eagles
    2000 Dec A new eagle was placed atop the column at the Guardian's Resting Place and repair was done to the damage to the site when the previous one was stolen earlier this year.[Reference links no longer in existence.] London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Resting place of; Cemeteries and graves; Eagles
    2001 4 Jan The passing of Dr. Victor de Araujo of Vista, NY at the age of 78 years. He was born near London, England and spent his childhood and youth in Brazil. He came to the United Stated in 1946 as a vice consul to the Brazilian Consulate in Chicago. From 1967-1990, Dr. de Araujo served as a Representative of the Bahá'í International Community to the United Nations. In his years in this position he represented the Bahá'í International Community both at the United Nations headquarters and at numerous conferences around the world. He also participated in the preparation of Bahá'í statements on human rights, the environment, and the equality of men and women, which were presented to the United Nations. [Baha’i Announce 5Jan2001] London; United Kingdom; Brazil; New York; United States Bahai International Community; United Nations; In Memoriam; Victor de Araujo
    2001 16 Dec The passing of Philip Hainsworth at the age of 82 in Sevenoaks, Kent, England. Shoghi Effendi had described him as "the spiritual Stanley of Africa". [BW01-02p304-305] Sevenoaks; Kent; United Kingdom; Africa Philip Hainsworth; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Names and titles
    2003 9 May The passing of David Hofman in England.
    • He was one of the nine elected members of the Universal House of Justice when that institution came into being in 1963.
    • He presented the first statement from the supreme Baha'i administrative body in April 1963 to the World Congress in London. Twenty-nine years later, in 1992, he delivered the opening address to the second Baha'i World Congress in New York, an event attended by some 30,000 people.
    • He served as a member of the Universal House of Justice for 25 years, until he left in 1988 at the age of 80. [BWNS209, BW'03-‘04pg234, UK Bahá'í Journal]
    United Kingdom David Hofman; Universal House of Justice, Members of; World Congresses; In Memoriam; BWNS
    2003 Jul His Royal Highness Prince Andrew has become the first member of the Royal Family to visit the National Bahá’í Centre in London. [The referenced web site has since ceased operation.] London; United Kingdom Prince Andrew, HRH
    2004 11 Feb A member of the British Baha'i community, Lois Hainsworth, received the award of Member of the Order of the British Empire (MBE) at Buckingham Palace.
    • The announcement of the award for services to three organizations that promote the rights of women was made in the United Kingdom's New Year's Honours List. The citation refers to Mrs. Hainsworth's services to the Women's National Commission, the Baha'i Office for the Advancement of Women, and UNIFEM UK. [BWNS273]
    Buckingham Palace; London; United Kingdom Lois Hainsworth; Order of the British Empire (MBE); Women; Awards; BWNS
    2004 19 Apr The passing of Mr Aziz Ismayn Yazdi in Vancouver, Canada at the age of 94. Aziz Yazdi lived in Egypt, Syria, Iran, Iraq, Great Britain, Uganda, Kenya, Israel, and finally Canada. In 1968 he was appointed to the Continental Board of Counsellors in Central and East Africa and was an inaugural member of the International Teaching Centre in Haifa. [BWNS297, BW'03-‘04pg239] Vancouver; Canada; Egypt; Syria; Iran; Iraq; United Kingdom; Uganda; Kenya; Israel Aziz Ismayn Yazdi; Counsellors; International Teaching Centre, Members of; In memoriam; Births and deaths; BWNS
    2005 23 Jul The purchase of a new Bahá'í Centre at 44 Albany Street, Edinburgh EH1 3QR. [bahai.org.uk] Edinburgh; Scotland; United Kingdom Bahai centres
    2005 1 Nov A new Bahá'í Centre is obtained at 44 Albany Street in Edinburgh, Scotland. [BWNS347, BWNS395] Edinburgh; Scotland; United Kingdom Bahai centres; BWNS
    2007 24 May The passing of Hadi Rahmani-Shirazi in the United Kingdom.
    • pioneered to Afghanistan at the Guardian's behest
    • served on the National Spiritual Assembly and the Auxiliary Board in the Cradle of the Faith
    • served as the executive director of the Nawnahalan Company
    • among first appointed to institution of the Counsellors created by the Universal House of Justice in June 1968
    • relocated to the United Kingdom in the early 1980s
    • contributed greatly to the development of the Institution of Huququ'llah through his services as a Deputy. [UK BAHA'I NEWS EMAIL SERVICE message from the National Spiritual Assembly nsa@bahai.org.uk 24 May 2007]
    United Kingdom; Afghanistan; Iran Hadi Rahmani-Shirazi; Nawnahalan Company; Counsellors; Huququllah; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    2009 3 – 4 Jan Regional Conferences held in London, United Kingdom and Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. [BWNS686] London; United Kingdom; Abidjan; Côte d'Ivoire Regional Conferences; BWNS
    2015 12 Feb The official opening of the new location of the Afnan Library Trust at Sandy, close to Cambridge. The Afnan Library Trust was established in 1985 to manage the collection bequeathed by Hasan Balyuzi when he passed away in 1980. It consists of some 10,000 books, as well as a vast quantity of manuscripts, original letters, maps, documents, periodicals, and unpublished items – some of them dating back to the nineteenth century. [BWNS1040] The official website can be found here. Sandy; Cambridge; United Kingdom Afnan Library Trust; Afnan; Hasan Balyuzi; Libraries; Bahai studies; Scholarship; BWNS
    2017 6 Nov - 22 Jan An exhibition of Baha’u’llah’s writings opened at the John Addis Gallery in the British Museum. One of the central themes was the power of the Word, which refers to divine revelation, a concept fundamental to the origins of all the world’s great faiths. The exhibition showed original handwriting of Baha’u’llah, as well as other archival items associated with His life such as His reed pens and examples of "revelation writing" by His scribe as he tried keep up with Bahá'u'lláh's dictation. The exhibition, timed to commemorate the period of celebration of the 200th anniversary of His birth, was open to the public until the 22nd of January. [BWNS1220] London; United Kingdom British Museum; Exhibitions of Bahai manuscripts and relics; Relics; Bahaullah, Writings of; Exhibitions; Reed pens; Reed (general); Calligraphy; Revelation writing; Mirza Aqa Jan; Tajalliyat (Effulgences); Kalimat-i-Maknunih (Hidden Words); Bahaullah, Pen portraits of; Portraits; Edward Granville Browne; Gifts
     
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