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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1847. 22 Feb Birth of Thornton Chase, designated the first American Bahá'í, in Springfield, Massachusetts. Springfield; Massachusetts; United States Thornton Chase; Births and deaths
1848 19 - 20 Jul The Women's Rights Convention was held in the Wesleyan Chapel at Seneca Falls, NY. The principle organizer was Lucretia Mott, with Elizabeth Cady Stanton as its driving intellect. A significant role was played by an African-American man, an abolitionist and a recently freed slave, Frederick Douglass. The convention adopted a Declaration of Rights and Sentiments that consisted of 11 resolutions including the right for women to vote. The signatories were the 68 women and 32 men in attendance. The right for women to vote became part of the United States Constitution in 1920. [The Calling: Tahirih of Persia and her American Contemporaries p114-160, "Seneca Falls First Woman's Rights Convention of 1848: The Sacred Rites of the Nation" by Bradford W. Miller (Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8.3, 1998)]
  • This conference has been compared to the Conference of Badasht with respect to the emancipation of women and entrenched prejudices.
Seneca Falls; New York; United States; Badasht; Iran Womens rights; Human rights; African Americans; Women; Gender; Equality; Conference of Badasht; Tahirih
1852. 21 Feb Birth of Isabella Brittingham, prominent American Bahá'í teacher, in New York City. New York; United States Isabella Brittingham; Births and deaths
1852 20 Mar The publication of Uncle Tom's Cabin; or, Life Among the Lowly by Harriet Beecher Stowe. It was the best-selling novel of the 19th century and the second best-selling book of that century, following the Bible. It is credited with helping fuel the abolitionist cause in the 1850s. In recent years, the negative associations with Uncle Tom's Cabin have, to an extent, overshadowed the historical impact of the book as a "vital antislavery tool. [Wikipedia]
  • Harriet Beecher Stowe was an ancestor of Ellen "Mother" Beecher who was a grandmother of Hand of the Cause of God Dorothy Baker.
United States Uncle Tom's Cabin: Life Among the Lowly; English literature; Literature; Race (general); Harriet Beecher Stowe; Ellen Beecher; Hands of the Cause; Dorothy Baker
1855. 15 Oct 1855 or 1856 Birth of Robert Turner, first black American Bahá'í. United States Robert Turner; Births and deaths
1863. 18 Apr Birth of William Henry (Harry) Randall, Disciple of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, in Boston. Boston; Massachusetts; United States William Harry Randall; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Births and deaths
1867 16 March An appeal by 53 Bahá’ís is sent from Shushtar, Iran addressed to the US Congress. Shushtar; Iran; United States Petitions; United States government; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution 1867 Petition
1867. Apr An appeal by 53 Bahá'ís "in Baghdád" addressed to the United States Congress arrives at the American Consulate in Beirut. [BBR265, Petition from the Persian Reformers] Baghdad; Shushtar Petitions; United States government; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution 1867 Petition
1870. 14 Jan Birth of May (or Mary) Ellis Bolles, prominent American Bahá'í teacher, in Englewood, New Jersey. Englewood; New Jersey; United States May Maxwell (Bolles); Births and deaths
1871. 1 Nov Birth of `Lua' Getsinger (Lucinda Louisa Aurora Moore), Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, Herald of the Covenant and Mother Teacher of the West. Hume NY; United States Lua Getsinger; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Births and deaths
1872. 10 Aug Birth of Martha Root, Hand of the Cause and itinerant Bahá'í teacher, in Richmond, Ohio. Richmond; Ohio; United States Martha Root; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
1873. 7 Jun Birth of Amelia Engelder Collins, Hand of the Cause, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Pittsburgh; Pennsylvania; United States Amelia Collins; Births and deaths
1874. 6 Jun Birth of Louis George Gregory, Hand of the Cause of God at Charleston, South Carolina. Charleston; South Carolina; United States Louis Gregory; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
1875 (In the year) Theosophy was established as a religious philosophical movement in New York City by Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (1831-1891). It contain elements of Hinduism and Buddhism and held that the purpose of all the religions was to assist humanity toward perfection and that all religions had a portion of the "truth". It has since split into a number of conflicting ideologies. [ABF9note54, Wikipedia (Blavatskian)]
  • The cordial relations between the Theosophical Society and the Bahá'í Faith helped in the spreading of the Faith in the United States, Europe and in South America.
New York; United States Theosophy; Theosophical Society; Helena Blavatsky; Esoterism; Occultism
1876. 14 Feb Birth of Keith Ransom-Kehler, Hand of the Cause and the first American Bahá'í martyr, in Kentucky. Kentucky; United States Keith Ransom-Kehler; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Firsts, Other
1879 Nov 30 Birth of Laura Clifford Barney (Laura Dreyfus-Barney) in Cincinnati, Ohio. She compiled Some Answered Questions from her interviews with `Abdu'l-Bahá during her visit to Acca between 1904 and 1906. (d. Paris 18 August 1974) Cincinnati; Ohio; United States Some Answered Questions; Laura Clifford Barney; Births and deaths
1883. June 21 Thornton Chase appears in Newspaper coverage of poem printed in The Grand Army Magazine, June 1883, "Lo! the Ranks are Thinned and Thinning" United States Thornton Chase; Newspaper articles Thornton Chase in the newspapers
1892. summer `Abdu'l-Bahá goes to Haifa and Mount Carmel and isolates Himself in a small apartment in the stone building west of the lower cave of Elijah. [DH59, 188]

Áqá Murtadá of Sarvistán, who has been in prison for five years, is executed in Shíráz. [BW18:384]

Anton Haddad arrives in the United States. [BFA1:26]

  • He is probably the first Bahá'í to reach American soil. [BFA1:26]
Mount Carmel; Shiraz; Iran; United States Abdul-Baha, Life of; Cave of Elijah; Elijah; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Anton Haddad; Firsts, Other
1892. 20 Dec Ibrahim Kheiralla arrives in New York. [BBD129; BFA1:26; SSBH1:88; AY111]
  • See BFA1 for Kheiralla's life, work for the Bahá'í Faith and defection.
New York; United States Ibrahim George Kheiralla
1893. 23 Sep First public reference in North America to the Bahá'í Faith.
  • Reference was made to it in a paper entitled `The Religious Mission of the English Speaking Nations' by Rev. Henry H. Jessup, a retired missionary from north Syria, read by Rev George A. Ford at the World Parliament of Religions in Chicago. [AB63–4; BBD2412; BBR57; BFA1:323; BW2:230; GPB256; SBBH1:76, 88, 202]
  • See AB63–4, BW2:169 for text.
Chicago; United States Henry H. Jessup; World Parliament of Religions; Interfaith dialogue
1894 In the year Green Acre is founded by Sarah J. Farmer in the aftermath of the World Parliament of Religions. [BBRSM:104; BFA2:142–7; BW5:29; GPB261; SBBH1:125]

Two Bahá'ís are arrested and bastinadoed in Níshápúr. One dies seven days later, the other two years later. [BW18:384]

Hájí Yárí, a Bahá'í of Jewish background, is arrested and imprisoned in Hamadán. [BW18:384]

A Bahá'í in Dastjirdán, Khurásán, Áqá `Abdu'l-Vahháb Mukhtárí, is beaten and expelled from the village. [BW18:384]

Bahá'ís in Fárán, Khurásán, are beaten and Bahá'í homes are looted. [BW18:384]

Green Acre; Eliot; Maine; United States; Nishapur; Hamadan; Dastjirdan; Khurasan; Faran; Khurasan Sarah Farmer; Green Acre; Haji Yari; Aqa Abdul-Vahhab Mukhtari; World Parliament of Religions; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution Green Acre Bahá'í School (Wikipedia)
1894. Feb Ibrahim George Kheiralla settles in Chicago. [BFA1:XXVII]
  • Owing to his work, the first Bahá'í community in North America is soon formed in Chicago. [BBRSM:100; BW10:179]
  • See AY59-60 for a description of the teaching method used by Haddad and Kheiralla.
Chicago; United States Ibrahim George Kheiralla; Anton Haddad; Teaching; Firsts, Other
1894. 5 Jun Thornton Chase becomes a Bahá'í in Chicago. [BBD53; BFA1:35–6]
  • He is designated by `Abdu'l-Bahá the first American believer. [BBD53; GPB257]
  • See BFA1:35 for his own account of how he became a Bahá'í.
  • See BFA1:33–7 for other Americans who became Bahá'ís around the same time.
  • He was given the name Thábit (Steadfast) by `Abdu'l-Bahá. [BBD53; GPB257]
  • He had been invited to join the Hearst pilgrimage in 1898 but was unable to go to the Holy Land until 1907. [AY61]
Chicago; United States Thornton Chase; First Bahais by country or area; Names and titles Thornton Chase in the newspapers (series of mentions especially 1893-7)
1895 Mrs Kate C. Ives of Orleans, Cape Cod, Massachusetts becomes a Bahá'í, making her the first woman born in the United States to accept the Bahá'í Faith. [BFA1:37] Orleans; Cape Cod; Massachusetts; United States First Bahais by country or area
1895. 23 Jun Birth of Leonora Stirling Armstrong, pioneer American Bahá'í, regarded as the Mother of South America, in upstate New York. New York; United States Leonora Holsapple Armstrong; Names and titles; Births and deaths
1897. 21 May Lua Getsinger becomes a Bahá'í in Chicago. She has been called Khayru’lláh’s best pupil. [BFA1:XXVII, AY59] Chicago; United States Lua Getsinger; Ibrahim George Kheiralla
1898. Jun In New York City, 141 people become Bahá'ís in the five months since Kheiralla's arrival. [BFA1:XXVIII, 125] New York; United States Ibrahim George Kheiralla
1898. 22 Sep The first Western pilgrims depart for `Akká, travelling via New York and Paris. [BFA1:XXVIII, 140–1, 230]
  • It is arranged by Phoebe Hearst, who had already planned a journey to Egypt for the autumn. [BFA1:140, AY60]
  • There are 15 pilgrims in all. Among them is Ibáhím Kheiralla. [AB68; AY111]
New York; United States Pilgrimage; First pilgrims; Pilgrims; Phoebe Hearst; Lua Getsinger; Edward Getsinger; Robert Turner; Ibrahim George Kheiralla
1899 Miss Olive Jackson of Manhattan becomes the first black American woman Bahá'í. [BFA1:126–7] Manhattan; New York; United States Race (general); Firsts, Other
1899 The Serpent by Thornton Chase, an 18-page pamphlet on the image of the serpent in the Bible, is published in Chicago. This is probably the first published essay written by an American Bahá'í. [BFA2:26] Chicago; United States Thornton Chase; First publications; Publications
1899 Feb The first Tablets of `Abdu'l-Bahá arrive in America. [BFA1:143]
  • See BFA1:143 for the recipients.
United States Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Firsts, Other
1899 May A council board of seven officers, a forerunner of the Local Spiritual Assembly, is established in Kenosha. [BFA1:112; GPB260] Kenosha; Wisconsin; United States Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies
1899. c. 1 May and period following Kheiralla returns to the United States from `Akká. [BFA1:xxix, 158]
  • His ambitions to lead the Bahá'í Faith cause a crisis in the American Bahá'í community. [BFA1:158–84; CB247–9, GPB259–260; 319; SBBH194, 239; AY119; WOB82-83]
  • In the coming months `Abdu'l-Bahá dispatches successive teachers to heal the rift:
    • Hájí `Abdu'l-Karím-i-Tihrání, who had taught Kheiralla the Faith, from c. 26 Apr to 5 Aug 1900. [BFA1:173–6; BFA2:17–29]
    • Hájí Hasan-i-Khurásání, from 29 Nov 1900 to Aug 1901. [BFA2:35, 389]
    • Mírzá Asadu'lláh-i-Isfahání, from 29 Nov 1900 to 12 May 1902. [BFA2:VI, 35–43ff]
    • Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl, from Aug 1901 to Dec 1904. [BFA2:XV-XVI, 80–7; BW9:855–60]
    • "...four chosen messenger of 'Abdu'l-Bahá who, in rapid succession, were dispatched by Him to pacify and reinvigorate that troubled community. ...were commission to undertake, the beginnings of that vast Administration, the corner-stone of which these messengers were instructed to lay... [WOB83-84; AY119]
    • See BFA1:177–8 for lists of believers who sided with Kheiralla, left the Faith or remained loyal to `Abdu'l-Bahá.
    • See SBBH1:98–101 for Kheiralla's teachings.
United States; Akka Ibrahim George Kheiralla; Covenant-breakers; Haji Abdul-Karim-i-Tihrani; Haji Hasan-i-Khurasani; Mirza Asadullah-i-Isfahani; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani
1899 Oct - Nov Stoyan Vatralsky, a Harvard educated, Bulgarian Christian, attacks the Bahá'ís, `Truth-knowers', in a series of talks in a church in Kenosha, Wisconsin. [BFA1:XXIX, 114–15; SBBH2:111]
  • By this time two per cent of the population of Kenosha are Bahá'ís. [BFA1:114]
Kenosha; Wisconsin; United States Opposition
1900. c. 1900 The Kitáb-i-Aqdas is translated by Anton Haddad. It is not published but circulates in typescript form. [BFA2:27; SA251] United States Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Translation
1900 Tablets, Communes and Holy Utterances, a collection of writings by Bahá'u'lláh, is published in the United States. [BFA2:26]
  • It is the first prayer book and first compilation of Bahá'í writings published in the West. [BFA2:26]
  • It was probably translated by Anton Haddad and published by the Behais Supply and Publishing Board. [BFA2:26]
Chicago; United States Compilations; Prayer texts; Anton Haddad; Publications; Publishing Trusts; First publications
1900 Sarah Farmer puts Green Acre at the disposal of the Bahá'ís after her pilgrimage to `Akká in 1900. [BFA2:144–5; GPB261]
  • After 1900 Green Acre effectively became the site of the first Bahá'í summer school in the world, although it was not officially so until 1929. [BBRSM:104; BW5:29–30; SBBH1:125]
Eliot; Maine; United States Sarah Farmer; Green Acre; First summer and winter schools
1900 Jan The Behais Publishing and Supply Board is created in Chicago. [BFA1:XXIX] Chicago; United States Publishing Trusts
1900 8 Mar At a meeting in Kenosha, Kheiralla publicly announces his doubts about `Abdu'l-Bahá's leadership of the Bahá'í community [BFA1:XXIX; SBBH1:96; SBBH2:117]
  • He allies himself with Muhammad-`Alí. [SSBH1:96]
  • The Bahá'ís effectively divide into two camps. [SSBH1:96]
  • For the changes to the Bahá'í community as a result of this see SSBH1:96–9 and SSBH2:117–20.
Kenosha; Wisconsin; United States Ibrahim George Kheiralla; Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers
1900 c. 16 Mar The Chicago community re-organizes by selecting a ten-member Board of Council. Neither Kheiralla nor any of his supporters are on the Board. [BFA1:XXIX, 170] Chicago; United States Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; Ibrahim George Kheiralla
1900 26 Apr Hájí `Abdu'l-Karím-i-Tihrání arrives in New York, the first Persian Bahá'í to visit North America, to try to bring Kheiralla back into the Faith and to explain the basic teachings of the Faith to the American believers. He is accompanied by Mirza Sinore Raffie, his translator. [BFA173–6; BFA2:17–29] New York; United States Haji Abdul-Karim-i-Tihrani; Ibrahim George Kheiralla; Mirza Sinore Raffie
1900 4 or 29 Nov The arrival Persian teachers in America, Mírzá Asadu'lláh-i-Isfahání (1826-1930) and Hájí Hasan-i-Khurásání. Their task was to consolidate the American community and to address the effects of Kheiralla's disaffection. [BFA2:VI; 35–43ff]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá provided them with two translators, Mírzá Husayn Rúhí, a young Persian Bahá'í who has learned English in Egypt and Mírzá Burzurg.
  • Mírzá Asadu'lláh spent three weeks in New York then relocated to Chicago where he stayed for eighteen months. He did not accompany 'Abdu'l-Bahá to America, however, shortly after His return, Mírzá Asadu'lláh and his son insisted on going to the West and did so against 'Abdu'l-Bahá's wishes. Both he and his son were expelled from the Faith. [APD143; AY119]
New York; Chicago; United States Haji Hasan-i-Khurasani; Mirza Asadullah-i-Isfahani; Mirza Husayn Ruhi; Mirza Burzurg; Covenant-breakers
1900 7 Dec In New York, nine men were selected to govern the affairs of the Faith. Those serving were Arthur Dodge, Hooper Harris, William Hoar, Andrew Hutchinson, Howard MacNutt, Frank Osborne, Edwin Putnam, Charles Sprague and Orosco Woolson. Among the problems that they had to face was the effect of the disaffection of Kheiralla. [BFA2p36] New York; United States Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; Ibrahim George Kheiralla
1901 Arthur Pillsbury Dodge publishes his book The Truth of It, the first introductory book on the Bahá'í Faith written by a Western believer. [BFA2:93] United States Arthur Pillsbury Dodge; Introductory; First publications; Publications
1901 William Hoar, one of the first Bahá'ís in America, is asked by `Abdu'l-Bahá to meet with the Persian ambassador in Washington to request justice for the Bahá'ís of Iran, thus marking the beginning of the efforts of the American Bahá'í community to alleviate the persecution of their brethren. [BFA2:51] Washington DC; United States; Iran William Hoar; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Ambassadors; Human rights; Firsts, Other
1901 15 May The Chicago Bahá'ís elect a nine-man Board of Council for a term of five years. [BFA2:XXV, 44–7] Chicago; United States Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies
1901 20 May The number of members on the Board of Council is raised to 12. [BFA2:47] Chicago; United States Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies
1901 24 May The name of the Chicago Board of Council is changed to the House of Justice. [BFA2:48]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá requests that this name be changed a year later. [BFA2:49]
Chicago; United States Board of Council; House of Justice; Spiritual Assemblies
1901 29 May The Bahá'í women of Chicago elect their own Board and hold the first business meeting of the `Women's Auxiliary Board'. [BFA2:XV, 49–50] Chicago; United States Women
1901 26 Nov The Day of the Covenant The Day of the Covenant is a Bahá'í holy day honouring the Covenant of Bahá’u’lláh, in particular, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá as the “Centre of the Covenant" and as such, the successor, the interpreter and the exemplar of the Bahá'í Faith. Bahá'u'lláh's Covenant also provided for the extension of this covenant to the Guardian and to the Universal House of Justice.
The first celebration of the Day of the Covenant in North America was marked on this day.
  • Prior to this time some of the believers celebrated the birth of 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the 22nd of May. Others marked the 29th of May, the anniversary of the passing of Bahá'u'lláh and thusly, the day on which He acceded to the leadership of the Bahá'í community.
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá chose the day November 26th, as reckoned by the Gregorian calendar, as approximately half a year away from this date, to commemorate His appointment of the Centre of the Covenant.
  • The day was know as Jashn-i-A'zam (The Greatest Festival) in the East because He was Ghusn-i-A'zam, the Greatest Branch or the "Most Might Branch" [GPB238, BFA2:XV, 56; SA247, Day of the Covenant by Christopher Buck, AB523]
New York; United States Day of the Covenant; Firsts, Other; Covenant (general); Holy Days; Abdul-Baha, Birth of; Bahaullah, Ascension of; Bab, Declaration of
1902 Joseph Hannen, future Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, and Pauline Hannen become Bahá'ís in Washington DC. Washington DC; United States Joseph Hannen; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Pauline Hannen
1902 10 May The Chicago House of Justice changes its name to the House of Spirituality. [BFA2:XV] Chicago; United States House of Justice; House of Spirituality; Spiritual Assemblies
1902 12 May Mírzá Asadu'lláh-i-Isfahání leaves the United States. [BFA2:VI] United States Mirza Asadullah-i-Isfahani
1902 10 Oct The Behais Supply and Publishing Board incorporates as the `Bahai Publishing Society', a non-profit company. It is the first Bahá'í institution to be legally incorporated. [BFA2:XVI, 74] United States Publishing Trusts; Firsts, Other
1903 7 Mar Inspired by the news of the `Ishqábád Temple project, the Chicago House of Spirituality asks `Abdu'l-Bahá for permission to construct a Mashriqu'l-Adhkár. [BFA2:XVI, 118; BW10:179; GPB348] Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Wilmette; Chicago; United States House of Spirituality; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
1903 30 May A letter from `Abdu'l-Bahá is received by the Chicago House of Spirituality giving His approval for the building of a Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in North America. [BFA2:119] Wilmette; Chicago; United States House of Spirituality; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
1903 7 Jun Eight days after `Abdu'l-Bahá's first Tablet arrives, a second Tablet arrives from Him approving the project. [BW10:179; CT41; GPB262, 349; MBW142] Wilmette; Chicago; United States House of Spirituality; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
1904 A compilation of Bahá'í writings in English is published by the Board of Counsel of New York. [BW10:179] New York; United States Compilations; Publications
1904 28 Oct Ali Kuli Khan marries Florence Breed, the first marriage between a Persian and a Western Bahá'í. [BFA2:147]
  • For details of this marriage see SUR223–20.
  • When 'Abdu'l-Bahá heard the new of the marriage He said, ‘This is the first sign of union between East and West.’ Then He sent for candies to be brought and said, ‘The event is so joyous that it must be celebrated!’ And He distributed the candy to those present, as is the custom for the parents of the bridegroom to do at a Persian wedding banquet. [AY26]
  • See AY51-53 for the history of the Breed name.
  • See AY53-> for the relationship between Khan and the Hearst family.
United States Ali-Kuli Khan; Florence Breed; Firsts, Other; Interracial marriage; Weddings; Hearst family; Phoebe Hearst
1904 Dec Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl leaves the United States. [BFA2:XVI] United States Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani
1905 Agnes Alexander arrives in Alaska, the first Bahá'í travelling teacher to visit the territory.

A Bahá'í group is established in Germany. [BBRSM:107, 219]

Alaska; United States; Germany Agnes Alexander
1905 -1906 The publication of The Seven Valleys and the Four Valleys. [7V74V]

Two works written in Baghdad after Bahá’u’lláh returned from Kurdistan in 1856. The Seven Valleys was revealed in reply to a letter from Shaykh Muhiyi’d-Din, the religious judge of Khaniqin, who was a Sufi. The Four Valleys was addressed to Shaykh ‘Abdu’r-Rahman, leader of the Qadiriyyih Sufi order, with whom Bahá’u’lláh had been in contact in Sulaymaniyyih.

“To these two outstanding contributions to the world’s religious literature, (Shoghi Effendi had written of the Kitáb-i-Íqán and the Hidden Words) … was added, during that same period, a treatise that may well be regarded as His greatest mystical composition, designated as the “Seven Valleys,”.., in which He describes the seven stages which the soul of the seeker must needs traverse ere it can attain the object of its existence.” [GPB140]

In the West this was one of the earliest available books of Bahá'u'lláh, first translated directly to French in 1905, and English in 1906. [GPB140]

The Seven Valleys was translated into English by Marzieh Gail in consultation with her father, Alí-Kuli Khan Nabil-al Douleh. The publication date of the first English translation was 1945 with an introduction added in 1952. The second edition of The Seven Valleys published in 1968 and 1975 by the US Bahá'í Publishing Trust.

France; United States Haft Vadi (Seven Valleys); Chahar Vadi (Four Valleys); Marzieh Gail; Ali-Kuli Khan; Bahaullah, Writings of; Translation; Publications
1906 The first Bahá'í of Hungarian origin, Countess Aurelia Bethien, declares her faith in the USA. [http://www.bahai.hu] Hungary; United States First Bahais by country or area
1907 It is estimated that there are from 1000 to 1100 believers in North America by this date, with about 12 believers in Montreal and six Bahá'ís in other localities in Canada. [BFA2:230] United States; Montreal; Canada Statistics
1907 Feb Corinne True travels to `Akká to present `Abdu'l-Bahá with a scroll with the signatures of 800 Bahá'ís calling for construction to start on the American House of Worship. [CT51–3]
  • BW13:847 says the scroll contained over a thousand signatures.
Akka; United States Corinne True; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
1907 spring A census of religions in the United States counts 1280 Bahá'ís. [BFA2:XVI] United States Statistics
1907 31 Mar The Bahá'í calendar is used in North America for the first time. BFA2:247–8] North America; United States Badi calendar; Firsts, Other
1907 19 Jul The Chicago `Bahai Assembly' files an affidavit of incorporation, the first Bahá'í community to acquire legal status. [BFA2:278]
  • The incorporation is in the name of the community rather than the governing body. [BFA2:278–9]
Chicago; United States Spiritual Assemblies; Incorporation; Recognition; Firsts, Other
1907 26 Nov The first national Bahá'í conference is held in America. [BFA2:XVI; BW10:179]
  • At the invitation of the House of Spirituality of Chicago, nine Bahá'ís from various communities join some ten from the Chicago area at a one-day conference to foster national cooperation on the Temple project and to choose a suitable site for the Temple. [BFA2:280; CT78; GPB262, 349]
Chicago; United States Conferences; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, National; House of Spirituality; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; First conferences
1908 Mar The book Some Answered Questions is published simultaneously in the United States and in Great Britain in English. [AB82; BBD212–13; BFA2:238]
  • The Persian edition is published the same year. [AB82]
  • It is the only pilgrims' notes to be considered part of Bahá'í sacred literature. [BFA2:238; BW12:98–107, ABF8]
United States; United Kingdom Some Answered Questions; Pilgrims notes; Publications; Translation; Authenticity
1908 9 Apr Two building plots for the future House of Worship are purchased in Wilmette for the sum of $2000. [BFA2:XVI; BW10:179, GPB262] Wilmette; United States Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Purchases and exchanges
1908 Sep The Bahá'í Publishing Society is founded in Chicago. [BW10:179] Chicago; United States Bahai Publishing Society; Publishing Trusts
1909 (In the year) The passing of Robert Turner (b. 15 October, 1856, Virginia d. 1909 California)
  • the first African-American Baha'i and a member of the first Western Pilgrimage to Haifa in 1898, led by his employer Mrs. Phoebe Hearst. He was a butler in her household for more than 35 years. He was taught the Baha'i Faith by Lua Getsinger in the process of serving tea and remained a devoted believer his entire life. "Such was the tenacity of his faith that even the subsequent estrangement of his beloved mistress from the Cause she had spontaneously embraced failed to becloud its radiance, or to lessen the intensity of the emotions which the loving-kindness showered by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá upon him had excited in his breast." (GPB259) [A Vision of Race Unity, Vingp101, AZBF475, An Early Pilgrimage by May Maxwell]
  • He received a Tablet from 'Abdu'l-Bahá while on his deathbed and a tribute after his passing. [AY60, 61, 339, AB72]
  • He was one of the nineteen Western Bahá'ís designated as a Disciple of 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • A Tablet to him from 'Abdu'l-Bahá can be found in SWABpg114 #78 and 'Abdu'l-Bahá in America (website).
  • See also Bahaikipedia, Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • Find a Grave.
Virginia; California; United States Robert Turner; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Firsts, Other; Phoebe Hearst; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
1909 Jan c. Isabella Brittingham organizes 12 Bahá'í women into a `Unity Band' to write monthly to the 12 Bahá'í women's clubs formed in Iran. [BFA2:294] New Jersey; United States; Iran Isabella Brittingham; Women; Writing
1909 21 Mar `Abdu'l-Bahá lays the sacred remains of the Báb in their final resting place at the Shrine in Haifa. [AB126; BBD210; DH138; GBF103; GPB276]
  • See AB126–30, CT84 and GPB273–8 for details of the occasion and its history.
  • The Shrine is a simple rectangular structure of six rooms. [DH71, ZK284]
  • The marble sarcophagus used for the remains of the Báb is a gift from the Bahá'ís of Rangoon. [AB129; MC155]
  • For details of the sarcophagus see RB3:431.
BWC; Mount Carmel; Rangoon; Myanmar (Burma); Chicago; United States Bab, Shrine of; Bab, Sarcophagus for; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Marble; Gifts; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; - Basic timeline, Expanded
1909 21 Mar The first American Bahá'í Convention opens in Chicago. [BFA2:XVII, 309; BW13:849; MBW142–3; SBBH1:146]
  • It is held in the home of Corinne True. [CT82–3]
  • It is attended by 39 delegates from 36 cities. [GPB262; SBBH1:146]
  • The Convention establishes the 'Bahá'í Temple Unity', which is incorporated to hold title to the Temple property and to provide for its construction. A constitution is framed and an Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity elected. This body becomes the future National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada. [BBD39; BBRSM:106; BW10:179; GPB349; PP397; SBBH1:146]
Chicago; United States; Canada Conventions, National; Corinne True; Bahai Temple Unity; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; First conventions; NSA
1909 21 Mar The first printing of Volume 1 of Tablets of 'Abdu'l-Bahá by the Bahá’í Publishing Society in Chicago.
  • Laura Dreyfus-Barney is credited as being one of the translators. [ABF9not53]
Chicago; United States Tablets of Abdul-Baha (book); Publications; Laura Clifford Barney
1909. July 23 Louis George Gregory joins the Bahá'í Faith after investigating since 1907. [Wikipedia] Washington DC; United States Louis Gregory; Hands of the Cause
1909 20 Aug Birth of Paul Haney, Hand of the Cause of God, in Chicago.
  • His given name is `Abdu'l-Bahá, bestowed upon him by `Abdu'l-Bahá Himself at his birth.
Chicago; United States Paul Haney; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
1910 c. Ghodsea Khanoum Ashraf (Qudsíyyih Ashraf) arrives in the United States, the first Persian woman to travel to the country. [BFA2:358]
  • See Ahmad Sohrab's letter to her in SW6, 10:77–9.
United States Ghodsea Khanoum Ashraf (Qudsiyyih Ashraf); Ahmad Sohrab; Firsts, Other
1910 The publication of The Oriental Rose, or, The teachings of 'Abdu'l-Bahá which trace the chart of "The Shining Pathway" by Mary Hanford Finney Ford.
  • See page 158-159 for her pen portrait of 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
New York; United States Mary Hanford Ford; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Introductory; Abdul-Baha, Pen portraits; Pen portraits; Portraits; Publications
1910 8 Jan The Persian-American Educational Society is inaugurated in Washington DC. [BFA2:XVII; 355–8]
  • Its primary purpose is to assist the Tarbíyat School in Iran. [BFA2:357]
Washington DC; United States; Iran Bahai associations; Tarbiyat School; Bahai schools; Education
1910 21 Mar The first issue of the Bahá'í News is published in Chicago. [BFA2:XVII; BW10:179]
  • See BFA2:320–2, BW8:927 and SBBH1:116–17 for the magazine's development.
  • It is the first Bahá'í magazine published in the West. [BBD2 14]
  • Star of the West is published as Bahá'í News (Volume 1, Issues 1-19 from 21 March, 1910 until 2 March, 1911) and later under Star of the West /The Bahá'í Magazine (Volume 2 to Volume 25, 21 March, 1911 until 25 March,1935).
  • Its editors were Albert Windust and Gertrude Buikema. Others involved with its publication over its history were Albert and Emily Vail, Dr. Zia Bagdadi, Ahmad Sohrab, Edna M. True; with Horace Holley and Stanwood Cobb being singled out as early contributors. [Duane Troxel]

Star of the West Published March 1910 to April 1935
          URL   (For cut 'n' paste)  
         Volume # / Dates (links)   
Vol 1 (Mar 1910) - Vol 10 (Mar 1920)
Vol 11 (Mar 1920) - Vol 20 (Mar 1930)
Vol 21 (Apr 1930) - Vol 25 (Apr 1935)

For an access to the Star of the West archives see http://www.starofthewest.info. This site is not searchable.

Chicago; United States Star of the West; Bahai News; - Periodicals; Firsts, Other; Publications
1910 8 Aug Birth of Mary Sutherland Maxwell, Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, Hand of the Cause of God, in New York City. New York; United States Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
1911 8 Apr W. Morgan Shuster was an American chosen by the Persian Chargé d’Affaires at Washington, Mirza Ali Kuli Khan, to serve as Treasurer-general of Persian for a period of three years. His mandate was to organize and conduct the collection and disbursements of the revenues. Four American assistants were likewise engaged to serve under the Treasurer-general. Since the Anglo-Russian agreement of 1907 the country was under the influence of the Russians in the north and the British in the south. The purpose in engaging Shuster was to put the country's financial affairs in order so that they might attract investment from other nations.
  • After an encounter with the Russian Consul-General he was forced to leave on the 14th of January, 1912. [AY79-82]
Iran; Washington DC; United States Ali-Kuli Khan; Iran, General history; History (general)
1911 22 Aug - 3 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá took up residence at Thonon-les-Bains on Lake Leman (Lake Geneva). [AB140; GPB280; SBR219]
  • While there He encountered Zillu's-Sultán, the eldest son of the Sháh of the time, Násirid-Dín Sháh. It was he who had ratified the execution of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs and at least 100 others. The whole family was in exile in Geneva at this time. 'Abdu'l-Bahá was very courteous to this man who had been such an inveterate enemy of the Cause. [DJT172, AY19, GPB201] .
  • The Master sent for Juliet Thompson who had been waiting in London for His permission to join Him.
  • During His stay he had a visit from Annie Boylan, a member of the New York community that was experiencing disharmony. Unaware of Bahá'í election procedures, a group that was unhappy with the disunity and ineffectiveness of the Council had organized a vote to be rid of several of its Council members. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had written to the community a short time before recommending that the Council be expanded from 9 to 27 members so that all factions could be represented. He also recommended that women be included on the Council and that the name be changed to "the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of New York". This apparently addressed the problem of disunity because the New York community went on to contribute significantly to the progress of the Faith on a national level. [DJT181, BFA2p338]
  • Horace Holley, who lived at Quattro Torri, Siena, Italy at the time, along with his wife Bertha Herbert and baby daughter Hertha, visited 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the 29th and 30th of August. Please see his Religion for Mankind p 232-237 for a pen portrait of 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • He met with Elizabeth Stewart and Lillian Kappes who were on their way to Tehran. [find reference]
  • It would appear that He returned to Marseilles and travelled to London by sea. [SCU22-23]
Thonon-les-Bains; Lake Leman; Marseille; France; Switzerland; Italy; London; United Kingdom; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; Unity; Zillus-Sultan; Persecution; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Juliet Thompson; Horace Holley; Elizabeth Stewart; Lillian Kappes; Ships
1912 The publication of The Brilliant Proof by Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl Gulpáygání in Chicago by the Bahai News Service, 1912. The first edition notes state that it was written December 28, 1911, in Syria, "by the pen of Mirza Abul Fazl Gulpaygan."
  • The publication of this book marks the end of an early era of Bahá'í teaching in the West. As 'Abdu'l-Bahá continued his journeys in the United States and Canada, He delivered hundreds of public talks and private addresses which were tailored to Western audiences. The fresh outpouring of teachings which resulted from these encounters produced a new Bahá'í literature of the words of 'Abdu'l-Bahá in the West. Examples include the following: The Promulgation of Universal Peace: Talks Delivered by `Abdu'l-Bahá During His Visit to the United States and Canada in 1912, compiled by Howard MacNutt, (Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1922-25); Paris Talks: Addresses Given by `Abdu'l-Bahá in Paris in 1911-1912 (London: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1912); 'Abdu'l-Bahá in London.
  • 239D93 says this book was written by Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl in answer to a London minister's criticism of the Cause.
Chicago; United States Brilliant Proof (book); Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Criticism and apologetics; Promulgation of Universal Peace (book); Paris Talks (book); Abdul-Baha in London (book); Bahai literature; Publications
1912 25 Mar `Abdu'l-Bahá sails from Alexandria on the S.S. Cedric to New York via Naples. They arrive in that city after two day's sailing. [AB171; CWB281]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá prefered the slower S.S. Cedric to the Titanic, about to make her maiden voyage. [AB171]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá's companions numbered six: Shoghi Effendi, Siyyid Asadu'lláh-i-Qumí, Dr Amínu'lláh Faríd, Mírzá Munír-i-Zayn, Áqá Khusraw and this servant, Mahmúd-i-Zarqání. [Mahmud's Diary p13]
Alexandria; Egypt; Naples; Italy; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha in Egypt; S. S. Cedric; Ships; Titanic; Abdul-Baha, Life of; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
1912 11 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in New York. [AB172; GPB281, APD3-5]
  • One of the Persians in the Master’s suite had cabled Alice Ives Breed in New York City, about the Master’s arrival date. Thus alerted, Ali-Kuli Khan directed the Persian Consul, Topakian (an Armenian business man), to officially greet ‘Abdu’l-Bahá with full courtesies. Mr Topakian carried this out, and the Master was much pleased with his services. [AY85]
  • During His tour `Abdu'l-Bahá visits 32 cities and makes numerous addresses of which 185 are recorded. [SBBH1:110]
  • For a chronological list of talks given by `Abdu'l-Bahá while in North America see PUP473–8.
  • For details of His journey see AB171–339.
  • Ward, 239 Days; Balyuzi, `Abdu'l-Bahá; The Diary of Juliet Thompson; many editions of Star of the West and numerous biographies of Bahá'ís of the time as well as other books carry information about `Abdu'l-Bahá travels and talks.
  • Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP3]
  • He was accompanied by:

    -Sayyid Asadu'lláh Qumí,

    -Dr Fareed Amin Ullah, He was a nephew of 'Abdu'l-Bahá and served as his translator during His tour of the West. Because of his disobedience both he and his father were expelled from the Faith. See AY102-103 and AB230.

    -Mírza Mahmúd-i Zarqání. He was a member of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's entourage for both the Western and European tours. He wrote an account of the travels in a book entitled Kitáb-i Badáyi'u'l-Áthár and called "Mahmúd's Diary" in the English translation. [APD151]

    -Mirza Ahmad Sohrab. He had originally come to the West to assist Mírzá Abú'l-Fadl Gulpaygání in 1901. He remained and worked at the Iranian Consulate until 1912 and during this time he translated much of the correspondence between 'Abdu'l-Bahâ and the Western believers. After the American tour he returned to the Holy Land. After the passing of 'Abdu'l-Bahá he rejected the authority of Shoghi Effendi and was expelled. [APD155]

New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other; Ali-Kuli Khan; Edward Kinney; Topakian, Mr; Consuls; Mahmuds Diary; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
1912 12 Apr Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Howard MacNutt, 935 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, New York, [PUP4]
  • Talk at Studio of Miss Phillips, 39 West Sixty-seventh Street, New York. [PUP7, DJT239]
New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Howard MacNutt; Phillips, Miss
1912 13 Apr Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Alexander Morten, 141 East Twenty-first Street, New York [PUP9] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
1912 14 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá spoke from the pulpit of the Church of the Ascension, Fifth Avenue and Tenth Street, New York at the invitation of Percy Grant who was later reprimanded by his bishop, Bishop Burch for inviting 'Abdu'l-Bahá to sit in the Bishop's Chair behind the alter rail. [ABF22, 239D:21–3, PUP11, 239 Days in America Day52]
  • Talk at Union Meeting of Advanced Thought Centers, Carnegie Lyceum, West Fifty-seventh Street, New York. [PUP14]
New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; ; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches; ; Abdul-Baha, Talks other; Percy Grant
1912 15 Apr Talk at Home of Mountfort Mills, 327 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP16] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
1912 16 Apr Talk at Hotel Ansonia to Baha’i’ Friends of New Jersey, Broadway and Seventy-third Street, New York. [PUP18] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Hotels
1912 17 Apr Talk at Hotel Ansonia, Broadway and Seventy-third Street, New York. [PUP20] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
1912 17 Apr Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York, [PUP23] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Edward Kinney
1912 18 Apr Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Marshall L. Emery, 273 West Ninetieth Street, New York. [PUP25] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
1912 19 Apr Talk at Earl Hall, Columbia University, New York. [PUP29]

'Abdu'l-Bahá visits The Bowery accompanied by Edward Getsinger and Juliet Thompson as noted in her unpublished Diary. They arrived with two heavy bags of quarters to distribute to the poor. [OPOP165-168, PUP32]

Bowery; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Columbia University; Abdul-Baha, Talks at universities; Charity and relief work
1912 20 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá arrived in Washington DC from New York by train. He was accompanied by Dr Getsinger, Dr Fareed, Mírzá Valiyu'lláh Nakhjavání and Mahmúd-i-Zarqání. [239D:37–8; AB178; SBR78, APD9]
  • Talk at Orient-Occident-Unity Conference, Public Library Hall, Washington, D.C. [PUP35]
  • See AY85 for the welcome He received from the Kahn family and others including Mrs Agnes Parson, Mason Remy and Joseph Hannen.
  • ‘Abdu’l-Bahá encouraged commercial ties between the United States and Persia. ‘For the Persians there is no government better fitted to contribute to the development of their natural resources and the helping of their national needs in a reciprocal alliance than the United States of America; and for the Americans there could be no better industrial outlet and market than the virgin … soil of Persia. The mineral wealth of Persia is still latent and untouched. It is my hope that the great American democracy may be instrumental in developing these hidden resources and that a bond of perfect amity and unity may be established between the American republic and the government of Persia. May this bond—whether material or spiritual—be well cemented.’ [AY48]
Washington DC; New York; United States; Iran Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places; Trains; Business
1912 21 Apr Talk at Studio Hall, 1219 Connecticut Avenue, Washington, D.C. [PUP37, APD14]

Talk at Universalist Church, Thirteenth and L Streets, Washington, D.C. [PUP39, APD16]

Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Studio Hall; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches; Abdul-Baha, Talks at other places
1912 22 Apr Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP43, APD22-24, AY86] Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Arthur Parsons; Agnes Parsons
1912 23 Apr Talk at Howard University, Washington, D.C. [PUP44, APD29]

Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP46]

Talk to Bethel Literary Society, Metropolitan African Methodist Episcopal Church, M Street, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP49]

Washington; DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at universities; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches
1912 24 Apr Talk at Children’s Reception, Studio Hall, 1219 Connecticut Avenue, Washington, D.C. [PUP54]

Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP56, APD37-45]

Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
1912 25 Apr Talk to Theosophical Society, Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP58]

Message to Esperantists, Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP60]

Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP62, APD46-49]

Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Theosophical Society; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Abdul-Baha, Talks other; Arthur Parsons; Esperanto
1912 26 Apr 'Abdu'l-Bahá speaks al the (All Souls) Unitarian Church to the Women's Alliance on the subject of equal rights to men and women. Later in the morning He spoke in the home of John J. White and in the evening He addresses a gathering in the Parsons' home on the subject of "Human and Divine Spirit in Man" before leaving for the (Memorial) Continental Hall. (This was perhaps the most prestigious meeting place in Washington, the public meeting hall of the Daughters of the Revolution..) [APD50-53] Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
1912 27 Apr During lunch at the Parsons' home 'Abdu'l-Bahá speaks about the proper method of taxation. [APD53-57]
  • For His discourse on taxation see FWU38-43]

In the evening there is a grand reception for some 300 people in honour of 'Abdu'l-Bahá on behalf of the Orient-Occident Unity Society. Among the guests and dignitaries are General Adolphus Greely, Admiral Wainwright, a Washington judge, Admiral Peary, a bishop, the chargé d'affaires of Switzerland, a member of Congress, the head of the United States Patent Office, the General Consul, the President of the Peace Congress and others. [MD64-65]

Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places; General Adolphus Greely; Wainwright, Admiral; Peary, Admiral; Agnes Parsons; Taxation
1912 28 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá give private interviews in the morning then calls on the Turkish Ambassador. [APD56-59] . `Abdu'l-Bahá spent considerable time with the Turkish ambassador, Zia Pasha while in Washington. [AY86-87]

For a list of some of the well-known individuals whom the Khans brought into ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s presence see AY88.

`Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Washington for Chicago. [239D:46; AB184; SBR81]

`Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in Chicago. [239D:47]

Washington DC; Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Ambassadors
1912 30 Apr Talk at Public Meeting Concluding Convention of Bahá’í Temple Unity, Drill Hall, Masonic Temple, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP65,]

Talk at Hull House, Chicago, Illinois. Hull House was a community centre, one of the earliest in Chicago, founded by the National American Woman Suffrage Association [PUP67, MD70]

Talk at Fourth Annual Conference of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Handel Hall, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP69, MD71]

Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Conventions, National; Bahai Temple Unity; Abdul-Baha, Talks at other places
1912 1 May `Abdu'l-Bahá lays the cornerstone of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in Wilmette. [239D:51; AB186; GPB288, 349; MBW143]
  • Talk at Dedication of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár Grounds. [PUP71]
  • The cornerstone has been offered by Mrs Nettie Tobin. [AB186]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá asks delegates from the various Bahá'í communities and Bahá'ís from different backgrounds each to dig the earth to lay the stone. [AB186–7]
Wilmette; Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Nettie Tobin; Foundation stones and groundbreaking; Abdul-Baha, Life of; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
1912 3 May Talk at Hotel Plaza, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP83]

Talk at Hotel Plaza, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP84]

Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
1912 4 May Talk to Theosophical Society, Northwestern University Hall, Evanston, Illinois. [PUP87] Evanston; Illinois; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Theosophical Society; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
1912 5 May Talk at Children’s Meeting, Hotel Plaza, Chicago, Illinois. [PSBW134–5, PUP91]

Talk at Plymouth Congregational Church, 935 East Fiftieth Street, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP93]

Talk at All-Souls Church, Lincoln Center, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP97]

Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
1912 6 May `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Chicago, arriving in Cleveland the same day. [239D:57; AB189]

Talk at Euclid Hall, Cleveland, Ohio. [PUP101]

Talk at Sanatorium of Dr. C. M. Swingle, Cleveland, Ohio. [PUP104]

Chicago; Cleveland; Ohio; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
1912 7 May `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Cleveland for Pittsburgh, arriving the same day. [239D:63; AB189]

Talk at Hotel Schenley, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The hotel is now the University of Pittsburgh's Student Union building, known as the William Pitt Union. [PUP105, Schenley Hotel]

Cleveland; Pittsburgh; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
1912 8 May `Abdu'l-Bahá takes a morning train from Pittsburgh, arriving in Washington DC that night for His second visit to that city. [239D:64; AB189; SBR81]

He and His entourage moves into the apartment of William P. Ripley who have vacated it for this purpose. [APD59-60]

Pittsburgh; Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Trains
1912 9 May `Abdu'l-Bahá speaks to a capacity gathering at the Parsons' home. He noted that religious ministers in Washington were denouncing Him and the Cause. [APD61-63] Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Agnes Parsons; Opposition
1912 10 May `Abdu'l-Bahá's sits for sketches by Mr Theadore Spicer-Simon. See Medallions for pictures of his work.

In the morning Agnes Parsons takes 'Abdu'l-Bahá to the Capitol then to the Washington Monument where they take the elevator to the top.

He speaks to a small group in the Parsons' home in the afternoon and at the Studio Hall in the evening. [APD63-66]

In The Diary of Juliet Thompson p285 it is reported that 'Abdu'l-Bahá had been horrified by the prejudice He observed against Black people in Washington.

Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Abdul-Baha, Talks at other places; Capitol; Washington Monument; Studio Hall; Agnes Parsons; Abdul-Baha, Pictures and portraits; Portraits; Racism
1912 11 May `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Washington for New York City, arriving the same day. [239D:64–5, AB190, APD66-67]

Talk at the Hudson Apartment House at 227 Riverside Drive, New York. [PUP111, DJT282]

Washington; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at other places
1912 12 May `Abdu'l-Bahá takes a ferry to New Jersey. He takes a train for Montclair where He addresses the congregation of the Unity Church before returning to New York to speak to the International Peace Forum at the Grace Methodist Episcopal Church West 104th Street, New York. [239D:66; AB191, PUP113, PUP116] Montclair; New Jersey; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches; Conferences, Peace; Peace; Trains
1912 13 May `Abdu'l-Bahá, very unwell, attends a reception and gives a talk to the New York Peace Society at the Hotel Astor. [239D:67; AB192, PUP123, APD67] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Hotel Astor; Abdul-Baha, Talks other; Peace
1912 14–16 May `Abdu'l-Bahá attends the Conference on International Peace and Arbitration at Lake Mohonk, delivering an address on the first evening. [239D:67–9; AB193, ABF15] Lake Mohonk; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Conferences, Peace; Conferences, International; Peace; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
1912 19 May In the morning He spoke at the Church of the Divine Paternity, Central Park West, New York. [PUP126]

`Abdu'l-Bahá travels to Jersey City to speak in the Unitarian Church, the Brotherhood Church, Bergen and Fairview Avenues, of which Howard Colby Ives is the pastor. [239D:70–1; AB194, PUP129] ]

Jersey City; New Jersey; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Howard Colby Ives; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches
1912 20 May Talk at Woman’s Suffrage Meeting, Metropolitan Temple, Seventh Avenue and Fourteenth Street, New York. [PUP133] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
1912 22 May `Abdu'l-Bahá travels to Boston, arriving the same day. [239D:71; AB198] New York; Boston; Massachusetts; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
1912 23 May The Bahá'ís of Cambridge, Massachusetts, celebrated `Abdu'l-Bahá's birthday with a cake bearing 68 candles. (Significantly, He did not stay for the festivities. He forgave this time, but had forbidden the celebration of His birthday. Six years before He had told Khan and other pilgrims that besides Naw-Rúz, the Holy Days were only for the Báb and Bahá’u’lláh, that His birth on the twenty-second/twenty-third of May was ‘only a coincidence’.) `Abdu'l-Bahá addressed the group on the importance of the Báb at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Francis W. Breed, 367 Harvard Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts. [239D:72; AB199, PUP138]

Before arriving in the early evening, He had proceeded to Worcester and addressed Clark University there. [AY95]

Worcester; Cambridge MA; Massachusetts; United States Abdul-Baha, Birth of; Day of the Covenant; Holy Days; Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Abdul-Baha, Talks at universities; Bab, Life of; Clark University; Universities
1912 24 May Talk at Free Religious Association, or Unitarian Conference, Boston, Massachusetts. [PUP140] Boston; Massachusetts; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
1912 25 May Talk at Huntington Chambers, 30 Huntington Ave, Boston, Massachusetts. [PUP143] Boston; Massachusetts; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at other places
1912 26 May `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Boston and returns to New York, arriving in the evening. [239D:73; AB201]

Talk at Mount Morris Baptist Church, Fifth Avenue and 126th Street, New York. [PUP147]

Boston; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches
1912 28 May `Abdu'l-Bahá and His party are evicted from their hotel because of the `coming and going of diverse people' and the `additional labours and troubles' caused to the staff. [239D:74]

Talk at Reception at Metropolitan Temple, Seventh Avenue and Fourteenth Street, New York. [PUP150]

New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches
1912 25 May Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP154] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Edward Kinney
1912 30 May Talk at Theosophical Lodge, Broadway and Seventy-ninth Street, New York. [PUP156] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Theosophical Society; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
1912 31 May `Abdu'l-Bahá travels to Fanwood, New Jersey. [239D:75; AB207]

Talk at Town Hall, Fanwood, New Jersey. [PUP161]

Fanwood; New Jersey; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
1912 1 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá returns to New York. [AB206]
  • He has His first sitting for the portrait painted by Juliet Thompson. [DJT299]
New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Juliet Thompson; Abdul-Baha, Pictures and portraits; Portraits
1912 6 Jun Talk at Church of the Ascension, Fifth Avenue and Tenth Street, New York at the invitation of Percy Grant. [PUP163, ABF22] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches; Percy Grant
1912 3 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá travels to Milford, Pennsylvania. [AB208] Milford; Pennsylvania; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
1912 4 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá returns to New York. [AB208] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
1912 8 Jun Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York, [PUP171]

`Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in Philadelphia. [239D:88; AB209]

New York; Philadelphia; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
1912 9 Jun Talk at Unitarian Church, Fifteenth Street and Girard Avenue, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. [PUP172]

Talk at Baptist Temple, Broad and Berks Streets, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. [PUP176]

Philadelphia; United States Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches; Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
1912 10 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Philadelphia and returns to New York, arriving the same day. [239D:88; AB211] Philadelphia; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
1912 11 Jun Talk at Open Committee Meeting, Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP183]

Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP183]

Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP186]

New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; ; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Edward Kinney
1912 12 Jun Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP187] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
1912 15 Jun Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP189] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
1912 16 Jun Talk at Fourth Unitarian Church, Beverly Road, Flatbush, Brooklyn, New York. [PUP190]

Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Howard MacNutt, 935 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, New York. [PUP194]

Talk at Central Congregational Church, Hancock Street, Brooklyn, New York. [PUP197]

New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Churches; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Howard MacNutt
1912 17 Jun Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP204] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
1912 18 Jun Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP205]

'Abdu'l-Bahá made a recording of His voice on an "Edison Talking Machine". (a cylinder phonograph). [‘Abdu’l-Bahá's Journey West: The Course of Human Solidarity Fig5.1, AY320]

New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Abdul-Baha, Voice recording of
1912 19 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá names New York the `City of the Covenant'. [239D:93; AB220; BBD55, ABNY51; DJT315-316]
  • See 239D:92–93 for a description of this event.
New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Covenant, City of; Covenant (general)
1912 20 Jun Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP206] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
1912 21 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in Montclair, New Jersey. [239D:97; AB221] Montclair; New Jersey; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
1912 23 Jun Talk at Montclair, New Jersey. [PUP210] Montclair; New Jersey; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
1912 29 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá hosts a Unity Feast in the Evergreen Cabin at the Wilhelm properties in West Englewood, New Jersey. [239D:102; AB223, PUP213]
  • For pictures of this event see 239D:100–1.
  • Some years later, in 1953, Curtis Kelsey helped to rebuild and enlarge Evergreen Cabin, built on the spot where 'Abdu'l-Baha was host at the first Unity Feast in America. [BW15p470]
West Englewood; New Jersey; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Unity Feast; Roy Wilhelm; Evergreen cabin
1912 30 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá returns to New York after visiting Mr Topakyan, the Persian Consul General, in Morristown. [239D:103; AB225–6] New York; Morristown; New Jersey; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Topakian, Mr; Consuls
1912 1 Jul Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP216]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke on the subject of poverty and the alleviation of the discrepancy between the rich and the poor.
Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP218]
New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Wealth and poverty
1912 5 Jul Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York, the home of Howard MacNutt. [PUP218]

Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP220]

On this occasion 'Abdu'l-Bahá assigned Howard the task of deepening a group of Chicago Bahá’ís on the importance of the Covenant and instructing them not to associate with Covenant-breakers. Howard failed to complete this task and continued correspondence with associates of Kheiralla. For more information see this date.

New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Covenant (general); Covenant-breakers
1912 6 Jul Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP225] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
1912 14 Jul Talk at All Souls Unitarian Church, Fourth Avenue and Twentieth Street, New York. [PUP228] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; ; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches
1912 15 Jul Talk at Home of Dr. and Mrs. Florian Krug, 830 Park Avenue, New York. [PUP236]
  • See AY112-113 for the story of Dr. Florian Krug and his second wife, Grace.
New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Florian Krug
1912 23 Jul `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves New York, arriving in Boston the same day for His second visit. [239D:117; AB233]

Talk at Hotel Victoria, corner of Newbury and Dartmouth Sts, Boston, Massachusetts. [PUP238]

  • For an interesting story about Nancy Douglas Bowditch see Wikipedia.
  • Also see The Artist's Daughter: Memoirs, 1890 - 1979 the autobiography of Nancy Douglas Bowditch.
New York; Boston; Massachusetts; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; ; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places; Nancy Douglas Bowditch
1912 24 Jul Talk to Theosophical Society, The Kensington, Exeter and Boylston Streets, Boston, Massachusetts. [PUP239] Boston; Massachusetts; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Theosophical Society; ; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
1912 25 Jul Talk at Hotel Victoria, Boston, Massachusetts. [PUP244]

`Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Boston, arriving in Dublin, New Hampshire, the same evening. [239D:117; AB233; SBR82, APD72-73]

Dublin; New Hampshire; Boston; Massachusetts; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; ; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
1912 26 Jul `Abdu'l-Bahá's and His companions took up residence at one of the two Parsons home in Dublin, NH, a resort area. The house in question is named "Day-Spring". [APD7376] Dublin; New Hampshire; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Agnes Parsons
1912 28 Jul `Abdu'l-Bahá's speaks at the Parsons home. [APD79-80] Dublin; New Hampshire; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
1912 5 Aug Talk at Dublin Inn, Dublin, New Hampshire. [PUP245] Dublin; New Hampshire; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
1912 6 Aug Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, Dublin, New Hampshire. [PUP247] Dublin; New Hampshire; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Arthur Parsons
1912 16 Aug `Abdu'l-Bahá journeys to Green Acre by car, arriving the same day. [239D:123; AB240]

Talk at Green Acre, Eliot, Maine. [PUP253]

  • For `Abdu'l-Bahá's activities while in Green Acre see AB240–51.
  • For the story of Fred Mortensen see 239D:126–9 and AB247–51.
  • See also Green Acre on the Piscataqua.
Eliot; Maine; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Cars; Fred Mortensen; Abdul-Baha, Talks other; Green Acre
1912 17 Aug Talk at Green Acre, Eliot, Maine. [PUP261]

Talk at Green Acre, Eliot, Maine. [PUP263]

Talk at Green Acre, Eliot, Maine. [PUP264]

Talk at Green Acre, Eliot, Maine. [PUP270]

Eliot; Maine; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Green Acre; ; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
1912 23 Aug `Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in Malden, Massachusetts, for a week-long stay, making trips to Boston and Cambridge. He stayed in the home of Miss Marie P. Wilson [239D:131; AB251–2]

At some point during the visit He attended the wedding of Ruby Breed, the younger sister of Florence Breed. The wedding was held in the Breed home and was presided over by an Episcopalian minister. [AY96]

Malden; Massachusetts; Boston; Cambridge; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Weddings
1912 25 Aug Talk at the New Thought Forum, Metaphysical Club, Boston, Massachusetts about women's rights. [PUP276, 239Dp131] Boston; Massachusetts; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; ; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
1912 26 Aug Talk at Franklin Square House, Boston, Massachusetts. [PUP280] Boston; Massachusetts; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; ; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
1912 27 Aug Talk at Metaphysical Club, Boston, Massachusetts. [PUP284] Boston; Massachusetts; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; ; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
1912 29 Aug Talk at Home of Madame Beale Morey, 34 Hillside Avenue, Malden, Massachusetts. He spoke on "Religions of the World". [239Dp132, PUP289] Boston; Massachusetts; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
1912 12 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Buffalo for Chicago, arriving the same day. [239D:142]
  • He stays at the home of Corinne True. [239D:142; AB266]
Buffalo; Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Corinne True
1912 15 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Chicago for Kenosha, Wisconsin. [239D:145; AB267]
  • He misses His train and tells the Bahá'ís not to be concerned over this, as there is a good reason for it; travelling on the next train they come across the wreckage of the first, which has been in a collision. [239D:145; AB267]
Chicago; Kenosha; Wisconsin; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Trains
1912 16 Sep Talk at Home of Mrs. Corinne True, 5338 Kenmore Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP320]

`Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Chicago for Minneapolis, arriving the same night. [239D:146; AB273]

Chicago; Minneapolis; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Corinne True
1912 20 Sep Talk at Home of Mr. Albert L. Hall, 2030 Queen Avenue South, Minneapolis, Minnesota. [PUP325]

Talk at Home of Dr. and Mrs. Clement Woolson, 870 Laurel Avenue, St. Paul, Minnesota. [PUP329]

`Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Minneapolis for Omaha, Nebraska, arriving the same night. [239D:20]

  • AB279 says this was 21 September.
Omaha; Nebraska; Minneapolis; Minnesota; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
1912 21 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá visits Lincoln, Nebraska, then leaves for Denver. [239D:151] Lincoln; Nebraska; Denver; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
1912 23 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in Denver in the afternoon. [239D:152; SoG221-222] Denver; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
1912 24 Sep Talk at Home of Mrs. Roberts Denver, Colorado. [PUP334] Denver; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
1912 25 Sep Talk at Second Divine Science Church, 3929 West Thirty-eighth Avenue, Denver, Colorado . [PUP337] Denver; Colorado; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; ; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches
1912 26 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Denver and arrives in Glenwood Springs, Colorado. [239D:158] Denver; Glenwood Springs; Colorado; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
1912 27 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Glenwood Springs for Salt Lake City. [239D:159] Denver; Glenwood Springs; Salt Lake City; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
1912 27 Sep Louisa Mathew and Louis Gregory, an interracial Bahá'í couple, are married in New York City. [239D:169] New York; United States Louisa Mathew Gregory; Louis Gregory; Firsts, Other; Race (general); Unity; Interracial marriage; Weddings
1912 28 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in Salt Lake City. [239D:159] Salt Lake City; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
1912 30 Sep Thornton Chase, the first American Bahá'í, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, passes away in California before 'Abdu'l-Bahá'í and His retinue arrive. He is buried at Inglewood. [BBD71; BFA2:XVII] Los Angeles; California; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Thornton Chase; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Cemeteries and graves
1912 1 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in San Francisco about midnight. [239D:165; AB286] San Francisco; California; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
1912 7 Oct Talk to Japanese Young Men’s Christian Association, Japanese Independent Church, 576 Sycamore Street, Oakland, California. [PUP343] Oakland; California; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; ; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
1912 8 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá speaks at Leland Stanford Junior University in Palo Alto. [239D:166 AB288, PUP348]
  • There are two thousand in the audience. [AB288]
Palo Alto; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; ; Abdul-Baha, Talks at universities; Universities
1912 10 Oct Talk at Open Forum, San Francisco, California [PUP355] San Francisco; California; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; ; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
1912 12 Oct Talk at Temple Emmanu-El, 450 Sutter Street, San Francisco, California. [PUP361, ABF408] San Francisco; California; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; ; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches
1912 13 or 14 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá visited Phoebe Hearst at her estate, at her invitation. [239D:168; AB307]
  • She was estranged from the Faith because one or two individuals had tried to extort money from her but her invitation is sincere. AB307–8]
California; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Phoebe Hearst; Hearst estate
1912 16 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá returns to San Francisco. [AB308] San Francisco; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
1912 17 Oct 'Abdu'l-Bahá discovers His signet ring is missing and for the rest of His trip He signs, rather than seal, every Tablet He writes or dictates. [Historical Dictionary of the Bahá'í Faith pg. xxxvii, AY101-102] Oakland; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Rings; Seals
1912 18 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves San Francisco for Los Angeles, arriving the same day. [239D:169; AB309] Los Angeles; San Francisco; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
1912 19 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá visits the grave of Thornton Chase in Inglewood. [239D:169; AB309]
  • The purpose of His journey to Los Angeles is to visit the grave of Thornton Chase. [AB309]
Inglewood; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Thornton Chase; Cemeteries and graves
1912 21 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Los Angeles for San Francisco. [AB310] Los Angeles; San Francisco; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
1912 25 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves San Francisco for Sacramento, arriving at noon the same day. [239D:171]

Talk at Hotel Sacramento, Sacramento, California. [PUP370]

San Francisco; Sacramento; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; ; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
1912 26 Oct Talk at Assembly Hall, Hotel Sacramento, Sacramento, California. [PUP376]

`Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Sacramento for Denver. [239D:172; AB316]

Sacramento; California; Denver; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
1912 28 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in Denver at midnight. [239D:175; AB316] Denver; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
1912 30 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Denver for Chicago. [239D:175] Denver; Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
1912 31 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in Chicago. [239D:176]

Talk at Hotel Plaza, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP381]

Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; ; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
1912 1 Nov Talk at Home of Mrs. Corinne True, 5338 Kenmore Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP383] Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Corinne True
1912 4 Nov `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Chicago and arrives in Cincinnati the same day. [239D:179] Chicago; Cincinnati; Ohio; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
1912 5 Nov Talk at Grand Hotel, Cincinnati, Ohio. [PUP388]

`Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Cincinnati for Washington DC. [239D:179]

Cincinnati; Ohio; Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
1912 6 Nov `Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in Washington DC. [239D:179]

Talk at Universalist Church, Thirteenth and L Streets, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP390]

Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches
1912 7 Nov Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D. C. [PUP397]

Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D. C. [PUP400]

Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Arthur Parsons
1912 8 Nov Talk at Eighth Street Temple, Synagogue, Washington, D. C. [PUP411]

Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at synagogues
1912 9 Nov Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D. C .[PUP411]

Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D. C .[PUP415]

Talk at Bahá’í Banquet, Rauscher’s Hall, Washington, D. C. [PUP418]

Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Arthur Parsons; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
1912 10 Nov Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D. C .[PUP421]

Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Joseph H. Hannen, 1252 Eighth Street, NW, Washington, D. C. 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke of Bahá'u'lláh's faithful Ethiopian servant, Isfandiyar, and his service to the family of Bahá'u'lláh's family while He was in prison in the Síyáh-Chál. [PUP425, 239D181-182]

Talk at 1901 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D. C. [PUP428]

Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Abdul-Baha, Talks other; Arthur Parsons; Joseph Hannen; Isfandiyar
1912 11 Nov `Abdu'l-Bahá travels to Baltimore by train and arrives at Camden Station at 11AM. He is accompanied by Dr. Ameen Fareed and Mirza Ahmad Sohrab (interpreters), Mirza Mahmud, Mirza 'Ali Akah, Mirza Valiollah Khan, Dr. Zia Bagdadi, and Saya Assadollah [239D:183; AB329]
  • At noon He speaks at the chapel of the Unitarian Church on the unity of religions and the oneness of God. The chapel is packed with Johns Hopkins University faculty members and many local professional men.
  • After the address he shares lunch at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Struven with more than 50 people.
  • He leaves Baltimore about 3PM and on his return to New York He passes through Philadelphia, where He meets the Bahá'ís on the train platform. ['Abdu'l-Bahá in Baltimore by Allison Vaccaro and Edward E. Bartlett]
Baltimore; Philadelphia; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches; Trains
1912 12 Nov `Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in New York at 1:00 a.m. [AB329] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
1912 15 Nov Talk at Home of Miss Juliet Thompson, 48 West Tenth Street, New York. [PUP431] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Juliet Thompson
1912 16 Nov Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP437] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
1912 17 Nov Talk at Genealogical Hall, 252 West Fifty-eighth Street, New York. [PUP437] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
1912 18 Nov `Abdu'l-Bahá visits the library of J. Pierpont Morgan and inscribes his album with a blessing for his philanthropy. [239D:186–7]

Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Frank K. Moxey, 575 Riverside Drive, New York. [PUP422]

New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; J. P. Morgan; J. P. Morgan Library; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
1912 18 Nov `Abdu'l-Bahá had instructed MacNutt to meet with a group of potential Covenant-breakers in Chicago and warn them of the danger. He also ordered MacNutt to break all communication with Ibrahim Kheiralla and other Covenant-breakers. He had failed to do as directed. They met in the Kenny's home for the first time since his trip, where `Abdu'l-Bahá advised him that he had violated the Covenant himself and commanded him to repent before a group of New York Bahá'ís gathered there, which he did, reluctantly. [DJT371; AY121] New York; United States Covenant-breakers; Howard MacNutt; Ibrahim George Kheiralla
1912 23 Nov A farewell banquet is held for `Abdu'l-Bahá at the Great Northern Hotel, 118 West Fifty-seventh Street, in New York. [239D:187; AB331, PUP447]
  • The hotel does not allow the black Bahá'ís to attend. [239D:187]
New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
1912 24 Nov `Abdu'l-Bahá and the white Bahá'ís serve the black Bahá'ís at a dinner at the Kinney's. [239D:187] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Kinney
1912 29 Nov Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP449] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Edward Kinney
1912 2 Dec Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP452]

Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP453]

New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Edward Kinney
1912 3 Dec Talk at Home of Dr. and Mrs. Florian Krug, 830 Park Avenue, New York. [PUP457]

Talk to Mr. Kinney’s Bible Class, 780 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP458]

Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP460]

New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
1912 4 Dec `Abdu'l-Bahá addresses His last meeting in North America with a talk to Theosophical Society, 2228 Broadway, New York. [239D:193, PUP462] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Theosophical Society; ; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
1912 5 Dec `Abdu'l-Bahá sails on the S. S. Celtic from New York to Liverpool. [239D:193–4; AB337; GPB281]
  • For `Abdu'l-Bahá's final words to the Bahá'ís, spoken while on board ship, see PUP468.
  • For Ahmad Sohrab's account of the sea crossing see SW3, 16:2.
New York; United States; Liverpool; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Ships; S. S. Celtic; Ahmad Sohrab; Abdul-Baha, Life of
1915 A plan to fund part-time travelling Bahá’í teachers in the USA and Canada is approved. There had been a great deal of reluctance to take this measure for fear of creating a "clergy" class but the vastness of the country and the fewness of believers of independent means as well as the impetus to teaching sparked by 'Abdu'l-Bahá's visit helped to take the decision. [BBRSM:105, 219] United States; Canada Subsidies; Funds; Travel teaching
1915 19-25 Apr The Panama-Pacific International Exposition is held in San Francisco and the 24th of April is declared International Bahá'í Congress Day. [BW8:797-808] San Francisco; United States Conferences, Other
1915 16 Jun Miss Margaret Green of Washington DC arrives in Alaska, the first known resident Bahá'í. Washington DC; Alaska; United States Margaret Green
1915 11 Oct Arthur Pillsbury Dodge, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, passes away in Freeport, New York. [sBR15]
  • For biographies see BFA1:116-17, SBR1-16 and SW6, 13:100-1.
  • For his obituary see SW6, 19:161-7.
  • Dodge's books include The Truth of It (1901) [SW6, 13:101] and Whence? Why? Wither? (1907). [SW6, 13:101]
Freeport; New York; United States Arthur Pillsbury Dodge; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
1916 The United States census shows 2,884 Bahá'ís. [BBRSM:105; SBBH1:117] United States Statistics
1916 Apr or May The first Chinese Bahá'í in China, Chen Hai An (Harold A. Chen), becomes a Bahá'í in Chicago through the efforts of Dr Zia Baghdádí. [PH29-30]
  • PH30 says this was 1919 but this is clearly a typographical error.
  • He returns to China in December 1916.
China; Chicago; United States First Bahais by country or area; Zia Baghdadi
1916 8 Sep The first five Tablets of the Tablets of the Divine Plan are published in Star of the West. [BBD219; 5w7, 10:87-91]
  • For editorial comment see SW7, 10:86.
  • After this, communication is cut off with the Holy Land. [BBD219]
Chicago; United States Tablets of the Divine Plan; Star of the West; Publications
1917 6 Apr The United States enters World War I.
  • See CF36 for Shoghi Effendi's opinion of its participation in the war.
Europe; United States World War I; War (general); History (general); Shoghi Effendi, Life of
1918 8 Jan President Woodrow Wilson in a speech on war aims and peace terms to the United States Congress outlined his Fourteen Points. It was a statement of principles for peace that was to be used for peace negotiations in order to end World War I. President Wilson was influenced by the Bahá’í Teachings in formulating his Fourteen Points, at least three Bahá’í volumes were known to be in the White House. The Hidden Words appears on a 1921 listing of Wilson’s private library. Also, a compilation on peace given the President by a delegation of Washington Bahá’ís ‘turned up in general reference at the Library of Congress marked “transfer from the White House”‘. And Abdul-Baha on Divine Philosophy (Boston, 1918) is said to have much influenced his thinking. [AY155]

Commenting on the Fourteen Points laid down by the President for the world community, the Master says that twelve of them derive from principles advocated by Bahá’u’lláh fifty years before, and that these Teachings had been spread worldwide through various publications, thus becoming known to leaders in Europe and America (Persian Tablets, vol. III, p. 312). [AY156-157]

United States; Washinton DC Woodrow Wilson; Fourteen Points; History (general); Principles; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha on Divine Philosophy; Peace; World War I; War (general); United States, Presidents
1919 (in the year) Amelia Collins, Hand of the Cause, becomes a Bahá'í in Pasadena, California. [PSBW74] Pasadena; California; United States Amelia Collins; Hands of the Cause
1919 13 Apr The passing of Phoebe Apperson Hearst (b. 3 December, 1842) in her home in Pleasanton, California during the worldwide influenza epidemic of 1918-1919. She was buried at Cypress Lawn Memorial Park, Colma, California. [AY49, Find a grave, Bahá'í Chronicles]
  • See AY55-> for a brief history of her life and her contribution to the progress of the Faith. She had learned of the Faith through Lua Getsinger and members of her group in the early days of the Faith in California.
  • ‘Abdu’l-Bahá called her ‘the servant of Bahá, the “Mother of the Faithful”’. He writes that she had ‘sincerely turned unto her Master... completely faced toward the Kingdom of God ... [she] shall surely have a firm and steady footing in the Cause of God, her face shall shine forth from the Horizon of Loftiness, her fame shall be spread in the Kingdom of God, and [she] shall have a ringing voice ... and the light of her glorious deeds shall beam forth during cycles and ages.’ [AY54-55; 106-107]
Pleasanton; California; Colma; United States Phoebe Hearst; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves; Lua Getsinger; Names and titles
1919 26 Apr-1 May The 14 Tablets of the Divine Plan are unveiled in a dramatic ceremony at the Hotel McAlpin in New York, during the `Convention of the Covenant'. [ABNYP172Note24, BBD219; PP437; SBBH1:134; SBBH2:135; SBR86; AB220TDPXI]
  • For details of the convention programme, Tablets and talks given see SW10, 4:54-72; SW10, 5:83-94; SW10, 6:99-103, 111-12 SW10, 7:122-7, 138; SW10, 10:197-203; and SW10, 12:2279.
  • Mary Maxwell (Rúhíyyih Khánum) is among the young people who unveil the Tablets. [PP437]
  • Hyde and Clara Dunn and Martha Root respond immediately to the appeal, the Dunns going to Australia where they open 700 towns to the Faith, and Martha Root embarking on the first of her journeys which are to extend over 20 years. [GPB308; MR88]
  • See also CT138-9.
  • Agnes Parsons arrives from her pilgrimage just before the close of the convention and is able to convey the instructions from `Abdu'l-Bahá to arrange a Convention for `the unity of the coloured and white races'. [BW5:413; SBR87]
  • New York; United States Tablets of the Divine Plan; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Charters; Conventions, National; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Agnes Parsons; Hyde Dunn; Clara Dunn; Martha Root; Race (general); Race amity; Race unity
    1919. 18 Nov The periodical entitled "The Magazine of the Children of the Kingdom" was published and distributed by Miss Ella Roberts from 1919 to 1924. [Encyclopedia of Women and Religion in North America: Native American creation stories, edited by Rosemary Skinner Keller, Rosemary Radford Ruether, Marie Cantlon p.782-783]
    • The story of the naming of the magazine...
        Margaret Randall told of the establishment of a Bahá'í Junior Magazine and asked 'Abdu'l-Bahá for a name for it. The Master was told who had charge of it, and His face lighted up with a beautiful smile as He said: "The name is The Magazine of the Children of the Kingdom. Who writes it? This (name) is suitable for it. [WHR128-129]
    • See A Compilation on Bahá’í Education #96 for a tablet by 'Abdu'l-Bahá to the children of the Bahá’í school, Urbana, Illinois found here.
    • See A Compilation on Bahá’í Education #102 for a tribute to the magazine by Shoghi Effendi found here. He called it "first and only organ of the Bahá’í youth throughout the world".
    • At the American National Convention in 1925 (July 4 - 9) it was reported that "The Magazine of the Children of the Kingdom", edited by Ella Roberts and "Bahá’í World Fellowship" edited by Mrs. Victoria Bedikian had merged. ["Bahá’í News Letter" #6 Jul-Aug 1925 p.6]
    Haifa; United States Magazine of the Children of the Kingdom; Children; Youth; - Periodicals; Publications; Firsts, Other
    1920. 27 Jan The passing of Joseph H. Hannen, Disciple of 'Abdu'l-Bahá a week after he was knocked down by a car in Washington, DC. (b. January 27, 1920, Allegheny, Pennsylvania) It was Joseph Hannen who served as a note-taker for many of the talks of 'Abdu'l-Bahá during His tour in the United States. A number of the entries in Promulgation of Universal Peace are accredited to him. [The Washington Times 28 January, 1928]

    ‘Abdu’l-Bahá sent the first Tablet of the Divine Plan to the southern states in care of Joseph. He and his wife Pauline taught the Faith to African Americans; among those they taught were Louis Gregory and Mrs. Pocahontas Pope. [Bahá'í Chronicles, Alain Locke: Faith and Philosophy pp 38-39 by Christopher Buck, Kalimat Press]

    He is buried with his wife, Pauline Amalie Knobloch Hannen (b. 29 August, 1874 d. 4 October, 1939) in Prospect Hill Cemetery, in Washington, DC.

    Washington DC; Allegheny; United States Joseph Hannen; Pauline Hannen; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves; Tablets of the Divine Plan; Promulgation of Universal Peace (book)
    1920 Apr Mírzá Asadu'lláh Fádil-i-Mázandarání arrives in North America with Manúchihr Khán in time to speak at the national convention. [AB443; SBR88]
    • His purpose is to assist and stimulate the Bahá'í communities. [AB443]
    • He stays for one year. [AB443]
    United States Mirza Asadullah Fadil-i-Mazandarani; Manuchihr Khan; Conventions, National crossreference URLs; title; title
    1920 Apr Louis Bourgeois is selected as the architect for the Chicago House of Worship. [DP94; GPB303; SBBH1:145]
    • For details of the designs and selection process see DP76-100.
    • See CT159 for the source of inspiration for the design.
    Wilmette; Chicago; United States Louis Bourgeois; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Architecture; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architects
    1920 27 Apr The design for the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar at Wilmette, Illinois, was finally chosen by the forty-nine delegates present at the Twelfth Annual Convention of Bahá'í Temple Unity, being held at the Hotel McAlpin, New York. Excavation at the site began on the 24th of September and construction commenced on the 20th of December. New York; United States; Wilmette Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architecture find reference
    1920 24 May Charles Greenleaf, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, passes away at the home of William Harry Randall in Boston. [SBR105]
    • For details of his life see SBR97-105.
    • For his obituary see SW11, 19:321-2.
    Boston; Massachusetts; United States Charles Greenleaf; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; William Harry Randall; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1920 24 Sep Boring begins at the site of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in Wilmette to determine the depth of the bedrock. [DP104]
    • Soon afterwards construction begins. [DP108]
    Wilmette; United States Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
    1921 21 Mar Construction begins on the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in Wilmette. DP108]
    • See DP107 for a picture of Bahá'ís inaugurating the construction of Foundation Hall.
    Note: The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1952 Information Statistical & Comparative p.5 says construction commence in December 1920.
    Wilmette; United States Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
    1921 19-21 May The first Race Amity Conference is held in Washington DC. [BW2:281]
    • Mabry and Sadie Oglesby and their daughter Bertha from Boston as well as Agnes Parsons and Louis Gregory were involved. Agnes Parsons, during her pilgrimage in 1920, was instructed by 'Abdu'l-Bahá, "I want you to arrange in Washington a convention for unity between the white and colored people."[SETPE1p141-145, BW2p281]
    • For details of the conference see article by Louis Gregory entitled "Inter-racial Amity". [BW2:281-2]
    • See article The Bahá'í 'Race Amity' Movement and the Black Intelligentsia in Jim Crow America:Alain Locke and Robert Abbot by Christopher Buck [Bahá'í Studies Review, 17, pages 3-46, 2011] (includes a chronology of 29 Race Amity conferences organized in the United States between 1921 and 1935).
    Washington DC; United States Race (general); Race Amity; Race unity; Conferences, Race Amity; First conferences; Mabry Oglesby; Sadie Oglesby; Agnes Parsons; Louis Gregory
    1921 9 Jul Mírzá Asadu'lláh Fádil-i-Mázandarání left the United States for the Holy Land. [AB443footnote] United States; BWC Mirza Asadullah Fadil-i-Mazandarani
    1921 5-6 Dec The second Convention for Amity between the White and Coloured Races is held in Springfield, Massachusetts. [BW2:282; SBR92]
    • Over a thousand people attend. [SW13, 3:51]
    • For a report of the convention see SW13, 3:51-5, 601.
    • For a photograph see SW13, 3:50.
    Springfield; Massachusetts; United States Race (general); Race amity; Race unity; Conferences, Race amity
    1922 in the year The publication of The Promulgation of Universal Peace: Talks Delivered by ‘Abdu’l‑Bahá during His Visit to the United States and Canada in 1912. Compiled by Howard MacNutt.
    • From the preface to the 1922 edition..."This treasury of His words is a compilation of informal talks and extemporary discourses delivered in Persian and Arabic, interpreted by proficient linguists who accompanied Him, and taken stenographically in both Oriental and Occidental tongue."
    • From the same preface is a letter from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to Howard MacNutt dated 13 April, 1919 approving his idea to publish the compilation of His talks in America and urging him to be most careful to reproduce the exact text as well as promising an "effulgent face" in the Abhá Kingdom as well as the praise and gratitude of the friends.
    • And again from the same source is a letter from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to Albert Windust written on the 20th of July, 1919 asking him to name the book The Promulgation of Universal Peace and to direct that the Introduction must be written by Howard MacNutt. Prior to His coming to America the friends were unclear about His station and their differences in understanding was a major source of disunity. On one extreme were those that believed that 'Abdu'l-Baha was a man who, through the application and complete obedience to the Faith, had earned a high station, like the Christ's disciple Peter, implying that others could do the same. In the other camp were those who insisted that He was the return of Christ. Little wonder that they were confused because never in religious history had there been someone like 'Abdu'l-Bahá, one Who held the station of "The Mystery of God". Howard's failure to understand 'Abdu'l-Bahá's station and disobedience to Him and taken him precariously close to the company of Covenant-breakers but through 'Abdu'l-Bahá's unfailing love and guidance he was able to come to a true understanding. The Introduction to the 1922 edition was his testament to the station of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [DJT369-372]
    • The Promulgation of Universal Peace, although not "scripture", could be compared to Some Answered Questions in that it is a carefully transcribed record of His talks. Unlike that publication where He answered questions, in The Promulgation of Universal Peace it was 'Abdu'l-Bahá who chose the subject. Upon arrival in New York He said, "It is my purpose to set forth in America the fundamental principles of the revelation and teachings of Bahá'u'lláh." [PUPxii]
    Chicago; New York; United States Promulgation of Universal Peace (book); Howard MacNutt; Publications
    1922 9 Jan William H. Hoar, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, passes away in Fanwood, New Jersey. [SW12, 19:310]
    • For his obituary see SW12, 19:310-12.
    Fanwood; New Jersey; United States William Hoar; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1922 16 Jan The Greatest Holy Leaf cables the United States that Shoghi Effendi has been appointed Guardian. [PP48] BWC; United States Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Guardianship; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1922 19 Feb Helen Goodall, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, passes away in San Francisco. [SEBW33]
    • See SEBW21-33 for details of her life.
    San Francisco; United States Helen Goodall; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam
    1922 25 Feb The Will and Testament of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá was written entirely in ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s own hand and it was Shoghi Effendi's first translation for the believers in the West. It was sent to New York and addressed to "The beloved of God and the handmaids of the Merciful throughout the United states of America and Canada". The "Will" delineated the Bahá’í World Order, already founded in the Kitab-i-Aqdas, and of which 'Abdul'-Bahá was the architect. [AY304] Haifa; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Translation; Shoghi Effendi, Translations of; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; World Order; Firsts, Other
    1922 Apr Shoghi Effendi sends verbal messages through Consul Schwarz to Germany and Ethel Rosenberg to Britain to form local spiritual assemblies and to arrange for the election of a national spiritual assembly in each country. [CB293; ER209, 211-12; PP56]

    To the United States and Canada he sends a message to transform the 'Executive Board' into a legislative institution. [CB293; CT160; ER211-12; PP56]

    Germany; United Kingdom; United States; Canada Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Consuls; Albert Schwarz; Ethel Rosenberg; National Spiritual Assemblies; Local Spiritual Assemblies; Spiritual Assemblies; Executive Board
    1922 Apr Shoghi Effendi calls for the Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity to become an elected legislative body. It had been functioning since 1909 concerned mostly with the construction of the Bahá'í House of Worship. He addresses his first letter to this body as the "National Spiritual Assembly of the United States" on December 23rd however in God Passes By pg333 he states that the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States was not formed until 1925. [SETPE1p107, CT160, CoB293] Chicago; United States Executive Board; Bahai Temple Unity; National Spiritual Assemblies; Spiritual Assemblies; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1922 25 Apr A National Spiritual Assembly was elected in the United States to replace the Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity. [SBR94]
    • The difference between this body and its forerunner is little more than a change in name. [DP122]
    • The conversion of the Bahá'í Temple Unity into the National Spiritual Assembly took four years; it was not until 1925 that Shoghi Effendi recognized the American national body as a National Spiritual Assembly. [CT161; DP121-2; GPB333]
    • The election procedure followed that used in the United States: there was electioneering and candidates were nominated, with a straw poll taken to trim the number of eligible candidates. [CT160; DP122]
    Chicago; United States NSA; Spiritual Assemblies; Executive Board; Bahai Temple Unity; Elections; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1922 9 Jul Bahá'ís gather in the Foundation Hall of the Chicago House of Worship for the first time, to commemorate the martyrdom of the Báb. [CT158-9; SW13, 6:132]
    • Regular meetings are not held here until 1927. [CT158-9]
    Wilmette; United States Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
    1923 Feb Shoghi Effendi sends his early translation of The Hidden Words to America. [PP205] BWC; United States Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Translations by; Translation; Kalimat-i-Maknunih (Hidden Words); Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1924 28 Jan Isabella Brittingham, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, passes away at the Revell home in Philadelphia. [SEBW138]
    • For her life see SEBW131-8.
    Philadelphia; United States Isabella Brittingham; Disciples of Abdul-Baha
    1924 28-30 Mar The third Convention for Race Unity is held in New York City. [BW2:282-3; SBR93; TMW1467] New York; United States Race (general); Race amity; Race unity; Conferences, Race amity
    1924 18 Jul American Vice-Consul Major Robert Imbrie was murdered in Tihrán for being a Bahá'í, which he was not, straining relations between the Persian and American governments. When Washington threatened to sever diplomatic relations, Persia arrested some two hundred mullás, formally apologized to the United States and accepted Washington’s terms for full reparations. [BBR462-5; BW18:388, [AY277-279]
    • For a picture of the floral tribute sent to his funeral by the Bahá'ís of Persia and America see BW1:100.
    Tihran; Iran; United States Major Robert Imbrie; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1924 24 Dec The first Bahá'í News Letter, forerunner of Bahá'í News, is published in New York by the National Assembly of the United States and Canada with Horace Holley as the editor. [BBRSM122; BW10:180; BW13:856; SBR232]
    • For links to the publications see entry at 1990-10-00.
    New York; United States Newsletters; Bahai News; Horace Holley; Publications
    1925 At the suggestion of Horace Holley a Bahá'í yearbook was published under the name Bahá'í Year Book and subsequent editions were called The Bahá'í World, A Biennial International Record. Although it was published by the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States, Shoghi Effendi was the editor-in-chief. Volume 13 (1954-1963) saw publication shift to the Bahá'í World Centre and in1992 the format changed. The last year of publication was 2006. [PP209-212, SETPE1p107] United States; BWC Bahai World volumes; Publications; Shoghi Effendi, Writings of
    1925 Jan The American Bahá’ís publishes Shoghi Effendi’s revised Hidden Words. [ER255]
    • A final translation is made in 1926–7. [ER254; GT55–8]
    United States Shoghi Effendi, Translations by; Translation; Kalimat-i-Maknunih (Hidden Words); Publications; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1925 There are 43 local spiritual assemblies in North America by this date. [BBRSM121] North America; United States LSA; Statistics
    1925 10 Apr Shoghi Effendi writes to the American National Spiritual Assembly indicating that the word ‘assembly’ is to apply only to the elected body of nine believers in each locality or to the national assembly, not to the believers as a whole. [BA83; SBBH258] United States Administration; National Spiritual Assemblies; Local Spiritual Assemblies; Spiritual Assemblies
    1925 4–9 Jul The Seventeenth Annual Convention of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada is held at Green Acre. [GAP117; SBR94]
    • National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada is elected for the first time. [GPB333, SETPE1p107]
    • Like the previous attempts at electing a National Assembly in 1922, 1923 and 1924, the delegates didn't fully understand the Bahá'í election procedure. Nine members were elected as well as nine alternates whose purpose was to replace absent members. [SETPE1p108]
    • The members were: Alfred Lunt, William Randall, May Maxwell, George Latimer, Louis Gregory, Elizabeth Greenleaf, Mariam Haney and Keith Ransom-Kehler with Horace Holley becomes its first full-time secretary. [BW13:852; SBR233, SETPE1p108]
    United States; Canada Alfred Lunt; William Harry Randall; May Maxwell (Bolles); George Latimer; Louis Gregory; Elizabeth Greenleaf; Mariam Haney; Keith Ransom-Kehler; Horace Holley; NSA; First National Spiritual Assemblies
    1925 Dec "A Plan of Unified Action to Spread the Baha'i Cause Throughout the United States and Canada January 1, 1926-December 31, 1928" was formulated by The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada in response to Shoghi Effendi's message to the annual National Convention. [BA86-89]
    • It can be found at [Plan] The goals were (1) to unify the American Bahá'í community's efforts, (2) to increase the number of Bahá'ís, (3) to "penetrate the consciousness of the public with the spirit of Bahá'u'lláh", and (4) to raise $400,000 so that the construction of the first unit of the Temple's superstructure could begin. [SBBR14p160, BFA1p110]

    • This was the first of two Plans developed by the North American National Assembly in the years from 1926 to 1934 the second being "A New Plan of Unified Action To complete the Bahá'í Temple and promote the Cause in America (1931-1934)". [SBBR14p155-197]
    • The above two plans were the first to have the expansion and development of the Bahá'í community as a primary goal and it is likely that they provided the model for other plans organized by Shoghi Effendi and other National Assemblies. [SBBR14p155

    • The first Plan of Unified Action indicates the ascendancy of those Bahá'ís who supported a centralizing authority over those who wanted a more amorphous system or no organization at all.[BiW177-8] For an essay on this subject see "Some Aspects of the Establishment of the Guardianship" by Dr Loni Bramson-Lerche in SBBR5p253-293

    • During the years of these two plans the National Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada developed practices commonly used in subsequent plans, organized propagation, a central budget and the modern form of the Nineteen Day Feast. [SBBR14p160]

    United States; Canada Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National; NSA
    1926 Green Acre comes under the direct supervision of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada. [GAP118] United States; Canada Green Acre; NSA United States and Canada
    1926 The Bahá’í World is first published. [BW1:4; GT77; PP209; SBR232]
    • The first edition, April 1925 to April 1926, is called The Bahá’í Yearbook.
    • For Shoghi Effendi’s impression of it see UD82–4.
    United States Bahai World volumes; First publications; Publications
    1926 Jan Orcella Rexford and her husband Dr Gayne Gregory (the first to accept the Faith in Alaska) come to Haifa on pilgrimage and are technically the first from Alaska to do so. They are in the process of moving from Alaska to the Continental USA. [SETPE1p112-112]
    • See BW11p495-498 for for details of the life of Orella Rexford
    Haifa; Alaska; United States First Bahais by country or area; Orcella Rexford
    1926 4 May Queen Marie of Romania writes three articles as a testimonial to the Bahá’í Faith for a syndicated series entitled ‘Queen’s Counsel’, which appears in over 200 newspapers in the United States and Canada. [BBR61, HEC57-58, MR245, BW2p174-6]
    • For text of the articles see BBR60–1.
    • For Shoghi Effendi’s response see BA110–13 and UD56–8.
    United States; Romania Queen Marie of Romania; Newspaper articles
    1926 16 Jul The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada makes representations to the Iranian government concerning the martyrdoms in Jahrum and asking the Sháh to intervene on behalf of the oppressed Bahá’ís. [BBR469; BW2:287]
    • For text of the petition see BW2:287–300.
    United States; Jahrum; Iran NSA; Petitions; Persecution, Iran; Persecution; Human rights
    1926 26 Dec Howard MacNutt, Disciple of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, passed away in Florida after being struck by a motorcycle while walking to a meeting in a "Coloured" area. He had lost is beloved wife Mary about one month earlier.. (b. 13 July, 1858 in Philadelphia) He had been a student of Ibrahim George Kheiralla in New York and had learned both Persian and Arabic to better understand the Writings. Howard MacNutt was elected to the Bahá’í Board of Counsel for New York when it was established on December 7, 1900 and served on the body for many years. [SEBW42]
    • In 1905 Howard and his wife went on pilgrimage and attended a Nineteen Day Feast held by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, Who encouraged him to establish the practice in America. MacNutt consulted with the New York Board of Counsel after returning and a Feast was held in New York on May 23, 1905.
    • Howard wrote a booklet consisting of what he learnt while on Pilgrimage titled Unity Through Love.
    • MacNutt also edited Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl's Bahá'í Proofs before it was first published in 1902 and revised Ali Kuli Khan's manuscript translation of the Kitáb-i-Íqán for publication in 1904.
    • He held a belief that `Abdu'l-Bahá had no extraordinary spiritual station and he did not regard Him as being different in Spirit from other men, that through works and service and overcoming all He attained to His station. This opinion resulted in MacNutt failing to appreciate the Bahá'í teaching that Covenant-breaking is a spiritual disease. When `Abdu'l-Bahá came to the United States in 1912 He assigned to MacNutt the task of meeting with a group of potential Covenant-breakers in Chicago and warning them. He also ordered MacNutt to break all communication with Ibrahim Kheiralla and other Covenant-breakers. When MacNutt failed to do as directed, `Abdu'l-Bahá advised him that he had violated the Covenant himself and commanded him to repent before a group of New York Bahá'ís, which he did on 18 November 1912. The matter was not resolved; `Abdu'l-Bahá cabled Ali Kuli Khan on 16 April 1913, "MACNUTT REPENTED FROM VIOLATION OF COVENANT BUT WAS NOT AWAKENED." After several months of correspondence between MacNutt and `Abdu'l-Bahá via Ali Kuli Khan, MacNutt satisfied `Abdu'l-Bahá that he had come to understand and had repented for his earlier errors. Even though `Abdu'l-Bahá recognized MacNutt as a Bahá'í his reputation in the Bahá'í community remained tarnished. To redeem himself he took on the task of compiling `Abdu'l-Bahá's talks in the United States and Canada and editing them. It was published as The Promulgation of Universal Peace, the name chosen by 'Abdu'l-Bahá himself, in 1922. MacNutt's preface contains a long and important statement about `Abdu'l-Bahá's station. His redemption was complete. [PUPxx]
    • For further details of his life and his brush with Covenant-breaking see SEBW35–42. Also see "In Memoriam: Arthur Pillsbury Dodge, 1849-1915", SoW, Vol. 6, No. 19 (2 March 1916) p165 as well as BFA1p125, 168-17, DJT369-372, AOY111-133
    • See BW2p218 for a photo.
    • See AY321-323 for an account of his accidental death and his funeral.
    Dade City; Pasco County; Florida; United States Howard MacNutt; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Promulgation of Universal Peace (book)
    1927 8 Jan The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada appoints seven people to a National Race Unity Committee. [SBR94; TMW166]
    • For the functions and challenges faced by the committee see TMW165–72.
    United States; Canada NSA; Race (general); Race Unity; Race Amity
    1927 13–16 Jan A World Unity Conference is held in Dayton, Ohio, one of many such conferences to be held in the year in major cities of the United States. [TMW159, 165] See also The Babi and Bahá'í Religions: An Annotated Bibliography, section 'conference listing'. Dayton; Ohio; United States Conferences, Unity
    1927 8 - 10 Apr The second conference for racial amity in Washington was held at the Mt Pleasant Congregational Church with the cooperation and participation of other like-minded groups and persons. [BW2p284] Washington DC; United States Race (general); Race Amity; Race unity; Conferences, Race Amity
    1927 29 Apr - 1 May The nineteenth National Convention of the Baha'is of the United States and Canada was held at the Windsor Hotel in Montreal, the hotel where 'Abdu'l-Bahá stayed during His visit in 1912. [Bahá'í News No. 17 April, 1927] Montreal; Quebec; Canada; United States Conventions, National
    1927 May The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada draws up and publishes a ‘Declaration of Trust’ and ‘By-laws of the National Spiritual Assembly’. [BW2:89, BW10:180]
    • For text see BW2:90–8.
    • The Guardian describes it as the Bahá’í ‘national constitution’ heralding ‘the formation of the constitution of the future Bahá’í World Community’. [GPB335; PP302–3]
    • The drafting is largely the work of Horace Holley with assistance from the lawyer Mountfort Mills. [SBR234]
    • In subsequent years the National Assemblies of India and Burma, of Egypt, Iraq, Persian and the British Isles all adopted this example almost verbatum. [UD101, BA134-5, SETPE1p145-6]
    United States; Canada NSA; Horace Holley; Mountfort Mills; Constitutions; By-laws; Recognition; Firsts, Other
    1927 1 Aug Geyserville Bahá’í Summer School, the first American Bahá’í summer school, is established on property in California donated by John Bosch. It was to operate until 1973 when a new road project divided the property. The land was sold and the funds used to purchase land in the mountains above the coastal town of Santa Cruz. The new school was named In honour of John and Louise Bosch. [BBD87; BW10:180; GPB340, Bosch]
    • BW5:28–9 says this was the second Bahá’í summer school in America but Shoghi Effendi indicates in GPB340 that Green Acre is formally established as a Bahá’í summer school in 1929.
    Geyserville; California; United States Summer schools; First summer and winter schools; John Bosch
    1927 Oct Shoghi Effendi entrusts Dr William Slater and his wife Ida Slater, who are visiting Haifa on a 19-day pilgrimage, with carpets from the Shrines of the Báb and 'Abdu'l-Bahá for the House of Worship in Chicago. [SETPE1p149] Haifa; Wilmette; United States William Slater; Ida Slater; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Bab, Shrine of; Carpets; Gifts; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1927 10 - 11 Nov The third convention for amity in inter-racial relations in Washington was held in the Mt. Pleasant Congregational Church. [BW2p285] Washington DC; United States Race (general); Race Amity; Race unity; Conferences, Race Amity
    1928 26–30 Apr The National Convention of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada is held in the Foundation Hall of the House of Worship for the first time. [BW2:180; CT167]
    • See BW2:180 for a picture.
    Wilmette; Chicago; United States Conventions, National; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Firsts, Other
    1928 7 Aug The word ‘Bahá’í’ is registered with the United States Patent Office as a trademark. [BW6:348] United States Patent Office; Copyright and trademarks
    1928 31 Dec Ruth White, who had met 'Abdu'l-Bahá in New York in 1912 and who had been on pilgrimage in 1922, writes to the High Commissioner of Palestine with a charge that the Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Bahá is a forgery. [SETPE1p157]
    • See AY103 for 'Abdu'l-Bahá's reaction to Ruth White in New York in 1912.
    Palestine; New York; United States Covenant-breakers; Ruth White; Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; Abdul-Baha, Life of
    1929 16 Mar In December of 1925 the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of United States and Canada adopted the "Unified Plan of Action" and among the resolutions was to raise some $400,000 over the following three years to construct the first unit of the superstructure of the Temple. By the end of 1926 only $51,000 had been collected and the following year was just as disappointing. At the National Convention in 1928 Fred Schopflocher's donation of $25,000 inspired contributions and the Fund rose to about $87,000 by March 1929. On this day Fred and Lorol Schopflocher contributed a further $100,000. [LoF388-389]
    • See "1937 May".
    Montreal; Canada; Wilmette; United States Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Fred Schopflocher; Lorol Schopflocher; Unified Plan of Action
    1929 Apr The New History Society is founded in New York by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s former secretary and interpreter Ahmad Sohrab. [BRRSM124, LDG2p134]
    • It comes into conflict with the local Bahá’í Assembly, which sees the organization as a threat to the unity of the Bahá’í Faith. [BBRSM124]
    New York; United States New History Society; Ahmad Sohrab
    1929 May The American National Spiritual Assembly incorporates as a voluntary Trust. [BBRSM122; GPB335]
    • This enables the National Spiritual Assembly to hold property, receive bequests and enter into contracts. [BBRSM122; GPB335–6]
    United States NSA; Voluntary Trust
    1930 Apr A ceremony is held at the American annual convention in dedication of the resumption of the building activities on the Wilmette Temple. [BBRSM183; BW3:47]
    • Shoghi Effendi’s gift to the Temple is ‘the most valuable sacred possession in the Holy Land’ a ‘precious ornament of the Tomb of Bahá’u’lláh’, an exquisite Persian carpet. [BA180–1; BW4:208–12]
    Wilmette; United States Conventions, National; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Gifts; Carpets
    1930 39 May With respect to the New History Society and Ahmad Sohrab, Shoghi Effendi writes to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada to make a definitive statement regarding that organization and the Cause.
    • "To accept the Cause without the administration is like accepting the teachings without acknowledging the divine station of Bahá’u’lláh. To be a Bahá'í is to accept the Cause in its entirety. To take exception to one basic principle is to deny the authority and sovereignty of Bahá’u’lláh, and therefore is to deny the Cause. The administration is the social order of Bahá'u'lláh. Without it all the principles of the Cause will remain abortive. To take exception to this, therefore, is to take exception to the fabric that Bahá'u'lláh has prescribed, it is to disobey His law."
    • The message goes on to say that "unfailing kindness and goodwill" should be paid to the individuals and that the doors to Bahá'í fellowship should always remain open. [Bahá'í News p333]
    BWC; United States New History Society; Ahmad Sohrab; Covenant-breaker
    1930 Aug The National Spiritual Assembly published a statement in the Bahá'í News entitled The Case of Ahmad Sohrab and the New History Society. Summarized, the article stated that the “New History Society was begun in New York early in 1929 by Sohrab and "one of its avowed purposes being to spread the Bahá'í teachings. Neither the local nor the National Assembly was consulted in the matter, and the meetings and activities of the New History Society have been maintained apart from the principles of consultation which today, under the Will and Testament of 'Abdu’l-Bahá, form the basis of Bahá'í unity and the protection of the Cause."

    "Both the local and National Assembly on several occasions attempted, through oral and written communications, to bring about full and frank consultation with the leaders of the New History Society, but without success.

    "Under these conditions it becomes the obvious responsibility of the National Spiritual Assembly to inform the friends that activities conducted by Ahmad Sohrab through the New History Society are to be considered as entirely independent of the Cause, as outside the jurisdiction of the local and National Assembly, and hence in no wise entitled to the cooperation of Bahá'ís."

    This statement also quoted from a letter written on behalf of the Guardian by his Secretary to the National Spiritual Assembly on May 30, 1930: "To accept the Cause without the administration is like accepting the teachings without acknowledging the divine station of Bahá’u’lláh. To be a Bahá'í is to accept the Cause in its entirety...." "The administration is the social order of Bahá'u'lláh. Without it all the principles of the Cause will remain abortive. To take exception to this, therefore, is to take exception to the fabric that Bahá'u'lláh has prescribed, it is to disobey His law." [Ahmad Sohrab and the New History Society]

    New York; United States Covenant-breakers; Ahmad Sohrab; New History Society
    1930 19 Aug Louis Jean-Baptiste Bourgeois, designer of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár in Wilmette, passes away in that city. He was born in Saint-Célestin-de-Nicolet, Quebec on March 19, 1856. [DP145]
    • For details of his life see DP76–86.
    Wilmette; United States Louis Bourgeois; Architects; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1930 Nov The National Assembly published a detailed supplementary statement in the Bahá’í News, quoting passages from the Aqdas, from the Master's Will and Testament, and from the Guardian's letters published in Bahá’í Administration, followed by a reprint of the exchange of correspondence and cables with Mrs. Chanler, and with the Guardian, including the Guardian's cable to New York believers: "True unity can only be preserved by maintenance paramount position National Spiritual Assembly," and his cable approving the statement published in August, 1930, Bahá'í News. Further, in a letter from Haifa to the Yonkers Assembly, “The Guardian pointed out the difference between the freedom defined by Bahá'u'lláh ("To have liberty is to observe My commandments") and that advocated by Sohrab ("The other kind of freedom which is in defiance of law He (Bahá'u'lláh) considers to be animal, and far from being of any good to man"). [Ahmad Sohrab and the New History Society] New York; United States Covenant-breakers; Ahmad Sohrab; New History Society
    1931 May A permanent summer school is established at Louhelen Ranch near Davison, Michigan. [BW10:181; GPB340] Davison; Michigan; United States Summer schools
    1931 1 May The superstructure of the Wilmette House of Worship is completed and dedicated. [BW10:180; DP:156–7; SBBH1:145] Wilmette; United States Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
    1931 Nov The New York Bahá’í community drafts the by-laws of a Bahá’í local assembly. [GPB335]
    • These become the pattern for all local Bahá’í constitutions throughout the world. [BBRSM122; GPB335; PP303]
    New York; United States By-laws
    1932 17 Feb The Chicago Bahá’í Assembly incorporates, the first local spiritual assembly in the world to do so. This set the pattern for other Assemblies. [GPB336, Century of LIght p57] Chicago; United States LSA; Incorporation; Recognition; Firsts, Other
    1932 27 Feb Race Amity gatherings became an effective way promote the principle of racial equality. At one such gathering held in Los Angeles, the circle of racial amity activities was widened to include not only white and coloured but also Native Americans, as well as Chinese and Japanese. At the banquet dinner, Chief Standing Bear, who attended in full regalia with a number of his tribesmen, offered a prayer and spoke of peace as a covenant among all races. A Native American tribal dance followed as part of the programme. [Louis Gregory, ‘Racial Amity in America: An Historical Review’, in BW7p652-666.] Los Angeles; California; United States Race (general); Race Amity; Race unity; Conferences, Race Amity; Native Americans; Chinese diaspora; Japanese diaspora
    1932 10 Jun The American National Spiritual Assembly addresses a petition to the Sháh of Iran requesting that the ban on Bahá’í literature be removed and asking that its representative, Mrs Keith Ransom-Kehler, be recognized to present in person the appeal. [BW5:390–1] United States; Iran NSA; Petitions; Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Keith Ransom-Kehler; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1932 15 Aug Keith Ransom-Kehler meets the Iranian Court Minister Taymur Tash. [BW5:392]
    • She presents the American petition to him asking that the ban on Bahá’í literature in Iran be lifted and receives assurances from him that this will be effected. [BW5:392]
    • She made seven successive petitions addressed to the Sháh of Persia. [GPB345]
    • For the history and unsuccessful outcome of this effort see BW5:391–8.
    Iran; United States Keith Ransom-Kehler; NSA; Petitions; Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Keith Ransom-Kehler; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1934 23 Jan Agnes S. Parsons dies after an automobile accident. [BW5:410; SBR96]
    • She is primarily remembered for her contribution to the cause of race unity in North America. [BW5:413]
    • For her obituary see BW5:410–14.
    • See also Diary of Agnes Parsons; SBR76–96.
    Washington DC; United States Agnes Parsons; Race (general); Unity; In Memoriam
    1934 28 Aug Mishkín-Qalam’s calligraphic rendering of the Greatest Name is registered as a trademark with the United States patent office. [BW6:350] United States Mishkin-Qalam; Greatest Name; United States patent office; Copyright and trademarks
    1935 Mar World Order magazine is founded. [SBR236]
    • There was a break in publication from 1949 to 1966. [Bahá'í Works]
    • PDFs of some volumes are available for downloading from the Bahá'í Works website.
    United States World Order magazine; - Periodicals; Firsts, Other; Publications
    1935 Oct Shoghi Effendi writes to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada stating that the laws of fasting, obligatory prayer, the consent of parents before marriage, the avoidance of alcoholic drinks and monogamy should be regarded as universally applicable and binding. [CB313] United States; Canada Laws; Gradual implementation of laws; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1936 Jul Following on the success of the initial Race Amity conferences in Washington, DC, the National Spiritual Assembly formed a racial amity committee. For a list of the committees complete with membership from 1921 until 1932 see The Bahá'í 'Race Amity' Movement and the Black Intelligentsia in Jim Crow America: Alain Locke and Robert Abbot by Christoper Buck. [Baha’i Studies Review 17, 2011, 3–46]
    In July, 1936 it was announced that "The National Spiritual Assembly has appointed no Race Amity Committee this year. Its view is that race amity activities have sometimes resulted in emphasizing race differences rather than their unity and reconciliation within the Cause. Local Assemblies are requested to provide for amity meetings and regard them as a direct part of teaching." [TMW213]
    United States Race (general); Race Amity; Race unity; Conferences, Race Amity; Unity; NSA
    1937 Ridván The First Seven Year Plan is launched in North America. [BBD180; BBRSM158; BW7:17–18; MA9]
    • For the role of individuals, local spiritual assemblies and the National Spiritual Assembly see MA11–12.
    • The Plan calls for:
    • the completion of the exterior of the Wilmette Temple. BW7:17–18; PP385]
    • the establishment of a local spiritual assembly in each state and province of the United States and Canada. [PP385]
    • the establishment of a centre in each of the republics of Latin America. [PP385]
    United States; Canada Seven Year Plan, US and CA (1937-1946); Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National; LSA; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
    1937 May Fred Schopflocher contributes and additional $100,000 (see 16 March, 1929) to the goal of $350,000 to complete the exterior ornamentation of the House of Worship. For is dedication to the construction the Guardian designated him as "Chief Temple Builder". [LoF 388-390, BW12p664] Wilmette; United States Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Fred Schopflocher
    1938 (In the year) The publication of The World Order of Bahá'u'lláh, a compilation of the communications to the North American Bahá'í community between 1929 and 1936. "These...communications unfold a clear vision of the relation between the Bahá'í community and the entire process of social evolution under the Dispensation of Bahá'u'lláh." [WOBv] United States World Order of Bahaullah (book); Publications; Shoghi Effendi, Writings of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1938 1 May At the National Convention in Chicago, Grace Roberts Ober, who had just given a report on a travel teaching trip to Louisville Ky and on her work in Toronto where she had been the previous Fall, collapses into the arms of the Convention chairman, Harlan Ober in view of the assembled delegates while ending her address. She is removed from the convention hall and passes away shortly thereafter. See TG75-76 for the background to this story.
    • Born in Thorold, ON of Sarah E. Wilson and the Rev Thomas Tempest Robarts, a cannon in the Anglican Church her life's work was that of a teacher.
    • During 'Abdu'l-Baha's tour of America she served as his household manager, going ahead to secure an apartment for him and acting as His housekeeper and hostess.
    • On July 17, 1912 she married Harlan Ober at 'Abdu'l-Bahá's suggestion. The legal marriage was conducted by Howard Colby Ives. [BW8p656-660]
    Chicago; United States Grace Robarts Ober; In Memoriam
    1939 22 Sep The State of Illinois issues the first Bahá’í marriage licence, authorizing the Spiritual Assembly of Chicago to solemnize Bahá’í marriages and issue Bahá’í marriage certificates. [GPB373] Illinois; United States Marriage; Weddings; Recognition; Firsts, Other
    1939 1 Oct The national Bahá’í office of the United States is established at 536 Sheridan Road, Wilmette, Illinois. [BW10:181]
    • Horace Holley, the full-time secretary of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada, transfers his office from New York to the Hazíratu’l-Quds in Wilmette. [SBR238]
    Wilmette; United States Horace Holley; Haziratul-Quds
    1940 Sep William Sears, Hand of the Cause of God, becomes a Bahá’í in Salt Lake City, Utah. Salt Lake City; Utah; United States William Sears; Hands of the Cause
    1941 Nov The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada distributed a mimeographed statement concerning the New History Society entitled The Basis of the Bahá’í Community, which explained the purpose and outcome of the lawsuit entered against the founders of the New History Society to prevent their misuse of the name "Bahá’í” on which the National Spiritual Assembly had obtained a trademark patent. The court took the position that it was not authorized to decide religious questions. [The Basis of the Bahá'í Community: A Statement Concerning the New History Society] United States Covenant-breakers; New History Society; Ahmad Sohrab
    1943 8 Jan The exterior ornamentation of the Wilmette Temple is completed. [BW10:181; UD155–6]
    • The cost of the building is $1.3 million. [UD165]
    Wilmette; United States Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
    1943 18 Jun The passing of Mabel Rice-Wray Ives (Riswanea) in Oklahoma City, OK. She was born in St. Louis, MO in 1878. [BW9p616-623] Oklahoma City; United States Mabel Rice-Wray Ives (Riswanea); In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1943 4 Sep The first local spiritual assembly in Alaska is established at Anchorage. Anchorage; Alaska; United States First Local Spiritual Assemblies
    1944 Apr The first Bahá’í shortwave radio broadcast is beamed from New York towards South America. [BW9:44–5]
    • VV76 says this was 1943.
    New York; United States Bahai radio; Firsts, Other
    1944 19–25 May An international celebration of the Centenary of the founding of the Faith is held at the House of Worship in Wilmette.
    • For a description of this event see BW10:158–61.
    • For the programme see BW10:162–70.
    • For a list of the countries participating in the conference see BW10:168.
    Wilmette; United States Centenaries; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
    1944 May The first All-American Bahá’í Convention is held.
    • For the first time the delegates have been selected at state and provincial conventions by votes from all believers rather than by communities with local assemblies. [BW9:44; PP390]
    North America; United States Conventions, National; Conventions, District; First conventions Hilda Yen joins Bahá'í Faith (Wikipedia)
    1945 24 Oct The United Nations is formally established.
    • For the relationship of the Bahá’í Faith to the United Nations see BW16:327–52.
    • See SDC64-65 for 'Abdu'l-Bahá's prophetic statement, written in 1875, "True civilization will unfurl its banner...".
    San Francisco; California; United States United Nations; Secret of Divine Civilization (book); Collective security; Prophecies; World War II; War (general); Peace; History (general)
    1946 21 Apr The Second Seven Year Plan of the United States and Canada (1946-1953) is launched. [BBR180; BBRSM158, 185; MA87-89, MA89]
    • This marks the beginning of the second epoch of the Formative Age. [CB316; CF5–6]
    • For details of the plan see BW16:81–2.
    United States; Canada Seven Year Plan, US and CA (1946-1953); Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National; Formative Age; Ages and Epochs
    1946 22 Jul The passing of John David Bosch (named "Núraní by 'Abdu'l-Bahá) at his home near Geyserville, California (b. August 1, 1855 at Neu-St Johann, Canton Gall, Switzerland) He had become a Bahá'í in 1905. His teachers being Mrs Beckwith, Mrs Goodall, Mrs Cooper and Thornton Chase. He is buried in the Olive Hill Cemetery, Geyserville.
    • He along with George Latimer and Leroy Ioas were appointed by the National Spiritual Assembly to find a location to establish a "Western Green Acre". John donated his 35 acre estate.
    • For a pen portrait and biography of John and Louise Bosch see Other People Other Places by Marzieh Gail pages 182-194 or Bahá'í News page 705.
    • For pictures of John and Louise Bosch see the Bosch Bahá'í School site.
    Geyserville; California; United States In Memoriam; John Bosch; Louise Bosch
    1946 11 Aug The passing of Orcella Rexford in Los Angeles. She is buried near the grave of Thornton Chase in the Inglewood Park Cemetery. [BW11p495-498] Los Angeles; United States Orcella Rexford; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Cemeteries and graves; Thornton Chase
    1947 1 Feb Reflecting the unity in diversity highly valued by the Baha'i community, Amin Banani, Mildred Mottahedeh, Hilda Yen, and Matthew Bullock presented the statement "A Baha'i Declaration of Human Obligations and Rights" to the UN, which ended by quoting a well-known passage by Baha'u'llah: "The earth is but one country, and mankind its citizens."

    Amin Banani was an influential scholar; Mildred Mottahedeh was a member of the International Baha'i Council from 1961-63 and later a representative of the BIC for many years; Hilda Yen was a leading figure in Chinese-American society who worked as a diplomat for many years; and Matthew Bullock was a Knight of Baha'u'llah for the Dutch West Indies, on this day was also a Knight for the Netherlands Antilles, and later a representative of the BIC. [BWNS1172]

    New York; United States United Nations; Matthew Bullock; Bahai International Community; Firsts, Other; BWNS
    1947 spring The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada is accredited by the United Nations as a non-governmental organization. [BW12:597; PP303] America NSA United States and Canada; United Nations; NGO
    1948 Mar The name ‘Bahá’í International Community’ is first used to refer to the eight existing National Spiritual Assemblies recognized collectively as a non-governmental organization. [BBRSM149; BW11:43; BW12:597]
    • The Bahá’í International Community evolved to become an international non-governmental organization with affiliates in over 180 countries and territories, which together represent over 5-6 million members of the Bahá’í Faith. As an international NGO, the Office interacts and cooperates with the United Nations, its specialized agencies, with governments, as well as with inter-governmental and non-governmental organizations. The BIC seeks to promote and apply principles — derived from the teachings of the Bahá’í Faith — which contribute to the resolution of current day challenges facing humanity and the development of a united, peaceful, just, and sustainable civilization. The work of the BIC focuses on the promotion of a universal standard for human rights, the advancement of women, and the promotion of just and equitable means of global prosperity.
    • Mildred Mottahedeh is appointed to serve as the accredited Bahá’í International Observer, a post she holds as a volunteer for almost 20 years. [BW12:601]
    • The following is a list of UN agencies with whom the BIC has representation: United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF), United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and World Health Organization (WHO).
    New York; United States Bahai International Community (general); Mildred Mottahedeh; UNICEF; UNIFEM; UNEP; Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC); World Health Organization (WHO); Firsts, Other; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1949 Agnes Harrison (née Parent), an Athabascan, becomes a Bahá’í in Alaska, the first Native Alaskan to accept the Faith in the country. Alaska; United States First Bahais by country or area
    1950 20 Jan World Religion Day is first observed in the United States. [BBD242]
    • Its purpose is to associate the term ‘world religion’ with the Bahá’í Faith. [BBD242]
    United States World Religion Day; Interfaith dialogue; Firsts, Other
    1950 Apr Shoghi Effendi announces the Africa Campaign in a cable to the British national convention. [BW12:52; UD245–6]
    • The British community is to lead the campaign supported by the Bahá’ís of the United States and Egypt. [UD245]
    • For the objectives of the campaign see UD245–6.
    • For the importance of the enterprise see UD260–3.
    • The plan is to be launched after a year’s respite but the British Bahá’ís begin to implement the plan immediately. [CB317]
    • At the time of the Campaign there was "one National Spiritual Assembly with its seat in Cairo, Egypt, the opening of 12 countries to the light of the Faith, and some 50 localities established throughout its vast lands." [Message from the Universal House of Justice To the Friends gathered at the Bahá’í International Conference at Lagos dated 19 August, 1982.]
    Africa; United Kingdom; United States; Egypt Teaching Plans; Africa Campaign
    1951 Ridván Several National Spiritual Assemblies-Britain, Egypt, India, Iran and the United States, join forces in their first collaborative teaching effort called the Africa Campaign (1951-1953). [Ruhi 8.2 p46, BBRSM158, MBW135-140] Africa; United Kingdom; United States; Egypt; India; Iran Teaching Plans; Africa Campaign
    1951 30 Jul Louis Gregory, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Eliot, Maine, near Green Acre. [BW12:666; TMW310, LOF98]
    • Soon after his passing he is designated by Shoghi Effendi the first Hand of the Cause of his race. (On 5 August, 1951) [BBD91; BW12:666, MoCxxii]
    • See TG114, 117-8 for a description of his passing .
    • For his obituary see BW12:666–70.
    • For biographical information on Hand of the Cause Louis Gregory see Gayle Morrison, To Move the World: Louis G. Gregory and the Advancement of Racial Unity in America (Wilmette, IL, USA Bahá’í Publishing Trust, 1982, 1999 printing).
    • For short biographical information see Bahá'í Encyclopedia]
    Eliot; Maine; United States Louis Gregory; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Firsts, Other
    1951 20 Dec Roy C. Wilhelm, (b.17 September, 1875) passes away in Lovel, Maine. [BW12:662]
    • On his passing Shoghi Effendi designates him a Hand of the Cause of God. (23 December, 1951) [MoCxxii, BW12:662]
    • For his obituary see BW12:662–4.
    • Find a grave
    Lovel; Maine; United States Roy Wilhelm; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi
    1952 1 Jun In a letter written on behalf of the Guardian by the Assistant Secretary, the National Spiritual Assembly was informed that Ahmad Sohrab had cabled the Israeli Minister of Religion to influence the court case brought by the Covenant-breakers, against the Guardian, and which resulted in complete vindication of the Guardian's control of the Bahá'í Shrines and properties. Sohrab's cable identified the Caravan with the Covenant-breakers and stated that the organization was not under the authority of Shoghi Effendi. In a letter dated May 25, 1941, the Guardian wrote through his Secretary that Sohrab "is no doubt the most subtle, resourceful and indefatigable enemy the Faith has had in America." United States Covenant-breakers; New History Society; Ahmad Sohrab
    1952 8 Oct Holy Year, "The Great Jubilee", October 1952 to October 1953, is inaugurated. [BW12:116; DG84; PP409–10; SBR170–1]
    • Centenary celebrations of the birth of Bahá’u’lláh’s mission are initiated. [MBW16–18]
    • Four international conferences are scheduled in Kampala, Wilmette (dedication of the Temple), Stockholm and New Delhi. [SETPE2p31-43]
    Kampala; Uganda; Wilmette; United States; Stockholm; Sweden; New Delhi; India Great Jubilee; Holy Years; Centenaries; Bahaullah, Birth of Revelation of; Siyah Chal (Black Pit)
    1952 12 Nov Dagmar Dole, pioneer to Alaska and Denmark, passes away in Glion, Switzerland.
    • Shoghi Effendi says she is the ‘first to give her life for the Cause in the European project’. [BW12:702; ZK66–7]
    • For her obituary see BW12:701–2.
    Glion; Switzerland; Alaska; United States; Denmark Dagmar Dole; In memoriam; Births and deaths
    1953 29 Apr - 2 May The All-American Jubilee celebrations begin. [BW12:149] United States Centenaries
    1953 1 May The House of Worship in Wilmette is consecrated in a simple ceremony for Bahá’ís only. [BW12:143, 152; ZK93]
    • For details of the dedication see BW12:152–4.
    Wilmette; United States Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Dedications
    1953 2 May The House of Worship in Wilmette is dedicated in a public ceremony. [BW12:142, BWNS218]
    • For the text of the Guardian’s message of dedication see BW12:141–2.
    • For an account of the event see BW12:154–63.
    • See The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1952 Information Statistical & Comparative p24-26 for project statistics and a chronology of events.
    • Towards the end of his life in Tehran, Ahmad (of "Tablet of Ahmad" fame) had entrusted the original Tablet to his grandson Jamal who in turn, out of the purity of his heart and his devotion to the Faith of God offered it as a gift to Hand of the Cause, Trustee of Huqúq, the son and brother of two illustrious martyrs, Jinab-i-Valiyu'llah Varqá. When Jinab-i-Varqa, according to the instructions of the beloved Guardian, was sent to take part in this dedication ceremony he brought this most precious Tablet as his offering to the archives of the Bahá'ís of the United States. [A Flame of Fire by A.Q. Faizi.]
    Quick Facts
    Location: Wilmette, Illinois, U.S. Cook County
    Foundation Stone: by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, 1 May, 1912
    Construction Period;The purchase of the site completed: 1914. Design Chosen: 1920. Superstructure: 1921 – 1 May 1931. External Ornamentation: June 1932 -1943. Interior: 1951
    Dedication: 1 May 1953
    Architects Louis Bourgeois with Alfred Shaw (interior cladding)
    Seating: 1,191
    Dimensions: 203ft at the base and 191ft high
    Cost: $2.6 million
    Dependencies: Construction of a home for the aged was began in December, 1957 and inaugurated on 1 February, 1959. It is located about three blocks away.
    Note: In GPB349 Shoghi Effendi states that “…this enterprise—the crowning achievement of the Administrative Order of the Faith of Bahá’u’lláh in the first Bahá’í century…”.
    References: CEBF236-241,GPB348-353, MDM121-239, The Dawning Place
    Wilmette; United States Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Lawh-i-Ahmad (Tablet of Ahmad (Arabic)); Gifts; Archives; Dedications; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Alfred Shaw; Architects; Bahai home for the aged; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Dependencies of; BWNS; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1953 3 – 6 May The All-America Intercontinental Teaching Conference is held in Chicago. [BW12:133]
    • For the texts of Shoghi Effendi’s messages to the conference see BW12:133–41 and MBW142–6.
    • Twelve Hands of the Cause are present. [BW12:143]
    • At the conference, five members of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States resign from that body in order to go pioneering: Elsie Austin, Dorothy Baker, Matthew Bullock, Mamie Seto and Dr William Kenneth Christian. [ZK102]
    • Extract from the cecond message to All-American Intercontinental Conference from Shoghi Effendi... [MBW150]
      .....the lands contributed in Latin America for a similar purpose approximate one-half of a million square meters, ninety thousand of which have been set aside near Santiago, Chile, for the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár of South America..
    Chicago; United States; Santiago; Chile; America Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade; Teaching; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Pioneering; Elsie Austin; Dorothy Baker; Matthew Bullock; Mamie Seto; William Kenneth Christian; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Santiago; Purchases and exchanges
    1954 The first Tlinget from Alaska to become a Bahá’í, Eugene King, enrols. Alaska; United States First Bahais by country or area find reference
    1954 May Elinore Putney arrives in the Aleutian Islands and is named a Knight of Bahá’u‘lláh. [BW13:449] Aleutian Islands; Alaska; United States; Russia Knights of Bahaullah
    1955 23 May The Bahá’í International Community submits its Proposals for Charter Revision to the United Nations for the Conference for Revision of the UN Charter. [BW13:788, 795–802] New York; United States Bahai International Community; United Nations Charter; United Nations
    1955 Aug Appeals are made by National Spiritual Assemblies around the world through the Bahá’í International Community to the UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld to ask the Iranian government to halt the attacks on the Bahá’ís. [BW13:789–91; BW16:329; MBW88–9; PP304, 311]
    • The intervention of the Secretary-General of the UN, along with the efforts of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States, bring an end to the physical persecution of the Bahá’ís, although their human rights are still denied. [BW13:790; BW16:329]
    • This marks the first time the Faith is able to defend itself with its newly born administrative agencies. An “Aid the Persecuted Fund” was established.
    • Historian Mohamad Tavakoli-Targhi noted that the 1955 anti-Bahá'í campaign was both the apogee and the point of separation of the state-clergy co-operation. The Shah succumbing to international pressure to provide human rights, withdrew support. The result was that the period from the late fifties until 1977-1978 was a period of relative safety. [Towards a History of Iran’s Baha’i Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.]
    New York; United States; Iran Bahai International Community; Dag Hammarskjöld; United Nations, Secretary-Generals; United Nations; NSA; Human rights; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1956 The first Tlinget to become a Bahá’í in Alaska, Joyce Anderson Combs, enrols. Alaska; United States First Bahais by country or area
    1956 20 May Louisa Mathew Gregory, whose wedding to Hand of the Cause of God Louis Gregory in 1912 was the first interracial western Bahá’í marriage, passes away in Eliot, Maine. [BW13:878]
    • For her obituary see BW13:376–8.
    Eliot; Maine; United States Louisa Mathew Gregory; Louis Gregory; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Firsts, Other
    1957 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Alaska is formed and incorporated immediately upon formation.
    • This is the first time a political entity (i.e. the United States) is subdivided to form a national spiritual assembly. [BW13:270]
    Alaska; United States NSA; Incorporation
    1957 Oct Shoghi Effendi calls for the convocation of a series of Intercontinental Conferences to be held successively in Kampala, Uganda; Sydney, Australia; Chicago, United States; Frankfurt, Germany; and Djakarta, Indonesia. [BW13:311–12; MBW125] BWC; Kampala; Uganda; Sydney; Australia; Chicago; United States; Frankfurt; Germany; Djakarta; Indonesia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade
    1958 The first Aleut to become a Bahá’í, Vassa Lekanoff, enrols in Unalaska. Unalaska; Alaska; United States First Bahais by country or area
    1958 20 Apr Mírzá Ahmad (Esphahani) Sohrab, the Covenant-breaker who rebelled against Shoghi Effendi, dies. [MC90]
    • For the story of his defection from the Faith see CB343–7.
    • He is buried in the Saint Paul Episcopal Church Cemetery, Glen Cove, Nassau County, New York.
    Glen Cove; Nassau County; New York; United States Ahmad Sohrab; Covenant-breakers; New History Society
    1958 2–4 May The third Intercontinental Conference held at the mid-point of the Crusade convenes in Wilmette, Illinois. [BW13:323]
    • Hand of the Cause Dr Ugo Giachery, who had been designated by the Guardian as his representative, attends, accompanied by four other Hands of the Cause. [BW13:323]
    • For the message of the Custodians to the conference see MC90–8.
    • For a report of the conference see BW13:323–5.
    Wilmette; Illinois; United States; America Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Ugo Giachery; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade
    1959 The first Inuit in Alaska to become a Bahá’í, William Wiloya, enrols in Nome. Nome; Alaska; United States First Bahais by country or area; First believers by background; Inuit
    1959 Bahá’í communities in the United States begin the observation of World Peace Day to call attention to the need for world peace. [BBD175]
    • This was replaced in 1985 by the observance of the UN International Day of Peace, which occurs on the third Tuesday in September. [BBD175]
    United States World Peace Day; United Nations; International Day of Peace; Peace
    1959 1 Feb The ‘first Dependency of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár in Wilmette’, the Bahá’í Home for the Aged, opens. [BW13:747]
    • For the history of its building see BW13:743–8.
    • For pictures see BW13:742, 744–7.
    Wilmette; United States Bahai home for the aged; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Dependencies of
    1959 10 Apr Representatives of the Bahá’í International Community present to the President of the Human Rights Commission, Ambassador Gunewardene of Ceylon, a statement endorsing the Genocide Convention. [BW13:791–4] New York; United States BIC; Human Rights; United Nations; Genocide; BIC statements
    1960 12 Jul Horace Hotchkiss Holley, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Haifa. (b. 7 April, 1887 in Torrington, CT) [MC226-227, BW13:849]
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
    • For his obituary see BW13:849–858.
    • For cable from the Hands of the Cause see MC217–18.
    • See also SBR214-247, LoF253-264 and Holley, Horace Hotchkiss by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram.
    • His publications Bahaism: The Modern Social Religion, Religion for Mankind, World Unity, Bahai, The Spirit of the Age, Baha'i Scriptures; Selections from the Utterances of Bahaʼuʼllah and Abdul Baha, Read-aloud Plays, Divinations and Creation, The World Economy of Baháʼuʼlláh, The Inner Garden; A Book of Verse .
    Haifa; Torrington; Connecticut; United States Horace Holley; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent; Bahai Scriptures (book); Plays; Arts
    1961 Knud Jensen (of mixed Danish, St Thomanian parentage), the first local person to become a Bahá’í in the Virgin Islands, enrols. Virgin Islands; United States First Bahais by country or area
    1961 3 Apr Corinne True, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Chicago. [BW13:846]
    • For her obituary see BW13:846–9.
    • For cables from the Custodians see MC257.
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed her among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
    • See also Rutstein, Corinne True.
    Chicago; United States Corinne True; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Second Contingent
    1961 1 May Kanichi (Moto) Yamamoto, the first Japanese Bahá’í, passes away in Berkeley, California. [SBR185]
    • For the story of his life see SBR176–86.
    • For picture see SBR190.
    Berkeley; California; United States Kanichi Yamamoto
    1962 22 Aug The Custodians ask the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States to make representations to the diplomatic missions of Morocco in Washington and at the United Nations concerning the 14 Bahá’ís imprisoned in Morocco. [MC368–9] United States; Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; NSA; Custodians
    1962 23 Sep The Custodians ask the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States to obtain an interview with the personal representative of the King of Morocco who heads that country’s delegation to the United Nations General Assembly in New York in connection with the Bahá’ís imprisoned in Morocco. [MC373–4] United States; Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; NSA; United Nations
    1964 5 Nov Followers of Charles Mason Remey file suit in the United States District Court for Northern Illinois against the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States, claiming they are the rightful owners of all Bahá’í properties and funds in the United States. [BW14:95]
    • The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States files a counter claim asking the court to restrain the Covenant-breakers from using Bahá’í names and symbols protected by trademark. [BW14:95]
    United States Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; NSA; Court cases; Copyright and trademarks; Criticism and apologetics
    1965 23 Mar The case filed by the followers of Charles Mason Remey against the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States is dismissed on technical grounds. [BW14:95]
    • The Covenant-breakers file a further suit. [BW14:95]
    United States Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; National Spiritual Assemblies; Court cases; Copyright and trademarks
    1966 8 Mar The second suit brought against the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States by the followers of Charles Mason Remey, who claim to he the lawful owners of all Bahá’í properties and funds in the United States, is dismissed. [BW14:95] United States Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; National Spiritual Assemblies; Court cases; Copyright and trademarks
    1966 7 Apr The passing of Ali Kuli Khan in Washington, DC. [BW14p351] Washington DC; United States Ali-Kuli Khan; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1966 1 Jun The counter-claim of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States against the followers of Charles Mason Remey restraining them from using Bahá’í names and symbols, is upheld when the Covenant-breakers fail to appear at the trial. [BW14:95] United States Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; National Spiritual Assemblies; Copyright and trademarks; Court cases; Criticism and apologetics
    1967 Victor de Araujo is appointed by the Universal House of Justice as the full-time Accredited Representative of the Bahá’í International Community to the United Nations; Mildred Mottahedeh appointed Alternate Representative. [BW14:88–9; BW15:364]
    • For picture see BW15:365.
    New York; United States Victor de Araujo; Mildred Mottahedeh; Bahai International Community; United Nations
    1967 21 Feb The Universal House of Justice establishes the International Bahá’í Audio-Visual Centre in Victor, New York. [BW14:91–2] Victor; New York; United States Audio-Visual Centres; Universal House of Justice
    1968 22 – 23 Jun The first National Youth Conference of the Bahá’ís of the United States opens in Wilmette, Illinois. [BW15:327 8]
    • For picture see BW15:325.
    Wilmette; Illinois; United States Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, National
    1970 - early 1971 Over 20,000 Afro-Americans from the rural areas of the south-eastern United States become Bahá’ís. [BBRSM187] United States Mass conversion
    1970. 20 Feb The passing of Curtis Demude Kelsey (b. 6 March, 1894 in Salt Lake City, UT) in Bradenton, FL.
    • He became a Bahá'í in 1917 through the influence of his mother, a talented poetess and writer who learned of the Faith in 1909.
    • Roy Wilhelm had sent three generators to the Holy Land and had asked permission from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to have Curtis come and install them. His request was granted and Curtis spent from September, 1921 until April, 1922 in the Holy Land. The units were installed at the Shrine of the Báb, (See SETPE1p38) at Bahjí (See SETPE1p55) and at the home of 'Abdu'l-Bahá at #7 Haparsin Street and the work was completed at all three locations on the last day of Ridván, 1922.
    • On the 6th of August, 1928 he married Harriet Morgan Kelsey (d. 18 March, 1971), a gifted musician and the a teacher. They raised four children.
    • In 1953 while on pilgrimage Shoghi Effendi asked him to extend his stay to install a pump and watering system for the grounds at Bahjí.
    • He served on the Spiritual Assembly of West Englewood (now Teaneck) for some 30 years.
    • Curtis spent some time serving as an Auxiliary Board Member and gave talks at summer schools.
    • He passed away while serving at his place of retirement in Bradenton Florida. [BW15p468-473]
    Bradenton; FL; United States Curtis Kelsey; Harriet Kelsey; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1970 27 May The Bahá’í International Community is granted consultative status, category II, by the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) of the United Nations [BBRSM149; BW15:178, 366; BW16:333; BW19:30; VV54]
    • As a result, the Bahá’í International Community begins to be represented at sessions of UN bodies addressing a wide range of issues of particular interest to Bahá’ís, including human rights, social development, status of women, environment, human settlements, agriculture, science and technology, new and renewable resources, population, law of the sea, crime prevention, narcotic drugs, children, youth, the family, disabled persons, the ageing, the United Nations University and disarmament.
    • At such sessions the Bahá’í International Community offers statements on the Bahá’í position on the subject under discussion.
    • Prior to this date individuals were accredited as "observer" representatives of the "Bahá'í International Community" which originally had been established in 1947 under the auspices of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States. Individuals who served as observer representatives on a part-time basis were Mildred Mottahedeh, Dr Ugo Giachery, John Ferraby, 'Azíz Navidi and Dr Amin Banáni among others. In 1963 the responsibility for the BIC was transferred to the Universal House of Justice and in 1965 permanent offices were established in New York with a full-time representative appointed. The first representative was Mildred Mottahedeh who soon asked to be replaced. Dr Victor de Arujo served for 23 years until his retirement in January, 1991. [BW15p358-367]
    New York; United States Bahai International Community; United Nations; Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC); Mildred Mottahedeh; Ugo Giachery; John Ferraby; Aziz Navidi; Amin Banani; Victor de Araujo
    1970 19 – 21 Jun Rúhíyyih Khánum interrupts her African teaching safari to meet with more than 2,000 youth at the National Youth Conference in the United States. [BW15:331; VV10] United States; Africa Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum, Journeys of; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth
    1972 summer Over 150 American youth join European youth in Operation Hand-in-Hand, a joint teaching project. [BW15:338]
    • For picture see BW15:347.
    United States Teaching campaigns; Youth
    1972 17 Dec The passing of Matthew Bullock (b. 11 September, 1881 in Dabney, North Carolina) in Detroit, Michigan.
    • He was a singer, a talented athlete, a football coach, a teacher, a soldier, a war hero, a civic leader, a church leader.
    • Lawyer-graduated from Harvard Law School in 1907.
    • Found the Faith in 1940 after many years of careful investigation.
    • Husband to Katherine Wright, (d. 1945), father to Matthew W. Bullock Jr (a judge) and Julia Gaddy (librarian).
    • Chairman of the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Boston.
    • Travel teacher to Haiti, Costa Rica, Mexico, Belgian Congo, Liberia.
    • Elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of the the United States in 1952.
    • Represented the NSA at the first Intercontinental Bahá'í Conference in Uganda, East and received permission to visit the Holy Land on pilgrimage prior to attending the Conference.
    • Became a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh in 1953 for Dutch West Indies when he and four other members of the NSA resigned to take up pioneer posts.
    • He received an honorary degree from Harvard in recognition of the lifetime of achievements.
    • He spent his last years in Detroit in the care of his daughter. [BW15p535-539]
    Dabney, NC; Detroit; United States In Memoriam; Matthew Bullock; Knights of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
    1974 The first Native Council takes place in Haines, Alaska, attended by 50 native Bahá’ís. Haines; Alaska; United States Firsts, Other
    1974 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of Kotzebue, an Iñupiat Eskimo community situated north of the Arctic Circle, is formed. Kotzebue; Alaska; United States; Arctic LSA
    1974 13 Jul The dedication of the John Bosch Bahá'í Summer School in Santa Cruz, California. [Bosch web site] Santa Cruz; California; United States John Bosch Summer schools
    1974 28 Aug - 2 Sep The conference held in St Louis, Missouri, to launch the Five Year Plan in the United States attracts some 10,000 Bahá’ís, the largest gathering of Bahá’ís to take place anywhere in the world to date. [BW16:203; VV40] St Louis; Missouri; United States Conferences, Bahai
    1976 10 Jan The most northerly-located local spiritual assembly in the world is formed in the Iñupiat community of Barrow, Alaska. Barrow; Alaska; United States LSA; Superlatives
    1976 24 Apr The passing of Mark George Tobey (b. December 11, 1890 Centerville, Wisconsin – d. April 24, 1976 Basel, Switzerland) [Bahá'í News page 341, Wiki, VV119]
    • He had been introduced to the Faith by Bernard Leach. [OPOP223]
    • Another version is that In 1918 Mark Tobey came in contact with Juliet Thompson and posed for her. During the session Tobey read some Bahá'í literature and accepted an invitation to Green Acre where he converted. [Seitz, William Chapin (1980). Mark Tobey. Ayer Publishing. p. 44]
    • Tobey was one of the twentieth century’s most cosmopolitan of artists. An inveterate traveler—he eventually settled in Basel, Switzerland—he was always better known in Europe than in his homeland. His mature ‘white writing’ works are made up of pulsing webs of lines inspired by oriental calligraphy, explicitly acknowledged the direct influence of the Baha’i Faith on his painting. It has been said that Tobey “made line the symbol of spiritual illumination, human communication and migration, natural form and process, and movement between levels of consciousness.” He often stated, “that there can be no break between nature, art, science, religion, and personal life".
    • See Bahá'í World 1994-95 pg248 for an article by Anne Boyles entitled "The Language of the Heart: Arts in the Bahá'í World Community" for mention of Mark Tobey.
    • For his obituary see BW17:401–4.
    • Towards the end of his life, Tobey was the recipient of some of the highest distinctions that the European art scene of his time could bestow. He won the gold medal at the Venice Biennale in 1958—the first American painter to do so since 1895. In 1961, a major retrospective of his work was held at the Louvre in Paris, an unprecedented achievement for a living and American artist.
    • See The Journal of Bahá'í Studies, Volume 26, number 4 – Winter 2016 p94 for an article by Anne Gordon Perry entitled Anne Gould Hauberg and Mark Tobey: Lives Lived for Art, Cultivated by Spirit.
    • An exhibition, Mark Tobey: Threading Light showed at the Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice, 6 May to 10 September 2017 and at the Addison Gallery of American Art, Phillips Academy, Andover, Massachusetts, 4 November 2017–11 March 2018.
    Centerville; Wisconsin; United States; Basel; Switzerland In Memoriam; Mark Tobey; Bernard Leach; Anne Gould Hauberg; Arts; Painting
    1976 23 – 25 Jul An International Teaching Conference is held in Anchorage, Alaska, attended by 1,005 Bahá’ís. [BW17:81]
    • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:130–1.
    • For pictures see BW17:110, 113, 116–17.
    Anchorage; Alaska; United States Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching
    1976 5 Oct The passing of Adelaide Sharp (b. Texas, 1896) in Tehran. In 1929 she accompanied Dr Susan Moody (77) to Tehran and and took up the position of principal of the Tarbiyat School for Girls (opened 1910). In 1931 she invited her mother, Clara Sharp, to come and live with her. After the closing of the Tarbiyat Schools on the 6th of December, 1934, the Guardian asked her to remain in Persia. She organized study classes for both boys and girls to study English writings such as Bahá'í Administration, The Promised Day is Come, The World Order of Bahá'u'lláh and other works from the Guardian. In 1954 the Guardian ruled that women could serve on Baha'i administrative bodied in Persia. She was elected to the National Spiritual Assembly and served in this role for the next fourteen years. She attended the First and Second International Conventions in 1963 and in 1968. Her five decade legacy of service in Iran included children's education, translating Writings, consolidating administrative institutions, serving as the"external affairs" representative for the National Assembly. Upon her passing memorial services where held in Tehran as well as other centres throughout the country. [BW17p418-420, Baha’i Heroes & Heroines] Texas; United States; Tihran; Iran Adelaide Sharp; Clara Sharp; Tarbiyat School; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Firsts, Other
    1978 23 May The House of Worship in Wilmette is included in the register of historic places in the United States. [BW17:166, 375]
    • For picture see BW17:165.
    Wilmette; United States Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
    1982 25 May The Subcommittee on Human Rights and International Organizations of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the United States House of Representatives hears the testimony of six witnesses concerning the persecution of the Bahá’ís in Iran. [BW18:172] Washington; United States; Iran Human Rights; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; United States government
    1982 19 – 20 Jun The teaching project Camino Del Sol (Trail of Light), comprising indigenous believers from North America, is formed on the Navajo Reservation in Arizona, United States. [BW18:239]
    • The team travels through Central and South America in a programme of cultural exchange. [BW18:172]
    • For a report of the project and pictures see BW18:239–45 and BW19:74–6.
    Arizona; United States Indigenous people; Native Americans; Navajo (Dine)
    1982 29 Dec The passing of Stanwood Cobb,(b. November 6 Newton, Massachusetts , 1881 – d. December 29, 1982) noted Bahá'í lecturer, educator and author at his home in Chevy Chase, Maryland at the age of 101 after 75 years of service to the Cause.
    • He was the author of some 30 books, numerous articles and was an editor of Star of the West until 1939 and co-editor of World Order. He founded Avalon Press in 1935 through which he published his works.
    • His first exposure to the Faith was at Green Acre. While serving as an college instructor in Constantinople he made a visit to 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Akka disguised as a Turk while He was still a prisoner. He met Him again in 1910 and while He was in Paris and the United States during His Western Travels.
    Chevy Chase; United States Stanwood Cobb; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1983 5 – 7 Aug The first Los Angeles Bahá’í History Conference is held at the University of California at Los Angeles. [BW19:369–70] Los Angeles; United States Bahai history; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Other; Conferences; First conferences
    1984 Ridván Delegates at the United States National Convention petition the Universal House of Justice requesting that the law of Huqúqu’lláh be made binding on the American Bahá’ís. [AWH30; ZK146–77]
    • The Universal House of Justice replies that it is not yet the time to take this step. [AWH30, Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 6 August, 1984]
    United States Conventions national; UHJ; Huququllah; Gradual implementation of laws
    1984 16 Nov Shu’á’u’lláh ‘Alá’í, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Scottsdale, Arizona. (b. 16 November 1889) [BW19:594; VV123]
    • BW19: 159 says this was 17 November.
    • For his obituary see BW19:593–5.
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
    Scottsdale; Arizona; United States Shuaullah Alai; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Second Contingent
    1985 3 – 7 Jul An International Youth Conference to support the United Nations International Youth Year is held in Columbus, Ohio, United States attended by more than 3,200 youth from 42 nations. [BW19:300] Columbus; Ohio; United States; North America Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth; International Youth Year
    1986 19 Oct Lorraine Kahn of Pine Springs, Arizona, is elected a delegate to the United States National Convention, the first Navajo woman to serve in this capacity. [BINS161:19] United States Lorraine Kahn; Native Americans; Conventions, National; Firsts, Other
    1986 13 Nov Zikrullah Khadem (Dhikru’lláh Khádem), Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Skokie, Illinois. (b.1904) [VV123; ZK151]
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
    • See also Khadem, Zikrullah Khadem: The Itinerant Hand of the Cause of God.
    Skokie; Illinois; United States Zikrullah Khadem; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Second Contingent
    1987 Sep The United Nations Secretary-General designates the Bahá’í International Community and the National Spiritual Assemblies of Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Kenya and Lesotho as Peace Messengers, an honour given to only 300 organizations worldwide for their support of the UN Year of Peace 1986. [BINS173:4] New York; United States; Australia; Belgium; Brazil; Kenya; Lesotho United Nations; Bahai International Community; International Year of Peace; Peace
    1988 18 Dec H. Borrah Kavelin, former member of the first House of Justice, passes away in Albuquerque, New Mexico. [VV97] Albuquerque; New Mexico; United States H. Borrah Kavelin; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Births and deaths; In Memoriam
    1988 29 Dec The Universal House of Justice issues a letter to the Bahá’ís in the United States published as Individual Rights and Freedoms in the World Order of Bahá’u’lláh. BWC; United States UHJ; Individual Rights and Freedoms in the World Order of Bahaullah; Publications; Freedom
    1989 The New Era Foundation was formed by the US National Spiritual Assembly to sponsor a wide range of development projects in several continents. [VV81] United States New Era Foundation
    1989 The establishment of the Bahá'í International Community's Office of the Environment in New York. Ridván Message 1992 [AWH75; VV54 106] New York; United States Bahai International Community; Environment
    1989 Feb The inaugural publication of One Country, the newsletter of the Bahá'í International Community. It is a publication of the Office of Public Information of the Bahá'í International Community in New York. The periodical reports mainly on activities of the worldwide Bahá'í community in relation to issues of sustainable development, peace and world order, human rights, and the advancement of women. [BW'86-‘92 p.539] New York; United States One Country; Newsletters; Bahai International Community; Publications Find date
    1989 Sep The Bahá’í Office of the Environment is established as part of the Bahá’í International Community in New York. [AWH75; VV54, 106] New York; United States Bahai Office of the Environment; Environment; Bahai International Community
    1990 The University of Maryland announced its decision to establish "The Bahá'í Chair for World Peace" in its Centre for International Development and Conflict Management. In 1992 Professor Suheil Bushrú’í was named as the first scholar to hold the Chair. [AWH76; VV108] Maryland; United States University of Maryland; Bahai Chair for World Peace; Suheil Bushrui; Firsts, Other
    1990 26 Jan The Bahá'í Chair for World Peace is established at the University of Maryland's Centre for International Development and Conflict Management at the official signing of the Memorandum of Understanding. [AWH76; BINS217:7; VV108]
    • Professor Suheil Bushrui is appointed to the Chair in 1992.
    • For picture see VV108.
    Maryland; United States Bahai Chair for World Peace; Suheil Bushrui
    1990 31 Mar 31 – 1 Apr The first Bahá'í International Chinese Symposium is held in San Francisco, California; it is attended by 362 Bahá'ís from eight countries. [BINS222:6] San Francisco; California; United States Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Conferences, Other; First conferences; China
    1990 May The US Senate unanimously adopted a concurrent resolution condemning Irán's continued repression of the Bahá'ís calling for their complete emancipation. This was the fourth congressional appeal. [VV60] United States; Iran United States Senate; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1990 Oct The publication of the last issue of the Bahá'í News by the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States after nearly 70 years of uninterrupted service. [CBN Feb1991pg15]
    • Issues 1 to 40 were published under the name Bahá'í News Letter. Subsequent issues, from #41 to #714, were entitled simply Bahá'í News.


    Bahá'í News Published December 1924 to October 1990
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    "Bahá'í News" Issues 001-110
    Dec 1924 - Sep 1937
    969
    bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn01.pdf
    "Bahá'í News" Issues 111-210
    Oct 1937 - Aug 1948
    1186
    bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn02.pdf
    "Bahá'í News" Issues 211-280
    Sep 1948 - Jun 1954
    1072
    bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn03.pdf
    "Bahá'í News" Issues 281-345
    Jul 1954 - Nov 1959
    1088
    bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn04.pdf
    "Bahá'í News" Issues 346-400
    Dec 1959 - Jul 1964
    849
    bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn05.pdf
    "Bahá'í News" Issues 401-440
    Aug 1964 - Nov 1967
    716
    bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn06.pdf
    "Bahá'í News" Issues 441-490
    Dec 1967 - Jan 1972
    1008
    bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn07.pdf
    "Bahá'í News" Issues 491-525
    Feb 1972 - May 1975
    958
    bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn08.pdf
    "Bahá'í News" Issues 526-580
    Jun 1975 - Jul 1979
    1019
    bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn09.pdf
    "Bahá'í News" Issues 581-630
    Aug 1979 - Sep 1983
    958
    bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn10.pdf
    "Bahá'í News" Issues 631-670
    Oct 1983 - Jan 1987
    780
    bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn11.pdf
    "Bahá'í News" Issues 671-714
    Feb 1987 - Oct 1990
    847
    bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn12.pdf

    Subscribers in the United States received an insert entitled US Supplement from 1958 to 1967 and the name of the insert was changed to National Bahá'í Review from 1968 until the Bahá'í News discontinued publication in 1990.
    United States Bahai News; Newsletters; Publications
    1991 The first major public statement of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States, The Vision of Race Unity: America's Most challenging Issue, is published and disseminated widely throughout the country. United States Vision of Race Unity (statement); Race (general); Unity; Publications; Statements Find ref
    1991 In Iran, a secret government memorandum (known as the Golpaygani Memorandum) was drawn up by Iran's Supreme Revolutionary Cultural Council and signed by Iran's supreme leader, Ayatollah Khamenei, which provided a blueprint of the policies and actions to which the Bahá'í community of Iran was to be subjugated. The memorandum demanded a shift in Iran's stance towards Bahá'ís from overt persecution to a more covert policy aimed at depleting the Iranian Bahá'í community's economic and cultural resources. This was a change in the policy for the Islamic regime which had openly persecuted and killed Bahá'ís during its first decade in power and had accused them of being spies for various foreign powers. The document also called for “countering and destroying their [Baha’is’] cultural roots abroad.” [ iranpresswatch.org/post/1407/ ]

    The memorandum can be found here and here.
    • This document might have remained secret had it not been divulged to Reynaldo Galindo Pohl, the Salvadoran diplomat who served as the United Nations (UN) Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Iran between 1986 and 1995. Professor Pohl disclosed the document in 1993 during a session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights (now replaced by the Human Rights Council).
    Iran; United States Ayatollah Khamenei; Ayatollahs; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; United Nations
    1991 Jan Dr. Victor de Araujo, Bahá'í representative to the United Nations for 23 years and the first full-time representative, retired from his duties. He had represented the BIC at innumerable conferences and seminars throughout the world as well as at the UN headquarters in New York, often serving as chairman on the UN committees. [VV54]
    • Mr. Techeste Ahderom of Eritrea succeeded him. [VV54]
    New York; United States Victor de Araujo; Bahai International Community; United States; Techeste Ahderom; Firsts, Other
    1991 25 Jan Mottahedeh Development Services was established by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of the United States as a non-profit agency to promote social and economic development to benefit individuals of any race, creed, or nationality. The agency name honours more than fifty years of dedicated service by Mildred and Rafi Mottahedeh, two pioneers in social and economic development.
    • Mottahedeh Development Services was organized as a charitable organization under US law. [MDS]
    United States NSA USA; Social and economic development; Mildred Mottahedeh; Rafi Mottahedeh
    1992 The establishment of the Bahá'í Chair for Peace at the University of Maryland in the United States. The mission of the Bahá'í Chair for Peace, in part, is to develop alternatives to the violent resolution of conflict, promote global education and spiritual awareness, and reflect the beliefs of the Bahá'í world community in building a global society. Suheil Bushrui held the chair from 1992 until 2005. [ news.bahai.org/story/282 ] Maryland; United States Bahai Chair for World Peace; University of Maryland
    1992 Prime Minister Hamilton Green of Guyana made a formal state visit to the temple in Wilmette. Bahá'í Newsreel Vol. 3 number 2 [VV133] Guyana; Wilmette; United States Prime Ministers; Hamilton Green; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Prominent visitors
    1992 25 Mar William Sears, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Tucson, Arizona. (28 March, 1911) [BINS267; VV124]
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
    Tucson; Arizona; United States Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; William Sears; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Third Contingent
    1992 April World population 5.48 billion.
    • American Bahá'í population: 110,000 in more than 7000 communities. [From a press release by the American National Office dated the 28th of May, 1993]
    United States Statistics
    1992 18 Jun The passing of Counsellor Isobel Sabri, member of the International Teaching Centre in England. She was born in California in 1924. Letter from the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada to all Local Spiritual Assemblies date the 16th of October 1992. [VV124] California; United States; United Kingdom Counsellors; Isobel Sabri; International Teaching Centre, Members of; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1992 23 – 26 Nov The Second World Congress was held in New York City to commemorate the centenary of the passing of Bahá'u'lláh and the completion of the Six Year Plan. It was attended by some 28,000 Bahá'ís from some 180 countries. [BBD240] [VV136-141] [BW92-3p98-101, 136]
    • Nine auxiliary conferences were held in Buenos Aires, Sydney, New Delhi, Nairobi, Panama City, Bucharest, Moscow, Apia and Singapore. [BINS283:3-4]
    • For pictures see [BINS283:9-10], [BW92-3p100] and [VV136-141]
    • "New York will become a blessed spot from which the call to steadfastness in the Covenant and Testament of God will go forth to every part of the world." - 'Abdu'l-Bahá [AWH77-8 90-1 105-6]
    • On the 25th of November a concert was held in Carnegie Hall as a birthday tribute to Dizzy Gillespie called "Celebrating the Bahá'í Vision of World Peace". [VV141]
    • On the 26th of November Bahá'ís around the world are linked together by a live satellite broadcast serving the second Bahá'í World Congress, the nine auxiliary conferences and the Bahá'í World Centre and is received by those with access to satellite dish antennas. [BINS283:1–5, 8; BINS286:10; BINS287:4]
    • For the message of the Universal House of Justice read on the satellite link see BW92–3:37–4.
    • For accounts of personal experiences by some of the attendees see In the Eyes of His Beloved Servants: The Second Bahá'í World Congress and Holy Year by J. Michael Kafes.
    New York; United States; Buenos Aires; Argentina; Sydney; Australia; New Delhi; India; Nairobi; Kenya; Panama; Bucharest; Romania; Moscow; Russia; Apia; Samoa; Singapore World Congresses; Carnegie Hall; Centenaries; Bahaullah, Ascension of; Dizzy Gillespie; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1992 Dec The Universal House of Justice announced its decision to establish an Office for the Advancement of Women at the headquarters of the Bahá'í International Community in New York. Support for UN efforts to improve the status of women, which had been carried out for twenty years by the United Nations Office, continued uninterrupted under the auspices of this new office. At annual sessions of the UN Commission on the Status of Women, statements addressed appropriate topics on the agenda, such as partnership between women and men, the status of girl children, the participation of women in decision making, partnership for development, and the human rights of women. [VV29; 54; BIC Document #: 95-0228; BW92–3:136]
    • The Office for the Advancement of Women officially opened its doors on the 26th of May, 1993. [BINS296:2; BW93–4:83–9; VV29] For pictures see BW93–4:83, 86.
    New York; United States Bahai International Community; Women; Office for the Advancement of Women
    1993 6 Jan The passing of John Birks "Dizzy" Gillespie. His autobiography was entitled “To Be, or Not...to Bop". [VV141
    • See Bahá'í World 1994-95 pg251 for an article by Anne Boyles entitled "The Language of the Heart: Arts in the Bahá'í World Community" for mention of Dizzy Gillespie.
    Englewood; New Jersey; United States Dizzy Gillespie; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1993 19 Jan The Bahá'í Chair for World Peace at the University of Maryland is inaugurated. It is situated in the College of Behavioral and Social Sciences. [BW92–3:140–1]

    The Baha’i Chair for World Peace is an academic program that conducts and publishes research with a diverse group of scholars on global issues. The organization’s purpose is to study worldwide challenges and discuss solutions that could advance peace and promote tolerance. In addition to conducting academic research and releasing publications, the chair hosts events at the University of Maryland that are available to students, university staff and the general public. Although the chair was inspired by the spiritual teachings of the Bahá'í faith’s focus on humanity’s unity, the program emphasizes science-based analysis along with the values the Faith provides. [Unwind Magazine]

    Maryland; United States Bahai Chair for World Peace; University of Maryland
    1993 15 Apr The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Stanley Bagley, (b.2 February, 1912). He had been a pioneer Belgium, France, Guadeloupe, Martinique, the United States as well as Sicily where he and his family received the Knighthood for their service. [BW93-94p319] United States Knights of Bahaullah; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1993 23 May The first general conference of Health for Humanitarian association of health professionals sponsored by the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States, is held in Evanston, Illinois. [BINS298:7; BW93–4:104] Evanston; Illinois; United States Health
    1993 16 Oct The passing of Marzieh Nabíl Carpenter Gail, the second child and eldest daughter of the first Persian-American marriage in the Bahá'í Faith between Persian diplomat Ali-Kuli Khan and Boston debutante Florence Breed. (b. 1 April, 1908) [BW1993-1994p320-321, Find a grave]
    • See AY91 for ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s praise of her as a child and confirmation and promises for the future. He commented that she had átish (fire) and namak (salt). [AY93]
    • A translator (Arabic and Persian into English) and author. Poet Roger White would say of his friend: "She is the first lady of Bahá'í literature and I and many writers are indebted to her for leading the way."
    • Translations include: The Seven Valleys and the Four Valleys (1945) and The Secret of Divine Civilization (1957) with her father; Memorials of the Faithful (1971); Selections from the Writings of 'Abdu'l-Bahá (1976) with a Committee at the Bahá'í World Centre; My Memories of Bahá'u'lláh (1982).
    • Author of a dozen Bahá'í and non-Bahá'í books in addition to countless essays, articles, and short stories. Her remembrances of 'Abdu'l-Bahá are contained in The Sheltering Branch (1959), and those of His Exalted Sister in Khanum: The Greatest Holy Leaf (1981).
    • Many of her essays and pioneering stories are contained in Dawn Over Mount Hira (1976) and Other People, Other Places (1982). As well she wrote “Six Lessons in Islam” (1953), Summon Up Remembrance (1987), Arches of the Years (1991) and, “Bahá'í Glossary” (1955). [Bahá'í Studies Review, Vol6, 1996]
    San Francisco; United States Marzieh Gail; Ali-Kuli Khan; Florence Breed; Bahai scholars; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1994 19 Oct The publication of In the Eyes of His Beloved Servants: The Second Bahá'í World Congress and Holy Year by J. Michael Kafes. This book captures the firsthand experiences of Baha'is from all around the world, who participated in the Baha'i World Congress at Jacob Javits Convention Center in November 1992, as well as experiences Baha'is had during the Baha'i Holy Year. [from the book] New York; United States World congresses; Holy years
    1995 Jan By decision of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United State the Wilmette Institute is established as an agency of the National Assembly. "The Wilmette Institute is a center of Bahá’í learning. Its programs aim to facilitate study and dialogue on the teachings and principles of the Faith to help individuals and communities apply learning and advance human civilization." In 1998, the Wilmette Institute moved to a largely online study approach in order to provide educational classes to a broader student body. [Wilmette Institute] Chicago; United States Wilmette Institute
    1995 Oct The publication of Turning Point For All Nations by the Bahá'í International Community, United Nations Office, in New York in commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the United Nations. It was a call for world leaders to define a role for the UN. [Turning Point for all Nations, en français] New York; United States Turning Point For All Nations (statement); Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications; United Nations
    1998. 25 March The passing of former Universal House of Justice member (1963-1993) Mr. Hugh E Chance (b. 28 December, 1911 in Winfield, Kansas d. 25 March,1998 in Tisdale KS.). [BW97-98p271-272]
    • Mr Chance had been a member of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States from 1961 to 1963.
    • He was the co-author of "A Crown of Beauty" with Eunice Braun which was published by George Ronald in 1982.
    Tisdale; Kansas; United States Hugh Chance; In Memoriam
    1998 23 Nov The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States announced the results of the elections for their first Regional Councils. Four were elected in the regions corresponding to those mentioned in The Tablets of the Divine Plan. [Results of the First Regional Bahá'í Council Election] United States Regional Bahai Councils; Tablets of the Divine Plan
    1999 5 May Firuz Kazemzadeh, Secretary for External Affairs for the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States, is appointed by President Clinton as a member of the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom. White House Press Release United States Firuz Kazemzadeh; NSA; United States government; United States Commissions; Religious freedom; Human rights Find ref
    2000 17 Feb The passing of Mildred Mottahedeh in New York. She had been elected to the International Bahá’í Council, the first globally elected Bahá’í body and was the first Bahá'í International Community representative to the United Nations. She was born in Seabright, New Jersey, on 7 August 1908 and was 91. [One Country Jan-Mar 2000 Vol 11 Issue 4, TP705-706] New York; Seabright; New Jersey; United States International Bahai Council; Bahai International Community; Mildred Mottahedeh; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Firsts, Other
    2000 22 - 26 May The United Nations Millennium Forum was held at United Nations Headquarters in New York. It attracted 1,350 participants from more than 106 countries and many others participated remotely via Internet. The purpose was to give organizations of civil society an opportunity to formulate views and recommendations on global issues to be taken up at the subsequent Millennium Summit in September to be attended by heads of state and government. Convened by the UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan, the Forum's overarching theme - "The United Nations for the 21st Century" - encompassed six main sub-themes in its declaration: 1) Peace, security and disarmament; 2) Eradication of poverty, including debt cancellation and social development; 3) Human rights; 4) Sustainable development and environment; 5) Facing the challenges of globalization: achieving equity, justice and diversity; and, 6) Strengthening and democratizing the United Nations and international organizations. The document was divided into three main areas: recommendations for governmental action; proposals for the United Nations; and actions to be undertaken by civil society itself. The Bahá’í International Community as an NGO representing a cross-section of humankind acted as a unifying agent in major discussions. Our principal representative at the United Nations, Techeste Ahderrom, was appointed to cochair a committee of non-governmental organizations. Lawrence Arturo and Diane 'Alá'í represented the Bahá'í International Community. [BW00-01p87-89, Letter from the Universal House of Justice dated 24 September 2000] New York; United States United Nations Millennium Forum and Summit; United Nations; United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; Conferences; Millennium; Bahai International Community; Peace; Security; Disarmament; Poverty; Social and economic development; Human rights; Sustainable development; environment; Globalization; Justice; Diversity; Prosperity; Equality; Solidarity; Tolerance; Nature; Cooperation; Interfaith dialogue; Techeste Ahderom; Lawrence Arturo; Diane Alai
    2000 28 - 31 Aug The Millennium Peace Summit of Religious and Spiritual Leaders was held in New York and involved more than 1,000 attendees. The “very specific purpose” of this meeting was “to further the prospects for peace among peoples and nations, and within every individual.” The outcome of this Peace Summit was the adoption and signing of a declaration committing the participants to global peace. Noting that “the United Nations and the religions of the world have a common concern for human dignity, justice and peace,” accepting that “men and women are equal partners in all aspects of life and children are the hope of the future,” and acknowledging that “religions have contributed to the peace of the world but have also been used to create division and fuel hostilities,” the declaration resolved to “collaborate with the United Nations and all men and women of goodwill locally, regionally and globally in the pursuit of peace in all its dimensions.” The Baha'i' International Community was represented by its Secretary-General, Mr Albert Lincoln. Laurence Arturo and Bani Dugal-Gujral also attended as BIC representatives. [BW00-01p89, Letter from the Universal House of Justice dated 24 September 2000] New York; United States United Nations Millennium Forum and Summit; United Nations; United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; Conferences; Millennium; Bahai International Community; Peace; World Peace Summit of Religious and Spiritual Leaders; Interfaith dialogue; Albert Lincoln; Laurence Arturo; Bani Dugal Gujral
    2000 6 - 8 Sep The General Assembly Millennium Summit was held at the United Nations Headquarters in New York and was attended by leaders of more than 150 nations. UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan presented a report entitled, "We The Peoples: The Role of the United Nations in the 21st Century". In which was presented an overview of the challenges facing humankind and suggested practical solutions. Some of the key themes addressed include health, environment, human rights and other social issues, international law, peace and rejuvenating the United Nations. It is striking that called upon by the Secretary-General of the United Nations to address so historic a gathering was Mr. Techeste Ahderom, the principal representative of the Bahá’í International Community to the United Nations, addressed the gathering as the spokesman of civil society. He was accorded this honour because he had presided as cochair at the earlier United Nations Millennium Forum. After all the national leaders had spoken and before the Summit had adopted its declaration on 8 September, Mr. Ahderom made a speech in which he conveyed to that unprecedented assemblage a report of the Forum. The text of his speech is enclosed herewith. On the last day a declaration was unanimously adopted that began by asserting: “We, Heads of State and Government, have gathered at United Nations Headquarters in New York from 6 to 8 September 2000, at the dawn of a new Millennium, to reaffirm our faith in the Organization and its Charter as indispensable foundations of a more peaceful, prosperous and just world.” [BW00-01p91-93, Letter from the Universal House of Justice dated 24 September 2000]
    • The text of Ahderom's speech can be found on the BIC's website and at BW00-01p243-247.
    New York; United States United Nations Millennium Forum and Summit; United Nations; United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; Conferences; Millennium; Bahai International Community; Peace; Security; Disarmament; Poverty; Social and economic development; Human rights; Sustainable development; environment; Globalization; Justice; Diversity; Prosperity; Equality; Solidarity; Tolerance; Nature; Cooperation; Interfaith dialogue; Techeste Ahderom
    2000 12 - 14 Dec The 4th Annual Conference of the International Environment Forum (IEF) was held in Orlando, Florida. The theme was Applying the Baha'i Teachings to the Environmental Challenges Facing the World. (IEF Web Site) Orlando; Florida; United States Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; International Environment Forum; Environment
    2001 4 Jan The passing of Dr. Victor de Araujo of Vista, NY at the age of 78 years. He was born near London, England and spent his childhood and youth in Brazil. He came to the United Stated in 1946 as a vice consul to the Brazilian Consulate in Chicago. From 1967-1990, Dr. de Araujo served as a Representative of the Bahá'í International Community to the United Nations. In his years in this position he represented the Bahá'í International Community both at the United Nations headquarters and at numerous conferences around the world. He also participated in the preparation of Bahá'í statements on human rights, the environment, and the equality of men and women, which were presented to the United Nations. [Baha’i Announce 5Jan2001] London; United Kingdom; Brazil; New York; United States Bahai International Community; United Nations; In Memoriam; Victor de Araujo
    2001 23 Dec National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States published a full-page advertisement in The New York Times, the statement, entitled The Destiny of America and The Promise of World Peace," stated that Bahá'ís believe the American nation will evolve, through tests and trials to become a land of spiritual distinction and leadership, a champion of justice and unity among all peoples and nations, and a powerful servant of the cause of everlasting peace. The 645-word document identified six prerequisites for world peace: universal acceptance of the oneness of humanity; the eradication of racism; the full emancipation of women; the elimination of inordinate disparity between the rich and the poor; an end to unbridled nationalism; and harmony between religious leaders. [BWNS147, Includes text of the statement] New York; United States Promise of World Peace (statement); Statements; NSA of US; Peace; BWNS
    2002 26 Jun – 2 Jul In commemoration of the Second Bahá'í World Congress 23-26 November in 1992 in New York, a Festival of the Arts is celebrated in that same city. The project is an independent initiative of Global Music, Inc., a Bahá'í-owned company, and associated individuals. It is not under the sponsorship of any Bahá'í institution. The centerpiece event is held at Carnegie Hall featuring a 550-voice choir under the direction of Mr. Tom Price and known as the Voices of Baha. It is composed of Bahá'ís from some 24 countries. [BWNS162] New York; United States World Congresses; Arts; Music; Carnegie Hall; Tom Price; Voice of Baha; Choirs; BWNS
    2002 21 Sep The dedication , at the Green Acre Bahá'í School in Eliot Maine, the oldest permanent Bahá'í school in the world, of a new classroom and lecture hall designated as The Harriet and Curtis Kelsey Center, with an attendant Manny Reimer Hall. [BWNS175] Green Acre; Eliot; Maine; United States Green Acre; Bahai schools; Curtis Kelsey; Harriet Kelsey; First schools; BWNS
    2003 11 Mar Bani Dugal Gujral was appointed Principal Representative of the Bahá'í International Community to the United Nations.
    • Ms. Dugal Gujral had been serving as interim Principal Representative since the resignation of Techeste Ahderom in 2001.
    • Ms. Dugal Gujral came to the Bahá'í International Community in 1994 and served as Director of the Community's Office for the Advancement of Women. A native of India, where she practiced law before coming to the United States, Ms. Dugal Gujral holds a Master's degree in Environmental Law from Pace University School of Law in New York. [One Country Vol.14 Issue4]
    New York; United States Bani Dugal Gujral; Bahai International Community; Women; Techeste Ahderom; United Nations
    2004 20 Dec United Nations General Assembly has passed a resolution expressing "serious concern" over the human rights situation in Iran, making specific mention of the ongoing persecution of the Baha'i community there.
    • It called on Iran to "eliminate all forms of discrimination based on religious grounds" and took note of the recent upsurge of human rights violations against the Baha'is of Iran.
    • Specifically, the resolution noted the "continuing discrimination against persons belonging to minorities, including Christians, Jews, and Sunnis, and the increased discrimination against the Baha'is, including cases of arbitrary arrest and detention, the denial of free worship or of publicly carrying out communal affairs, the disregard of property rights, the destruction of sites of religious importance, the suspension of social, educational, and community-related activities, and the denial of access to higher education, employment, pensions, and other benefits." [BWNS341]
    Iran; New York; United States UN General Assembly; United Nations; Human rights; BWNS
    2005 6 Sep The passing of former Universal House of Justice member David S. Ruhe near Newburg, New York. He served on the Universal House of Justice from 1968 to 1993. [BWNS388] Newburg; NY; United States David Ruhe; Universal House of Justice, Members of; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; BWNS
    2005 Nov Dr. John Grayzei was appointed to the Bahá'í Chair for Peace at the University of Maryland in the United States. He succeeds Suheil Bushrui who held the position since its inauguration in 1992. [BWNS404] Maryland; United States John Grayzei; Suheil Bushrui; Bahai Chair for World Peace; University of Maryland; BWNS
    2008 14 Feb The publication of a new statement from the Bahá'í International Community entitled Eradicating Poverty: Moving Forward as One. In English [Moving Forward as One, In Farsi] New York; United States Poverty; Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications
    2008 6 – 7 Dec Regional Conferences held in Portland, United States, Chicago, United States, Atlanta, United States and Almaty, Kazakhstan. [ Portand, Chicago, Atlanta, Almaty] Portland; United States; Chicago; United States; Atlanta; United States; Almaty; Kazakhstan Regional Conferences; BWNS
    2008 13 – 14 Dec Regional Conferences held in Stamford, United States, Dallas, United States and Los Angeles, United States. [BWNS677] Stamford; United States; Dallas; Los Angeles Regional Conferences; BWNS
    2010 May The publication of Rethinking Prosperity: Forging Alternatives to a Culture of Consumerism," for the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. The statement can be read at BIC10-0503. [BWNS770] New York; United States Sustainable Development; Prosperity; Consumerism; Materialism; Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications; United Nations; BWNS
    2011. 21 Oct Launch of Inciting Hatred: Iran's media campaign to demonize Baha'is. The Baha'i International Community prepared and launched a report that documents and analyses more than 400 press and media items over a 16-month period that typify an insidious state-sponsored effort to demonize and vilify Baha'is, using false accusations.
    • The report is available in English and in Persian.
    New York; United States Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Bahai International Community
    2012 24 Feb The inaugural screening of Iranian Taboo by Dutch-Iranian filmmaker Reza Allamehzadeh in Los Angeles. [Iranian Taboo, BWNS890] Los Angeles; United States Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Documentaries; Iranian Taboo; Reza Allamehzadeh; BWNS
    2012 Jul The Bahá'í Chair for World Peace was assumed by Professor Hoda Mahmoudi who previously headed a research department at the Bahá'í World Center in Israel. [Bio Professor Hoda Mahmoudi] Maryland; United States Hoda Mahmoudi; Bahai Chair for World Peace; University of Maryland; Firsts, Other
    2013 11 Apr – 5 Dec The commemoration of the centenary of the visit of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá to North America. [BWNS918] Wilmette; United States Centenaries; Abdul-Baha, Travels of; BWNS
    2015 27 Feb The premiere of the film To Light a Candle by Iranian-Canadian filmmaker and journalist, Maziar Mahari. The gala in Los Angeles is part of a campaign called "Education is Not a Crime", started in 2014, to highlight the plight of Bahá'í' students in Iran and their recourse to the denial of education, the Bahá'í' Institute of Higher Education. The film is also screened in some 300 locations around the world. [BWNS1041, BWNS1025] Los Angeles; United States Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Education; Persecution; Documentaries; Education is not a Crime; BWNS
    2015 14 May A global campaign called "Seven Days in Remembrance of Seven Years in Prison for the Seven Baha'i Leaders" to call attention to the long and unjust imprisonment of seven Iranian Baha'i leaders is launched on the seventh anniversary of their arrest. Each day of the week-long campaign, starting 14 May 2015, was dedicated to one member of the seven: Mahvash Sabet, Fariba Kamalabadi, Jamaloddin Khanjani, Afif Naeimi, Saeid Rezaie, Behrouz Tavakkoli, and Vahid Tizfahm. [7 Days] Tihran; Iran; New York; United States; Worldwide Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Bahai International Community
    2015 Sep As of this date the Baha’i community in the United States had about 175,000 Bahá’ís (less than one percent of the nation’s population), residing in more than 9,000 localities. The makeup of the faith’s adherents was very diverse. The largest communities were in California, Georgia, Illinois, South Carolina, and Texas. There are Bahá’í communities in every state. (From ‘Information about the Bahá'í Faith for Funeral Directors’, a document available at US National website)[Bahá'í Historical Facts MARCH 4, 2018] United States Statistics
    2016. 6 Sep In a letter the BIC calls on Iranian President Rouhani to end systematic economic oppression. The letter signed by Bani Dugal, Principal Representative of the Baha'i International Community to the United Nations, draws attention to the stark contradiction between statements espoused by the Iranian government regarding economic justice, equality for all and reducing unemployment on one hand, and the unrelenting efforts to impoverish a section of its own citizens on the other. New York; United States Bani Dugal Gujral; Bahai International Community; Persecution, Iran; Persecution
    2016 26 Oct The report from the offices of the Bahá'í International Community entitled The Bahá'í Question Revisited: Persecution and Resilience in Iran was formally released.
    • The full report can be read on-line here.
    • A list of resolutions by the United Nations and United Nations bodies that reference the situation of Baha’is in Iran since 1980 can be found at this location.
    • An annex to The Bahá'í Question Revisited is the report called "Inciting Hatred". It is an analysis of approximately 400 anti-Baha'i articles, broadcasts, and webpages from late December 2009 through May 2011 and can be found here.
    • A list of the 222 Baha’is who have been killed in Iran since 1978 can be read here.
    Iran; New York; United States Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Bahai International Community; Human rights; United Nations
    2017 5 May The film Changing the World, One Wall at a Time was premiered in Harlem on the 5th of May and in Los Angeles on the 5th of June. The film evolved from shorter videos that were posted from the "Education is not a Crime" campaign and was made by Iranian-Canadian filmmaker Maziar Baharie. [BWNS1173] Harlem; New York; Los Angeles; California; United States Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Education; Persecution; Documentaries; Education is not a Crime; BWNS
    2017. 17 Nov A committee of the United Nations General Assembly condemned Iran by a vote of 83 to 30 with 68 abstentions for its continuing violations of human rights, the 30th such resolution since 1985. The Third Committee of the General Assembly approved a five-page resolution expressing concern over illegal practices ranging from torture, poor prison conditions, arbitrary detention, and curbs on freedom of religion or belief to state-endorsed discrimination against ethnic and religious minorities as well as women. The resolution expressed specific concern over Iran’s treatment of members of the Baha’i Faith and highlighted the economic and educational discrimination against them and called on Iran to release the more than 90 Baha’is who were unjustly held in Iranian prisons. The resolution follows a strongly worded document from the UN Special Rapporteur on human rights in Iran, Asma Jahangir. Her 23-page report, released earlier this session, catalogued a broad range of rights violations by Iran. [BWNS1221] New York; United States United Nations; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; BWNS
    2018 12 Mar The Bahá'í International Community in New York released the statement "Beyond Mere Economics: A Moral Inquiry into the Roots of Empowerment" to the 62nd session of the Commission on the Status of Women (12 to 23 March 2018). [BWNS1243] New York; United States Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Women; Empowerment; Economics; United Nations; BWNS
    2018 12 Apr The premiere of the documentary film, An American Story: Race Amity and The Other Tradition in a television broadcast on station WBGH, channel 2 in Boston, MA. [Trailer]
    • From the film website...."The primary purpose of the documentary project, An American Story: Race Amity and The Other Tradition, is to impact the public discourse on race. To move the discourse from the “blame/grievance/rejection” cycle to a view from a different lens, the lens of “amity/collaboration/access and equity.”
    Boston; Massachusetts; United States Race (general); Unity; Race Amity; Race unity; Racism; Documentaries

    from the main catalogue

    1. 1867 Petition from Bahá'ís in Shushtar, Iran, to the U.S. Congress, An, in World Order, 37:3 (2006). A petition sent by Bahá'ís in Persia in 1867 to the US Consulate general, seeking assistance in getting Baha'u'llah released from imposed exile. Includes introduction, prepared on behalf of the US NSA. [about]
    2. Fifty Three Years In Syria, by Henry H. Jessup (1910). Passing encounters between Baha'is and a Christian missionary in Iran, 1867-1901. [about]
    3. Kirk, Durbin Introduce Resolution Condemning Iran's Continued Persecution of Bahá'í Minority, by Mark Kirk and Dick Durbin (2013). In recognition of the five-year anniversary of imprisonment of Bahá'í leaders in Iran, senators meet with their family members and friends and introduce a joint resolution calling attention to this persecution. [about]
    4. Letters to and from US Presidential Archives (1984). A collection of correspondence circa 1984 from and to archivist David Piff concerning Baha'i-related holdings. Also included is some correspondence between offices of the presidents and the US National Spiritual Assembly and the BIC. [about]
    5. Petition from the Persian Reformers (1867). A petition sent by Baha'is in Baghdad and Shushtar, Iran, in 1867 to the US Consulate general, seeking assistance in getting Baha'u'llah released from imposed exile. [about]
     
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