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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1847. 22 Feb Birth of Thornton Chase, designated the first American Bahá'í, in Springfield, Massachusetts. Springfield; Massachusetts; United States Thornton Chase; Births and deaths
1852. 21 Feb Birth of Isabella Brittingham, prominent American Bahá'í teacher, in New York City. New York; United States Isabella Brittingham; Births and deaths
1855. 15 Oct 1855 or 1856 Birth of Robert Turner, first black American Bahá'í. USA; America; United States Robert Turner; Bahá'í
1863. 18 Apr Birth of William Henry (Harry) Randall, Disciple of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, in Boston. Boston; Massachusetts; United States William Randall; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Births and deaths
1967 16 March An appeal by 53 Bahá’ís is sent from Shushtar, Iran addressed to the US Congress. Shushtar; Iran Petition; United States Congress 1867 Petition
1873. 7 Jun Birth of Amelia Engelder Collins, Hand of the Cause, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Pittsburgh; Pennsylvania; United States Amelia Collins; Births and deaths
1883. June 21 Thornton Chase appears in Newspaper coverage of poem printed in The Grand Army Magazine, June 1883, "Lo! the Ranks are Thinned and Thinning" United States Thornton Chase; Newspaper articles Thornton Chase in the newspapers
1893. 23 Sep First public reference in North America to the Bahá'í Faith.
  • Reference was made to it in a paper entitled `The Religious Mission of the English Speaking Nations' by Rev. Henry H. Jessup, a retired missionary from north Syria, read by Rev George A. Ford at the World Parliament of Religions in Chicago. [AB63–4; BBD2412; BBR57; BFA1:323; BW2:230; GPB256; SBBH1:76, 88, 202]
  • See AB63–4, BW2:169 for text.
Chicago; United States Henry H. Jessup; World Parliament of Religions; Interfaith dialogue
1894 In the year Green Acre is founded by Sarah J. Farmer in the aftermath of the World Parliament of Religions. [BBRSM:104; BFA2:142–7; BW5:29; GPB261; SBBH1:125]

Two Bahá'ís are arrested and bastinadoed in Níshápúr. One dies seven days later, the other two years later. [BW18:384]

Hájí Yárí, a Bahá'í of Jewish background, is arrested and imprisoned in Hamadán. [BW18:384]

A Bahá'í in Dastjirdán, Khurásán, Áqá `Abdu'l-Vahháb Mukhtárí, is beaten and expelled from the village. [BW18:384]

Bahá'ís in Fárán, Khurásán, are beaten and Bahá'í homes are looted. [BW18:384]

Green Acre; Eliot; Maine; United States; Nishapur; Hamadan; Dastjirdan; Khurasan; Faran; Khurasan Sarah Farmer; Haji Yari; Aqa Abdul-Vahhab Mukhtari; World Parliament of Religions; Persecution Green Acre Bahá'í School (Wikipedia)
1894. 5 Jun Thornton Chase becomes a Bahá'í in Chicago. [BBD53; BFA1:35–6]
  • He is designated by `Abdu'l-Bahá the first American believer. [BBD53; GPB257]
  • See BFA1:35 for his own account of how he became a Bahá'í.
  • See BFA1:33–7 for other Americans who became Bahá'ís around the same time.
  • He was given the name Thábit (Steadfast) by `Abdu'l-Bahá. [BBD53; GPB257]
Chicago; United States Thornton Chase; First Bahais by country or area Thornton Chase in the newspapers (series of mentions especially 1893-7)
1899 Miss Olive Jackson of Manhattan becomes the first black American woman Bahá'í. [BFA1:126–7] Manhattan; New York; United States Olive Jackson
1899 Feb The first Tablets of `Abdu'l-Bahá arrive in America. [BFA1:143]
  • See BFA1:143 for the recipients.
United States Abdul-Baha, Writings of; Firsts, Other
1899 May A council board of seven officers, a forerunner of the Local Spiritual Assembly, is established in Kenosha. [BFA1:112; GPB260] Kenosha; Wisconsin; United States Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies
1899. c. 1 May and period following Kheiralla returns to the United States from `Akká. [BFA1:xxix, 158]
  • His ambitions to lead the Bahá'í Faith cause a crisis in the American Bahá'í community. [BFA1:158–84; CB247–9, GPB259–260; SBBH194, 239]
  • In the coming months `Abdu'l-Bahá dispatches successive teachers to heal the rift:
    • Hájí `Abdu'l-Karím-i-Tihrání, who had taught Kheiralla the Faith, from c. 26 Apr to 5 Aug 1900. [BFA1:173–6; BFA2:17–29]
    • Hájí Hasan-i-Khurásání, from 29 Nov 1900 to Aug 1901. [BFA2:35, 389]
    • Mírzá Asadu'lláh-i-Isfahání, from 29 Nov 1900 to 12 May 1902. [BFA2:VI, 35–43ff]
    • Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl, from Aug 1901 to Dec 1904. [BFA2:XV-XVI, 80–7; BW9:855–60]
  • See BFA1:177–8 for lists of believers who sided with Kheiralla, left the Faith or remained loyal to `Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • See SBBH1:98–101 for Kheiralla's teachings.
United States; Akka Ibrahim George Kheiralla; Haji Abdul-Karim-i-Tihrani; Haji Hasan-i-Khurasani; Mirza Asadullah-i-Isfahani; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani
1900 c. 16 Mar The Chicago community re-organizes by selecting a ten-member Board of Council. Neither Kheiralla nor any of his supporters are on the Board. [BFA1:XXIX, 170] Chicago; United States Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; Ibrahim George Kheiralla
1900 7 Dec In New York, nine men were selected to govern the affairs of the Faith. Those serving were Arthur Dodge, Hooper Harris, William Hoar, Andrew Hutchinson, Howard MacNutt, Frank Osborne, Edwin Putnam, Charles Sprague and Orosco Woolson. Among the problems that they had to face was the affect of the disaffection of Kheiralla. [BFA2p36] New York; United States Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; Ibrahim George Kheiralla
1901 15 May The Chicago Bahá'ís elect a nine-man Board of Council for a term of five years. [BFA2:XXV, 44–7] Chicago; United States Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies
1901 20 May The number of members on the Board of Council is raised to 12. [BFA2:47] Chicago; United States Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies
1901 24 May The name of the Chicago Board of Council is changed to the House of Justice. [BFA2:48]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá requests that this name be changed a year later. [BFA2:49]
Chicago; United States Board of Council; House of Justice; Spiritual Assemblies
1901 29 May The Bahá'í women of Chicago elect their own Board and hold the first business meeting of the `Women's Auxiliary Board'. [BFA2:XV, 49–50] Chicago; United States Women
1902 Joseph Hannen, future Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, and Pauline Hannen become Bahá'ís in Washington DC. Washington DC; United States Joseph Hannen; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Pauline Hannen
1904 Dec Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl leaves the United States. [BFA2:XVI] United States Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani
1905 Agnes Alexander arrives in Alaska, the first Bahá'í travelling teacher to visit the territory.

A Bahá'í group is established in Germany. [BBRSM:107, 219]

Alaska; United States; Germany Agnes Alexander
1905 -1906 The publication of The Seven Valleys and the Four Valleys. [7V74V]

Two works written in Baghdad after Bahá’u’lláh returned from Kurdistan in 1856. The Seven Valleys was revealed in reply to a letter from Shaykh Muhiyi’d-Din, the religious judge of Khaniqin, who was a Sufi. The Four Valleys was addressed to Shaykh ‘Abdu’r-Rahman, leader of the Qadiriyyih Sufi order, with whom Bahá’u’lláh had been in contact in Sulaymaniyyih.

“To these two outstanding contributions to the world’s religious literature, (Shoghi Effendi had written of the Kitáb-i-Íqán and the Hidden Words) … was added, during that same period, a treatise that may well be regarded as His greatest mystical composition, designated as the “Seven Valleys,”.., in which He describes the seven stages which the soul of the seeker must needs traverse ere it can attain the object of its existence.” [GPB140]

In the West this was one of the earliest available books of Bahá'u'lláh, first translated directly to French in 1905, and English in 1906. [GPB140]

The Seven Valleys was translated into English by Marzieh Gail in consultation with her father, Alí-Kuli Khan Nabil-al Douleh. The publication date of the first English translation was 1945 with an introduction added in 1952. The second edition of The Seven Valleys published in 1968 and 1975 by the US Bahá'í Publishing Trust.

France; United States Haft Vadi (Seven Valleys); Chahar Vadi (Four Valleys); Kitab-i-Iqan (Book of Certitude); Kalimat-i-Maknunih (Hidden Words); Marzieh Gail; Ali-Kuli Khan
1907 spring A census of religions in the United States counts 1280 Bahá'ís. [BFA2:XVI] United States census of religions
1909 21 Mar `Abdu'l-Bahá lays the sacred remains of the Báb in their final resting place at the Shrine in Haifa. [AB126; BBD210; DH138; GBF103; GPB276]
  • See AB126–30, CT84 and GPB273–8 for details of the occasion and its history.
  • The Shrine is a simple rectangular structure of six rooms. [DH71, ZK284]
  • The marble sarcophagus used for the remains of the Báb is a gift from the Bahá'ís of Rangoon. [AB129; MC155]
  • For details of the sarcophagus see RB3:431.
Mount Carmel; Rangoon; Myanmar (Burma); Chicago; United States Bab, Shrine of; Bab, Sarcophagus for; Marble; Gifts
1909 21 Mar The first American Bahá'í Convention opens in Chicago. [BFA2:XVII, 309; BW13:849; MBW142–3; SBBH1:146]
  • It is held in the home of Corinne True. [CT82–3]
  • It is attended by 39 delegates from 36 cities. [GPB262; SBBH1:146]
  • The Convention establishes the 'Bahá'í Temple Unity', which is incorporated to hold title to the Temple property and to provide for its construction. A constitution is framed and an Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity elected. [BBD39; BBRSM:106; BW10:179; GPB349; PP397; SBBH1:146]
Chicago; United States Conventions; Corinne True; Bahai Temple Unity; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Chicago
1909. July 23 Louis George Gregory joins the Bahá'í Faith after investigating since 1907. [Wikipedia] Washington DC; United States Louis Gregory; Hands of the Cause
1910 The publication of The Oriental Rose, or, The teachings of 'Abdu'l-Bahá which trace the chart of "The Shining Pathway" by Mary Hanford Finney Ford.
  • See page 158-159 for her pen portrait of 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
New York; United States Mary Hanford Ford; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Introductory; Abdul-Baha, Pen portraits; Pen portraits
1910 8 Jan The Persian-American Educational Society is inaugurated in Washington DC. [BFA2:XVII; 355–8]
  • Its primary purpose is to assist the Tarbíyat School in Iran. [BFA2:357]
Washington DC; United States; Iran Persian-American Educational Society; Tarbiyat School; Bahai organizations
1911 22 Aug - 3 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá took up residence at Thonon-les-Bains on Lake Leman (Lake Geneva). [AB140; GPB280; SBR219]
  • While there He encountered Zillu's-Sultán, the eldest son of the Sháh of the time, Násirid-Dín Sháh. It was he who had ratified the execution of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs and at least 100 others. The whole family was in exile in Geneva at this time. 'Abdu'l-Bahá was very courteous to this man who had been such an inveterate enemy of the Cause. [DJT172] .
  • The Master sent for Juliet Thompson who had been waiting in London for His permission to join Him.
  • During His stay he had a visit from Annie Boylan, a member of the New York community that was experiencing disharmony. Unaware of Bahá'í election procedures, a group that was unhappy with the disunity and ineffectiveness of the Council had organized a vote to be rid of several of its Council members. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had written to the community a short time before recommending that the Council be expanded from 9 to 27 members so that all factions could be represented. He also recommended that women be included on the Council and that the name be changed to "the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of New York". This apparently addressed the problem of disunity because the New York community went on to contribute significantly to the progress of the Faith on a national level. [DJT181, BFA2p338]
  • Horace Holley, who lived at Quattro Torri, Siena, Italy at the time, along with his wife Bertha Herbert and baby daughter Hertha, visited 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the 29th and 30th of August. Please see his Religion for Mankind p 232-237 for a pen portrait of 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • He met with Elizabeth Stewart and Lilian Kappes who were on their way to Tehran. [find reference]
  • It would appear that He returned to Marseilles and travelled to London by sea. [SCU22-23]
Thonon-les-Bains; Lake Leman; Marseilles; France; Switzerland; Italy; London; United Kingdom; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; Unity; Zillus-Sultan; Persecution; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Juliet Thompson; Horace Holley; Elizabeth Stewart; Lilian Kappes
1912 The publication of The Brilliant Proof by Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl Gulpáygání in Chicago by the Bahai News Service, 1912. The first edition notes state that it was written December 28, 1911, in Syria, "by the pen of Mirza Abul Fazl Gulpaygan."
  • The publication of this book marks the end of an early era of Bahá'í teaching in the West. As 'Abdu'l-Bahá continued his journeys in the United States and Canada, He delivered hundreds of public talks and private addresses which were tailored to Western audiences. The fresh outpouring of teachings which resulted from these encounters produced a new Bahá'í literature of the words of 'Abdu'l-Bahá in the West. Examples include the following: The Promulgation of Universal Peace: Talks Delivered by `Abdu'l-Bahá During His Visit to the United States and Canada in 1912, compiled by Howard MacNutt, (Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1922-25); Paris Talks: Addresses Given by `Abdu'l-Bahá in Paris in 1911-1912 (London: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1912); 'Abdu'l-Bahá in London..
Chicago; United States Brilliant Proof (book); Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Promulgation of Universal Peace (book); Paris Talks (book); Abdul-Baha in London (book); Bahai literature
1912 12 Apr Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Howard MacNutt, 935 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, New York, [PUP4]
  • Talk at Studio of Miss Phillips, 39 West Sixty-seventh Street, New York. [PUP7]
New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Howard McNutt; Phillips, Miss
1912 13 Apr Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Alexander Morten, 141 East Twenty-first Street, New York [PUP9] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of
1912 14 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá speaks from the pulpit of the Church of the Ascension, Fifth Avenue and Tenth Street, New York. [239D:22–3, PUP11]
  • Talk at Union Meeting of Advanced Thought Centers, Carnegie Lyceum, West Fifty-seventh Street, New York. [PUP14]
New York; United States Churches; Abdul-Baha, Travels of
1912 15 Apr Talk at Home of Mountfort Mills, 327 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP16] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of
1912 16 Apr Talk at Hotel Ansonia to Baha’i’ Friends of New Jersey, Broadway and Seventy-third Street, New York. [PUP18] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Hotels
1912 17 Apr Talk at Hotel Ansonia, Broadway and Seventy-third Street, New York. [PUP20] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Hotels
1912 17 Apr Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York, [PUP23] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Homes; Edward Kinney
1912 18 Apr Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Marshall L. Emery, 273 West Ninetieth Street, New York. [PUP25] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Homes
1912 19 Apr Talk at Earl Hall, Columbia University, New York. [PUP29]

'Abdu'l-Bahá visits The Bowery accompanied by Edward Getsinger and Juliet Thompson as noted in her unpublished Diary. They arrived with two heavy bags of quarters to distribute to the poor. [OPOP165-168, PUP32]

Bowery; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Columbia University; Charity and relief work
1912 24 Apr Talk at Children’s Reception, Studio Hall, 1219 Connecticut Avenue, Washington, D.C. [PUP54]

Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP56, APD37-45]

Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
1912 27 Apr During lunch at the Parsons' home 'Abdu'l-Bahá speaks about the proper method of taxation. [APD53-57]
  • For His discourse on taxation see FWU38-43]

In the evening there is a grand reception for some 300 people in honour of 'Abdu'l-Bahá on behalf of the Orient-Occident Unity Society. Among the guests and dignitaries are General Adolphus Greely, Admiral Wainwright, a Washington judge, Admiral Peary, a bishop, the chargé d'affaires of Switzerland, a member of Congress, the head of the United States Patent Office, the General Consul, the President of the Peace Congress and others. [MD64-65]

Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; General Adolphus Greely; Wainwright, Admiral; Peary, Admiral; Agnes Parsons; Taxation
1912 30 Apr Talk at Public Meeting Concluding Convention of Bahá’í Temple Unity, Drill Hall, Masonic Temple, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP65,]

Talk at Hull House, Chicago, Illinois. Hull House was a community centre, one of the earliest in Chicago, founded by the National American Woman Suffrage Association [PUP67, MD70]

Talk at Fourth Annual Conference of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Handel Hall, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP69, MD71]

Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Conventions; Bahai Temple Unity; Abdul-Baha, Talks at other places
1912 1 May `Abdu'l-Bahá lays the cornerstone of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in Wilmette. [239D:51; AB186; GPB288, 349; MBW143]
  • Talk at Dedication of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár Grounds. [PUP71]
  • The cornerstone has been offered by Mrs Nettie Tobin. [AB186]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá asks delegates from the various Bahá'í communities and Bahá'ís from different backgrounds each to dig the earth to lay the stone. [AB186–7]
Chicago; United States Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Nettie Tobin; Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Cornerstones
1912 10 May `Abdu'l-Bahá's sits for sketches by Mr Theadore Spicer-Simon. See Medallions for pictures of his work.

In the morning Agnes Parsons takes 'Abdu'l-Bahá to the Capitol then to the Washington Monument where they take the elevator to the top.

He speaks to a small group in the Parsons' home in the afternoon and at the Studio Hall in the evening. [APD63-66]

In The Diary of Juliet Thompson p285 it is reported that 'Abdu'l-Bahá had been horrified by the prejudice He observed against Black people in Washington.

Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Capitol; Washington Monument; Studio Hall; Agnes Parsons; Abdul-Baha, Pictures and portraits; Portraits; Racism
1912 20 May Talk at Woman’s Suffrage Meeting, Metropolitan Temple, Seventh Avenue and Fourteenth Street, New York. [PUP133] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of
1912 8 Jun Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York, [PUP171]

`Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in Philadelphia. [239D:88; AB209]

New York; Philadelphia; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of
1912 30 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá returns to New York after visiting Mr Topakyan, the Persian Consul General, in Morristown. [239D:103; AB225–6] New York; Morristown; New Jersey; United States Topakyan, Mr; Consuls; Abdul-Baha, Travels of
1912 20 Sep Talk at Home of Mr. Albert L. Hall, 2030 Queen Avenue South, Minneapolis, Minnesota. [PUP325]

Talk at Home of Dr. and Mrs. Clement Woolson, 870 Laurel Avenue, St. Paul, Minnesota. [PUP329]

`Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Minneapolis for Omaha, Nebraska, arriving the same night. [239D:20]

  • AB279 says this was 21 September.
Omaha; Nebraska; Minneapolis; Minnesota; United States `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
1912 24 Sep Talk at Home of Mrs. Roberts Denver, Colorado. [PUP334] Denver; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of
1912 30 Sep Thornton Chase, the first American Bahá'í, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, passes away in California before 'Abdu'l-Bahá'í and His retinue arrive. He is buried at Inglewood. [BBD71; BFA2:XVII] California; United States Thornton Chase; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
1912 3 Dec Talk at Home of Dr. and Mrs. Florian Krug, 830 Park Avenue, New York. [PUP457]

Talk to Mr. Kinney’s Bible Class, 780 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP458]

Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP460]

New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of
1915 A plan to fund part-time travelling Bahá’í teachers in the USA and Canada is approved. There had been a great deal of reluctance to take this measure for fear of creating a "clergy" class but the vastness of the country and the fewness of believers of independent means as well as the impetus to teaching sparked by 'Abdu'l-Bahá's visit helped to take the decision. [BBRSM:105, 219] United States; Canada Subsidies; Funds; Travel teaching
1915 16 Jun Miss Margaret Green of Washington DC arrives in Alaska, the first known resident Bahá'í. Washington DC; Alaska; United States Margaret Green
1915 11 Oct Arthur Pillsbury Dodge, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, passes away in Freeport, New York. [sBR15]
  • For biographies see BFA1:116-17, SBR1-16 and SW6, 13:100-1.
  • For his obituary see SW6, 19:161-7.
  • Dodge's books include The Truth of It (1901) [SW6, 13:101] and Whence? Why? Wither? (1907). [SW6, 13:101]
Freeport; New York; United States Arthur Pillsbury Dodge; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam
1916 Apr or May The first Chinese Bahá'í in China, Chen Hai An (Harold A. Chen), becomes a Bahá'í in Chicago through the efforts of Dr Zia Baghdádí. [PH29-30]
  • PH30 says this was 1919 but this is clearly a typographical error.
  • He returns to China in December 1916.
China; Chicago; United States First Bahais by country or area; Zia Baghdadi
1920. 27 Jan The death of Joseph H. Hannen, Apostle of 'Abdu'l-Bahá a week after he was knocked down by a car in Washington, DC. It was Joseph Hannen who served as a note-taker for many of the talks of 'Abdu'l-Bahá during His tour in the United States. A number of the entries in Promulgation of Universal Peace are accredited to him. [The Washington Times28 January, 1928] Washington DC; United States Joseph H. Hannen; Apostles of Abdul-Baha
1920 24 May Charles Greenleaf, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, passes away at the home of William Harry Randall in Boston. [SBR105]
  • For details of his life see SBR97-105.
  • For his obituary see SW11, 19:321-2.
Boston; Massachusetts; United States Charles Greenleaf; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; William Harry Randall; In Memoriam
1922 9 Jan William H. Hoar, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, passes away in Fanwood, New Jersey. [SW12, 19:310]
  • For his obituary see SW12, 19:310-12.
Fanwood; New Jersey; United States William Hoar; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
1922 19 Feb Helen Goodall, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, passes away in San Francisco. [SEBW33]
  • See SEBW21-33 for details of her life.
San Francisco; United States Helen Goodall; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam
1922 Apr Shoghi Effendi sends verbal messages through Consul Schwarz to Germany and Ethel Rosenberg to Britain to form local spiritual assemblies and to arrange for the election of a national spiritual assembly in each country. [CB293; ER209, 211-12; PP56]

To the United States and Canada he sends a message to transform the `Executive Board' into a legislative institution. [CB293; CT160; ER211-12; PP56]

Germany; United Kingdom; United States; Canada Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Consuls; Albert Schwarz; Ethel Rosenberg; National Spiritual Assemblies; Local Spiritual Assemblies; Spiritual Assemblies; Executive Board
1922 Apr Shoghi Effendi calls for the Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity to become an elected legislative body. It had been functioning since 1909 concerned mostly with the construction of the Bahá'í House of Worship. He addresses his first letter to this body as the "National Spiritual Assembly of the United States" on December 23rd however in God Passes By pg333 he states that the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States was not formed until 1925. [SETPE1p107, CT160, CoB293] Chicago; United States Executive Board; Bahai Temple Unity; National Spiritual Assemblies; Spiritual Assemblies; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Chicago; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
1922 25 Apr A National Spiritual Assembly was elected in the United States to replace the Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity. [SBR94]
  • The difference between this body and its forerunner is little more than a change in name. [DP122]
  • The conversion of the Bahá'í Temple Unity into the National Spiritual Assembly took four years; it was not until 1925 that Shoghi Effendi recognized the American national body as a National Spiritual Assembly. [CT161; DP121-2; GPB333]
  • The election procedure followed that used in the United States: there was electioneering and candidates were nominated, with a straw poll taken to trim the number of eligible candidates. [CT160; DP122]
Chicago; United States National Spiritual Assemblies; Spiritual Assemblies; Executive Board; Bahai Temple Unity; Elections; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
1924 28 Jan Isabella Brittingham, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, passes away at the Revell home in Philadelphia. [SEBW138]
  • For her life see SEBW131-8.
Philadelphia; United States Isabella Brittingham; Disciples of Abdul-Baha
1925 4–9 Jul The Seventeenth Annual Convention of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada is held at Green Acre. [GAP117; SBR94]
  • National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada is elected for the first time. [GPB333, SETPE1p107]
  • Like the previous attempts at electing a National Assembly in 1922, 1923 and 1924, the delegates didn't fully understand the Bahá'í election procedure. Nine members were elected as well as nine alternates whose purpose was to replace absent members. [SETPE1p108]
  • The members were: Alfred Lunt, William Randall, May Maxwell, George Latimer, Louis Gregory, Elizabeth Greenleaf, Mariam Haney and Keith Ransom-Kehler with Horace Holley becomes its first full-time secretary. [BW13:852; SBR233, SETPE1p108]
United States; Canada Alfred Lunt; William Randall; May Maxwell; George Latimer; Louis Gregory; Elizabeth Greenleaf; Mariam Haney; Keith Ransom-Kehler; Horace Holley; National Spiritual Assemblies; First NSAs
1925 Dec "A Plan of Unified Action to Spread the Baha'i Cause Throughout the United States and Canada January 1, 1926-December 31, 1928" was formulated by The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada in response to Shoghi Effendi's message to the annual National Convention. [BA86-89]
  • It can be found at [Plan] The goals were (1) to unify the American Bahá'í community's efforts, (2) to increase the number of Bahá'ís, (3) to "penetrate the consciousness of the public with the spirit of Bahá'u'lláh", and (4) to raise $400,000 so that the construction of the first unit of the Temple's superstructure could begin. [SBBR14p160, BFA1p110]

  • This was the first of two Plans developed by the North American National Assembly in the years from 1926 to 1934 the second being "A New Plan of Unified Action To complete the Bahá'í Temple and promote the Cause in America (1931-1934)". [SBBR14p155-197]
  • The above two plans were the first to have the expansion and development of the Bahá'í community as a primary goal and it is likely that they provided the model for other plans organized by Shoghi Effendi and other National Assemblies. [SBBR14p155

  • The first Plan of Unified Action indicates the ascendancy of those Bahá'ís who supported a centralizing authority over those who wanted a more amorphous system or no organization at all.[BiW177-8] For an essay on this subject see "Some Aspects of the Establishment of the Guardianship" by Dr Loni Bramson-Lerche in SBBR5p253-293

  • During the years of these two plans the National Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada developed practices commonly used in subsequent plans, organized propagation, a central budget and the modern form of the Nineteen Day Feast. [SBBR14p160]

National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada Plans
1926 Green Acre comes under the direct supervision of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada. [GAP118] America Green Acre; NSA United States and Canada
1926 Jan Orcella Rexford and her husband Dr Gayne Gregory (the first to accept the Faith in Alaska) come to Haifa on pilgrimage and are technically the first from Alaska to do so. They are in the process of moving from Alaska to the Continental USA. [SETPE1p112-112]
  • See BW11p495-498 for for details of the life of Orella Rexford
Haifa; Alaska; United States First Bahais by country or area
1927 13–16 Jan A World Unity Conference is held in Dayton, Ohio, one of many such conferences to be held in the year in major cities of the United States. [TMW159, 165] Dayton; Ohio; United States Unity Conferences
1927 Oct Shoghi Effendi entrusts Dr William Slater and his wife Ida Slater, who are visiting Haifa on a 19-day pilgrimage, with carpets from the Shrines of the Báb and 'Abdu'l-Bahá for the House of Worship in Chicago. [SETPE1p149] Haifa; Chicago; United States William Slater; Ida Slater; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Bab, Shrine of
1928 7 Aug The word ‘Bahá’í’ is registered with the United States Patent Office as a trademark. [BW6:348] United States Patent Office; Copyright and trademarks
1929 May The American National Spiritual Assembly incorporates as a voluntary Trust. [BBRSM122; GPB335]
  • This enables the National Spiritual Assembly to hold property, receive bequests and enter into contracts. [BBRSM122; GPB335–6]
United States NSA; Voluntary Trust
1930 Apr A ceremony is held at the American annual convention in dedication of the resumption of the building activities on the Wilmette Temple. [BBRSM183; BW3:47]
  • Shoghi Effendi’s gift to the Temple is ‘the most valuable sacred possession in the Holy Land’ a ‘precious ornament of the Tomb of Bahá’u’lláh’, an exquisite Persian carpet. [BA180–1; BW4:208–12]
Wilmette; United States annual convention; Bahai Temple; Bahaullah, Shrine of; gift; Mashriqul-Adhkar; Gifts; Carpets
1930 Aug The National Spiritual Assembly published a statement in the Bahá'í News entitled The Case of Ahmad Sohrab and the New History Society. Summarized, the article stated that the “New History Society was begun in New York early in 1929 by Sohrab and "one of its avowed purposes being to spread the Bahá'í teachings. Neither the local nor the National Assembly was consulted in the matter, and the meetings and activities of the New History Society have been maintained apart from the principles of consultation which today, under the Will and Testament of 'Abdu’l-Bahá, form the basis of Bahá'í unity and the protection of the Cause."

"Both the local and National Assembly on several occasions attempted, through oral and written communications, to bring about full and frank consultation with the leaders of the New History Society, but without success.

"Under these conditions it becomes the obvious responsibility of the National Spiritual Assembly to inform the friends that activities conducted by Ahmad Sohrab through the New History Society are to be considered as entirely independent of the Cause, as outside the jurisdiction of the local and National Assembly, and hence in no wise entitled to the cooperation of Bahá'ís."

This statement also quoted from a letter written on behalf of the Guardian by his Secretary to the National Spiritual Assembly on May 30, 1930: "To accept the Cause without the administration is like accepting the teachings without acknowledging the divine station of Bahá’u’lláh. To be a Bahá'í is to accept the Cause in its entirety...." "The administration is the social order of Bahá'u'lláh. Without it all the principles of the Cause will remain abortive. To take exception to this, therefore, is to take exception to the fabric that Bahá'u'lláh has prescribed, it is to disobey His law." [Ahmad Sohrab and the New History Society]

New York; United States Covenant-breakers; Ahmad Sohrab; New History Society
1930 Nov The National Assembly published a detailed supplementary statement in the Bahá’í News, quoting passages from the Aqdas, from the Master's Will and Testament, and from the Guardian's letters published in Bahá’í Administration, followed by a reprint of the exchange of correspondence and cables with Mrs. Chanler, and with the Guardian, including the Guardian's cable to New York believers: "True unity can only be preserved by maintenance paramount position National Spiritual Assembly," and his cable approving the statement published in August, 1930, Bahá'í News. Further, in a letter from Haifa to the Yonkers Assembly, “The Guardian pointed out the difference between the freedom defined by Bahá'u'lláh ("To have liberty is to observe My commandments") and that advocated by Sohrab ("The other kind of freedom which is in defiance of law He (Bahá'u'lláh) considers to be animal, and far from being of any good to man"). [Ahmad Sohrab and the New History Society] New York; United States Covenant-breakers; Ahmad Sohrab; New History Society
1931 Nov The New York Bahá’í community drafts the by-laws of a Bahá’í local assembly. [GPB335]
  • These become the pattern for all local Bahá’í constitutions throughout the world. [BBRSM122; GPB335; PP303]
New York; United States By-laws
1934 23 Jan Agnes S. Parsons dies after an automobile accident. [BW5:410; SBR96]
  • She is primarily remembered for her contribution to the cause of race unity in North America. [BW5:413]
  • For her obituary see BW5:410–14.
  • See also Diary of Agnes Parsons; SBR76–96.
Washington DC; United States Agnes Parsons; Race; Unity; In Memoriam
1934 28 Aug Mishkín-Qalam’s calligraphic rendering of the Greatest Name is registered as a trade-mark with the United States patent office. [BW6:350] America Mishkin-Qalam; Greatest Name; United States patent office; Copyright and trademarks
1935 Mar World Order magazine is founded. [SBR206, 236]
  • The publication of The World Order of Bahá'u'lláh. "These...communications unfold a clear vision of the relation between the Bahá'í community and the entire process of social evolution under the Dispensation of Bahá'u'lláh." [WOBv]
  • There was a break in publication from 1949 to 1966. [Bahá'í Works]
United States World Order magazine; Periodicals
1935 Oct Shoghi Effendi writes to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada stating that the laws of fasting, obligatory prayer, the consent of parents before marriage, the avoidance of alcoholic drinks and monogamy should be regarded as universally applicable and binding. [CB313] United States; Canada Laws; Gradual implementation of laws
1943 4 Sep The first local spiritual assembly in Alaska is established at Anchorage. Anchorage; Alaska; United States First Local Spiritual Assemblies
1947 spring The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada is accredited by the United Nations as a non-governmental organization. [BW12:597; PP303] America NSA United States and Canada; United Nations; NGO
1949 Agnes Harrison (née Parent), an Athabascan, becomes a Bahá’í in Alaska, the first Native Alaskan to accept the Faith in the country. Alaska; United States First Bahais by country or area
1950 Apr Shoghi Effendi announces the Africa Campaign in a cable to the British national convention. [BW12:52; UD245–6]
  • The British community is to lead the campaign supported by the Bahá’ís of the United States and Egypt. [UD245]
  • For the objectives of the campaign see UD245–6.
  • For the importance of the enterprise see UD260–3.
  • The plan is to be launched after a year’s respite but the British Bahá’ís begin to implement the plan immediately. [CB317]
United Kingdom; United States; Egypt Plans; Africa Campaign
1951 Ridván Several National Spiritual Assemblies-Britain, Egypt, India, Iran and the United States, join forces in their first collaborative teaching effort called the Africa Campaign (1951-1953). [Ruhi 8.2 p46, BBRSM158, MBW135-140] United Kingdom; United States; Egypt; India; Iran Plans; Africa Campaign
1952 1 Jun In a letter written on behalf of the Guardian by the Assistant Secretary, the National Spiritual Assembly was informed that Ahmad Sohrab had cabled the Israeli Minister of Religion to influence the court case brought by the Covenant-breakers, against the Guardian, and which resulted in complete vindication of the Guardian's control of the Bahá'í Shrines and properties. Sohrab's cable identified the Caravan with the Covenant-breakers and stated that the organization was not under the authority of Shoghi Effendi. In a letter dated May 25, 1941, the Guardian wrote through his Secretary that Sohrab "is no doubt the most subtle, resourceful and indefatigable enemy the Faith has had in America." United States Covenant-breakers; New History Society; Ahmad Sohrab
1952 8 Oct Holy Year, "The Great Jubilee", October 1952 to October 1953, is inaugurated. [BW12:116; DG84; PP409–10; SBR170–1]
  • Centenary celebrations of the birth of Bahá’u’lláh’s mission are initiated. [MBW16–18]
  • Four international conferences are scheduled in Kampala, Wilmette (dedication of the Temple), Stockholm and New Delhi. [SETPE2p31-43]
Kampala; Uganda; Wilmette; United States; Stockholm; Sweden; New Delhi; India Holy Years; Centenaries
1953 29 Apr - 2 May The All-American Jubilee celebrations begin. [BW12:149] United States Centenaries
1954 The first Tlinget from Alaska to become a Bahá’í, Eugene King, enrols. Alaska; United States First Bahais by country or area find reference
1954 May Elinore Putney arrives in the Aleutian Islands and is named a Knight of Bahá’u‘lláh. [BW13:449] Aleutian Islands; Alaska; United States; Russia Knights of Bahaullah
1956 The first Tlinget to become a Bahá’í in Alaska, Joyce Anderson Combs, enrols. Alaska; United States First Bahais by country or area
1957 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Alaska is formed and incorporated immediately upon formation.
  • This is the first time a political entity (i.e. the United States) is subdivided to form a national spiritual assembly. [BW13:270]
Alaska; United States NSA; First National Spiritual Assemblies
1958 The first Aleut to become a Bahá’í, Vassa Lekanoff, enrols in Unalaska. Unalaska; Alaska; United States First Bahais by country or area
1959 The first Eskimo in Alaska to become a Bahá’í, William Wiloya, enrols in Nome. Nome; Alaska; United States First Bahais by country or area; Eskimos
1959 Bahá’í communities in the United States begin the observation of World Peace Day to call attention to the need for world peace. [BBD175]
  • This was replaced in 1985 by the observance of the UN International Day of Peace, which occurs on the third Tuesday in September. [BBD175]
United States World Peace Day; United Nations; International Day of Peace; Peace
1961 Knud Jensen (of mixed Danish, St Thomanian parentage), the first local person to become a Bahá’í in the Virgin Islands, enrols. Virgin Islands; United States First Bahais by country or area
1964 5 Nov Followers of Charles Mason Remey file suit in the United States District Court for Northern Illinois against the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States, claiming they are the rightful owners of all Bahá’í properties and funds in the United States. [BW14:95]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States files a counter claim asking the court to restrain the Covenant-breakers from using Bahá’í names and symbols protected by trademark. [BW14:95]
United States Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; National Spiritual Assemblies; Court cases; Copyright and trademarks
1965 23 Mar The case filed by the followers of Charles Mason Remey against the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States is dismissed on technical grounds. [BW14:95]
  • The Covenant-breakers file a further suit. [BW14:95]
United States Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; National Spiritual Assemblies; Court cases; Copyright and trademarks
1966 8 Mar The second suit brought against the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States by the followers of Charles Mason Remey, who claim to he the lawful owners of all Bahá’í properties and funds in the United States, is dismissed. [BW14:95] United States Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; National Spiritual Assemblies; Court cases; Copyright and trademarks
1966 7 Apr The passing of Ali Kuli Khan in Washington, DC. [BW14p351] Washington DC; United States Ali-Kuli Khan; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
1966 1 Jun The counter-claim of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States against the followers of Charles Mason Remey restraining them from using Bahá’í names and symbols, is upheld when the Covenant-breakers fail to appear at the trial. [BW14:95] United States Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; National Spiritual Assemblies; Copyright and trademarks; Court cases
1967 21 Feb The Universal House of Justice establishes the International Bahá’í Audio-Visual Centre in Victor, New York. [BW14:91–2] Victor; New York; United States International Bahai Audio-Visual Centre; Audio-Visual Centers; Universal House of Justice
1970 19 – 21 Jun Rúhíyyih Khánum interrupts her African teaching safari to meet with more than 2,000 youth at the National Youth Conference in the United States. [BW15:331; VV10] United States Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum, Travels; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth
1974 The first Native Council takes place in Haines, Alaska, attended by 50 native Bahá’ís. Haines; Alaska; United States Firsts, Other
1976 10 Jan The most northerly-located local spiritual assembly in the world is formed in the Iñupiat community of Barrow, Alaska. Barrow; Alaska; United States LSA; Superlatives
1976 24 Apr The passing of Mark George Tobey (b. December 11, 1890 Centerville, Wisconsin – d. April 24, 1976 Basel, Switzerland) [Bahá'í News page 341, Wiki, VV119]
  • He had been introduced to the Faith by Bernard Leach. [OPOP223]
  • Another version is that In 1918 Mark Tobey came in contact with Juliet Thompson and posed for her. During the session Tobey read some Bahá'í literature and accepted an invitation to Green Acre where he converted. [Seitz, William Chapin (1980). Mark Tobey. Ayer Publishing. p. 44]
  • Tobey was one of the twentieth century’s most cosmopolitan of artists. An inveterate traveler—he eventually settled in Basel, Switzerland—he was always better known in Europe than in his homeland. His mature ‘white writing’ works are made up of pulsing webs of lines inspired by oriental calligraphy, explicitly acknowledged the direct influence of the Baha’i Faith on his painting. It has been said that Tobey “made line the symbol of spiritual illumination, human communication and migration, natural form and process, and movement between levels of consciousness.” He often stated, “that there can be no break between nature, art, science, religion, and personal life".
  • See Bahá'í World 1994-95 pg248 for an article by Anne Boyles entitled "The Language of the Heart: Arts in the Bahá'í World Community" for mention of Mark Tobey.
  • For his obituary see BW17:401–4.
  • Towards the end of his life, Tobey was the recipient of some of the highest distinctions that the European art scene of his time could bestow. He won the gold medal at the Venice Biennale in 1958—the first American painter to do so since 1895. In 1961, a major retrospective of his work was held at the Louvre in Paris, an unprecedented achievement for a living and American artist.
  • See The Journal of Bahá'í Studies, Volume 26, number 4 – Winter 2016 p94 for an article by Anne Gordon Perry entitled Anne Gould Hauberg and Mark Tobey: Lives Lived for Art, Cultivated by Spirit.
  • An exhibition, Mark Tobey: Threading Light showed at the Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice, 6 May to 10 September 2017 and at the Addison Gallery of American Art, Phillips Academy, Andover, Massachusetts, 4 November 2017–11 March 2018.
Centerville; Wisconsin; United States Basel; Switzerland In Memoriam; Mark Tobey; Bernard Leach; Anne Gould Hauberg; Arts; Painting
1976 23 – 25 Jul An International Teaching Conference is held in Anchorage, Alaska, attended by 1,005 Bahá’ís. [BW17:81]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:130–1.
  • For pictures see BW17:110, 113, 116–17.
Anchorage; Alaska; United States Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching
1982 25 May The Subcommittee on Human Rights and International Organizations of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the United States House of Representatives hears the testimony of six witnesses concerning the persecution of the Bahá’ís in Iran. [BW18:172] Washington; DC Subcommittee on Human Rights and International Organizations of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the United States House of Representatives; religious persecution
1984 Ridván Delegates at the United States National Convention petition the Universal National Convention House of Justice requesting that the law of Huqúqu’lláh be made binding on the American Bahá’ís. [AWH30; ZK146–77]
  • The Universal House of Justice replies that it is not yet the time to take this step. [AWH30, Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 6 August, 1984]
United States National Conventions; Huququ'llah; Gradual implementation of laws
1985 3 – 7 Jul An International Youth Conference to support the United Nations International Youth Year is held in Columbus, Ohio, United States attended by more than 3,200 youth from 42 nations. [BW19:300] Columbus; Ohio; United States; North America Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth; International Youth Year
1988 18 Dec H. Borrah Kavelin, former member of the first House of Justice, passes away in Albuquerque, New Mexico. [VV97] Albuquerque; New Mexico; United States Borrah Kavelin; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Births and deaths; In Memoriam
1990 26 Jan The Bahá'í Chair for World Peace is established at the University of Maryland's Centre for International Development and Conflict Management at the official signing of the Memorandum of Understanding. [AWH76; BINS217:7; VV108]
  • Professor Suheil Bushrui is appointed to the Chair in 1992.
  • For picture see VV108.
Maryland; United States Baha'i Chair World Peace; Suheil Bushrui
1990 31 Mar 31 – 1 Apr The first Bahá'í International Chinese Symposium is held in San Francisco, California; it is attended by 362 Bahá'ís from eight countries. [BINS222:6] San Francisco; California; United States International; Chinese Symposium
1991 The first major public statement of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States, The Vision of Race Unity: America's Most challenging Issue, is published and disseminated widely throughout the country. United States Find ref
1992 18 Jun The passing of Counsellor Isobel Sabri, member of the International Teaching Centre in England. She was born in California in 1924. Letter from the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada to all Local Spiritual Assemblies date the 16th of October 1992. [VV124] California; United States; United Kingdom Counsellors; Isobel Sabri; International Teaching Centre; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
1992 23 – 26 Nov The Second World Congress was held in New York City to commemorate the centenary of the passing of Bahá'u'lláh and the completion of the Six Year Plan. It was attended by some 28,000 Bahá'ís from some 180 countries. [BBD240] [VV136-141] [BW92-3p98-101, 136]
  • Nine auxiliary conferences were held in Buenos Aires, Sydney, New Delhi, Nairobi, Panama City, Bucharest, Moscow, Apia and Singapore. [BINS283:3-4]
  • For pictures see [BINS283:9-10], [BW92-3p100] and [VV136-141]
  • "New York will become a blessed spot from which the call to steadfastness in the Covenant and Testament of God will go forth to every part of the world." - 'Abdu'l-Bahá [AWH77-8 90-1 105-6]
  • On the 25th of November a concert was held in Carnegie Hall as a birthday tribute to Dizzy Gillespie called "Celebrating the Bahá'í Vision of World Peace". [VV141]
  • On the 26th of November Bahá'ís around the world are linked together by a live satellite broadcast serving the second Bahá'í World Congress, the nine auxiliary conferences and the Bahá'í World Centre and is received by those with access to satellite dish antennas. [BINS283:1–5, 8; BINS286:10; BINS287:4]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice read on the satellite link see BW92–3:37–4.
  • For accounts of personal experiences by some of the attendees see In the Eyes of His Beloved Servants: The Second Bahá'í World Congress and Holy Year by J. Michael Kafes.
New York; United States; Buenos Aires; Argentina; Sydney; Australia; New Delhi; India; Nairobi; Kenya; Panama; Bucharest; Romania; Moscow; Russia; Apia; Western Samoa; Singapore Dizzy Gillespie; World Congresses; Carnegie Hall
1993 16 Oct The passing of Marzieh Nabíl Carpenter Gail, the second child and eldest daughter of the first Persian-American marriage in the Bahá'í Faith between Persian diplomat Ali-Kuli Khan and Boston debutante Florence Breed. (b. 1 April, 1908) [BW1993-1994p320-321, Find a grave]
  • A translator (Arabic and Persian into English) and author. Poet Roger White would say of his friend: "She is the first lady of Bahá'í literature and I and many writers are indebted to her for leading the way."
  • translations include: The Seven Valleys and the Four Valleys (1945) and The Secret of Divine Civilization (1957) with her father; Memorials of the Faithful (1971); Selections from the Writings of 'Abdu'l-Bahá (1976) with a Committee at the Bahá'í World Centre; My Memories of Bahá'u'lláh (1982).
  • author of a dozen Bahá'í and non-Bahá'í books in addition to countless essays, articles, and short stories. Her remembrances of 'Abdu'l-Bahá are contained in The Sheltering Branch (1959), and those of His Exalted Sister in Khanum: The Greatest Holy Leaf (1981).
  • Many of her essays and pioneering stories are contained in Dawn Over Mount Hira (1976) and Other People, Other Places (1982). As well she wrote “Six Lessons in Islam” (1953), Summon Up Remembrance (1987), Arches of the Years (1991) and, “Bahá'í Glossary” (1955). [Bahá'í Studies Review, Vol6, 1996]
San Francisco; United States Marzieh Gail; Ali-Kuli Khan; Florence Breed; Bahai scholars; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
1995 Jan By decision of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United State the Wilmette Institute is established as an agency of the National Assembly. "The Wilmette Institute is a center of Bahá’í learning. Its programs aim to facilitate study and dialogue on the teachings and principles of the Faith to help individuals and communities apply learning and advance human civilization." In 1998, the Wilmette Institute moved to a largely online study approach in order to provide educational classes to a broader student body. [Wilmette Institute] Chicago; United States Wilmette Institute
1998 23 Nov The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States announced the results of the elections for their first Regional Councils. Four were elected in the regions corresponding to those mentioned in The Tablets of the Divine Plan. [Results of the First Regional Bahá'í Council Election] United States Regional Bahai Councils; Tablets of the Divine Plan (book)
1999 5 May Firuz Kazemzadeh, Secretary for External Affairs for the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States, is appointed by President Clinton as a member of the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom. White House Press Release US Firuz Kazemzadeh; NSA; United States Commission on International Religious Freedom Find ref
2000 17 Feb The passing of Mildred Mottahedeh in New York. She had been elected to the International Bahá’í Council, the first globally elected Bahá’í body and was the first Bahá'í International Community representative to the United Nations. She was born in Seabright, New Jersey, on 7 August 1908 and was 91. [One Country Jan-Mar 2000 Vol 11 Issue 4] New York; Seabright; New Jersey; United States Mildred Mottahedeh
2002 26 Jun – 2 Jul In commemoration of the Second Bahá'í World Congress 23-26 November in 1992 in New York, a Festival of the Arts is celebrated in that same city. The project is an independent initiative of Global Music, Inc., a Bahá'í-owned company, and associated individuals. It is not under the sponsorship of any Bahá'í institution. The centerpiece event is held at Carnegie Hall featuring a 550-voice choir under the direction of Mr. Tom Price and known as the Voices of Baha. It is composed of Bahá'ís from some 24 countries. [BWNS162] New York; United States Bahai World Congresses; Arts; Music; Carnegie Hall; Tom Price; Voice of Baha; Choirs
2005 Nov Dr. John Grayzei was appointed to the Bahá'í Chair for Peace at the University of Maryland in the United States. He succeeds Suheil Bushrui who held the position since its inauguration in 1992. [BWNS404] Maryland; United States John Grayzei; Suheil Bushrui; Bahai Chair for Peace; University of Maryland
2008 6 – 7 Dec Regional Conferences held in Portland, United States, Chicago, United States, Atlanta, United States and Almaty, Kazakhstan. [ Portand, Chicago, Atlanta, Almaty] Portland; United States; Chicago; United States; Atlanta; United States; Almaty; Kazakhstan Regional Conferences
2008 13 – 14 Dec Regional Conferences held in Stamford, United States, Dallas, United States and Los Angeles, United States. [BWNS677] Stamford; United States; Dallas; Los Angeles; Regional Conferences
2012 Jul The Bahá'í Chair for World Peace was assumed by Professor Hoda Mahmoudi who previously headed a research department at the Bahá'í World Center in Israel. [Bio Professor Hoda Mahmoudi] Maryland; United States Hoda Mahmoudi; Bahai Chair for World Peace; University of Maryland; Firsts, Other
2015 12 Feb The official opening of the new location of the Afnan Library Trust at Sandy, close to Cambridge. The Afnan Library Trust was established in 1985 to manage the collection bequeathed by Hasan Balyuzi when he passed away in 1980. It consists of some 10,000 books, as well as a vast quantity of manuscripts, original letters, maps, documents, periodicals, and unpublished items – some of them dating back to the nineteenth century. [BWNS1040] Sandy; Cambridge MA; United States Afnan Library Trust; Hasan Balyuzi; Libraries; Bahai studies

from the main catalogue

  1. 1867 Petition from Bahá'ís in Shushtar, Iran, to the U.S. Congress, An, in World Order, 37:3 (2006). A petition sent by Bahá'ís in Persia in 1867 to the US Consulate general, seeking assistance in getting Baha'u'llah released from imposed exile. Includes introduction, prepared on behalf of the US NSA. [about]
  2. 1995 U.S. National Bahá'í Convention, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States, in American Bahá'í (1995). Letter to an individual concerning some suggestions about the structure, function, and budget of the US NSA. [about]
  3. A Way Out of No Way, by Hussein Ahdieh and Hillary Chapman: Review, by Donald T. Streets, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies (2017). [about]
  4. Abdu'l-Bahá in America, by Robert H. Stockman, and Abdu'l-Bahá's Journey West: The Course of Human Solidarity, ed. Negar Mottahedeh: Reviews, by Firuz Kazemzadeh, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 23:1-4 (2013). [about]
  5. 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Baltimore, by Allison Vaccaro and Edward E. Bartlett, in Bahá'í News (1982). History of Abdu'l-Baha's visit to Baltimore, Maryland. [about]
  6. 'Abdu'l-Bahá in New York: The City of the Covenant, by Eliane Lacroix-Hopson and Abdu'l-Bahá (1999). [about]
  7. 'Abdu'l-Baha in New York, by Hussein Ahdieh and Hillary Chapman (2012). History of Abdu'l-Baha's visit, concepts and principles he spoke about, the social context of New York at the time, and personal stories of the lives of early American Baha'is. Includes video interview with the author, and Spanish translation. [about]
  8. 'Abdu'l-Bahá in the West: A Biographical Guide of the People Associated with His Travels, by Jan Teofil Jasion: Review, by Anne Gordon Perry, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 25:3 (2015). [about]
  9. 'Abdu'l-Baha Writes to Kansas City, by Duane L. Herrmann (2002). Early history of the Baha'i Faith in the Kansas City Metropolitan Area, from 1896 to 1919 and beyond. Includes three new provisional translations. [about]
  10. `Abdu'l-Bahá's Address at Clark University, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1912). Impromptu remarks on the topic of science and education. [about]
  11. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Encounter with Modernity during His Western Travels, by Wendi Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Abdu'l-Baha's responses to the West's technology and innovations on the one hand, vs. its archaic racist and sexual philosophies on the other. [about]
  12. Abdu'l-Baha's Travels, by Betty Hoff Conow (1970). [about]
  13. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Visit to North America, 1912: A Preliminary Analysis, by Robert Stockman, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Overview of the itinerary of this tour, the state of the Baha'i community and the general social context of the time, and some themes of Abdu'l-Baha's teachings. [about]
  14. `Abdu'l-Bahá, the Standard Bearer of a New Civilization, by Shapour Rassekh, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 23:1-4 (2013). Abdu'l-Bahá's mission and objectives in visiting North American, bringing to the West his principles for a new global age. Includes French original, "‘Abdu’l-Bahá, le porte-drapeau d’une nouvelle civilisation." [about]
  15. Advent of Divine Justice, by Shoghi Effendi (1971). [about]
  16. African Americans in the United States, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Comments about what public role might be played by the Baha'i Faith in America to ameliorate the difficulties faced by African-American males. [about]
  17. Alain Locke: Baha'i Philosopher, by Christopher Buck, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 10 (2001). Biography of one of the important African American intellectuals and his impact on American thought and culture. Includes two letters written by or on behalf of Shoghi Effendi. [about]
  18. Alain Locke, by Christopher Buck, in American Writers: A Collection of Literary Biographies, Supplement XIV (2004). [about]
  19. Alain Locke: Bahá'í Principles and the Salvation of Democracy, by Christopher Buck (2007). Long presentation in slide format on the history and influence of Alain Locke. [about]
  20. Alain Locke: 'Race Amity' and the Bahá'í Faith, by Christopher Buck (2007). Presentation in slide format about the "First Black Rhodes Scholar." [about]
  21. Alain Locke, by Christopher Buck, in Pop Culture Universe: Icons Idols Ideas (2013). [about]
  22. Alain Locke and Cultural Pluralism, by Christopher Buck, in Search for Values: Ethics in Bahá'í Thought (2004). [about]
  23. Alain Locke: Faith and Philosophy, by Christopher Buck: Review, by Derik Smith, in World Order, 38:3 (2008). [about]
  24. Alain Locke: Race Leader, Social Philosopher, Baha'i Pluralist: includes Alain Locke in his Own Words: Three Essays and a poem, by Christopher Buck and Alain Locke, in World Order, 36:3 (2005). Article by Buck, poem "The Moon Maiden" and three essays by Locke introduced by Buck: "The Gospel for the Twentieth Century," "Peace between Black and White in the United States," and "Five Phases of Democracy: Farewell Address at Talladega College." [about]
  25. Alain Locke: Race Leader, Social Philosopher, Bahá'í Pluralist: 94th Annual Commemoration of ‘Abdu'l-Baha's 1912 Visit to Howard University, by Christopher Buck (2006). Available both as audio and PDF, and includes press release. [about]
  26. America and the Most Great Peace interactive study guide, by Duane Troxel (2004). A PDF interactive study guide to Shoghi Effendi's letter "America and the Most Great Peace," which was published in World Order of Baha'u'llah. [about]
  27. American Bahá'í Community in the Nineties, The, by Robert Stockman, in America's Alternative Religions, Timothy Miller, ed. (1995). Overview of the contemporary Baha'i community, its activities, and its concerns. [about]
  28. American Dream, The: Stories from the Heart of Our Nation, by Dan Rather (2001). Commentary on Baha'i persecutions, by a famous TV news anchor. [about]
  29. Arches of the Years, by Marzieh Gail (1991). Early days of the Bahá'í faith in America and of Abdu'l-Bahá's visit in 1912; Phoebe Hearst; Versailles Conference; and about Marzieh Gail herself. [about]
  30. Bahá'í Faith: Prophecy and Conversion, by Brian J. Mistler (2001). Results of a field study of Baha'is in the United States and Australia which demonstrate that family connections and social teachings are greater incentives to conversion than prophecy is. [about]
  31. Baha'i Faith in America, by William Garlington: Review, by Peter Terry (2017). [about]
  32. Bahá'í House of Worship, The: The Meaning of the Temple, by W. Kenneth Christian (1975). Text and scan of a flyer about the Chicago House of Worship, summarizing the history and facts of this Mashriqu'l-Adhkar. [about]
  33. Bahá'í Temple Moves Toward Completion, in The Christian Century, 58:43 (1941). One-paragraph blurb from 1941. [about]
  34. Bahá'í Temple of Universal Peace, The, by Albert Ross Vail, in The Open Court, 45:902 (1931). Short essay on the construction of the temple in Wilmette, and an overview of the Baha'i Faith. [about]
  35. Bahá'í Temple, House of Worship of a World Faith, Commemorating Completion of Exterior Ornamentation, The (1942). Photographs and essays about the construction of the American temple in Chicago. Likely published as a progress report to distribute at the 1942 National Convention. [about]
  36. Bahá'ís of the United States, The, by Robert Stockman, in New Religions (1995). [about]
  37. Betty Becker, Valiant Servant Pioneer, by Earl Redman (2017). The story of a Bahá’í from Kansas who moved first to Alaska to spread the Bahá’í Faith there and then to Chile. Link to document offsite. [about]
  38. Bourgeois, Jean-Baptiste Louis (1856-1930), by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram (1997). Short biography of the architect and designer of Mashriqu'l-Adhkar at Wilmette, Illinois. [about]
  39. Business, Development, and the Bahá'í Funds (1993). Compilation by the Office of the Treasurer on the challenge for America, business ventures and development, dependencies of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, fundraising, safeguarding contributions, and earmarking. Includes many supplemental letters from the UHJ. [about]
  40. Champions of Oneness: Louis Gregory and His Shining Circle, by Janet Ruhe-Schoen: Review, by Lex Musta, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies (2016). [about]
  41. Chicago the Pagan, by Weimar Port (1953). 2-page description of the Baha'i Temple in Wilmette, with a poem about it by Charles Collins published in the Chicago Tribune. [about]
  42. Choice of the West for Abdu'l-Bahá's Epoch-Making Trip, The, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Reasons for Abdu'l-Baha choosing Western nations for the climax of his ministry, and results he achieved in Europe and the United States. [about]
  43. Christianity from a Bahá'í Perspective, by Robert Stockman (1998). Includes two topics: "A Baha'i approach to the Bible" and "Baha'i Writings on Jesus Christ." [about]
  44. Citadel of Faith, by Shoghi Effendi (1980). [about]
  45. Consultation and Compromise in Environment Affairs, by Bill Knight-Weiler, in dialogue magazine, 1:1 (1986). Examples of environmental disagreements — involving ranchers, off-road vehicle use, acid rain, and protected-lands designation — from Oregon and Washington, illustrating how the process of consultation can lead to environmental protection. [about]
  46. Daily Lessons Received at Akka: January 1908, by Helen S. Goodall and Ella Goodall Cooper (1979). Includes translations of three Tablets of Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
  47. Encouragement, Challenges, Healing, and Progress: The Bahá'í Faith in Indigenous Communities, by Alfred Kahn, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 26:3 (2016). On the challenges of community-building among Indigenous people, written from the perspective of a childhood spent among Baha'i pioneers on Native American land, and on reconciling traditional views with global Baha'i teachings. [about]
  48. Fifty Three Years In Syria, by Henry H. Jessup (1910). Passing encounters between Baha'is and a Christian missionary in Iran, 1867-1901. [about]
  49. From Iran East and West, in Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, 2 (1984). [about]
  50. God & Apple Pie: Religious Myths and Visions of America, by Christopher Buck (2015). Introduction by J. Gordon Melton (Professor of American Religious History, Baylor University), and two sample chapters: "Native American Myths and Visions of America" and "Black Muslim Myths and Visions of America." [about]
  51. Green Acre Bahá'í Institute vs. Town of Eliot, Maine (1954). Two court decisions regarding the tax exempt status of the Green Acre Baha'i School, 1954 and 1963, and notes from a 1997 follow-up. [about]
  52. Gregory, Louis G.: The Advancement of Racial Unity in America, by Harlan F. Ober, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 12 (April 1950-1954) (1993). Short biography of an early African-American Baha'i. [about]
  53. Guardian's Seven Year Plan for the American Bahá'ís: 1946-1953, by Shoghi Effendi (1946). Teaching goals, institutional objectives, financial statistics, and other information from the Guardian pertaining to the American community. [about]
  54. High Endeavors: Letters to Alaska, by Shoghi Effendi (1976). [about]
  55. History of the Bahá'í Faith in Boston, by The Pluralism Project (2010). Two short documents by Harvard University's religious pluralism project: "Timeline of the Bahá’í Faith in Greater Boston" and "The Bahá’í Faith in Greater Boston." [about]
  56. Illustrated description of a design in the Persian-Indian style of architecture for the first Mashrak-el-Azkar (Bahai temple) to be erected in America, by Charles Mason Remey (1920). Expanded version of a portion of Remey's earlier Mashrak-el-Azkar [Mashriqu'l-Adhkár]: Descriptive of the Bahai temple, with photographs of Temple models. [about]
  57. Indian Nations and National Spiritual Assemblies, by Universal House of Justice (2002). American Indian nations are not fully sovereign and thus do not have their own National Spiritual Assemblies. [about]
  58. Individual Rights and Freedoms, by Universal House of Justice (1988). An important and often-quoted letter about rights and freedom of expression in the Bahá'í community, as contrasted with those in American civil society. [about]
  59. Interracial "Bahá'í Movement" and the Black Intelligentsia, The: The Case of W. E. B. Du Bois, by Christopher Buck, in Journal of Religious History, 36:4 (2012). Du Bois’s encounters with the Baha’i religion from 1910 to 1953, his connection to the New York Baha’i community, and discussion of segregated Baha’i meetings in Tennessee in 1937. [about]
  60. Introduction to a Statement on Race Unity, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1997). An informal letter on the "most challenging issue confronting America." [about]
  61. Localities where Bahá'ís live (United States, 1935), in Bahá'í World, Vol. 6 (1934-1936) (1937). [about]
  62. Localities where Bahá'ís live (world, 1932), in Bahá'í World, Vol. 5 (1932-1934) (1934). [about]
  63. Localities where Bahá'ís live (world, 1938), in Bahá'í World, Vol. 8 (1938-1940) (1942). [about]
  64. Localities where Bahá'ís live (world, 1940), in Bahá'í World, Vol. 9 (1940-1944) (1945). [about]
  65. Localities where Bahá'ís live (world, 1944), in Bahá'í World, Vol. 10 (1944-1946) (1949). [about]
  66. Localities where Bahá'ís live (world, 1946), in Bahá'í World, Vol. 11 (1946-1950) (1952). [about]
  67. Localities where Bahá'ís live (world, 1956): detailed map, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 12 (April 1950-1954) (1956). [about]
  68. Los Angeles, Living in, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Baha'is have not been advised to avoid living in Los Angeles, but should still recall the importance of pioneering and not congregating in insular communities. [about]
  69. Mashrak-el-Azkar: Descriptive of the Bahai temple, by Charles Mason Remey (1917). Preliminary designs for the first Mashriqu'l-Adhkár to be built in America, showing nine varying treatments in different styles of architecture; includes discussions of the Ashkhabad temple and Baha'i history, and a 1908 letter to Star of West. [about]
  70. Message from Abdu'l-Baha, Head of the Baha'is, A, in New York Times (1912). News article of Abdu'l-Baha's tour. Includes scanned image of various newspaper clippings and photographs of Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
  71. Message to the Indian and Eskimo Bahá'ís of the Western Hemisphere, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum (1969). An overview of the Baha'i Faith, written to the native Inuit and First Nations peoples of North America. [about]
  72. Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-86, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
  73. Messages to America, by Shoghi Effendi (1947). [about]
  74. Messengers of God in North America, Revisited: An Exegesis of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Tablet to Amír Khán, by Christopher Buck and Donald Addison, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). The indigenous peoples of the Americas have their own claim to wisdom tradition, which derive from Messengers of God to First Nations. This principle is anchored in the Tablet to Amír Khán Áhan. [about]
  75. Mortensen, Fred, by Justin Penoyer (2007). Three biographies of an American who met Abdu'l-Baha, by his great-grandson. [about]
  76. Music, Devotions, and Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram, in Studies in Babi and Bahá'í History, volume 4 (1987). An in-depth examination of the development of music and hymns within American Baha'i devotional life, some history of the Chicago community, and the architecture and construction of the Wilmette temple. Includes sheet music and design plans. [about]
  77. National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States vs. New Mexico Covenant-Breakers, in United States Patent Quarterly, 150 (1966). Documents from the lawsuit by the NSA vs. the New Mexico covenant-breaker group "The National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of the United States of America Under the Hereditary Guardianship, Inc." for their use of Baha'i names and titles. [about]
  78. Not Just for Consumers: An Argument for Depicting Diverse Beliefs on U.S. Television, by Deborah Clark Vance, in Diversity and Mass Communication: Evidence of Impact, ed. Amber Reetz Narro and Alice C. Ferguson (2007). [about]
  79. Notes on the Thornton Chase Papers, by Robert Stockman (1985). Unformatted notes, ordered chronologically, on early American Baha'i Thornton Chase. [about]
  80. Numinous Land, The: Examples of sacred geometry and geopiety in formalist and landscape paintings of the prairies, by Kim Ennis (2012). Includes many references to the Baha'i Faith and its influence on contemporary artists. Link to thesis (offsite). [about]
  81. Persian Rival to Jesus, and His American Disciples, The, by Robert P. Richardson, in The Open Court, 29:8 (1915). History and teachings of the Bábi and Bahá'í religions and contemporary American disagreements, from an unsympathetic outsider's perspective. Followed by three letters-to-the-editor from three subsequent issues. Needs a second proofreading. [about]
  82. Petition from the Persian Reformers (1867). A petition sent by Baha'is in Baghdad and Shushtar, Iran, in 1867 to the US Consulate general, seeking assistance in getting Baha'u'llah released from imposed exile. [about]
  83. Photo brochure of the Bahá'í Temple in Wilmette, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1965). A booklet of color photographs, postcard-size and quality, with text and statistics about the Temple. [about]
  84. Plan of Unified Action to Spread the Bahá'í Cause, A: Throughout the United States and Canada January 1 1926 - December 31 1928, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada (1925). The first of two plans of systematic activity in Baha'i history, followed by "A new plan of unified action to complete the Baha'i temple and promote the cause in America 1926-1930." [about]
  85. Preparing Bahá'í Communities in the East and West to Embrace Gender Equality, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Lights of Irfan, 12 (2011). The way Abdu'l-Baha dealt with the matter of gender equality, some of his writings revealed in honor of the Bahá’í women in Iran and North America, and the practical ways he educated Baha'i men to accept women as their equals. [about]
  86. Rabindranath Tagore: Some Encounters with Bahá'ís, by Peter Terry (1992). 'Abdu'l-Baha is alleged to have met India's poet laureate Tagore in Chicago in 1912. This article examines the historical sources for that story. [about]
  87. Recognition of Bahá'í Marriage and Holidays in American State Law (1998). List of sample legal statutes and proceedings from various states, followed by specific legal counsel of the State of Oklahoma regarding recognition of Baha'i holy days. [about]
  88. Reconciling the Other: The Bahá'í Faith in America as a Successful Synthesis of Christianity and Islam, by Anthony Lee (1995). [about]
  89. Religious Myths and Visions of America, by Christopher Buck: Review, by Richard Kyle, in Journal of American History (2011). [about]
  90. Religious Myths and Visions of America, by Christopher Buck: Review, by Iren E. Annus, in Nova Religio: The Journal of Alternative and Emergent Religions , 15:3 (2012). [about]
  91. (Report to the) American Oriental Society / A New Prophet, by Austin Wright, in The Literary World, 228:8 (1851). First paper on Bábí history, from a letter to the American Oriental Society, published in multiple newspapers, including translation into German. Includes preface by Steven Kolins. [about]
  92. Ridván 1996 (Four Year Plan) - To the Followers of Bahá'u'lláh in North America: Alaska, Canada, Greenland and the United States: Bahá'í Era 153, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Country-specific portion of the annual message to the Bahá'ís of the world: North America. [about]
  93. Searchable online catalogues for US National Bahá'í Library and Louhelen Library, by Roger M. Dahl and Lewis Walker (2014). Overview of and links to online catalogues for two American Baha'i archives. [about]
  94. Statistical information on the Bahá'ís of the United States, 1979, by Bahá'í World Centre (1979). Document issued to delegates to the annual National Spiritual Assembly elections, April 1979. [about]
  95. Story of the Last One Hundred Years of the Baha'i Faith in Seattle, The, by Zabine Van Ness (2007). Compiled for the 2007 centenary of the Seattle and Spokane Bahá’í assemblies, detailing the 100 year history of the Bahá'í Faith in Seattle. [about]
  96. Summon Up Remembrance, by Marzieh Gail (1987). Memoir left by Ali-Kuli Khan, one of the first translators of Baha'i Writings; writings of his wife Florence; other family papers and memories. [about]
  97. Tablet to Amir Khan and Tablet of the Holy Mariner, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Three letters about Abdu'l-Baha'is Tablet to Amír Khán; one letter about the Tablet of the Holy Mariner, the "Call of God," and Native American Prophets; short note from David Ruhe about Deganawida. [about]
  98. Television Address of Iranian President Khatami, by Universal House of Justice and Bahá'í International Community (1998). Questions and answers about a historically unique television interview of Iranian President Khatami, given on CNN Wednesday, Jan 7, 1998. [about]
  99. This Decisive Hour: Messages from Shoghi Effendi to the North American Bahá'ís 1932-1946, by Shoghi Effendi (1992). Expanded version of Messages to America. Includes glossary of Baha'i terms. [about]
  100. Transmission of Cultural Values in Persian Bahá'í Families, The, by Stephen Licata (1997). Includes a survey on cultural values in Persian Bahá’í families. [about]
  101. United States National Spiritual Assembly vs. Mirza Ahmad Sohrab (1941). In 1941 the National Spiritual Assembly unsuccessfully sued Covenant Breaker Mirza Ahmad Sohrab for his use of the word "Baha'i." This is the court's conclusions. [about]
  102. United States of America: History of the Bahá'í Faith, by Robert Stockman (1995). History of the Baha'i community of the United States. [about]
  103. Vision of Race Unity: America's Most Challenging Issue, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1991). A formal statement from the US NSA on "the most challenging issue confronting America." [about]
  104. White Bahá'í Men as a sub-group combatting racism, by Universal House of Justice, in American Bahá'í, 31:6 (2000). Use of the phrase "white Baha'i men" in an anti-racism project in North Carolina. [about]
  105. WIPO Domain Name Dispute: Case D2001-1302, "bahaiwomen.com" (2001). A legal ruling finding, on behalf of the Baha'is, that unauthorized use of the domain bahaiwomen.com is a trademark infringement. Followed by a newspaper article from Newsbytes, "Bahá'í Organization Bests Speculator In Domain Dispute." [about]
  106. WIPO Domain Name Dispute: Case D2005-0214, "uhj.net" (2005). A legal ruling finding, against the Baha'is, that covenant breakers are allowed to use the domain uhj.net. [about]
  107. World Baha'i Institute in New York, by Nima Yadollahpour (2002). An architectural proposal for a Baha'i complex in Manhattan, designed structurally and mathematically based on the Seven Valleys. [about]
  108. World Order of Baha'u'llah: Six Talks on the Various Aspects of, by Ali Nakhjavani (2004). Transcripts of six talks given at a week-long course on the World Order of Baha'u'llah, sponsored by the NSA of Italy. Document includes compilation and outline. (This online version compiled from three different editions of this book.) [about]
 
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