Search for tag "War (general)"
|1799 in the year
||Napoleon, returning from Egypt, captured Jaffa and laid siege to Akka.
The French in Egypt were being threatened by the British Fleet. Napoleon's objective was to compare the Ottoman government to come to terms with the French. He defeated the Turks on the Plain of Jereel and advanced as far as Nazareth and Safed but failed to capture Akka. He withdrew his forces in June of 1799. [Handbook of Palestine edited by H C Luke and E Keith Roach, McMillan, London, 1922 pp22-23, Handbook of Palestine]
||Napoleon; Siege of Akka; History (general); War (general)
|1804 - 1813
||Russo-Persian War resulted in a Russian victory. The Battle of Aslan Duz on 31 October 1812 was the turning point in the war, which led to the complete destruction of the Persian army, thus leaving Fath Ali Shah with no other option but to sign the Treaty of Gulistan on 24 October 1813. Numerically, Persian forces had a considerable advantage during the war, a ratio of 5 to 1 over their Russian adversaries, however, the Persian forces were technologically backwards and poorly trained - a problem that the Persian government failed to recognize.
With the Treaty of Gulistan Persia ceded what is now Georgia, Dagestan, parts of northern Armenia, and most of what now comprises modern Azerbaijan to Russia.
||Gulistan; Aslan Duz; Iran; Russia
||Russo-Persian War; Treaty of Gulistan; War (general); History (general)
|1917 6 Apr
||The United States enters World War I.
- See CF36 for Shoghi Effendi's opinion of its participation in the war.
|Europe; United States
||World War I; War (general); Shoghi Effendi, Life of
|1918 8 Jan
||President Woodrow Wilson in a speech on war aims and peace terms to the United States Congress outlined his Fourteen Points. It was a statement of principles for peace that was to be used for peace negotiations in order to end World War I.
President Wilson was influenced by the Bahá’í Teachings in formulating his Fourteen Points, at least three Bahá’í volumes were known to be in the White House. The Hidden Words appears on a 1921 listing of Wilson’s private library. Also, a compilation on peace given the President by a delegation of Washington Bahá’ís ‘turned up in general reference at the Library of Congress marked “transfer from the White House”‘. And Abdul-Baha on Divine Philosophy (Boston, 1918) is said to have much influenced his thinking. [AY155]
Commenting on the Fourteen Points laid down by the President for the world community, the
Master says that twelve of them derive from principles advocated by Bahá’u’lláh fifty years before, and that these Teachings had been
spread worldwide through various publications, thus becoming known to leaders in Europe and America (Persian Tablets, vol. III, p. 312). [AY156-157]
|United States; Washinton DC
||Woodrow Wilson; Fourteen Points; History (general); Principles; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha on Divine Philosophy; Peace; World War I; War (general); United States, Presidents; Z****
||The first Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Budapest is elected. There are about 14 believers in the community, mostly of Jewish ancestry. This will cause difficulty for the community in the Nazi persecutions that are to follow. [Rebirth: Memoirs of Renée Szanto-Felbermann p108]
According to the description of Renée Szántó-Felbermann, they could not even meet in Budapest: „It was at their (the Sugárs) house in Alag (today part of Budakeszi) that we elected the first Spiritual Assembly in the history of Hungary, Ridvan 1939. When we boarded the train for Alag, in order to avoid suspicion, we Bahá’ís did not remain together, but went by twos and threes. The same procedure was repeated on our arrival to Alag. It was a memorable, unforgettable evening, that Feast of Ridván in the small house at Alag fragrant with spring flowers. We were all deeply moved. And our dear Bertha Matthiesen was radiant. … Jenő Sugár was elected chairman, Mária Kleinberger became treasurer and I continued as secretary.” [www.bahai.hu]
- Ms Bertha Matthiesen spends a lot of time in Hungary between 1937 and 1939 when most declarations take place and the first spiritual assembly is formed.
- Mr Emeric Sala (Imre Szalavetz) a Canadian Bahá'í who was born in Hungary visits Budapest in 1933 and in 1937.
- Canadian travel teacher Ms Lorol Schopflocher visits Budapest in March-April 1937.
||First Local Spiritual Assemblies; World War II; War (general); Persecution, Hungary; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Jews
|1939 3 Sep
||World War II begins with Britain and France declaring war on Germany after Germany invades Poland.
||Europe; Germany; United Kingdom; France; Poland
||World War II; History (general); 20th century; War (general)
|1945 24 Oct
||The United Nations is formally established.
- For the relationship of the Bahá’í Faith to the United Nations see BW16:327–52.
See SDC64-65 for 'Abdu'l-Bahá's prophetic statement, written in 1875, "True civilization will unfurl its banner...".
|San Francisco; California; United States
||United Nations; Secret of Divine Civilization (book); Collective security; Prophecies; World War II; War (general); Peace; History (general)
|1949. 9 Dec
||The General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the Resolution entitled Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.
- It was largely through the one-man campaign of a Polish jurist, Raphael Lemkin, someone who had lost family members in the Nazi holocaust, and who had invented the term "genocide", that the Resolution was adopted. [In Search of a Better World by Payam Akhavan p91-92]
- The attitude at the time could be summed up in the words "Never again!" however the world would have to wait another 50 years before the International Criminal Court would be established to provide any real meaning to this Resolution.
||Genocide; United Nations; Justice; Law, International; World War II; War (general); History (general)
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- International Criminal Court: A Bahá'í Perspective, by Dan Wheatley, in Associate, 33-34 (2001). Brief history of the ICC, and Baha'i support of it. [about]
- Living Purposefully in a Time of Violence, by Holly Hanson (2001). Contemplation of Baha'i responses to the global issues raised by 9/11. [about]
- Public Discourse on Race: Abdu'l-Bahá's 1912 Howard University Speech, by Christopher Buck (2012). Presentation at Louhelen Bahá’í School on ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and the black intelligentsia, his views of the Civil War and the Emancipation Proclamation, and his message to African Americans and the "Whites." [about]