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Search for tag "World War II"

  1. from the Chronology
  2. from the Chronology Canada
  3. from the Main Catalog

from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1913 7 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá traveled to Bad Mergentheim by automobile to visit the hotel and mineral bath owned by Consul Schwarz, (Later named Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá by Shoghi Effendi). [AB383]
  • Later, in 1916 the local Bahá'í community commemorated the visit with the dedication of a monument, a life-sized likeness of the head of 'Abdu'l-Bahá on a granite stone about two metres in height. The Nazis removed it in 1937 but it was replaced in 2007. [BWNS524]
  • Bad Mergentheim; Germany Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Cars; Consul Schwarz; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Monuments; Abdul-Baha, Pictures and portraits; Portraits; World War II; BWNS
    1913 13 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá was sick and the weather was bitterly cold. He went to the studio of Professor Robert A. Nadler of the Royal Academy of Art to sit for a portrait. He gave him a total of three sittings during His visit to Budapest. [AB387, MRHK368-9]
  • "The portrait is remarkable not only because of its art, but also because of its later miraculous fate. Reportedly, after heavy bombing in 1945, only that part of the building in which the painting was hung remained unharmed." [Renée Szanto-Felbermann Two Portraits p3, Rebirth: Memoirs of Renée Szanto-Felbermann p159]
  • The painting was purchased and taken to the Bahá'í World Centre in 1972. [SBBR14p118]
  • See SBBR14p108 for a picture of the portrait.
  • In the afternoon He visited the home of Sirdar Omrah Singh. [AB387]
  • In spite of a raging blizzard a good many attended His address at the hotel in the evening. [AB387]
  • Budapest; Hungary Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Robert A. Nadler; Abdul-Baha, Pictures and portraits; Portraits; World War II; War (general)
    1937 21 May All Bahá’í activities and institutions were banned in Germany by a special order of the Reichsführer SS and the Gestapo Chief of Staff Heinrich Himmler when he banned the Bahá'í Faith in Germany. He blamed it on the religion’s “international and pacifist tendencies.” The Nazi government increasingly targeted the Bahá'ís after Himmler’s edict, first by tearing down the public memorial to 'Abdu’l-Bahá in Bad Mergntheim and then, in 1939, making mass arrests of the former members of the National Spiritual Assembly. Bahá'ís went to jail, some for very long periods, without charges. In 1942, more mass arrests occurred. Many of the Bahá'ís from Germany and the surrounding countries disappeared in the Nazi concentration camp system. [BBRSM185; Bahá'í Teachings; German Bahá'í website archives] Germany Persecution, Germany; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Bans; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Court cases; World War II; Z****
    1939 Ridván The first Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Budapest was elected. There were about 14 believers in the community, mostly of Jewish ancestry. This caused difficulty for the community in the Nazi persecutions that followed. [Rebirth: Memoirs of Renée Szanto-Felbermann p108]

          According to the description of Renée Szántó-Felbermann, they could not even meet in Budapest: „It was at their (the Sugárs) house in Alag (today part of Budakeszi) that we elected the first Spiritual Assembly in the history of Hungary, Ridvan 1939. When we boarded the train for Alag, in order to avoid suspicion, we Bahá’ís did not remain together, but went by twos and threes. The same procedure was repeated on our arrival to Alag. It was a memorable, unforgettable evening, that Feast of Ridván in the small house at Alag fragrant with spring flowers. We were all deeply moved. And our dear Bertha Matthiesen was radiant. … Jenő Sugár was elected chairman, Mária Kleinberger became treasurer and I continued as secretary.” [www.bahai.hu]

  • See www.bahai.hu for a list of community members.
  • Ms Bertha Matthiesen spent a lot of time in Hungary between 1937 and 1939 when most declarations took place and the first spiritual assembly was formed. [www.bahai.hu]
  • Mr Emeric Sala (Imre Szalavetz) a Canadian Bahá'í who was born in Hungary visited Budapest in 1933 and in 1937. [www.bahai.hu]
  • Canadian travel teacher Ms Lorol Schopflocher visited Budapest in March-April 1937. [www.bahai.hu]
  • Budapest; Hungary LSA; World War II; War (general); Persecution, Hungary; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Jews
    1939 3 Sep World War II began with Britain and France declaring war on Germany after Germany invaded Poland. Europe; Germany; United Kingdom; France; Poland World War II; History (general); War (general)
    1940 15 May Shoghi Effendi determined to go to England; he and Rúhíyyih Khánum left Haifa for Italy en route to London. [PP 178]
  • For the difficulties and dangers of this journey see PP178–80.
  • A few days after their arrival Rúhíyyih Khánum traveled to Genoa to meet her father, Sutherland Maxwell who had arrived on the S.S. Rex from Montreal. After the passing of his wife, Mr. Maxwell had been invited by Shoghi Effendi to come and live in Haifa. [PP178]
  • Haifa; Genoa; Italy; London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; World War II; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1940 25 May Shoghi Effendi and Rúhíyyih Khánum left for England via Menton and Marseilles after having obtained a visa for Britain in Rome. A few days later the Italians enter the war against the Allies. [PP179] Rome; Italy; Menton; Marseilles; France; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; World War II
    1940 2 Jun Shoghi Effendi and Rúhíyyih Khánum left St Malo, France, for England one day before the city was occupied by the Nazis. Shoghi Effendi seemed acutely aware of the danger to himself and to the Faith should he fall into the hands of the Nazis because the Cause had already been banned in Germany and his inveterate enemy, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, was allied with them. [PP 179–80] St Malo; France Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; World War II
    1940 28 Jul Shoghi Effendi, Rúhíyyih Khánum and Sutherland Maxwell left England for South Africa. [PP180]
  • This was the only route open back to Palestine, as Italy’s entrance into the war had closed the Mediterranean to Allied ships. [PP180]
  • The trip across Africa took them to Stanleyville, Congo; Juba in the Sudan; down the Nile to Khartoum and back to Palestine through Cairo. [PP180–1, TG159]
  • Shoghi Effendi had invited Sutherland Maxwell to live with him and Ruhiyyih Khanum in Haifa.
  • United Kingdom; Africa; South Africa; Congo; Sudan; Egypt Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum, Journeys of; Sutherland Maxwell; World War II; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1942 (In the year) Lidia Zamenhof was killed in the gas chambers at Treblinka.
  • For her obituary see BW10:533–8.
  • See also Lidia by Wendy Heller, GR, Oxford, 1985.
  • Treblinka; Poland Lidia Zamenhof; World War II
    1945 8 May The war in Europe ended.
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s response see MA80–1, PP185 and UD175.
  • For the war’s effect on the Bahá’í community worldwide see BW17:80.
  • See CF36 for Shoghi Effendi’s opinion of the significance of the role of the United States in the war.
  • Europe World War II; War (general); History (general)
    1945 14 Aug The German Bahá’ís, 80 per cent of whom lived in the American sector of occupied Germany, obtained permission to re-organize. [BBRSM185]
  • A US soldier stationed in occupied post-war Germany, John Eichenauer, helped during the first days of the reconvening of the community. The American Bahá'ís sent money, food and literature, and aided them in rebuilding the administrative structures. [BWNS390]
  • Brief mention of this event is made in this film on Vimeo.
  • Germany Persecution, Germany; Persecution, Other; Persecution; World War II; BWNS; John Eichenauer; Z****
    1945 2 Sep The war in Japan ended. Japan World War II; War (general); History (general)
    1945 24 Oct The United Nations was formally established.
  • For the relationship of the Bahá’í Faith to the United Nations see BW16:327–52.
  • See SDC64-65 for 'Abdu'l-Bahá's prophetic statement, written in 1875, "True civilization will unfurl its banner...".
  • San Francisco; California; United States United Nations; Secret of Divine Civilization (book); Collective security; Prophecies; World War II; War (general); Peace; History (general)
    1949. 9 Dec The General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the Resolution entitled Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.
  • It was largely through the one-man campaign of a Polish jurist, Raphael Lemkin, someone who had lost family members in the Nazi holocaust, and who had invented the term "genocide", that the Resolution was adopted. [In Search of a Better World by Payam Akhavan p91-92]
  • The attitude at the time could be summed up in the words "Never again!" however the world would have to wait another 50 years before the International Criminal Court would be established to provide any real meaning to this Resolution.
  • Genocide; United Nations; Justice; Law, International; World War II; War (general); History (general)

    from the chronology of Canada

    from the main catalogue

    1. German Bahá'í Community under Nazism, The: A Historical Perspective, by Harry Liedtke (1999). Thoughts on why Bahá’ís, as an international Community or as individuals, did not play an active role in preventing the rise of the Nazis. In truth, they acted heroically and did exactly what was asked of them by the Guardian. [about]
     
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