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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1891. 27 Jun Bahá'u'lláh visits Haifa for the fourth time. [BKG374; DH109; GPB194; RB4:351]
  • He stays three months. [BBD94; BKG374; DH109; GPB194; RB4:351]
  • He lives in the house of Ilyás Abyad near the Templar colony, His tent pitched nearby on the foot of Mount Carmel on HaGefen Street. [BKG374; DH186]
  • Bahá'u'lláh instructs to the Master to arrange the transportation of the remains of the Báb from Persia to the Holy Land and their interment in a mausoleum below the clump of cypress trees at a spot which He indicated with His hand. It is stated that there were 15 tiny cypress trees at that time, each one the size of a finger. See Rob4p363 for a photo of the site indicated. [AB45; BKG374; DH134–5; GPB194]
  • For a story of the difficulties in obtaining land for access to the site of the Shrine of the Báb see SES79-80.
  • One day He pitches His tent a few hundred yards east of the Carmelite monastery and visits the monastery. [DH186]
  • Bahá'u'lláh visits the cave of Elijah. [BKG375; DH174; RB4:3512]
  • He reveals the Lawh-i-Karmil (Tablet of Carmel), the `Charter of the World Spiritual and Administrative Centres of the Faith' near the site of the future Mashriqu'l-Adhkár. [BBD1 18–19; BKG375; DH109, 174; MBW63; RB4:352]
  • For the text of this Tablet see BKG376–7, G14–17 and TB3–5.
  • For an analysis of the text see RB4:353–67.
Haifa Bab, Shrine of; Carmelite monastery; Cave of Elijah; Lawh-i-Karmil (Tablet of Carmel); Charters; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); House of Ilyas Abyad; Templars title; title
1902 28 Nov Construction begins on the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár of `Ishqábád with the laying of its cornerstone. [BFA2:116-17]
  • BBRXXX says this was 12 December. The discrepancy may lie in the use of two different calendars.
  • The foundation stone is laid in the presence of General Subotich, governor-general of Turkistan. [BFA2:116–17; GPB300; see discussion of Krupatkin vs Subotich in whitmore_city_love]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá commissions Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, the Vakílu'd-Dawlih, son of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad, the uncle of the Báb for whom Bahá'u'lláh had revealed The Kitáb-i-Íqán, to be in charge of the project. [AB109]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá Himself delineates the general design and a Russian architect, Volkov, plans and executes the details of the construction. [AB109–10]
  • A meeting hall and some of its dependencies had been built before 1900.
  • Its dependencies include two Bahá'í schools, a travellers' hostel, a medical dispensary and Hazíratu'l-Quds. [BBD122; BBR442; BBRSM:91]
  • For a Western account of this see BBR442–3.
  • See jacket of BBR for a photograph of work on the Temple.
`Ishqabad Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Dependencies of; General Subotich; Krupatkin; Haji Mirza Muhammad-Taqi (Vakilud-Dawlih); Haji Siyyid Muhammad; Volkov; Haziratul-Quds
1907 Feb Corinne True travels to `Akká to present `Abdu'l-Bahá with a scroll with the signatures of 800 Bahá'ís calling for construction to start on the American House of Worship. [CT51–3]
  • BW13:847 says the scroll contained over a thousand signatures.
`Akká Corinne True; House of Worship; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
1908 The outer structure of the House of Worship in `Ishqábád is completed and the dome is in place. [AB110, EB267]
  • The outer decoration will not be completed until 1919.
  • For a description of the Temple, its gardens and environs see BW1:79–81, GPB300–1 and PUP71.
`Ishqábád House of Worship; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
1908 9 Apr Two building plots for the future House of Worship are purchased in Wilmette for the sum of $2000. [BFA2:XVI; BW10:179, GPB262] Wilmette House of Worship; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
1912 1 May `Abdu'l-Bahá lays the cornerstone of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in Wilmette. [239D:51; AB186; GPB288, 349; MBW143]
  • Talk at Dedication of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár Grounds. [PUP71]
  • The cornerstone has been offered by Mrs Nettie Tobin. [AB186]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá asks delegates from the various Bahá'í communities and Bahá'ís from different backgrounds each to dig the earth to lay the stone. [AB186–7]
Chicago; United States Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Nettie Tobin; Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Cornerstones
1920 Apr Louis Bourgeois is selected as the architect for the Chicago House of Worship. [DP94; GPB303; SBBH1:145]
  • For details of the designs and selection process see DP76-100.
  • See CT159 for the source of inspiration for the design.
Wilmette Louis Bourgeois; House of Worship; Wilmette Temple; Chicago Temple; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
1925 22 Nov John Esslemont, Hand of the Cause of God, Disciple of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, passes away in Haifa. [BW3p84-85, BBD81, SETPE1p108-110]
  • For letters of Shoghi Effendi announcing his death and giving details of his life and funeral see BA97–8 and UD40–3.
  • For an obituary see BW1:133–6 and BW8:929–35.
  • He is buried next to the grave of Vakílu’d-Dawlih, the chief builder of the House of Worship at ‘Ishqábád. [DJEE37]
  • Shoghi Effendi elevates him to the station of Hand of the Cause of God on his death. The announcement is made on November 30th. [BA7-98; BWT3:333; DJEE40; PP92; UD403, MoCxxii
  • See also Moojan Momen, Dr John E. Esslemont (BPT UK 1975) and BW8p929-935 for "John Ebenezer Esslemont: His Life and Service" by Jesse E. Revell.
Haifa; Ishqabad Esslemont; Hands of the Cause; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Vakilud-Dawlih; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Appointments
1927 Oct Shoghi Effendi entrusts Dr William Slater and his wife Ida Slater, who are visiting Haifa on a 19-day pilgrimage, with carpets from the Shrines of the Báb and 'Abdu'l-Bahá for the House of Worship in Chicago. [SETPE1p149] Haifa; Chicago; United States William Slater; Ida Slater; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Bab, Shrine of
1928 26–30 Apr The National Convention of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada is held in the Foundation Hall of the House of Worship for the first time. [BW2:180; CT167]
  • See BW2:180 for a picture.
Wilmette National Convention; House of Worship; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
1929 16 Mar In December of 1925 the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of United States and Canada adopted the "Unified Plan of Action" and among the resolutions was to raise some $400,000 over the following three years to construct the first unit of the superstructure of the Temple. By the end of 1926 only $51,000 had been collected and the following year was just as disappointing. At the National Convention in 1928 Fred Schopflocher's donation of $25,000 inspired contributions and the Fund rose to about $87,000 by March 1929. On this day Fred and Lorol Schopflocher contributed a further $100,000. [LoF388-389]
  • See "1937 May".
Montreal; Wilmette; House of Worship; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar; Fred Schopflocher; Lorol Schopflocher; Unified Plan of Action
1931 1 May The superstructure of the Wilmette House of Worship is completed and dedicated. [BW10:180; DP:156–7; SBBH1:145] Wilmette House of Worship; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
1937 May Fred Schopflocher contributes and additional $100,000 (see 16 March, 1929) to the goal of $350,000 to complete the exterior ornamentation of the House of Worship. For is dedication to the construction the Guardian designated him as "Chief Temple Builder". [LoF 388-390, BW12p664] Wilmette; House of Worship; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar; Fred Schopflocher; Unified Plan of Action; Chief Temple Builder
1944 19–25 May An international celebration of the Centenary of the founding of the Faith is held at the House of Worship in Wilmette.
  • For a description of this event see BW10:158–61.
  • For the programme see BW10:162–70.
  • For a list of the countries participating in the conference see BW10:168.
Wilmette Centenary of the founding of the Faith; House of Worship; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
1953 19 Apr Shoghi Effendi announces plans to build a House of Worship in Frankfurt. [BW13:733; LDG191–2]
  • For the difficulties in pursuing the project see BW13:733–7.
Frankfurt; Germany Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship)
1953 1 May The House of Worship in Wilmette is consecrated in a simple ceremony for Bahá’ís only. [BW12:143, 152; ZK93]
  • For details of the dedication see BW12:152–4.
Wilmette; US House of Worship; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
1953 2 May The House of Worship in Wilmette is dedicated in a public ceremony. [BW12:142, BWNS218]
  • For the text of the Guardian’s message of dedication see BW12:141–2.
  • For an account of the event see BW12:154–63.
  • Towards the end of his life in Tehran, Ahmad (of "Tablet of Ahmad" fame) had entrusted the original Tablet to his grandson Jamal who in turn, out of the purity of his heart and his devotion to the Faith of God offered it as a gift to Hand of the Cause, Trustee of Huqúq, the son and brother of two illustrious martyrs, Jinab-i-Valiyu'llah Varqá. When Jinab-i-Varqa, according to the instructions of the beloved Guardian, was sent to take part in this dedication ceremony he brought this most precious Tablet as his offering to the archives of the Bahá'ís of the United States. [A Flame of Fire by A.Q. Faizi.]
Wilmette; US House of Worship; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
1953 3 – 6 May The All-America Intercontinental Teaching Conference is held in Chicago. [BW12:133]
  • For the texts of Shoghi Effendi’s messages to the conference see BW12:133–41 and MBW142–6.
  • Twelve Hands of the Cause are present. [BW12:143]
  • At the conference, five members of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States resign from that body in order to go pioneering: Elsie Austin, Dorothy Baker, Matthew Bullock, Mamie Seto and Dr William Kenneth Christian. [ZK102]
  • Extract from the cecond message to All-American Intercontinental Conference from Shoghi Effendi... [MBW150]
    .....the lands contributed in Latin America for a similar purpose approximate one-half of a million square meters, ninety thousand of which have been set aside near Santiago, Chile, for the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár of South America..
Chicago; US; Santiago; Chile; Latin America Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching; Hands of the Cause; Pioneering; Elsie Austin; Dorothy Baker; Matthew Bullock; Mamie Seto; William Kenneth Christian; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Chile; Land purchases
1955 23 Aug Shoghi Effendi announces plans to begin construction on the House of Worship in Kampala, Uganda. [MBW90; PP312] Kampala; Uganda House of Worship; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
1958 26 Jan The foundation stone of the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár of Africa is laid by Hands of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and Músá Banání. [BW13:317] Kampala; Uganda Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Foundation stones; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Musa Banani
1958 22 Mar The foundation stone of the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár of the Antipodes is laid by Hands of the Cause Charles Mason Remey and Clara Dunn. [BW13:321] Sydney; Australia Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Charles Mason Remey; Clara Dunn; Foundation stones
1960 20 Nov The cornerstone of the fifth House of Worship is laid in Langenhain, Germany, by Hand of the Cause of God Amelia Collins. [BW13:739; MC238, 245, 249–50]
  • See also MC14–15, 236.
Langenhain; Frankfurt; Germany; Europe Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship)
1961 14 Jan The House of’ Worship in Kampala, the Mother Temple of Africa, is dedicated by Hand of the Cause Rúhíyyih Khánum in a service for Bahá’ís only. [BW13:713–14]
  • For details of the service and a picture see BW13:714. [TG159]
  • Enoch Olinga is not present because of the unrest in British Cameroons. [TG160]
Kampala; Uganda Mother Temple; House of’ Worship; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
1961 15 Jan The House of Worship in Kampala is officially opened by Hand of the Cause Rúhíyyih Khánum in a public service attended by 1,500 people. [BW13:715–18; MC15]
  • For message of the Custodians to the dedication service see MC2503.
  • For cable of the Custodians to the Bahá’ís of the world see MC253.
Kampala; Uganda Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Dedications
1961 16 Sep The House of Worship in Sydney, the Mother Temple of the Antipodes, is dedicated by Hand of the Cause Rúhíyyih Khánum in a service for Bahá’ís only. [BW13:729; MC15]
  • For details of the service and pictures see BW13:726–32.
Sydney; Australia Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Dedications
1961 17 Sep The House of Worship in Sydney is officially opened by Hand of the Cause Rúhíyyih Khánum in two public services, each attended by 900 people. [BW13:732]
  • For message of the Custodians to the dedication service see MC309–12.
  • For cable of the Custodians to the Bahá’ís of the world see MC313.
Sydney; Australia Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Dedications
1962 16 Nov The superstructure of the European House of Worship near Frankfurt is completed and the Temple is turned over to the Bahá’ís by the contractor. [BW13:737; MC15] Germany House of Worship; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
1963 25 Aug The Universal House of Justice announces the demolition by the Soviet authorities of the House of Worship in ‘Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) owing to earthquake damage. [BBD122; BW14:479–81]
  • For a picture of the damaged Temple see BW14:481.
‘Ishqábád House of Worship; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
1964 4 Jul The House of Worship in Langenhain, Germany, is dedicated. [BW14:483–4]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW14:485–6.
  • For pictures see BW14:482, 483, 485, 491.
  • For a description of the teaching conference accompanying the dedication see BW14:586–8.
  • See also MC14–15; PP432–4.
Langenhain; Frankfurt; Germany; Europe Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship)
1967 8 Oct The foundation stone of the Mother Temple of Latin America is laid by Hand of the Cause Rúhíyyih Khánum in Panama City. [BW14:494] Panama Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Foundation stones; Latin America
1971 Aug The Universal House of Justice erects an obelisk on the site of the future House of Worship of the Holy Land on land that was purchased in 1953 with a gift of $50,000 from Milly Collins. [MBW63, 78-79, BBD 172; BW15:177–8; DH175; MUHJ83–4, SES18-20] Mount Carmel UHJ; House of Worship; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar; obelisk
1971 16 Oct The inauguration of Shahyad Tower ("King's Memorial Tower") in Tehran. The tower was built in honour of the shah on the occasion of the commemoration of the 2,500th anniversary of the Persian Empire and has become an iconic symbol of the city of Tehran. It has been described as being a tower, an arch, a gate and an obelisk in one and is 50 meters (164 ft) tall and completely clad in some eight thousand blocks of cut marble from Isfahan Province. The main financing was provided by a group of five hundred Iranian industrialists.

After the Revolution in 1979 it was renamed The Azadi Tower (Liberty Tower) and was, in turn, the gathering place of the "rebels" in 1979 and for those protesting the results of the election in 2009.

The architect, Hossein Amanat was only 24 years old and a recent graduate when he won the competition for the project. In addition to having a remarkable career in designing buildings for commercial, educational and residential use, he is the architect for such Bahá'í projects as the Universal House of Justice Building, the Centre for the Study of the Holy Texts, the International Teaching Centre and the Mashriqu’l-Adhka in Samoa. He left Iran in 1978 and took up residence in Vancouver in 1980. [Hossein Amanat website]

Tehran Husayn Amanat; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Azadi Tower; Shahyad Tower; Universal House of Justice, Seat; Centre for the Study of the Holy Texts; International Teaching Centre, Seat; Samoa; Apia
1972 29 Apr The House of Worship in Panama is dedicated in a series of ceremonies held throughout the day attended by Hands of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, Ugo Giachery and Dhikru’lláh Khádem and four thousand Bahá’ís. [BW15:634; Vv14]
  • For the history of the House of Worship see BW15:643–6.
  • For statistics on the House of Worship see BW15:647–9.
Panama Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Dedications; Ugo Giachery; Dhikrullah Khadem
1972 30 Apr The House of Worship in Panama is publicly dedicated by Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum in two sessions. [BW15:634] Panama Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Dedications
1972 1 May The international teaching conference in Panama held in conjunction with the dedication of the House of Worship opens. [BW15:635]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW15:635–7.
Panama House of Worship; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
1975 Nov The land for the Samoan House of Worship is purchased on a site overlooking Apia. [BW18:104] Samoa House of Worship; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
1977 16 Sep In Uganda, 27 religious organizations are banned, including the Bahá’í Faith, and the Bahá’í House of Worship is closed. [BW17:81]
  • The national spiritual assembly and all 1,550 local assemblies are dissolved. [BW17:141]
Uganda religious persecution; House of Worship; NSA; LSA; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
1977 17 Oct At the end of the Asian Bahá’í Women’s Conference Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum lays the foundation stone of the Mother Temple of the Indian Subcontinent. [BW17:85, 180, 368–70; VV35] New Delhi; India; Asia Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Foundation stones; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women
1978 23 May The House of Worship in Wilmette is included in the register of historic places in the United States. [BW17:166, 375]
  • For picture see BW17:165.
Wilmette House of Worship; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
1979 27 Jan In Samoa, His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II and Hand of the Cause of God Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum lay the cornerstone of the first Bahá’í House of Worship of the Pacific Islands. [BW17:188, 371; VV36]
  • For the text of the address delivered by His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II see BW17:372.
  • For excerpts from the address of Hand of the Cause of God Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum see BW17:373.
  • For pictures see BW17:374.
Western Samoa Malietoa Tanumafili II of Western Samoa; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Foundation stones
1979 Apr The ban against the Bahá’í Faith in Uganda is lifted and the House of Worship in Kampala is re-opened for worship. [BW17:141] Uganda House of Worship; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
1980 Sep Building work begins on the Samoan House of Worship. [BW18:104] Samoa House of Worship; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
1983 21 Oct The Republic of Panama issues a postage stamp bearing the picture of the House of Worship in Panama. [BW19:157] Republic of Panama House of Worship; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
1984 30 Aug - 2 Sep An International Teaching Conference is held to coincide with the dedication of the House of Worship at Apia, Western Samoa. [BW19:548–54; VV64]
  • For a report of the conference see BW19:548–54.
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW19:555–6.
  • For pictures see BW19:475, 547–57 and VV64.
Apia; Western Samoa House of Worship; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar; International Teaching Conference; Conference
1984 1 Sep The House of Worship in Apia, Western Samoa, the Mother Temple of the Pacific, is dedicated in the presence of Hand of the Cause of God Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, Hand of the Cause Dr Ugo Giachery, His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II and more than a thousand Bahá’ís from 45 countries. [BW19:100–1; VV64]
  • For a report of the dedication see BW19:552–3.
  • For the text of the address of His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II see BW19:556.
  • For pictures see BW19:553 and VV64.
  • Marble for the House of Worship was cut and chiseled by Margraf, a firm from Chiampo, Italy formerly known as Industria Marmi Vincentini. [BWNS1223]
Apia; Western Samoa; Pacific; Chiampo; Italy Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Ugo Giachery; Malietoa Tanumafili II of Western Samoa; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Marble
1985 22 Nov The Promise of World Peace is presented to the Secretary-General of the United Nations Javier Perez de Cuellar by Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and representatives of the Bahá’í International Community. [BW19:33, 382; VV87] United Nations; Javier Perez de Cuellar; United Nations, Secretary-Generals; Promise of World Peace (statement); Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Bahai International Community
1986 24 Dec The House of Worship in New Delhi, India, is dedicated in the presence of Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and more than 8,000 Bahá’ís from 114 countries. [AWH47; BINS161; BW19:102 BW20p732-733, VV92]
  • See VV93–4 for pictures.
  • Marble for the House of Worship was cut and chiseled by Margraf, a firm from Chiampo, Italy formerly known as Industria Marmi Vincentini. [BWNS1223]
New Delhi; India; Chiampo; Italy Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Dedications; Marble
1988 Dec c. The Government of Western Samoa publishes a Christmas issue of four stamps of religious buildings, among them the Bahá’í House of Worship in Samoa. [BINS196:8] Western Samoa House of Worship; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
1989 Apr Some four million persons had visited the House of Worship in New Delhi to this date. [AWH61] New Delhi; India Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship)
1989 3 Aug The first Latvian resident in Latvia to become a Bahá’í, Lilita Postaza, a renowned tapestry artist, enrols after visiting the Bahá’í temple in India. Latvia Lilita Postaza; House of Worship; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
1992 Prime Minister Hamilton Green of Guyana made a formal state visit to the temple in Wilmette. Bahá'í Newsreel Vol. 3 number 2 [VV133] Wilmette Prime Minister Hamilton Green of Guyana; House of Worship; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
2003 18 Mar The President of India, Abdul Kalam, visited the Bahá'í House of Worship in New Delhi, the first official visit there by an Indian Head of State since the Temple was opened in December 1986. [BWNS204] New Delhi; India Abdul Kalam; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Prominent visitors; Presidents; Firsts, Other
2012 21 Apr Plans are announced that the Universal House of Justice is entering into consultations with respective National Spiritual Assemblies regarding the erection of the first local Houses of Worship in each of the following clusters: Battambang, Cambodia; Bihar Sharif, India; Matunda Soy, Kenya; Norte del Cauca, Colombia; and Tanna, Vanuatu. [Riḍván 2012 To the Bahá’ís of the World] Haifa; Israel; Battambang; Cambodia; Bihar Sharif; India; Matunda Soy; Kenya; Norte del Cauca; Colombia; and Tanna; Vanuatu. local Mashriqu’l-Adhkar; Local House of Worship; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
2014 14 Sep Some 500 people attend the unveiling of the design of the first local Baha’i House of Worship in Norte del Cauca, Columbia [BWNS1020]
  • Julian Gutierrez Chacon is the architect for the House of Worship.
  • The relationship between the environment of the region and the community is also expressed in the design of the House of Worship, which was inspired by the shape of the cocoa pod, a plant that grows abundantly in Colombia and is integral to the identity of the landscape and the lives and economy of the people.
  • See BWNS for pictures.
Agua Azul; Norte del Cauca; Columbia Local Baha’i House of Worship; Local Mashriqu’l-Adhkar BWSN1153
2015 17 July Some 300 people attend the unveiling of the design of the first local Baha’i House of Worship in Battambang, Cambodia [BWNS 1062]
  • See BWNS for pictures.
Battambang; Cambodia Local Baha’i House of Worship; Local Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
2015 15 Nov The groundbreaking ceremony of the first local Baha’i House of Worship in Battambang, Cambodia was attended by some 200 community members. The event coincided with the commemoration of the Twin Holy Birthdays—the Birth of the Bab and the Birth of Baha'u'llah. [BWNS1082]
  • See BWNS for pictures.
Battambang; Cambodia Local Baha’i House of Worship; Local Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
2016 8 Mar The earthworks for the Local Baha’i House of Worship in Battambang, Cambodia is completed. [BWNS1100] Battambang; Cambodia Local Baha’i House of Worship; Local Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
2016 22 May Some 700 people gathered on the temple land in the small village of Agua Azul, in the municipality of Villa Rica near Norte del Cauca, Colombia to participate in the groundbreaking ceremony of the first local Baha’i House of Worship. [BWNS1109]
  • See BWNS1100 for pictures.
  • Following the groundbreaking ceremony the three-meter high central mound on which the 18-meter tall Temple will stand will be completed, and the foundational work for the surrounding auxiliary structures will be laid. In time, these structures will be painted in the bright colors traditional to buildings in Colombia.
Agua Azul; Norte del Cauca; Columbia Local Baha’i House of Worship; Local Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
2016 16 Sep For a progress report on the construction of the Local House of Worship in Battanbang, Cambodia see BWNS1120 Battambang; Cambodia Local Baha’i House of Worship; Local Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
2017 23 Feb Plans for the construction of the local Baha’i House of Worship in Agua Azul, a village in Norte del Cauca, Colombia, have recently reached an important milestone. Construction officially began in January after building contracts were formalized with a local firm in the region. [BWNS1153]

Concurrent with the building the House of Worship has been the reinforcement of activities that contribute to the spiritual and material progress of communities in and around Norte del Cauca. Inspired by the Temple, these community-building activities have multiplied, and a spirit of prayer, devotion, and participation has begun to increasingly permeate the area.

Parallel to this, the community has been undertaking a reforestation project, designated for a "Bosque Nativo" or native forest on an 11-hectare piece of land adjacent to the Temple site to reintroduce native vegetation which has been decimated by years of monoculture plantations of sugarcane.

  • For pictures see BWNS1153
  • For development report dated the 14th of May, 2017 see BWNS1168.
Agua Azul; Norte del Cauca; Columbia local Mashriqu’l-Adhkar; Local House of Worship; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar BWNS1047
2017 18 Jun The plan for the design of the Local Mashriqu’l-Adhkar in Tanna was announced. Ashkan Mostaghim of mostaghim & associates, a firm from Sydney, Australia, has been chosen as the Temple’s architect. His design was on the shortlist for the Continental Mashriqu’l-Adhkar in Santiago. [BWNS1175] Tanna; Vanuatu Local Mashriqu’l-Adhkar; Local House of Worship; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar; Ashkan Mostaghim
2017 1 - 2 Sep The opening of Cambodia’s first “Local House of Worship” in Battambang, just over two years after the design of the building was unveiled in July 2015.

The Mashriqu’l-Adhkar was designed by Phnom Penh-based architect Tang Sochet Vitou. It is situated on a 9 hectare property of which 1.5 hectares is used for the temple, an administrative building as well as gardens and ponds. The temple is a frequent topic of conversation among the local population. Even before its completion, it has galvanized action towards the betterment of the community and brought neighbours together. it will help provide for the spiritual needs of Cambodia’s growing Baha’i community which, according to the Ministry of Cult and Religion’s most recent annual report, numbers about 12,000 although some adherents say the figure may now be closer to 20,000. Baha’i communities were first recorded in the kingdom in the 1920s and since 1992 they have grown steadily with the help of aid workers and Asian immigrants.

In a letter dated 18 December 2014, the Universal House of Justice explained that a Baha’i House of Worship is a “collective centre of society to promote cordial affection” and “stands as a universal place of worship open to all the inhabitants of a locality irrespective of their religious affiliation, background, ethnicity, or gender and a haven for the deepest contemplation on spiritual reality and foundational questions of life, including individual and collective responsibility for the betterment of society.”

The dedication was marked by a two-day conference bringing together over 2,500 people from Battambang and every other region of Cambodia. A number of Cambodian dignitaries attended along with representatives of Baha’i communities in Southeast Asia. The Universal House of Justice was represented by Ms. Sokuntheary Reth who serves on the Continental Board of Counsellors in Asia. [BWNS1185, BWNS1187, BWNS1189, BWNS1190 (slide show), BWNS1191 (video), BWNS1192]

Battambang; Cambodia Local Baha’i House of Worship; Local Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
2017. 16 Nov Progress report on the construction of the local Bahá'í House of Worship in Norte del Cauca. [BWNS1222]
  • See BWNS1047 for information on the reforestation project in the vicinity of the Temple.
Norte del Cauca; Colombia Local Mashriqu’l-Adhkar; Local House of Worship; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar; reforestation

from the main catalogue

  1. Baha'i House of Worship in Europe, The, by Massrouri M. and et al. (2005). Brochure about the history and architectural design, with photos, of the Baha'i Temple in Hofheim am Taunus, Germany. [about]
  2. Bahá'í House of Worship, The: The Meaning of the Temple, by W. Kenneth Christian (1975). Text and scan of a flyer about the Chicago House of Worship, summarizing the history and facts of this Mashriqu'l-Adhkar. [about]
  3. Bahá'í Obligatory Prayer and the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Obligatory prayer may be performed at home or in the Temple — in private or in public — but on condition that each believer recite it individually. [about]
  4. Bahá'í Temple Moves Toward Completion, in The Christian Century, 58:43 (1941). One-paragraph blurb from 1941. [about]
  5. Bahá'í Temple of Universal Peace, The, by Albert Ross Vail, in The Open Court, 45:902 (1931). Short essay on the construction of the temple in Wilmette, and an overview of the Baha'i Faith. [about]
  6. Bahá'í Temple, House of Worship of a World Faith, Commemorating Completion of Exterior Ornamentation, The (1942). Photographs and essays about the construction of the American temple in Chicago. Likely published as a progress report to distribute at the 1942 National Convention. [about]
  7. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 18 (1979-1983), in Bahá'í World (1986). [about]
  8. Bourgeois, Jean-Baptiste Louis (1856-1930), by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram (1997). Short biography of the architect and designer of Mashriqu'l-Adhkar at Wilmette, Illinois. [about]
  9. Business, Development, and the Bahá'í Funds (1993). Compilation by the Office of the Treasurer on the challenge for America, business ventures and development, dependencies of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, fundraising, safeguarding contributions, and earmarking. Includes many supplemental letters from the UHJ. [about]
  10. Chicago the Pagan, by Weimar Port (1953). 2-page description of the Baha'i Temple in Wilmette, with a poem about it by Charles Collins published in the Chicago Tribune. [about]
  11. City of Love, The: Ishqábád and the Institution of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, by Bruce Whitmore, in Bahá'í News, 52:7 (1975). History of the building of the temple in Turkmenistan, north of the Iranian province of Khurasan. [about]
  12. Considerations in Setting Sacred Text to Music for the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram, in Arts Dialogue (1996). [about]
  13. Daily Lessons Received at Akka: January 1908, by Helen S. Goodall and Ella Goodall Cooper (1979). Includes translations of three Tablets of Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
  14. Development of Precast Exposed Aggregate Concrete Cladding, The: The Legacy of John J. Earley and the Implications for Preservation Philosophy, by Jenna Cellini (2008). Architectural use of concrete and different concrete types, with many references to the Baha'i temple in Wilmette. Link to thesis (offsite). [about]
  15. Earthly Paradise, An: Bahá'í Houses of Worship Around the World, by Julie Badiee: Review, by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 7 (1997). [about]
  16. Exploring the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, by Sen McGlinn, in Vizier, 35:6-36:3 (1997). Four topics: Entry by troops and the institution of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar; the House of Worship and the House of Justice; the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar as a Meeting, and the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar as a Building. [about]
  17. Haziratu'l-Quds, Functions and Importance of, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi (1997). Two letters from the Universal House of Justice, statements from the Guardian, and compilations prepared by the Baha'i World Center concerning the Baha'i temples, their dependencies, and their uses. [about]
  18. Hindu Concept of God, The: Unity in Diversity, by Anjam Khursheed, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 2 (1997). The fundamental unity behind Hindu concepts of God and those found in the Semitic traditions, and the principle of unity in diversity, allow Hindu and Baha'i beliefs to come together and further their common goal of uniting the world's religions. [about]
  19. Historical Background of the Panama Temple, by Ruth Pringle, in Bahá'í News (1972). A history of the Bahá’í Faith in Panama during the first and second U.S. Seven Year Plans, from the arrival of the first pioneers in 1939 to the formation of the first Regional Assembly in 1951. [about]
  20. Illustrated description of a design in the Persian-Indian style of architecture for the first Mashrak-el-Azkar (Bahai temple) to be erected in America, by Charles Mason Remey (1920). Expanded version of a portion of Remey's earlier Mashrak-el-Azkar [Mashriqu'l-Adhkár]: Descriptive of the Bahai temple, with photographs of Temple models. [about]
  21. Institution of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, The, by Universal House of Justice and Horace Holley, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Five documents from Baha'i World 18 part four section 5: Institution of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, its spiritual significance, the temple on the Indian sub-continent, the Lotus of Bahapur, and the first Mashriqu'l-Adhkar of the Pacific Islands. [about]
  22. Institution of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, The (2017). A statement and compilation prepared by the Research Department of the Universal House of Justice. [about]
  23. Kitáb-i-Aqdas as a Lens with which to Examine some of the Dilemmas of Modernity, The, by Betsy Omidvaran, in Solas, 2 (2002). Contrast between the Aqdas - the source of laws of future society - and issues of the modern world as it had evolved up to the 19th century. Discussion of Houses of Worship, universal language, financial principles, justice, the Covenant, and unity. [about]
  24. Mashrak-el-Azkar: Descriptive of the Bahai temple, by Charles Mason Remey (1917). Preliminary designs for the first Mashriqu'l-Adhkár to be built in America, showing nine varying treatments in different styles of architecture; includes discussions of the Ashkhabad temple and Baha'i history, and a 1908 letter to Star of West. [about]
  25. Mashriqu'l-Adhkar: Sacred Architecture and the Bahá'í faith, by Kenneth B. Sewell (1992). The nature of Baha'i architecture, the spiritual intentions of the unique design of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, sacred geometry, and the author's original building design. Link to thesis (offsite). [about]
  26. Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (1998). Compilation on the Baha'i temple, the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, "Dawning Place of Remembrance." [about]
  27. Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, by Julie Badiee, in The Bahá'í Encyclopedia (2009). On the "Dawning Place of the Praise of God," a term used to refer to a Bahá’í House of Worship and its surrounding dependencies. [about]
  28. Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, by Moojan Momen, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2010). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
  29. Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, Extracts on the Institution of, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (1985). Readings on the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, in both English (unpublished) and German (published as Das Baha'i-Haus der Andacht Bedeutung und Bestimmung). [about]
  30. Meanings of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, by Sen McGlinn (1997). Summary of the full meanings of Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, "The Dawning Place of the Remembrance of God." [about]
  31. Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-86, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
  32. Miracles in Religion: A Study of the miraculous in religion in context of the Baha'i Faith, by Anil Sarwal (1996). [about]
  33. Music, Devotions, and Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram, in Studies in Babi and Bahá'í History, volume 4 (1987). An in-depth examination of the development of music and hymns within American Baha'i devotional life, some history of the Chicago community, and the architecture and construction of the Wilmette temple. Includes sheet music and design plans. [about]
  34. Out of Jewish Roots: Studies of Prayer Patterns in Jewish, Christian, Muslim and Bahá'í Worship, by Ted Brownstein, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). [about]
  35. Photo brochure of the Bahá'í Temple in Wilmette, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1965). A booklet of color photographs, postcard-size and quality, with text and statistics about the Temple. [about]
  36. Sabaeans and African-based Religions in the Americas, The, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Overview of the religion of the Sabaeans [aka Sabeans], and some indigenous practices in the southern Americas such as Yoruba, Santeria, and Brazilian Candomble. [about]
  37. Shoghi Effendi: Recollections, by Ugo Giachery (1973). Biography of Shoghi Effendi from the close standpoint of the author's personal experiences. Short excerpt from book; Part 1 only. [about]
  38. Temple Song, by Louise R. Waite, in Bahá'í News, 1:4 (1910). Sheet music and audio for an early American Baha'i song. [about]
  39. Temples: Service in Bahá'í Temples, by Shoghi Effendi and Universal House of Justice, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 3 (2000). [about]
  40. Temples, Bahá'í, by Vahid Rafati and Fariborz Sahba, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
  41. Temples, Bahá'í, by Christopher Buck, in Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices, Vol. 6, ed. J. Gordon Melton & Martin Baumann (2010). [about]
  42. Temples, Bahá'í, by Christopher Buck, in World Religions: Belief, Culture, and Controversy (2011). [about]
  43. Translation of Key Bahá'í Terms, by Universal House of Justice (2015). Arabic terms such as "Alláh-u-Abhá", "Yá Bahá’u’l-Abhá", “Mashriqu’l-Adhkár," "Ḥazíratu’l-Quds," and "Bahá" should generally not be translated into other languages, for translations are too inadequate. [about]
  44. Various questions: Psychic powers, Persepolis, portrait of Mulla Husayn, etc., by Universal House of Justice (2007). Answers to: psychic powers and "natural" healing; 'Abdu'l-Bahá's statement on Persepolis; inauthenticity of a portrait of Mullá Husayn; a passage on childhood; list of sites for future Houses of Worship; Prayer of the Báb; and a jungle story. [about]
  45. Worship, by Robert Stockman (1995). [about]
 
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