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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1856 (after Bahá'u'lláh's return) Siyyid Asadulláh of Khuy was an influential and devoted Bábi whom the Báb had designated "Dayyán" (Judge). During Mírzá Yahyá's leadership in Baghdad he had found him so weak and the community so desparate that he, like some twenty others, declared himself to be to be the Promised One. He soon rescinded his claim after Bahá'u'lláh's return when he, as the Báb had promised, became the third person to believe in Bahá'u'lláh. Mírzá Yahyá saw this man a threat and ordered his servant Mírzá Muhammad-i-Mázindarání to murder him. [MCS562]

In Epistle to the Son of the Wolf (p174-176) Bahá'u'lláh mentions Mírzá 'Alí-Akbar, a relative of the Báb and Abu'l-Qáaim-i-Káshí and states "several other suffered martyrdom through the decree pronounced by Mírzá Yahyá."

Baghdad; Iraq, Siyyid Asadullah; Dayyan; Mirza Yahya; Mirza Muhammad-i-Mazindarani; Mirza Ali-Akbar; Abu'l-Qaaim-i-Kashi; Z****
1865 Mírzá Kazem-Beg of St Petersburg University published Bab Babidy, the first Western book written entirely on the subject of the Bábí religion. [BBR26] St Petersburg; Russia Babi studies; Mirza Kazem-Beg; First publications; Z****
1865 French diplomat Joseph Comte de Gobineau published Religions et les Philosophies dans l'Asie Centrale, over half of which is devoted to a study of the Bábí movement. Gobineau's work was written when Mírzá Yahyá was still know as the nominal head of the Bábí Faith. Between 1855 and 1858 when Gobineau was First Secretary and Chargé d'Affaires of the French Legation . He was the Ambassador from March 1862 until September, 1863. Two embassy employees during his time there were ardent supporters of Mírzá Yahyá, one of whom was his brother-in-law. This work attracted a number of other European intellectuals, including E. G. Browne of Cambridge, who eventually became the most prolific western writer and researcher of the Bábi religion. [BBR17, MCS483; 500; 512] France Joseph Comte de Gobineau; Babi studies; E. G. Browne; Mirza Yahya; Z****
1891 19 May The execution of the Seven Martyrs of Yazd. [BBRXXIX, BW18:384]

Seven Bahá'ís are executed on the order of the governor of Yazd, Husain Mírzá, Jalálu'd-Dín-Dawlih (the grandson of the shah) and his father Zillu's-Sultán , and at the instigation of the mujtahid, Shaykh Hasan-i-Sabzivárí. [BW18:384]

  • For their names see BW18:384.
  • For details of the executions see GBP201–2.
  • For Western reports of the episode see BBR301–5.
  • Bahá'u'lláh stated that a representative of Zillu's-Sultán. Hájí Sayyáh, visited Him in 'Akká in the hope of persuading Him to support his plot to usurp the throne. He was promised freedom to practice the Faith should He support him. Hájí Sayyáh was arrested in Tehran in April of 1891 and Zillu's-Sultán, afraid that he would be implicated in the plot to overthrow the king, inaugurated vigorous persecution of the Bahá'ís in Yazd in order to draw attention from himself and prove his loyalty to the crown and to Islam. Had Bahá'u'lláh reported this incident to the Shah, Zillu's-Sultán would have paid dearly for his disloyalty. [BBR357-358]
  • See also RB3:194–6 and SBBH2:77.
  • “The tyrant of the land of Yá (Yazd) committed that which has caused the Concourse on High to shed tears of blood.” Lawḥ-i-Dunyá (Tablet of the World) Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh, p. 85
Yazd; Iran Jalalud-Din-Dawlih; Shaykh Hasan-i-Sabzivari; Seven martyrs of Yazd; Seven martyrs; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; mZ****
1910 29 Apr 'Abdu'l-Bahá left Haifa on board the Kosseir for Port Said, Egypt. After spending a month in Port Said he boarded another ship with the intention of going to Europe however, due to His health, He had to disembark at the first port of call which was Alexandria. [ABF5] Haifa; Port Said; Alexandria Kosseir; Z****
1911 2 Dec `Abdu'l-Bahá left Paris for Marseille by train arriving late in the day. Little is known about His stay in that city save for one talk. [ABF246]
  • See ABF256-260 for some of the places that 'Abdu'l-Baha visited while in Paris for which the visits are undated. Included in the list is His visit to the the Senat of the French Republic [PUP72].
  • There are also a number of undated talks and fragments of talks the have been published in a variety of sources. [ABF261-264]
  • See ABF264-268 for a list of persons with whom 'Abdu'l-Bahá had undocumented visits.
Paris; Marseille; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Z****
1911 6 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk on materialism at a meeting of theosophist, possible at 25, boulevard Baille. For the text of this talk see ABF247-254. Marseille; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha in Egypt; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Z****
1911 7 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá departed Marseille for Egypt on board Le Portugal. It travelled to Beirut via Alexandria and Port Said and reached Alexandria on the 12th of December. [ABF255-256; AB167; GPB280; SBR25] Marseille; France; Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha in Egypt; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Z****
1912 Margaret Stevenson was the first believer in New Zealand. [New Zealand Bahá'í News, May 1997]
  • See 11 February, 1941 for biographical information.
  • For a photo see Encyclopedia of New Zealand
    • She was the first New Zealand Bahá'i, and for 10 years from 1912, the only one. When the first New Zealand Bahá'i group formed in 1924, Stevenson was elected its president. Her two sisters also joined the faith. Stevenson remained secretary of the Bahá'i Spiritual Assembly in New Zealand until her death in 1941.
New Zealand Margaret Stevenson; First Bahais by country or area; Z****
1912 11 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá arrived in New York. [AB172; GPB281; APD3-5; SoW Vol 3 No 3 p3; Mahmúd's Diary p38-39]
  • He remained on board doing interviews with a number of newspaper men. Edward Kinny was called to come on the ship and the rest of those awaiting were told to leave the pier, proceed to the Kinney residence and wait for Him. [Mahmúd's Diary p38-39; DJT233-234]
  • Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP3]
  • One of the Persians in the Master’s suite had cabled Alice Ives Breed in New York City, about the Master’s arrival date. Thus alerted, Ali-Kuli Khan directed the Persian Consul, Topakian (an Armenian business man), to officially greet ‘Abdu’l-Bahá with full courtesies. Mr Topakian carried this out, and the Master was much pleased with his services. [AY85]
  • During His tour `Abdu'l-Bahá visits 32 cities and makes numerous addresses of which 185 are recorded. [SBBH1:110]
  • For a chronological list of talks given by `Abdu'l-Bahá while in North America see PUP473–8 or Index.
  • For details of His journey see AB171–339.
  • Ward, 239 Days; Balyuzi, `Abdu'l-Bahá; The Diary of Juliet Thompson; many editions of Star of the West and numerous biographies of Bahá'ís of the time as well as other books carry information about `Abdu'l-Bahá travels and talks.
    He was accompanied by:
    • Sayyid Asadu'lláh Qumí,
    • Dr Fareed Amin Ullah, He was a nephew of 'Abdu'l-Bahá and served as his translator during His tour of the West. Because of his disobedience both he and his father were expelled from the Faith. See AY102-103 and AB230.
    • Mírza Mahmúd-i Zarqání. He was a member of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's entourage for both the Western and European tours. He wrote an account of the travels in a book entitled Kitáb-i Badáyi'u'l-Áthár and called "Mahmúd's Diary" in the English translation. [APD151]
    • Mirza Ahmad Sohrab. He had originally come to the West to assist Mírzá Abú'l-Fadl Gulpaygání in 1901. He remained and worked at the Iranian Consulate until 1912 and during this time he translated much of the correspondence between 'Abdu'l-Bahâ and the Western believers. After the American tour he returned to the Holy Land. After the passing of 'Abdu'l-Bahá he rejected the authority of Shoghi Effendi and was expelled. [APD155]
New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other; Ali-Kuli Khan; Edward Kinney; Topakian, Mr; Consuls; Mahmuds Diary; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Z****
1912 12 Apr Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Howard MacNutt, 935 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, New York, [PUP4]
  • Talk at Studio of Miss Phillips, 39 West Sixty-seventh Street, New York. [PUP7; DJT239; Mahmúd's Diary p39-41]
New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Howard MacNutt; Phillips, Miss; Z****
1912 13 Apr Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Alexander Morten, 141 East Twenty-first Street, New York [PUP9; Mahmúd's Diary p41-42] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Z****
1912 14 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá spoke from the pulpit of the Church of the Ascension, Fifth Avenue and Tenth Street, New York at the invitation of Percy Grant who was later reprimanded by his bishop, Bishop Burch for inviting 'Abdu'l-Bahá to sit in the Bishop's Chair behind the alter rail. [ABF22, 239D:21–3, PUP11, 239 Days in America Day52; Mahmúd's Diary p43-44]
  • Talk at Union Meeting of Advanced Thought Centers, Carnegie Lyceum, West Fifty-seventh Street, New York. [PUP14]
New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches; Abdul-Baha, Talks other; Percy Grant:Z****
1912 15 Apr Talk at Home of Mountfort Mills, 327 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP16; Mahmúd's Diary p44-45] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Z****
1912 16 Apr Talk at Hotel Ansonia to Baha’i’ Friends of New Jersey, Broadway and Seventy-third Street, New York. [PUP18; Mahmúd's Diary p45] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Hotels; Z****
1912 17 Apr Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York, [PUP23; Mahmúd's Diary p46]

Talk at Hotel Ansonia, Broadway and Seventy-third Street, New York. [PUP20]

New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places; Z****
1912 18 Apr Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Marshall L. Emery, 273 West Ninetieth Street, New York. [PUP25; Mahmúd's Diary p46-47] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Z****
1912 19 Apr Talk at Earl Hall, Columbia University, New York. [PUP29; Mahmúd's Diary p47-48]

'Abdu'l-Bahá visits The Bowery accompanied by Edward Getsinger and Juliet Thompson as noted in her unpublished Diary. They arrived with two heavy bags of quarters to distribute to the poor. [OPOP165-168, PUP32]

Bowery; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Columbia University; Abdul-Baha, Talks at universities; Charity and relief work; Z****
1912 20 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá arrived in Washington DC after a five hour train ride from New York by train. He was accompanied by Dr Getsinger, Dr Fareed, Mírzá Valiyu'lláh Nakhjavání and Mahmúd-i-Zarqání. [239D:37–8; AB178; SBR78, APD9]
  • John Bosch had travelled from California specifically to see Him. He was given a Persian name by the Master, Núrání (The Luminous). [Mahmúd's Diary p48-49]
  • He stayed at the Parsons' home, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, for several days and gave a talk every afternoon at 5PM.
  • Talk at Orient-Occident-Unity Conference, Public Library Hall, Washington, D.C. [PUP35]
  • See AY85 for the welcome He received from the Kahn family and others including Mrs Agnes Parson, Mason Remy and Joseph Hannen.
  • ‘Abdu’l-Bahá encouraged commercial ties between the United States and Persia. ‘For the Persians there is no government better fitted to contribute to the development of their natural resources and the helping of their national needs in a reciprocal alliance than the United States of America; and for the Americans there could be no better industrial outlet and market than the virgin … soil of Persia. The mineral wealth of Persia is still latent and untouched. It is my hope that the great American democracy may be instrumental in developing these hidden resources and that a bond of perfect amity and unity may be established between the American republic and the government of Persia. May this bond—whether material or spiritual—be well cemented.’ [AY48]
Washington DC; New York; United States; Iran Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places; Trains; Business; Z****
1912 21 Apr Talk at Studio Hall, 1219 Connecticut Avenue, Washington, D.C. [PUP37, APD14]

Talk at Universalist Church, Thirteenth and L Streets, Washington, D.C. [PUP39; APD16; Mahmúd's Diary p50-54]

Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Studio Hall; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches; Abdul-Baha, Talks at other places; Z****
1912 22 Apr Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP43, APD22-24, AY86; Mahmúd's Diary p54-55] Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Arthur Parsons; Agnes Parsons; Z****
1912 23 Apr Talk at Howard University, Washington, D.C. Howard University had been founded in 1867 to educate the newly freed slaves at by this time it was one of the foremost black universities in the country. It is reported that well over a thousand students, faculty members, administrators and guests jammed into the Rankin Chapel. [PUP44, APD29, 239Dp40; Mahmúd's Diary p50-54]

Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP46]

Talk to Bethel Literary Society, Metropolitan African Methodist Episcopal Church, M Street, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP49; SoW Vol 3 No 3 pg5]

Washington; DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at universities; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches; Z****
1912 24 Apr Talk at Children’s Reception, Studio Hall, 1219 Connecticut Avenue, Washington, D.C. [PUP54; Sow Vol 3 No3 pg7; Mahmúd's Diary p56-59]

Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP56, APD37-45]

Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places; Z****
1912 25 Apr Talk to Theosophical Society, Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP58; SoW Vol 3 No3 pg22-23, ]

Message to Esperantists, Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP60; APD47; SoW Vol 3 No5 Pg7-8]

The Turkish Ambassador Díyá Páshá hosted a "royal feast" for 'Abdu'l-Bahá and a number of dignitaries. He gave a short talk afterward. [Mahmúd's Diary p60-61]

He gave a talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons. [PUP62, APD46-49; SoW Vol 3 No 5 P7-8, Mahmúd's Diary p59-62]

Theodore Roosevelt visited 'Abdu'l-Bahá at the Parsons' home on this date. He was not the President at this time. [MD464n59]

Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Theosophical Society; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Abdul-Baha, Talks other; Arthur Parsons; Esperanto; Theodore Roosevelt; Z****
1912 26 Apr 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke al the (All Souls) Unitarian Church to the Women's Alliance on the subject of equal rights to men and women. [APD50]

Before lunch He spoke in the home of John J. White at the invitation of Mrs White. Lunch was taken at the Parsons home with the Turkish Ambassador as a guest.

In the early evening He addressed a gathering in the Parsons' home on the subject of "Human and Divine Spirit in Man" before leaving for the (Memorial) Continental Hall where he spoke on the equality of women and men. This was perhaps the most prestigious meeting place in Washington, the public meeting hall of the Daughters of the Revolution. [APD50-53; Mahmúd's Diary p62-64]

None of His talks for this day have been recorded in The Promulgation of Universal Peace.

Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Z****
1912 31 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá arrived in Chicago and gave a talk at the Plaza Hotel. [239D:176; PUP381].

It is likely that 'Abdu'l-Bahá encountered Rabindranath Tagore who was to become a well-known Bengali poet and musician who would reshape Bengali literature and music and be the first non-European to win the Nobel Prize in Literature. [Rabindranath Tagore: Some Encounters with Bahá'ís by Peter Terry; Wikipedia]

Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places; Rabindranath Tagore; Z****
1913. 23 Jan After His morning talk He visited had lunch with Natalie Clifford Barney, the sister of Laura Dreyfus Barney and the daughter of Alice Pike Barney, probably at her salon at 20, rue Jacob.

On this day, or perhaps the next, the famous French philosopher and writer, Henri Bergson. (Nobel prize for literature 1928). He was a professor at the College de France. 'Abdu'l-Bahá impressed him with His simple proof for the existence of God. [ABF302-304, Bahá'íes de France]

Paris Abdul-Bahas second Western tour; Natalie Clifford Barney; Henri Bergson; Z****
1913 (prior to `Abdu'l-Bahá's departure from Egypt "Tamaddunu'l-Mulk caused mischief amongst the friends and perpetrated such disunity that the foundation of the divine Faith was nearly destroyed. On numerous occasions, he repented. And yet, after each contrition, he would cause further mischief. Eventually, I telegraphed that Tamaddun is expelled and association with him is not permissible." [Tablet Concerning Covenant-Breakers: Excerpt by Abdu'l-Bahá translated by Ahang Rabbani]
  • In this Tablet 'Abdu'l-Bahá warned against association with Covenant-Breakers because its harm will injure the Cause of God and will enable them to penetrate the community and to completely uproot the Faith from within. Association with Covenant Breakers is the same as with a person nurturing a snake in his shirt or giving a home to a scorpion in his sleeve.
Egypt; Tehran Covenant-breakers; Tamaddunu'l-Mulk; Z****
1914 (Middle of the year) The defection of Dr Amín Faríd, `Abdu'l-Bahá's translator while in America, becomes publicly known. [AB407] Europe Amin Farid; Covenant-breakers; Z****
1915 11 Oct Arthur Pillsbury Dodge, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, passes away in Freeport, New York. [sBR15]
  • For biographies see Bahá'í Chronicles; BFA1:116-17, SBR1-16 and SW6, 13:100-1.
  • For his obituary see SW6, 19:161-7.
  • Dodge's books include The Truth of It (1901) [SW6, 13:101] and Whence? Why? Wither? (1907). [SW6, 13:101]
Freeport; New York; United States Arthur Pillsbury Dodge; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Z****
1916 16 May The Sykes–Picot Agreement, officially known as the Asia Minor Agreement, was a secret 1916 agreement between the United Kingdom and France, to which the Russian Empire assented. The agreement allocated to Britain control of areas roughly comprising the coastal strip between the Mediterranean Sea and the River Jordan, Jordan, southern Iraq, and an additional small area that included the ports of Haifa and Acre, to allow access to the Mediterranean. France got control of southeastern Turkey, northern Iraq, Syria and Lebanon. Russia was to get Istanbul, the Turkish Straits and Armenia. The controlling powers were left free to determine state boundaries within their areas. Further negotiation was expected to determine international administration in the "brown area" (an area including Jerusalem, similar to and smaller than Mandate Palestine), the form of which was to be decided upon after consultation with Russia, and subsequently in consultation with the other Allies, and the representatives of Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca. [Wikipedia] Sykes–Picot Agreement; Asia Minor Agreement; Z****
1920 Apr Mírzá Asadu'lláh Fádil-i-Mázandarání arrived in North America with Manúchihr Khán in time to speak at the National Convention. [AB443; SBR88] United States Mirza Asadullah Fadil-i-Mazandarani; Manuchihr Khan; Conventions, National; Z**** crossreference URLs; title; title
1930 19 Aug Louis Jean-Baptiste Bourgeois, designer of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár in Wilmette, passes away in that city. He was born in Saint-Célestin-de-Nicolet, Quebec on March 19, 1856. [DP145]
  • He learned of the Faith in Boston through the efforts of Mary Hanford Ford. [Wikipedia]
  • For details of his life see DP76–86.
Wilmette; Boston; United States Louis Bourgeois; Architects; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Mary Hanford Ford; Z****
1932 Shoghi Effendi’s translation of Nabíl’s Narrative entitled The Dawn-Breakers is published. Maṭāleʿ al-anwār, as Nabíl's word was entitled, is the most authentic and the main primary source on the early history of the Bábí movement in Iran, is regarded by the Bahá'ís as the definitive account of the Bāb’s dispensation. The work has been translated into many languages, and it has played a major role in familiarizing the Bahá'ís around the world with the historical background of their faith and helping them understand its link to the socio-religious climate of the Persian society in the early days of its development. The original Persian manuscript of Maṭāleʿ al-anwār, preserved at the International Bahai Archives in Haifa. It is comprised 1,014 pages of 22-24 lines.[a href="http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/nabil-zarandi">“Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica, GBF91; PP215]
  • The work took him two years of research. [PP217]
  • He sent Effie Baker to Iran to take photographs for the book. [PP217]
  • For George Townshend’s assistance to the project see GT59, 60, 64–9.
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s purpose in translating and editing the book see WOB123.
  • See also BBD64; GBF913 PP215–18.
  • In the "Acknowledgement" Shoghi Effendi credits Lady Blomfield for her suggestions, "an English correspondent for his help in the preparation of the Introduction, Mrs E Hoagg for typing the manuscript and Effie Baker for the photographs. [DB page lxi]
Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Translations by; Nabil-i-Azam; Dawn-Breakers (book); Effie Baker; George Townshend; Publications; Translation; Lady Blomfield; Z****
1935 Husayn Uskuli, a Bahá’í resident in Shanghai, travels to Taiwan, the first Bahá’í known to visit the island. [PH28; The Taiwan Bahá'í Chronicle by Barbara R. Sims p3] Taiwan Husayn Uskuli; Z****
1941 11 Feb The passing of Margaret Stevenson, the first New Zealand Bahá’í (b. 30 November 1865, in Onehunga) in Auckland. She is buried in Hillsborough Cemetery.
She initially heard of the Bahá’í Faith through reading an article in "The Christian Commonwealth" sent to her by her sister, Amy, who was studying music in London. Margaret, though, later admitted that she “did not think any more about it”. However, in 1913 Miss Dorothea Spinney, a professional actress who performed in many parts of the world, arrived in Auckland from California and stayed at the Stevenson home in Devonport. During that visit there were many opportunities for Miss Spinney to tell the Stevenson family about the Bahá’í Cause.
After embracing the new Faith, Margaret began to speak to others of her new found beliefs – a courageous act for a middle-class woman in the then conservative society where following a new religion was considered odd. As New Zealand’s only Bahá’í, she held on steadfastly to her faith for many years. Finally, after the visit of the first Bahá’í travelling teachers to New Zealand in December 1922, a handful of individuals from Margaret’s social circle also became Bahá’ís. A class was established at her home in Parnell to study the Teachings in more depth and was held there regularly for 10 years. In January 1923 the first Bahá’í Nineteen Day Feast was held at her home. Margaret held various administrative roles within the Bahá’í community and remained an active and dedicated Bahá’í until her passing. [from a post by Tricia Hague-Barrett in Facebook page "Women of Bahá"]
Dorothea Spinney; Margaret Stevenson; In Memoriam; Z****
1953 Aug Amín and Sheila Banání, a Persian-American couple, settle in Athens-Kifissia in August 1953 and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for Greece. [BW452] Athens; Greece Amin Banani; Sheila Banani; Knights of Bahaullah; In Memoriam; Z*****
1953 26 Aug Ella Bailey (b. 16 December, 1864, Houston, Harris County, Texas) in Tripoli, Tarabulus, Libya at the age of 88 years. [BW12:687]
  • She was elevated to the rank of martyr. [MBW170]
  • For the story of her life see PSBW131–42.
  • For her obituary see BW12:685–8.
  • For information on her burial site and a short biography see Find-a-grave.
  • See Youtube video I Adjure Them - The Ella Bailey Story as told by Hand of the Cause of God William Sears.
Tripoli; Libya; Houston; Texas Ella Bailey; Names and titles; In Memoriam; Z****
1953 Dec The arrival, from Egypt, of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Labib Isfahani in Dakar, Senegal. He was followed by his brother Habib Isfahani in April of 1954 who also received the honour. [BW13:452, BWNS283] Dakar; Senegal; Africa Knights of Bahaullah; Labib Isfahani; Habib Isfahani; BWNS; Z****
1954 25 Mar Marion Jack passes away in Sofia, Bulgaria. [BW12:674; CF163]
  • Shoghi Effendi calls her ‘a shining example to pioneers of present and future generations of East and West’. [CF163]
  • For her obituary see BW12:674–7.
  • See also BFA2155; MC359.
  • For a photo of her gravestone see CBNOct1972p.10.
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles for a biography.
Sofia; Bulgaria Marion Jack; pioneer; Z****
1954 6 Apr Five Continental Bahá’í Funds are inaugurated by Shoghi Effendi. [MBW59, 63] Funds; Funds, Continental; Continental Fund; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Z****
1954 Oct A National Haziratu'l-Quds was established in Kabul. [MBW70; 81] Kabul; Afghanistan National Haziratul-Quds; Z****
1954. 22 Oct Mr and Mrs Suleimani arrive by ship in Keelung, Taiwan. They will spend the rest of their lives there. The Suleimanis, originally from Iran, had lived for about 28 years in Shanghai where Mrs Ridvaniyyih Suleimani's father, Mr Husayn Ouskouli Uskuli (or Uskui) had long resided and conducted a business. Mr and Mrs Suleimani had left Shanghai permanently in 1950 because of the difficult situations for foreigners in China but Mr Ouskouli decided to stay on and won the admiration of the Guardian. He died in Shanghai at the age of 86. [The Taiwan Bahá'í Chronicle by Barbara R. Sims p3] Keelung; Taiwan; Shanghai; China Knights of Bahaullah; Mr and Mrs Suleimani; Husayn Ouskouli; Z****
1956 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Taiwan is formed in T’ainan. [The Taiwan Bahá'í Chronicle by Barbara R. Sims p15] Tainan; Taiwan LSA; Z****
1956 11 - 12 Nov First All-Taiwan Teaching Conference held in Tainan, Taiwan. The conference was attended by then Auxiliary Board Member Agnes Alexander from Japan. She would visit Taiwan two more times, in 1958 and 1962-as a Hand of the Cause. [The Taiwan Bahá'í Chronicle by Barbara R. Sims p17] Tainan; Taiwan Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Teaching; First conferences; Z**** find reference
1957 28 - 30 Sep First Bahá'í Summer School held in Taiwan. [The Taiwan Bahá'í Chronicle by Barbara R. Sims p21] Taiwan Summer schools; First summer and winter schools; Z**** find reference
1957 26 Dec The passing of Mirzā Asad-Allāh, known as Fāżel Māzandarāni (b. Bábol, Persia 1881).
  • He became a Bahá'í in Tehran in 1909. He travelled to Egypt in 1919-1911 where he met with 'Abdu'l-Bahá and was send to India and Burma to promote the Faith.
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent him to North America for the period 1920-1921. He arrived in North America with Manúchihr Khán in time to speak at the National Convention. His purpose was to assist and stimulate the Bahá'í communities. He departed for the Holy Land on the 9th of July, 1921. [AB443; SBR88]
  • Mírzá Asadu'lláh Fádil-i-Mázandarání visited North America again in 1923-1925 at the request of Shoghi Effendi. [Fádl Mázandarání, Mírzá Asadu'lláh by Moojan Momen]
  • See Jináb-i-Fádil Mazandarání in the United States by Fadl Mazandarani (published as Jinab-i-Fadil Mazandarani) compiled by Omeed Rameshni for transcripts of his talks.
  • In about 1924 Shoghi Effendi wrote to the Central Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Persia, asking them to gather materials towards the compilation of a general history of the Bahá'í faith. Initially this work was handed to a committee and Fāżel served as the liaison between this committee and the Assembly, of which he was himself a member at the time. However, after the committee failed to make significant progress, Fāżel took on the responsibility to compile this work himself. His work, Ẓohur-al-Ḥaqq (variously also called Tāriḵ-e Ẓohur-al-Ḥaqq and Ketāb-e Ẓohur-al-Ḥaqq) is said to be the most comprehensive history of the first century of the Bahá'í faith yet written. It was compiled in nine volumes: volumes 1-3 completed in May of 1932, the fourth in February, 1936, and the final volume in 1943. For various reasons it has not been translated into English. [Ẓohur-al-Ḥaqq]
Babol; Iran In Memoriam; Ẓohur-al-Ḥaqq; Z****
1958 Ridván The formation of the first local spiritual assembly of Taipei. [The Taiwan Bahá'í Chronicle by Barbara R. Sims p25] Teipei; Taiwan LSA; Z****
1963 18 Jan First Bahá'í marriage in Taiwan was between Miss Yeh Chan-ching and Mr Yang Su-thou. Official government recognition of the Bahá'í marriage was obtained in 1973. [The Taiwan Bahá'í Chronicle by Barbara R. Sims p37] Taiwan Weddings; Firsts, Other; Z**** find reference
1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Taiwan is formed with its seat in Taipei. [BW14:99; The Taiwan Bahá'í Chronicle by Barbara R. Sims p51] Taipei; Taiwan NSA; Z****
1968 21 Jun The Universal House of Justice establishes the Continental Boards of Counsellors to continue into the future the functions of the Hands of the Cause in the protection and propagation of the Faith. [BBD58–9, 97; BW15:611–13; BW17:319; MUHJ4–5; WG141, Mess63-86p130, 21 June, 1968, CEBF112]
  • For details of the eleven Boards and their membership see BW15:612 and WG140–4.
  • For pictures of the Counsellors see BW15:614, 615, 618, 619, 622, 623, 625, 627.
BWC Universal House of Justice; Counsellors; Hands of the Cause; Appointed arm; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Z****
1973 5 Jun The International Teaching Centre is established at the Bahá’í World Centre for the purpose of continuing the work of the Hands of the Cause of God into the future. [BBD118–19; BBRSM132–3; BW16:134, 411–14; BW17:322–5; VV16, CEBF200]
  • For cable of the Universal House of Justice see BW16:413.
  • Hands of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, ‘Alí-Akbar Furútan, Paul Haney and Abu’l-Qásim Faizí and Counsellor members Hooper Dunbar, Florence Mayberry and Aziz Yazdí are appointed. [BW16:413]
  • For pictures see BW16:412 and VV16.
  • The duties and the organization of the International Teaching Centre were deliniated in the Message from the Universal House of Justice of June 8th, 1973.
BWC International Teaching Centre; International Teaching Centre, Members of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Counsellors; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Ali Akbar Furutan; Paul Haney; Abul-Qasim Faizi; Hooper Dunbar; Florence Mayberry; Aziz Yazdi; Appointed arm; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Z****
1973 8 Jun The Universal House of Justice permits the Continental Boards of Counsellors to authorize individual Auxiliary Board members to appoint assistants. [BW17:322]
  • Mrs. Zena Sorabjee was appointed Trustee of the new Continental Fund of South Central Asia, while Mr. Hushang Ahdieh and Mr. Mas‘úd Khamsí were appointed the new Trustees of the Continental Funds of Central and East Africa and South America respectively. 8 June, 1973
BWC Counsellors; Auxiliary Board Members and assistants; Appointed arm; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Continental Fund; Z****
1973 7 Oct The Universal House of Justice announced that the number of Auxiliary Board members throughout the world was to be raised to 270, of whom 81 will serve on the Auxiliary Boards for the Protection of the Faith and 189 will serve on the Auxiliary Boards for the Propagation of the Faith. In all there will be 54 Auxiliary Board members in Africa, 81 in the Western Hemisphere, 81 in Asia, 18 in Australasia and 36 in Europe.

Each Continental Board of Counsellors was given the discretion to authorize individual Auxiliary Board members to appoint assistants and given broad latitude in this matter. [Message from the Universal House of Justice 7 October, 1973]

BWC Counsellors; Auxiliary Board Members and assistants; Appointed arm; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Z****
1974 18 Aug Laura Clifford Dreyfus-Barney, (b. 30 Nov 1879, Cincinnati, Hamilton County, Ohio, USA) passed away in Paris. [BW16:296] Paris; France Laura Clifford Barney; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Z****
1980 12 Feb Hasan M. Balyuzi, Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in London. (b. 7 September, 1908) [BW18:635; VV52]
  • For his obituary see BW18:635–51 and SBBR5:XI–XX.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles for a biography.
London; United Kingdom Hasan Balyuzi; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Z****
1983 23 May A five year term for the Counsellor members of the International Teaching Centre is established. [ Message 19 May, 1983, BW19:27]

"... a five-year term for the Counsellor members of the International Teaching Centre. Each term will start on 23 May immediately following the International Bahá’í Convention, and the current term will end on 23 May 1988. Should circumstances prevent the Universal House of Justice from making new appointments at the end of any five-year term, the Counsellors will remain in office until such time as new appointments can be made."

Haifa; BWC Counsellors; International Teaching Centre, Members of; Appointed arm; Z****
2007 Jan In Romania a law was passed that imposed restrictive requirements on religious communities that wished to be recognized by the government, which Bahá'ís and adherents of other minority religions could not meet. [Form 18 News Service] Romania Persecution, Romania; Z****
2013 13 Aug The passing of former Universal House of Justice member Mr. Hushmand Fatheazam in Vancouver, Canada. He served on the Universal House of Justice for forty years since 1963. [BWNS964] Vancouver; Canada Hushmand Fatheazam; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; BWNS; Z****
2015 6 Nov The première of Mercy's Blessing, a film by May Taherzadeh in Lilongwe, Malawi. To date it has won 12 film awards and has been distributed for use in 115 countries. [Official Web Site] Lilonqwe; Malawi Mercy's Blessing; Film; Documentaries; Arts; Awards; Z****
2016 13 - 16 Oct The public dedication of the Mother Temple of South America in Santiago, Chile. The opening ceremonies were attended by over 5,000 people from 110 countries. Live video coverage of the public opening ceremony was provided on the Baha'i World News Service website for approximately 90 minutes and the video recording has been made available at that website.

The Mashriqu’l-Adhkár (Dawning-Point of God’s Remembrance) is located outside of Santiago in Peñalolen, a commune whose name means "reunion of brothers" in the local language. [BWNS1128].

The temple was built in the foothills of the Andes, between mountains and city. The 2,415 square-metre edice (26,000-square-feet) is essentially one large room with nine doors made of bronze. The interior is surrounded by a dome that is made up of nine elements – called petals. These begin wide at the bottom of the building and then narrow upward to meet in a spiral at the top, separated by crescent-shaped windows and a round window at the top. The outer surfaces of these petals are made of 32-millimetre-thick panels of cast glass, which have a ruddy, milky quality to them; the inner surfaces are made of smooth Portuguese marble. Both layers are translucent. Each of the nine wings of the building has two surfaces – one of cast glass and one of stone both of which rest on the steel structure. Each of those two surfaces has more than 1,000 separate components in more than 150 different shapes categorized as droops, slumps, bullnoses, shoulders, elbows, or spines. Each piece, which had to be crafted in three dimensions, was shaped using digital models. [BWNS1126]

  • Canadian architect, Siamak Hariri, began work on the $20-million project in 2003. [BWNS1127] The landscape architect was Juan Grimm, one of the most well-known landscapers of Latin America.
  • The Universal House of Justice was represented by Counsellor Antonella Demonte from the International Teaching Centre.
  • Message from the Universal House of Justice.
  • Pictures
  • Day 1
  • Day 2
  • Day 3
Quick Facts
Location: Santiago, Chile
Foundation Stone:
Construction Period: 2013 – October 2016
Site Dedication:13-16 October 2016
Architect Siamak Hariri
Landscape Architect; Juan Grimm
Seating:
Dimensions: 2,415 square-metre (26,000 square-feet)
Cost: approximately $30m
Dependencies:
References: BWNS800, BWNS921, BWNS940, BWNS959, BWNS982, BWNS1123, BWNS1125, BWNS1055, BWNS1199

Since its dedication in October 2016, the Temple has been a recipient of an International Architecture Award as well as awards for structural artistry from the Institution of Structural Engineers, for innovation in architecture from the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada, for innovation from the American Institute of Architects, for design excellence from the Ontario Association of Architects, for “Best in Americas, Civil Buildings,” from World Architecture News, and for Architectural and Cultural design from American Architecture Prize. [BWNS1262]

Santiago; Chile Mashriqul-Adhkar, Santiago; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Siamak Hariri; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architecture; Awards; Architects; Juan Grimm; Counsellors; Marble; Gardens; BWNS; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Z****
2017 18 Jun The plan for the design of the Local Mashriqu’l-Adhkar in Tanna, Vanuatu was announced. Ashkan Mostaghim of Mostaghim & Associates, a firm from Sydney, Australia, has been chosen as the Temple’s architect. His design was on the shortlist for the Continental Mashriqu’l-Adhkar in Santiago. [BWNS1175] Tanna; Vanuatu Mashriqul-Adhkar, Vanuatu; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Local; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Architecture; Architects; Ashkan Mostaghim; BWNS; Z****
2017 1 Aug The release of the film The Cost of Discrimination by Arash Azizi and Maziar Bahari which compared the social costs of discrimination in present day Iran and South Africa under the apartheid regime where, like in Iran, the Dutch Reform Church used their Holy Texts to justify the suppressive measures taken against people of "non-European" origin. South Africa; film; The Cost of Discrimination; Arash Azizi; Maziar Bahari; Dutch Reform Church; Z****
2018 (post International Bahá'í Convention) Some 80 members of the Continental Boards of Counsellors met for a conference at the Baha’i World Centre following the 12th International Bahá'í Convention. On that occasion, the Counsellors were able to reflect on major developments in Baha’i communities around the world. In order to share their experiences some of their stories were recorded and made available via podcasts. The Counsellors discuss the impact of spiritual and moral education programs offered by the Bahá'í community on youth and the communities in which they live, drawing on experiences in Cambodia, Kiribati, India, Norway, Spain, and Timor Leste (or East Timor). [BWNS1264]

Counsellors in Africa , Alain Pierre Djoulde, Clément Thyrrell Feizouré, Maina Mkandawire, and Judicaël Mokolédiscuss discussed endeavours in the field of education in that continent. [BWNS1269]

The podcasts can be found here or on SoundCloud.

BWC; Cambodia; Kiribati; India; Norway; Spain; Timor Leste (East Timor) Counsellors; Conferences, Counsellors; - Institute process; Youth; Podcasts; Z****
2018 22 Jun Following the recitation of prayers, the carved teak Greatest Name symbol was raised 15 meters to be placed at the inner apex of the dome inside the local Baha’i House of Worship in Agua Azul, Colombia. This marks the near-completion of the world’s second local House of Worship. [BWNS1268] Agua Azul; Norte del Cauca; Columbia Mashriqul-Adhkar, Colombia; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Local; BWNS; Z****
2018 22 Jul The dedication of the second local Bahá'í House of Worship in the world in Norte del Cauca, Colombia. (For information on the first local Mashriqu’l-Adhkár see here.) The event marked the opening of a month-long inauguration period. In a series of weekly visits to the Temple, 1,500 people were expected to participate in a special program called “My First Visit to the Bahá'í House of Worship.”
  • In the Ridván Message of 2012 the Universal House of Justice announced that national Mashriqu’l-Adhkárs would to be raised up in two countries: the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Papua New Guinea and that the first local Houses of Worship were to be built in Battambang, Cambodia; Bihar Sharif, India; Matunda Soy, Kenya; Norte del Cauca, Colombia; and Tanna, Vanuatu. This is the second of those local Mashriqu’l-Adhkárs to have been completed. [Ridván 2012 Message]
  • See the message from the Universal House of Justice dated 1 August, 2014 where they point out the "the dynamic interaction between worship and endeavours to uplift the spiritual, social, and material conditions of society" and recall the contruction of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkárs in Turkistan and in America.
  • The local Baha'i House of Worship in Norte del Cauca, Colombia, includes a budding native forest, called the Bosque Nativo, that aims to restore the region's indigenous plants. This video in Spanish describes the Bosque Nativo's features.
  • The Universal House of Justice was represented by Mrs. Carmen Elisa de Sadeghian who read a letter addressed to the attendees. “This House of Worship stands now as a symbol of the beauty inherent in the noble people of this region and its design evokes the generosity of their land,” states the letter, dated 22 July 2018. Also in attendance were Mr. Gustavo Correa and Dr. Farzam Arbab, two former members of the Universal House of Justice, as well as the mayors of four neighbouring towns. [BWNS1275]
  • A musical group sang and dancers performed a piece titled “The Soul of Norte del Cauca,” about the arrival of the Bahá'í Faith to the region and how Bahá’u’lláh’s teachings are given expression in the hopes and aspirations of the people. The group also performed a song called "La Cumbia del Jardinero" which is available on SoundCloud.

    Quick Facts
    Location: Aqua Azul, Notre del Cauca, Columbia
    Property acquired: December, 2013
    Design unveiled: 13 September, 2014
    Groundbreaking: 22 May, 2016
    Construction Period: January 2017 to July 2018
    Site Dedication: 22 July, 2018
    Architect: Mr. Gutierrez Chacón
    Architectural firm: CUNA Engineering and Sustainable Architecture
    Seating:
    Dimensions: The Temple is 18 metres tall. Inside height is 15 metres.
    Cost:
    Dependencies:
    References: BWNS1020; BWNS1047; BWNS1109; BWNS1153; BWNS1168; BWNS1222; BWNS1240; BWNS1249; BWNS1268, BWNS1277.

Agua Azul; Norte del Cauca; Columbia Gutierrez Chacón; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Colombia; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Local; BWNS; Z****
 
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