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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1819. 20 Oct Birth of Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad (The Báb), before dawn, in Shíráz. [B32; GH13; DB14, 72]
  • The Primal Point (Nuqtiy-i-Úlá). [BBD185]
  • The Promised One of Islam, the Qá'im. [BBD188]
  • Siyyid-i-dhikr (Lord of Remembrance). [BBD212]
  • His mother was Fátimih-Bagum. [Bab33, 46; KBWB20; RB2:382]
    • In the latter years of her life while she was living in Iraq, Bahá'u'lláh instructed two of His devoted followers, Hájí Siyyid Javád-i-Karbilá'í and the wife of Hájí 'Abdu'l-Majíd-i-Shírází, to acquaint her in the principles of the Faith and she became aware of the bountiful gifts which God had conferred upon her. [DB191]
  • His father was Mírzá Muhammad Ridá. [BW4:234–5; LOG351; SE206; TN4]
  • He was a direct heir of the House of Háshim and descended thus from Muhammad and through Him from Abraham. [BW8:874]
  • Designations of the Báb include `Abdu'dh-dhikr (Servant of the Remembrance), Bábu'lláh (the Gate of God) and Hadrat-i-A`lá (His Holiness the Most Exalted One). [BBD1, 30, 93]
  • For biblical reference see LOG378. See RB1:304 for extracts from Shoghi Effendi re: His station.
  • See BBD39, GPB157–8 for a condensed history.
  • See Bab32 and TN4 for discussion of the date of His father's death
  • See DB28–30. See DB75 for the extent of His schooling. See DB75 n1 for his education.
  • See B32 and TN4 for discussion of the date of His father's death.
Shiraz; Iran Bab, Birth of; Bab, Life of; Bab, Family of; Fatimih Bagum; Zajra Bagum; Mirza Muhammad Rida; House of Hashim; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bab, Basic timeline; Holy days; Twin Holy days; Births and deaths; Z*****
1831 At the age of 12 Mulla Husayn finished his studies in Bushíhr and went to Mashhad, the most prestigious centre of religious study in Iran. In 1830-1 he relocated to Karbala to study under Siyyid Kázim. Mashhad is where the remains of the Eighth Imám, 'Alí Ibn Musa'r-Ridá are enshrined in the holiest Shi'ih site in Iran. [MH7-8; MH113] Karbala; Iraq; Mashhad; Bushihr; Iran Mulla Husayn; Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti; Z*****
1843 10 Jan The Báb dreamed that He drank a few drops of blood from the wounds of the martyred Imám Husayn. After this dream He felt that the Spirit of God had taken possession of His soul. At this moment He received intimation that He was to be a Manifestation of God. [BBRSM14; DB253, HotD23-24]
  • Khadíjih Bagum apparently recognized her Husband as the promised Qá'im `sometime before the Báb declared His mission after having seen Him wrapt in prayer during the night. He bade her to keep this knowledge concealed. He entrusted her with a special prayer to be used before she went to sleep, the reading of which would remove her difficulties and lighten the burden of her woes.[DB191–2; HotD27; KBWB9-14]
Shiraz; Iran Bab, Life of; Dreams; Blood; Imam Husayn; Khadijih Bagum; Z****
1853 or 1854 Birth of Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí, first son of Bahá'u'lláh and His second wife, Mahd-i-‘Ulyá. [CB 125]
  • He was born in the first year of Bahá'u'lláh's arrival in Baghdád. CB125]
Baghdad; Iraq Mirza Muhammad-Ali; Births and deaths; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Wives of; Bahaullah, Family of; Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum); Firsts, Other; Z****
1853 or 1854 Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawh-i Kullu't-ta‘ám (Tablet of All Food). [BRSM:62; BKG112]
  • The revelation of this Tablet pointed out Mírzá Yahyá's lack of ability. [BKG 112]
Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Writings of; Lawh Kullut-Taam (Tablet of All Food); Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Z****
1881 (In the year) The passing of Fáṭimih Bagum, the mother of the Báb in Karbila. She herself was from a prominent Shírází merchant family; she could trace her background back to the Imám Husayn. The daughter of Mírzá Siyyid Muhammad Husayn, she married Siyyid Muhammad Ridá, and had several children with him, however only one survived; ‘Alí-Muhammad. Widowed shortly after, she went to live with her brother Hájí Mirzá Siyyid 'Ali who served as a father figure to Siyyid ‘Alí-Muhammad. On hearing that Siyyid ‘Alí-Muhammad was making a pilgrimage to the holy city of Karbilá, she was distressed and arranged the marriage between Siyyid ‘Alí-Muhammad to His second cousin once removed: Khadíjih Bagum.

Originally, Fáṭimih Bagum did not accept her Son’s cause unlike her brother, however she kept an open mind. She was devastated on hearing the news of the treatment of her Son, and after His martyrdom her family kept it a secret from her for nearly a whole year. After hearing the news, the distraught Fáṭimih Bagum moved to Karbilá with her closest companions in December of 1851. She did not become a believer until some time later. Shoghí Effendí pursued in trying to locate her grave, but it has not yet been found.

  • The Báb referred to Fáṭimih Bagum as "Ummu’l-Mu’minin" (mother of the believers) and "Ummu’dh-Dhikr" (mother of the Remembrance). Bahá’u’lláh referred to her as "Khayru’n-Nisa" (the best of women) and forbad all others, except Khadíjih Bagum, from adopting this title. [Wikipedia]
Karbila; Iraq In Memoriam; Faṭimih Bagum; The Bab, life of; Z*****
1882 11 Nov The passing of Khadíjih-Bagum, the wife of the Báb, in Shíráz in the house of her Husband. [BBD127; EB235; KBWB35; DB191; RoB2p387] Note: KBWB35 states that she passed on the 15th of September, 1882.
  • Within two hours of her passing her faithful servitor, an Ethiopian slave named Fiddhih, someone who had been a member of the household since the age of seven, passed away as well. Both were interred within the Shrine of Sháh-Chirágh. [BK35]
  • Upon her passing Bahá'u'lláh revealed a tablet of visitation for her and later He composed a verse to be inscribed on her tombstone. [RoB2p387]
Shiraz; Iran Khadijih Bagum; Servants; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves; Z****
1892 summer Áqá Murtadá of Sarvistán, who had been in prison for five years, is executed in Shíráz. [BW18:384]

Anton Haddad arrives in the United States. [BFA1:26]

  • He is probably the first Bahá'í to reach American soil. [BFA1:26]
Z****; Anton Haddad
1902 (In the year) The publication of Le Livre des Sept Preuves in Paris by A. L. M. Nicolas. It was a French translation of the Báb's Dalá'il-i-Sab'ih. [BBR39] Paris; France The Bab, Writings of; Seven Proofs; Le Livre des Sept Preuves; A. L. M. Nicolas; Z****
1902 13 Jun Thomas Breakwell died from tuberculosis in Paris. (b. 31 May, 1872 in Woking) [AB77; BBD46; SEBW70]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá appeared to know this without being told. [AB78-9; SEBW70]
  • Shoghi Effendi designated him one of three`luminaries shedding brilliant lustre on annals of Irish, English and Scottish Bahá'í communities'. [MBW174]
  • See AB79, SEBW71–2 and SWAB187–9 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's eulogy.
  • See wikipedia for an account of his life.
  • See Cimetière de Pantin for the location of his resting place c/w photos.
  • See The Life of Thomas Breakwell by Rajwantee Lakshiman-Lepain.
Woking; England; Paris; France Thomas Breakwell; In Memoriam; Z****
1905 (In the year) A.L.M. Nicolas published his book Seyyed Ali dit le Bab. It was the first work by a western author dedicated entirely to the Báb.
It is "(a) history of the Bábí movement up to 1852. Nicolas gives a list of sources for this book on pp. 48-53. It is interesting to note that among his oral sources are four of the leading Bahá'ís of that period, who had been designated by Bahá'u'lláh as 'Hands of the Cause': Mírzá 'Alí-Muhammad, 'Ibn-i-Asdaq: Mullá 'Al-Akbar-i-Sháhmírzádí, Hají Akhund; Mírzá Muhammad-Táqíy-i-Abharí, 'Ibn-i-Abhar; and Mírzá Hasan-i-Adíb. The other two oral sources named are Siyyid 'Ismu'lláh, who was presumably Siyyid Mihdíy-i-Dihají, and Mírzá Yahyá, Subh-i-Azál." [BBR38-39]
  • The preamble to his book has an image that is supposedly of the Báb, but the portrait does not seem to be an authentic representation.

  • William Miller also reproduced Nicolas’s image on page 17 of his polemical work, The Bahá'í Faith: Its History and Teachings. (South Pasadena, CA: William Carey Library, 1974). [‘The Bab in the World of Images’, Baha’i Studies Review, vol. 19, June 2013, 171–90.]
Paris; France The Bab, Writings of; A.L.M. Nicolas; Criticism and apologetics; William McElwee Miller; Babi studies; First publications; Publications; Z****
1905 (In the year) The publication of Le Beyan Arabe in Paris by A. L. M. Nicolas. It was a French translation of the Arabic Bayán. [BBR39] Paris; France Bab, Writings of, Arabic Bayan; A L M Nicolas; Le Beyan Arabe; Z****
1911 - 1914 The publication of Le Beyan Persan in Paris by A. L. M. Nicolas. It was a French translation of the Persian Bayán and was published in four volumes. [BBR39] Paris; France The Bab, Writings of, A L M Nicolas; Le Beyan Persan; Persian Bayan; Z****
1912. 25 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá paid a visit to Lord Lamington who was deeply touched by the message of peace and goodwill. [PG141] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Lord Lamington; Z****
1914 Spring Laura and Dreyfus Barney-Hippolyte start their teaching tripe to China and French Indonesia. Their plan was cut short by the declaration of war in Europe. They visited again in 1920. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/dreyfus-barney China; French Indonesia Z****
1921. 1 Dec - 7 Dec Dr Esslemont made a trip from Bournemouth to London to visit Shoghi Effendi and offer support. He invited him back to Bournemouth where he stayed from the evening of the 2nd of December until the morning of the seventh. [PG199]
  • Shoghi Effendi wrote to a Bahá'í student in London describing his reaction to the news of the Master's passing. It would appear he had reconciled himself to the situation. [PG100; PP40-41]
  • See PG201 for the observations of others.
  • On the 7th of December he received a cable from the Greatest Holy Leaf urging him to return to the Holy Land. He left for London immediately. [PG100]
London; Bournemouth Dr Esslemont; Shoghi Effendi; Z****
1922 12 Feb Laura and Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney arrived in Haifa from their travel teaching trip in Burma and Bombay. [EJR208] Haifa,Burma; Bombay Travel teaching; Laura Dreyfus-Barney; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Z****
1923 12 Mar Shoghi Effendi wrote to Bahá'ís in America, Great Britain, Germany, France, Switzerland, Italy, Japan and Australasia about Bahá'í administration, outlining the process for annual elections of assemblies and calling for the establishment of local and national funds. [BA34-43; PP330]
  • See ER223-4 for the response of the British Bahá'ís.
  • In the same letter, as a Post Script, he included a list of the best known and most current Bahá'í terms transliterated with a recommendation that this be adopted as standard for all Western Bahá'ís with a promise that the Haifa Spiritual Assembly would provide a supplement. The transliteration scheme was mostly based on a standard adopted by the Tenth International Congress of Orientalists which took place in Geneva in September 1894. [BA43; PG208-209]
  • From the June 1923 issue of Star of the West, attempts were made to introduce the system although these are at first very patchy. The first books that appear to be trying to put the system into use are Esslemont's Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era and Herrick's Unity Triumphant (the latter not entirely consistently), both published in 1923. Although some books appearing in 1924 did not follow the system, from this time on, books and other printed material published under Bahá'í auspices have followed it. [Transliteration by Mojan Momen]
  • A list of transliterated terms appeared in BW1p131 and expanded lists appeared in subsequent volumes.
Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Administration; Transliteration; Z****
1929 Apr The New History Society was founded in New York by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s former secretary and interpreter Ahmad Sohrab along with Lewis Stuyvesant Chanler and his wife Julie as an indirect way of spreading the teachings of the Baha'i Faith. The New History Society gave rise in 1930 to the Caravan of East and West and the Chanler's New York house was now called Caravan House. This foundation was designed to prepare children and youth to join the New History Society. This group had a quarterly magazine called The Caravan. [BRRSM124, LDG2p134] New York; United States New History Society; Ahmad Sohrab; Lewis Stuyvesant Chanler; Julie Chanler; Caravan of East and West; Caravan House; The Caravan; Z****
1930 30 May The New History Society came into conflict with the local Bahá’í Assembly. Sohrab refused to allow the New York Spiritual Assembly, to have oversight of the affairs of the New History Society. The Assembly saw the organization as a threat to the unity of the Bahá’í Faith. [BBRSM124]
Shoghi Effendi wrote to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada to make a definitive statement regarding that organization and the Cause.
BWC; New York; United States New History Society; Ahmad Sohrab; Covenant-breaker; Z****
1932 21 Mar The first Local Spiritual Assembly of Tokyo, consisting of journalists and other professional people, was formed.
  • Owing to the situation in Japan, it is disbanded two years later. [In memoriam Barbara Sims by Universal House of Justice, Sheridan Sims, and Sandra S. Fotos]
Tokyo LSA; Z**** find reference
1936 (In the Year) The publication of Massacres de Babis en Perse by A.L.M. Nicolos. Paris A L M Nicolas; Massacres de Babis en Perse; Z****
1937 21 May All Bahá’í activities and institutions were banned in Germany by a special order of the Reichsführer SS and the Gestapo Chief of Staff Heinrich Himmler when he banned the Bahá'í Faith in Germany. He blamed it on the religion’s “international and pacifist tendencies.” The Nazi government increasingly targeted the Bahá'ís after Himmler’s edict, first by tearing down the public memorial to 'Abdu’l-Bahá in Bad Mergntheim and then, in 1939, making mass arrests of the former members of the National Spiritual Assembly. Bahá'ís went to jail, some for very long periods, without charges. In 1942, more mass arrests occurred. Many of the Bahá'ís from Germany and the surrounding countries disappeared in the Nazi concentration camp system. [BBRSM185; Bahá'í Teachings; German Bahá'í website archives] Germany Persecution, Germany; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Bans; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Court cases; World War II; Z****
1938 (In the year) Felix Maddela became the first Filipino Bahá’í. His first encounter with the Bahá’í Faith was in 1924 when a purchase he made was wrapped in a piece of old newspaper which contained an article by Martha Root about the religion. As the author’s address did not appear in the article, it was another 14 years before he encountered more about the religion. In the early spring of 1937, Loulie Albee Mathews arrived in Manila on board the “Franconia.” As the boat was to dock for only a few hours, she managed to place in a college library a few pamphlets for the shelf of comparative religions. A few months later, on a visit to Manila from Solano, Nueva Vizcaya, Mr. Maddela came across the literature. This started a series of correspondence with the Bahá’í Publishing Committee of the United States. With Madella so fired up, he immediately taught his family and friends. Shortly before World War II, the Bahá’í’s of Solano numbered around fifty. When war broke out all communications ceased. Immediately after the war, contact was re-established thru Alvin Blum, who was attached to the medical unit of the United States Army. Hitch-hiking to Solano, which was in ruins, he located the Maddelas living in impoverished conditions. Of the fifty enrolled Bahá’í’s, twenty-five had been killed or missing. The others had survived by hiding in rice fields for three years. [WikipediaThe Bahá’í Faith in the Philippines] Manila; Solano; Philippines Felix Maddela; Loulie Albee Mathews; Alvin Blum; Z****
1941 Nov Some members of the National Spiritual Assembly filed suit against Sohrab to try to stop him from using the name Bahá'í. He had opened a Bahá'í bookshop in New York in 1939. This suit was filed in the Supreme Court of New York County. The judge granted a motion to dismiss, stating that "the plaintiffs have no right to a monopoly of the name of a religion. The defendants, who purport to be members of the same religion, have an equal right to use the name of the religion..." The judge mentioned that the complaint could be further amended and the NSA appealed but the Appellate Court affirmed the decision of the lower court.
The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada distributed a mimeographed statement concerning the New History Society entitled The Basis of the Bahá’í Community, which explained the purpose and outcome of the lawsuit entered against the founders of the New History Society to prevent their misuse of the name "Bahá’í” on which the National Spiritual Assembly had obtained a trademark patent. [The Basis of the Bahá'í Community: A Statement Concerning the New History Society]
  • Also see United States National Spiritual Assembly vs. Mirza Ahmad Sohrab.
  • During the second World War the New History Society put forth an alleged passage from 'Abdu'1-Bahá which would justify citizens in refusing to obey their governments when drafted into the military forces. The National Spiritual Assembly was obliged to explain the true Bahá'í position to the federal authorities as set forth by the Guardian.
United States Covenant-breakers; New History Society; Ahmad Sohrab; The Basis of the Baha'i Community; Z****
1944 2 May The German government held a public trial of some of the jailed Bahá'í leaders in Darmstadt. Dr. Hermann Grossmann was allowed to testify as a witness for the defense about the non-political nature of the Bahá'í Faith and the attitude of the trial had been pre-ordained. The government found the Bahá'ís guilty, levied large fines and banned all Bahá'í institutions ordering that they be immediately disbanded. [Bahá'í Teachings; German Bahá'í website archives] Darmstadt; Germany Persecution, Germany; Hermann Grossmann; Z****
1945 14 Aug The German Bahá’ís, 80 per cent of whom lived in the American sector of occupied Germany, obtain permission to re-organize. [BBRSM185]
A US soldier stationed in occupied post-war Germany, John Eichenauer, helped during the first days of the reconvening of the community. The American Baha'is sent money, food and literature, and aided them in rebuilding the administrative structures. [BWNS390]
Germany Persecution, Germany; Persecution, Other; Persecution; World War II; BWNS; John Eichenauer; Z****
1948 (In the year) In the German Democratic Republic all Bahá'í activities were banned. In 1991, for the first time in 53 years, the Bahá'ís in eastern Germany elected delegates to the National Assembly. After 55 years, the Spiritual Assembly was re-formed in Leipzig. [German Bahá'í website] German Democratic Republic; Persecution, Germany; Z****
1953 Dec The arrival of Barbara Sims and her family, husband Sandy and daughter Sandra in Tokyo. [Barbara Sims' Contribution to Bahá'í Scholarship in Asia Pacific by Sandra S. Fotos; In memoriam Barbara Sims by Universal House of Justice, Sheridan Sims, and Sandra S. Fotos] Tokyo; Japan Barbara Sims; Sandra Fotos; Z****
1954 15 Feb Charles Duncan (a musician and composer) and Harry Clark, both Americans, arrived in Brunei from Kota Kinabalu (Jesselton) in Sabah, where they had been waiting for several weeks, and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:451; PH63] Brunei; Thailand Knights of Bahaullah; Charles Duncan; Harry Clark; Z****
1957 c. The first local person to become a Bahá’í in Cambodia, Mr Lim Incchin, a young Chinese, enrolled. [Servant of the Glory page23]
  • The country was first settled by two pioneers one of whom was a Professor Avaregan. [Servant of the Glory page21]
Cambodia Lim Incchin; Professor Avaregan; Z****
1957 9 Jun The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States designated the second Sunday in June as Race Unity Day. The purpose of Race Unity Day is to promote racial harmony and understanding and to focus attention on racial prejudice, which Bahá’ís believe is the most challenging moral issue facing our nation. Since then, communities throughout the country have held celebrations, open to the public, every year on the second Sunday in June. [Race Unity Day by Christopher Buck published in Religious Celebrations, pages 727-732] United States Race Unity Day; Z****
1962 The administrative institutions of the Faith were banned in Indonesia by President Sukarno. [BW19:41]
  • BW15:174 says this was in 1964, other indications are that it was around the time of the International Convention. [[Servant of the Glory page 30]
Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Z****
1964 Four new believers in Cambodia are arrested and imprisoned as the Bahá’í Faith was not formally recognized and the Bahá’ís did not have permission to teach. Cambodia Persecution, Cambodia; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution: Z****
1964 8 Mar A cable was sent from Temuco, Chile to the Bahá'í World Centre by Hand of the Cause Jalál Kházeh announcing that mass teaching had started among the Mapuche tribes in Cautin province in southern Chile. As of that time there were close to 9,000 Mapuche believers and more than 90 local spiritual assemblies in the provinces of Cautin, Malleco and Arauco. [BN 136 April 1979 p4-5] Temuco; Chile Mass teaching; Jalal Khazeh; Mapuche; Z****
1964 - 1965 A Bahá’í Publishing Trust for the provision of literature in the French language was established in Brussels. [Riḍván 1965] Brussels Baha’i Publishing Trust; Z****
1966 (In the year) In Iraq the national and one local Ḥaẓíratu’l-Quds were seized and the activities of the friends were severely restricted. [Ridván Message, 1966] Persecution, Iraq; Z****
1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Zaire was formed with its seat in Kinshasa. [BW15:205]
  • For picture see BW15:147.
  • It has been reported that President Mobutu's personal physician was a Baháí, a Dr Jazab, and it was he who had Mobutu sign a document giving the Bahá'ís permission to practice their faith in the country. [Servant of the Glory page 60]
Zaire NSA; Z*****
1971 (In the year) Dan Jordon with Don Streets co-founded the Center for the Study of Human Potential at U. Mass and along with other Baha’i educators and scholars, he started the Anisa Project, a comprehensive, Baha’i-inspired educational system organized around a philosophical base. With the creation of the Anisa (Arabic for the Tree of Life) Project—adopted by dozens of school systems during Jordan’s lifetime.
The Anisa Educational Model was inspired by the Baha’i teachings and the philosophical work of Alfred North Whitehead and soon grew into a national movement that trained hundreds of educators.
This new educational model was conceptualized as a process rather than a fixed formula. Based on the constantly-evolving empirical framework of the biological and medical sciences the Anisa Model gathered and unified educational practice and theory into a completely new paradigm. [Stanford Libraries]
Massachusetts Anisa Project; Dan Jordon; Don Streets; Z****
1973 Ridván The Synopsis and Codification of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas was published. [BBRSM138; MUHJ105; VV14; BW15:169]
In 1953 Shoghi Effendi had included, as one of the goals of the Ten Year Plan, the preparation of a Synopsis and Codification of the Laws and Ordinances of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas as an essential prelude to the translation of Kitáb-i-Aqdas itself. In 1955 Shoghi Effendi initiated steps to this end and had made considerable progress when he passed in 1957. The task was continued on the basis of his work and the resulting volume was released. [Universal House of Justice Message 5 March, 1993]
The Synopsis and Codification covered the text of both the Kitáb-i-Aqdas and the Questions and Answers which constitutes an appendix to the Aqdas.
BWC Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Publications; Questions and Answers; The Synopsis and Codification of the Kitab-i-Aqdas; Z****
1974 (In the year) In Cambodia, political upheaval and a ban on the Bahá’í Faith had scattered its communities and caused some believers to be imprisoned briefly. Dempsey and Adrienne Morgan returned in 1971 and discreetly helped facilitate communication among Bahá’ís. Once the ban was lifted in 1974, he assisted in re-formation of several Local Spiritual Assemblies and instituted training classes. The foundation built by the national Bahá’í community helped it endure the devastating upheavals of subsequent years. [The American Bahá'í, Servant of the Glory page 48] Cambodia Dempsey Morgan; Adrienne Morgan; Ban; Z****
1974 28 Aug - 2 Sep The conference held in St Louis, Missouri, to launch the Five Year Plan in the United States attracts some 10,000 Bahá’ís, the largest gathering of Bahá’ís to take place anywhere in the world to date. [BW16:203; VV40]
  • See "From Badasht to Stain Louis; An Evaluation of the First Bahá'í Conference and the Largest" by Zikrullah Khadem, ZK266-278.
St Louis; Missouri; United States; Badasht; Iran Conferences, Bahai; Zikrullah Khadem; Z****
1978 Oct - Nov Mobs destroyed the Hazíratu'l-Quds in Mihán-du-´Ab followed by the burning or looting of 80 homes and the murder of two believers, a father and son who bodies were dragged through the streets, cut into pieces and consigned to the flames. Throughout the country the hostility towards the Bahá'ís resulted in 4 deaths, the loss of millions in property and the displacement of some 700 people.
  • The National Spiritual Assembly of Iran instituted a special fund for relief of the needy and suffering. [BN 136 April 1979 p2-3]
  • Mihan-du-Ab; Adhirgayjan; Iran persecution; relief fund; fund; Z****
    1978 7 Nov The murder of Major-General Ali Mohammad Khademi (b. 16 December, 1913 in Jahrom, Fars.) After a brilliant career in the military he became head of Iran's national airline. In 16 years he transformed it into a world-class airline with international connections.
    General Khademi was killed in his home. Despite witness accounts by his wife and the soldiers assigned to his home, the government controlled media called his murder a “suicide”, although several international media outlets, such as the New York Times, reported on his murder. Among Iranian Baha’is, General Khademi held the highest ranking leadership post in a public institution. His religious affiliation, which was not a secret, was the cause of fierce opposition by a number of Muslim clergy.
    An investigation into his murder named three members of “the joint anti-terror committee”, one of whom was identified at the Military Command by Bahiyyih Moayyed as the shooter of her husband. Despite these individuals’ identification and arrest by the Military Command, none was tried or punished. Later on, The National Security and Intelligence Agency (SAVAK) detained Bahiyyih Moayyed for about one month to force her to declare that her husband had committed suicide. She refused. [Wikipedia; Iran Press Watch 19724; Iran News]
    Tihran; Iran Ali Mohammad Khademi; Bahiyyih Moayyed; Persecution; In Memoriam; Z****
    1978 16 - 19 Dec More than 560 Bahá'ís from 14 countries throughout Malaysia gathered for the South East Asia Bahá'í Regional Conference. [BN136 April 1979] Kuching; Sarawak Province; Malaysia Conference; South East Asia Baha'i Regional Conference; Z****
    1978 28 – 30 Dec The West African Bahá’í Women’s Conference was held in Monrovia, Liberia with the theme, "Spiritual Education of Women-The Foundation of a New Human Society". [BW17:154]
    • Delegates from sixteen countries attended. It was attended by 150 women and 50 men. Keynote speaker was Dr. Jane Faily, Consultant to the Baha'i International Community's representative to the United Nations and a clinical psychologist associated with the University of Ottawa. [BN 136 April, 1979 pg10-15]
    Monrovia; Liberia; Africa Women; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Conferences, International; Jane Faily; Z****
    1981 - 2002 A Persian-language Bahá’í quarterly journal entitled `Andalíb was published from 1981 to 2012 under the auspices of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Canada. From issue no. 69, responsibility for the publication was moved to the Association of Bahá’í Studies in Persian (an agency of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Canada). .
    • Journals from Year 1 (138-9 BE, 1981-2), Issue 1: Winter to Year 23 (162 BE, 2005-6), Issue 90: Spring are available on-line.
    Thornhill; Ottawa; Canada Publications; Andalib; Association of Baha'i Studies in Persian; Z****
    1981 5 Dec The Bahá'í cemetery in Tehran was seized "by order of the Revolutionary Court. Five caretakers and eight temporary workers were arrested and the cemetery was closed. [Mess63-86p510]

    The Baha’i cemetery, known as “Golestan-i-Javid” – the Eternal Garden – was confiscated. Ten years later, the City of Tehran demolished the cemetery in order to build the Khavaran Cultural Complex. In accordance with Shi’a jurisprudence, the conversion for the purpose of so-called “improvement” of a cemetery is only permissible after 30 years, but in this case only ten years had passed. The construction of the Khavaran Cultural Centre required deep excavation and the disinterment of more than 1,000 bodies. The design for the sunken yard and the vast basement of this complex was in reality a modern solution to the doctrinal problem of cleansing the soil of the “contamination” of the “unclean” remains of Bahá'ís. During the excavation and recycling of the soil, the remains of the “non-believer” Bahá'ís were apparently used in the foundation for the road and a new overpass. [Iran Press Watch 11 June 2018]

    Tihran; Iran Cemeteries and graves; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Golestan-i-Javid; Eternal Garden; Khavaran Cultural Complex; Persecution, denial of burial; Z****
    1982 22 or 23 Oct The murder of Daniel Jordon in New York. The crime is unsolved. Mr. Jordon was on the National Spiritual Assembly and was a co-founder of The Anisa Model. [New York Times Archives] Stamford; Conneticut Daniel Jordon; In Memoriam; Z****
    1983 20 Oct The Universal House of Justice called on individuals and Bahá'í communities to apply the teachings of Bahá'u'lláh systematically to the problems of their societies. This seminal statement pointed to the teachings of Bahá'u'lláh as a source of order in the world, asserted the coherence of the spiritual and the material dimensions of human life, praised the social and economic progress achieved by the Bahá'í community of Iran, announced the establishment of the Office of Social and Economic Development at the World Centre and defined the role of various Bahá'í agencies in fostering development. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 20 October, 1983, Mess63-86p602-603,AWH6–10; BW19:153, BW92-93pg229-245] BWC Social and economic development; Social action; Office of Social and Economic Development; Universal House of Justice, Letters and messages; Bahai International Development Organization; Z****
    1985 6 Feb The passing of Claire Gung (b. 3 November, 1904 Germany) in Kampala. She was buried in The National Bahá'í Cemetery of Uganda.
    She fled to England during World War II where she served as a nurse. She became a Bahá'í in Torquay and later joined the small Bahá’í group in Cheltenham in 1940. She moved to Manchester and later pioneered to Northampton in November 1946 to become member of the first Spiritual Assembly there. In 1948 she again pioneered to help form the first Spiritual Assembly in the “Pivotal Centre” of Cardiff. In 1950, during the “Year of Respite”, Claire became the first pioneer actually to move from the British community to settle in Africa when Shoghi Effendi called for Bahá'ís to open Africa. She sailed on the "Warwick Castle" on 4 January, 1951 and landed in Tanzania where she obtained a post as assistant matron in a school in Lushoto,150 miles from Dar-es-Salaam.
    She became a "Knight" for Rhodesia. Mr. Zahrai was actually the first Bahá'í to come to Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) during a Ten Year Crusade. He was followed soon after by Claire Gung, Eyneddin and Tahirih Ala'i, and Kenneth and Roberta Christian. All six received the accolade of Knight of Baha'u'llah from Shoghi Effendi. Subsequently the Guardian gave her the title, "Mother of Africa".
    Later she moved to Uganda where she started a Kindergarten school. She was affectionately known as "Auntie Claire". [BWNS275; Wikipedia; Wikipedia; Historical Dictionary of the Bahá'í Faith p.209; UD211, 482]
  • Also see Claire Gung Mother of Africa by Adrienne Morgan and published by the National Spiritual Assembly of Baha'is of South Africa; (1997).
  • Rhodesia; Zimbabwe; Uganda; Tanzania In Memoriam; Knights of Baha'u'llah; Claire Gung; Auntie Claire; Eyneddin Ala'i; Tahirih Ala'i; Ken Christian; Roberta Christian Z****
    1986 28 Jan The death of NASA Astronaut Ronald Erwin McNair (b. 21 October, 1951 in Lake City, SC) when Space Shuttle Challenger disintegrated nine miles above the Atlantic Ocean just 73 seconds after liftoff. Prior to this launch he had served 7 days, 23 minutes in space. He was buried in Rest Lawn Memorial Park in Lake City, South Carolina. [BlackPast.org] Cape Canaveral; Florida; Park in Lake City; South Carolina Ronald McNair; Z****
    1987 Faced with unrelenting religious persecution involving a wide range of human rights violations, the Bahá'í Institute for Higher Education (BIHE) was founded in response to the Iranian government's continuing campaign to deny Iranian Bahá'ís access to higher education.
    BIHE developed several unique features which have become its defining strengths. Courses were delivered at the outset by correspondence, soon complemented by in-person classes and tutoring. Later on, leading-edge communication and education technologies were included. In addition, an affiliated global faculty (AGF) was established that comprised of hundreds of accredited professors from universities outside Iran who assisted BIHE as researchers, teachers and consultants.
    The BIHE was to evolve such that it could offer 38 university-level programs across 5 faculties and continued to develop and deliver academic programs in Sciences, Engineering, Business and Management, Humanities, and Social Sciences. It provided and continues to provide its students with the necessary knowledge and skills to not only persevere and succeed in their academic and professional pursuits, but to be active agents of change for the betterment of the world.
    The BIHE's commitment to high academic standards, international collaboration and its innovative teaching-learning environment has been increasingly recognized as graduates excelled in post graduate studies internationally. [See list] These unique strengths of BIHE, together with the top-ranking marks of its students, have helped secure its graduates places at over 87 prestigious universities and colleges in North America, Europe, Australia and Asia (India). [Closed Doors, Chapter IV; BIHE]
    Iran Bahai Institute for Higher Education (BIHE); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human Rights; Education; persecution, Persecution, Education; Z****
    1988 The opening of the School of the Nations in Taipa, Macau with 5 students enrolled in kindergarten and operated out of an apartment. The teachers outnumbered the students.
    • In its second year it had 100 students and nearly 200 in the third year. Eventually, the Macau government donated land where a 7-story facility was opened in 2008. That new building included a library that was also accessible to the public throughout the week. In 2019 School of the Nations had 600 students from kindergarten through high school and 100 teachers.
    • The school became a high performer in the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme and was the first in Macau to offer the International General Certificate of Secondary Education, the two most widely recognized international qualifications accepted by the majority of universities in the world. [SoN, BWNS460; BWNS1305]
    Taipa; Macau School of the Nations; Bahai schools; BWNS; Z****
    1988 11 Mar The passing of Italian orientalist, scholar and linguist Alessandro Bausani. As an orientalist he made contributions in several fields: Persian Literature, Islam, linguistics, the history of Islamic science, Urdu, Indonesian, and other Islamic literatures. He was a polyglot having studied all the main European languages plus Basque, Arabic, Turkish, Persian as well as Latin and Greek. Italy Alessandro Bausani; In Memoriam; Z****
    1988 9 Dec The passing of Edna M. True, (b. July 29, 1888, in Grand Rapids, Michigan) She was a daughter of the Hand of the Cause of God Corinne Knight True whose valiant work from 1909-25 as financial secretary of Bahá'í Temple Unity was instrumental in building the House of Worship in Wilmette.
    • She formally enrolled in the Faith as a 15-year-old in 1903.
    • See PG111-113. Edna and her mother had spent 11 days on pilgrimage in November of 1919. On the point of her departure 'Abdu'l-Bahá called her to His side.
    • Like her mother, Miss True became intimately involved in the completion of that magnificent edifice, serving on its construction committee from 1947-53, lending her expertise to interior design, and helping to plan its formal dedication in 1953.
    • From 1940-46 she was a member of the Bahá'í Inter-America Committee, serving as its chairman in 1941-42 and secretary in 1945-46.
    • In 1946 when she was elected to membership on the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States. She served as recording secretary for the next 22 years.
    • She served as chairman of the European Teaching Committee for the entire span of its existence (1946-64), her organizational skills to work to help form local Spiritual Assemblies and, later, National Spiritual Assemblies in 11 European countries.
    • In 1968, now 80 years old, Miss True was named by the Universal House of Justice as a member of the Continental Board of Counsellors for the Americas. She served with distinction as a Counsellor and Trustee of the Continental Fund until 1981 when advancing years (she was then 93) forced her to reduce her activities.
    • In 1986, Miss True and and her longtime friend and companion Miss Jackson made a pilgrimage to the World Centre in Haifa, Israel, where they visited the Holy Shrines and were entertained by members of the Universal House of Justice.
    • She was buried in the True family plot at Chicago's Oak-woods Cemetery. [Bahá'í News January, 1989 Issue 694 p.2]
    Grand Rapids; Wilmette Edna True; Corrine True; Continental Board of Counsellors; National Spiritual Assembly; European Teaching Committee; In Memoriam; Z****
    1991 25 Feb In Iran, a secret government memorandum (known as the Golpaygani Memorandum) was drawn up by Iran's Supreme Revolutionary Cultural Council and signed by Iran's supreme leader, Ayatollah Khamenei, which provided a blueprint of the policies and actions to which the Bahá'í community of Iran was to be subjugated. The memorandum demanded a shift in Iran's stance towards Bahá'ís from overt persecution to a more covert policy aimed at depleting the Iranian Bahá'í community's economic and cultural resources. This was a change in the policy for the Islamic regime which had openly persecuted and killed Bahá'ís during its first decade in power and had accused them of being spies for various foreign powers. The document also called for “countering and destroying their [Baha’is’] cultural roots abroad.” [Iran Press Watch 1407]
    Signed by Iranian Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei, the memorandum established a subtle government policy aimed at essentially grinding the community into nonexistence by
    • forcing Bahá'í children to have a strong Islamic education,
    • pushing Bahá'í adults into the economic periphery and forcing them from all positions of power or influence, and
    • requiring that Bahá'í youth "be expelled from universities, either in the admission process or during the course of their studies, once it becomes known that they are Bahá'ís."
    [One Country; Iran Press Watch 1578] The memorandum can be found here, here and here.
    • This document might have remained secret had it not been divulged to Reynaldo Galindo Pohl, the Salvadoran diplomat who served as the United Nations (UN) Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Iran between 1986 and 1995. Professor Pohl disclosed the document in 1993 during a session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights (now replaced by the Human Rights Council). [BWNS575]
    Iran; United States Golpaygani Memorandum; Ayatollah Khamenei; Ayatollahs; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; United Nations; Persecution, education; BWNS; Z****
    1993 Mar The English translation of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas was published. [BW92–3:44] [CBN vol 5 no 10 Mar93 pg1] [CoB310-13 UHJ Message 5Mar93] [VV142]
    • For the significance of its publication see BW92–3:45–6.
    • For its place in Bahá'í literature see BW92-3p45-6, p105-118.
    • This date also marks the first publication in the West of Questions and Answers, a document comprising exclusively of answers Bahá’u’lláh revealed in response to questions about the laws of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas. See Chronology 1910.
    BWC Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Translation; Publications; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Questions and Answers; Zaynul-Muqarrabin; Z****
    1999 (in the year) The founding of the Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity (ISGP) as a non-profit organization to work in collaboration with the Bahá’í International Community and dedicated to building capacity in individuals, groups and institutions to contribute to prevalent discourses concerned with the betterment of society. One of the purposes of the Institute was to explore, with others, the complementary roles that science and religion – as co-evolving systems of knowledge and practice – must play in the advancement of civilization. Principles, concepts and approaches that are relevant to the advancement of civilization are to be explored through a process of study, reflection and consultation. [ISPG Web site; BahaiKipedia; BWNS1266] New York; United States Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity (ISGP); Bahai International Community; Science; Social discourse; Z****
    1999 and beyond Based on initial experiences, the Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity learned that many people – including many university students and young professionals are interested in exploring the concepts the Institute is working with, and are interested in developing the capacity to contribute to contemporary discourses through a framework that draws on insights from both science and religion. Therefore, the Institute initiated another line of action focused on raising capacity in university students and young adults to contribute to the discourse on science, religion and development, as well as to other discourses related to the betterment of society. The Institute now conducts a series of undergraduate and graduate seminars in a growing number of countries for this purpose. Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity (ISGP); Z****
    2000 21 - 24 Nov Under the auspices of the ISGP a colloquium on Science, Religion and Development was held in New Delhi. Considering India's history of development projects since 1947 as well as it's diverse and largely religious population, it was chosen as a testing-ground for developmental theories based the ISGP model. A year-long conversation was held with development thinkers and practitioners on the present state of development thought and practice. Based on what it learned from these interactions, the Institute prepared a concept paper titled Science, Religion and Development: Some Initial Considerations. New Delhi; India Science, Religion and Development: Some Initial Considerations; Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity (ISGP); Z****
    2001 - 2002 Building on the Indian experience, the discourse on science, religion, and development was extended to other countries. With the collaboration of a task force, the Institute organized a series of seminars in different regions of Uganda. At these seminars, academics, government officials, and representatives from nongovernmental organizations, gathered to discuss – within the context of Ugandan society – the issues raised in the Institute’s document. Participants later formed working groups to explore how the discourse can affect such areas of human activity as education, economic activity and environmental resources, technology, and governance. A series of documents was prepared to be presented to the government. A video entitled Opening a Space: The Discourse on Science, Religion, and Development, documenting the Ugandan experience, was produced. [ISGP History; BWNS590] Uganda Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity (ISGP); film; Opening a Space: The Discourse on Science, Religion, and Development; Z****
    2002. 24 Apr The passing of Barbara Helen Rutledge Sims (b. 17 April, 1918 in San Francisco) in Tokyo. She was a "third generation Bahá'í whose grandmother had been guided to the Faith by John Henry Hyde Dunn and Clara Dunn when they lived in California.
    When the Guardian, Shoghi Effendi, issued his call for believers to serve in the first Global Crusade (1953-1963) she and her husband Charles A. "Sandy" Sims (who was not a Bahá'í but had been born and raised in Japan), and her daughter Sandra. (A son, Sheridan, was born a few years later.)
    She was elected to the Local Spiritual Assembly of Tokyo in 1954 and served for many years on that body. In 1957 she was elected to the first National Spiritual Assembly of North East Asia, and in 1974 she was elected to the first National Spiritual Assembly of Japan, serving until 1993. She was secretary for many years on those Assemblies. She also served on a number of national committees, developed the National Archives, volunteered in the national office and on the staff of the Publishing Trust, went on teaching trips around Japan and to other Asian countries, and wrote Bahá'í histories of Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Macau and Tokyo, and her memoirs. [Barbara Sims' Contribution to Bahá'í Scholarship in Asia Pacific by Sandra S. Fotos; In memoriam Barbara Sims by Universal House of Justice, Sheridan Sims, and Sandra S. Fotos]
    San Francisco; Tokyo Barbara Sims; In Memoriam; Sandra Sims; Sandra Fotos; Sheridan Sims; John Dunn; Clara Dunn; Z****
    2005 (In the year) In Brazil, eleven leaders of thought were invited to study and comment on the initial concept paper developed by the Institute (Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity). These comments were gathered in a book which was published and disseminated around the country and used to stimulate discussions in seminars with small groups of participants. [One Counry Issue 3, Vol 17, Story 8] Brazil Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity (ISGP); Science Religion and Development: Perspectives for Brazil; Iradj Roberto Eghrari; Z****
    2005 15 Oct The Constitution of Iraq was approved by referendum to replace the Law of Administration for the State of Iraq for the Transitional Period (TAL), previously adopted by a Governing Council appointed by the Coalition Provisional Authority after the Iraq War. The Constitution guaranteed the Islamic identity of the majority of the Iraqi people and guaranteed the full religious rights of all individuals to freedom of religious belief and practice such as Christians, Yazedis, and Mandi Sabeans. It made no mention of the Bahá'ís as an acknowledged religious minority.
    The Law No.105 of 1970 which prohibited all Bahá'í activities was not rescinded therefore it entered into force despite its being unconstitutional under the new constitution. Also problematic for the Bahá'í community was Regulation 358 of 1975 by the Department of Civil Status that prohibited the issuance of new identity cards to followers of the Bahá'í faith and altered their civil status so that they were registered as Muslims. [Al-Monitor 11 December, 2018; Washington Post 12 October, 2005] .
    Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Z****
    2006 10 Jun In Malaysia, Social & Economic Development Services (SEDS) together with the Centre for Civilisational Dialogue organized two nation-wide colloquia on science, religion and development. The first was held at University of Malaya in 2005 and the second on this date in Kuala Lumpur. [SGM Website] Kuala Lumpur; Malaysia Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity (ISGP); Z****
    2006 Dec The publication of A Faith Denied: The Persecution of the Bahá'ís of Iran by the Iran Human Rights Documentation Center (IHRDC).
    The document reported that the Bahá’í community of Iran were not free to practice their religion, they suffered from economic and social exclusion, and they had been subjected to executions, arbitrary arrests and the destruction of their property - all carried out with the support of national judicial, administrative and law enforcement structures. It also stated that since the election of President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad in June 2005, there was evidence to suggest a new cycle of repression may be beginning. [A Faith Denied]
    Iran Persecution, Iran; Human Rights, Iran; Z****
    2007 Apr In Iraq the Ministry of Interior's Nationality and Passport Section canceled regulation 358 of 1975 which prohibited the issuance of national identity cards to those claiming the Bahá'í Faith. In May 2007 a small number of Bahá'ís were issued identity cards. The Nationality and Passport Section's legal advisor stopped issuance of the cards thereafter, claiming Bahá'ís had been registered as Muslims since 1975 and citing a government regulation preventing the conversion of "Muslims" to another faith. Without this official identity card, Bahá'ís could not register their children for school or acquire passports. Despite the cancellation of the regulation, Bahá'ís whose identity records were changed to "Muslim" after regulation 358 was instituted in 1975 still could not change their identity cards to indicate their Bahá'í faith, and their children were not recognized as Bahá'ís. [US Department of State BUREAU OF DEMOCRACY, HUMAN RIGHTS, AND LABOR July-December, 2010 International Religious Freedom Report Report September 13, 2011] Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Z****
    2007 18 May A letter marked "Confidential" was sent from the academic counseling and higher education office at Guilán University to the director of university academic affairs, asking for the immediate discharge of a Bahá'í student stating that she was legally banned from continuing her education.
    • English translation of the letter of the 18 May, 2007.
    • English translation of the reply dated the 27 May, 2007 stating that the said student had been been "disqualified" from studying at Guilan, as required by the 1991 Golpaygani memorandum.
    Guilan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Education; Z****
    2008 28 Sep The Bahá'í Cemetery of Isfahan, known as Gulestan-e Javid [Eternal Garden], was attacked by a certain group and many trees and gardens raised with enormous difficulty in that desert-like field were cut and destroyed. Windows of a hall at the end of the cemetery were broken and the walls were blackened by incendiary materials. [Iran Press Watch 48] Isfahan; Iran Persecution, denial of burial; Z****
    2007 to 2009 Over 200 articles appeared in the Iranian newspaper Kayhan* in the years 2007-2009 that attacked every aspect of the history of the Bahá'í Faith, its personalities, beliefs and community life. Such messages were reinforced on television, in mass marches and in Friday sermons. Under government tutelage, the media served to endanger their already highly curtailed existence.
    *Kayhan is state-funded and has a role comparable to "Pravda" under Stalin." [Iran Press Watch 16 February, 2009]
    Iran Iran, persecution; Kayhan; press; Z****
    2009 11 Feb An Iranian ISNA news agency report quoting Tehran’s deputy public prosecutor Hassan Haddad reported that a case will be sent to the revolutionary courts in the coming week accusing the seven Bahá'ís of “espionage for Israel, insulting religious sanctities and propaganda against the Islamic republic.”

    For the first time after two decades, the Islamic Republic of Iran officially accused the leaders of the Bahá'í community of Iran of espionage, thus reverting its position to that of the 1980s. [Iran Press Watch 1407]

    Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Z****
    2009 15 Feb The US House of Representatives introduced a resolution condemning the government of Iran for its state-sponsored persecution of its Bahá'í minority and its continued violation of the International Covenants on Human Rights. [Iran Press Watch 1203] Washington,DC; Iran; Yaran, Persecution, Iran; Z****
    2009 16 Feb Iran’s Prosecutor General Qorban-Ali Dorri-Najafabadi made the claim that the members of the "banned Baha'i sect" have irrefutable links with Israel and that the seven will be tried on charges of “espionage for Israel, desecrating religious sanctities and propaganda against the Islamic Republic.” His statement was in reaction to the resolution by the U.S. State Department condemning recent events. [Iran Press Watch 1215] Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Z****
    2009 17 Feb The European Union expressed their concerns that, after being held for so long without due process, the Yaran would not receive a fair trial. The EU therefore requested the Islamic Republic of Iran to allow independent observation of the judicial proceedings and to reconsider the charges brought against these individuals. Declaration by the Presidency on behalf of the European Union on the trial with seven Baha'i leaders in Iran Brussels European Union; Yaran; persecution, Iran; Z****
    2009 25 Feb The seven imprisoned Baha’i leaders were given permission to meet with their families. [Iran Press Watch 1468] Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Z****
    2009 27 Feb Responding to the public outcry from western nations against Iran for the plight of seven imprisoned Baha’i leaders, Qorban-Ali Dorri-Najafabadi, Iran’s Prosecutor-General, stated, “These individuals have accepted the charges [brought against them.” This was later proved to be untrue. Meanwhile, the seven detained Baha’is continued to be deprived of due process and the opportunity to meet with their attorney. [Iran Press Watch 1547] Tihran; Iran Yaran, persecution, Iran; Z****
    2009 Mar The Yaran decided that as a measure of goodwill to disband all Baha’i organizations in Iran. This decision was ratified by the Universal House of Justice. [Iran Press Watch 2709] Iran Yarn; persecution, Iran; Z****
    2009 4 Mar The Bahá'í International Community at the United Nations sent an open letter to Ayatollah Qorban-Ali Dorri-Najafabadi, the Prosecutor-General of Iran, regarding recent measures taken against the Yaran (at the national level) and the Khademin (at the local level). Since the disbanding of the Bahá'í administrative order in Iran, these groups had been functioning in close collaboration with the authorities.
    • The letter reiterated, in broad strokes, the history of the relationship between the authorities and the Bahá'í community since the revolution and addressed the accusations leveled against them as well as the deliberate misrepresentations of the community. The letter closed with numerous examples of the support for the community from the Iranian population.
    Iran Ayatollah Qorban-Ali Dorri-Najafabadi; Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Z****
    2009 30 Mar The first meeting of the imprisoned Yaran took place and was in person. It is customary in Iran to allow prisoners to meet with their families during the two-week Naw-Ruz festivities. A second visit with their families was also granted on April 6 but this time the families were allowed to meet with their loved-ones from behind glass windows. [Iran Press Watch 2126] Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Z****
    2009 27 Apr A fourth charge was leveled against the Yaran: “Aiding, teaching and propagating the Baha’i religion in Iran.” This is tantamount to “mufsed fel-arz” [corrupt on earth] which has historically carried harsh consequences, including the death penalty. [Iran Press Watch 2709] Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Z****
    2009 11 May After a year in jail without formal charges the Bahá'í leaders faced an additional accusation, 'the spreading of corruption on earth,' which goes by the term 'Mofsede fel-Arz' in Persian and carries the threat of death under the penal code of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Prior to this new charge they had been accused of 'espionage for Israel, insulting religious sanctities and propaganda against the Islamic Republic.' [BIC Report]
    The anticipated sham trial of the seven Baha’is leaders provoked a strong condemnation throughout the world press. In almost every language and in every country of the world, journalists, diplomats, prominent citizens and many others denounced the intentions of the Iranian government to try these innocent citizens on baseless charges of: “espionage for Israel”, “insulting religious sanctities” and “”propaganda against the Islamic Republic.” [World Press on the Trial of the Seven Baha’i Leaders]
    Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Human rights; Press Coverage, Yaran; Z****
    2010 (during 1st week in Jul) Some fifty homes of Bahá'í citizens in Ivel village in Mazandaran were destroyed by trucks and loaders. Their complaint about the destruction of their homes was ignored and justice authorities gave them no response. It is believed that the Ministry of Information, the Security agencies and some religious authorities were behind the scheme. According to owners of the homes, they did not know from where the order was given but local residents of the village did the deed. {Iran Press Watch 6202] Ivel; Mazandaran; persecution, Iran; Z****
    2010 8 Aug The sentence of 20 years in prison was announced for members of the "Yaran-i-Iran" or "Friends of Iran" in Branch 28 of the Revolutionary Court presided over by Judge Moqayesseh (or Moghiseh)*. The charges were several: "espionage", "collaborating with enemy states", "insulting the sacred", "propaganda against the state" and "forming an illegal group". The prominent civil and human rights lawyer who defended them was Mr Abdolfattah Soltani. He would later serve a 13-year sentence in the Evin Prison for engaging in his profession. Another member of their legal defense team was the attorney Hadi Esmailzadeh who died in 2016 while serving a 4-year prison term for defending human rights cases. After the sentencing the seven Bahá'í leaders were sent to Raja’i prison in the city of Karaj (Gohardasht) , about 50 kilometers west of Tehran. [BWNS789]
    • Raja’i prison in Mashhad has frequently been criticized by human rights advocates for its unsanitary environment, lack of medical services, crowded prison cells and unfair treatment of inmates by guards. [Wikipedia; Iran Press Watch 6315].
    • Soon after their arrival four of the Yaran were transferred to room 17 in Section 6 of this notorious prison. Section 6 is infamous in human rights circles. It has often been the scene of bloody fighting among prisoners and it is considered extremely dangerous. It is where certain political prisoners are sent to vanish. At first the Mafia-like gangs incarcerated in the same facility began to refer to the Yaran as “infidels”. The authorities have also tried to pressure other prisoners to insult and belittle the newly-arrived Bahá'ís, but it appears that most other prisoners have so far refused to comply with this suggestion. In fact, it is reported that most other prisoners are showing considerable respect to the Baha’is and try to be hospitable. [Iran Press Watch 667]

      * For a profile of Judge Mohammad Moghiseh see Iran Press Watch 17764 .

    Tihran; Mashhad; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Evin Prison; Gohardasht prison; Abdolfattah Soltani; Hadi Esmailzadeh; Moghiseh; Human rights; Prisons; BWNS; Z****
    2010 Sep Following the reduction of his sentence, Vahid Tizfahm was transferred to Rajai-Shahr prison, where he remained until his release. Rajai-Shahr is located in the Alborz Province, and was at the time a maximum-security prison, a place for the “dangerous” individuals. According to Iran’s Department of Prisons, Security and Corrections’ Regulations, and based on the principle of Segregation of Crimes, Tizfahm’s transfer to Rajai-Shahr was not legal. [Iran Press Watch 29 March, 2018] Rajai-Shahr; Iran Yaran; Vahid Tizfahm; Rajai-Shahr prison; Prisons; Persecution, Iran; Z****
    2011 10 Mar The passing of Mrs. Ashraf Khanjani, wife of imprisoned Jamaloddin Khanjani at the age of 81 In Tehran. The couple had been married for more than 50 years. Mr. Khanjani, 77, who was serving a ten-year jail term at Iran's notorious Gohardasht prison, was not granted leave to attend his wife's funeral which was held the next day in Tehran. It attracted between 8,000 and 10,000 mourners from all walks of life. Ministry of Intelligence officers were also reportedly present, filming the proceedings.
    Prior to the 1979 Iranian revolution, Mr. Khanjani was a successful factory owner. His brick-making factory – the first automated such facility in Iran – employed several hundred people before he was forced to shut it down and abandon it, because of the persecution he faced as a Bahá'í. The factory was later confiscated by the government. Mr. Khanjani was able to establish a mechanized farm but the authorities made it difficult for him to operate. Their restrictions extended to his children and relatives and included refusing loans, closing their facilities, limiting business dealings, and banning travel outside Iran.
    Mr. Khanjani had been arrested and imprisoned at least three times before his latest incarceration in May 2008. [BWNS811; Iran Press Watch 7454]
    Tihran; Iran Yaran; Ashraf Khanjani; Jamaloddin Khanjani; In Memoriam; BWNS; Z****
    2011 24 Mar The UN Human Rights Council voted to create a Special Rapporteur on the human rights situation in Iran. [Iran Press Watch 7657] Iran Yaran; Persection, Iran; UN; UNHCR; Special Rapporteur; Z****
    2011 Ridván The Preparation for Social Action programme was implemented under the Five Year Plan.

    The programme drew on the learning of three decades of experience of FUNDAEC (Fundación para la Aplicación y Enseñanza de las Ciencias), in Columbia. It was an approach to social and economic development that addressed both the material and the spiritual dimensions of human existence. The programme aimed at assisting youth to understand certain concepts, learn a range of relevant facts, and acquire certain qualities, attitudes and skills that would enable them to promote the well-being of their people in fields as diverse as health, education, the environment, secondary production and community organization.

    BWC; Cameroon,Colombia; Costa Rica; India; Kenya; Papua New Guinea; Uganda; Zambia Five Year Plan (2011-2016); Teaching Plans; Preparation for Social Action; Z****
    2011 May Some 39 homes of Bahá'ís associated with the Bahá'í Institute for Higher Education (BIHE) were raided in a coordinated attack. Educator Kamran Mortezaie is now serving a five-year jail term. Mahmoud Badavam, Noushin Khadem, Farhad Sedghi, Riaz Sobhani and Ramin Zibaie are each serving four year prison sentences. The judgments against them cast their activities in support of BIHE as crimes and as “evidence” of their purported aim to subvert the State. Two psychology teachers – Faran Hesami and her husband Kamran Rahimian – were also sentenced to four years in prison. Another BIHE administrator Vahid Mahmoudi was released on 8 January 2012 after his five-year sentence was reportedly suspended. [BWNS910] Iran Persecution, Iran; Baha'i Institute for Higher Education; BIHE; Persecution, Education; Z****
    2011 29 May The inauguration of the UNESCO Square for Tolerance and Peace, situated at the point where Haifa's historic German Templar colony meets the terraced gardens of the Shrine of the Báb. [BWNS828]
    • Over the next year the Square was developed through the addition of upgraded stonework and decorative floral plantings in the centre of the traffic circle. [The Five Year Plan 2011-2016: Summary of Achievements and Learning pg113]
    Haifa; Israel UNESCO for Tolerance and Peace Square; UNESCO; Tolerance; Peace; BWNS; Z****
    2011 Aug As of this time the Bahá'í community of Tabriz has been prohibited from burying their dead in that city and their bodies were transferred by intelligence officers to the city of Miandoab, in West Azerbaijan province. [Iran Press Watch 19720] Tabriz; Miandoab; Iran Persecution, denial of burial; Z****
    2012 Dec (mid) Sangesar’s old Bahá'í cemetery was thoroughly covered in soil and rubble by bulldozers and trucks and all the graves were covered by dirt and rocks so that no more graves could be seen. [Iran Press Watch 19720] Sangesar; Iran Persecution, denial of burial; Z****
    2013. (In the Year) The Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity initiated a line of action conceived as "areas of inquiry". Through this initiative the Institute aimed to develop capacity to describe and examine, in the light of the Revelation, social phenomena that were pressing and crucial to the life of humanity. Working with collaborators such topics as the global movement of populations, peace and justice in societies in transition, and the role of religion in migration. [The Five Year Plan 2011-2016: Summary of Achievements and Learning pg113] Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity; Z****
    2013 7 Apr Mr. Ataollah Rezvani, a well-known Bahá'í in the city of Bandar Abbas was shot and killed in his car. It is of note that a few years before his murder, the Friday prayer Imam had incited the local population against the Bahá'ís, referring to them as un-Islamic. He further called on the people of the city to rise up against the Bahá'í community. [BWNS987, BWNS1031; Iran Press Watch 9306]
    • Rezvani was shot in the back of the head and his body was found in his car near the railway station on the outskirts of the city. His assailants had forced him to drive to that location. His body was discovered following a search when he failed to return home. [http://publicaffairs.bahai.us/388]
    Bandar Abbas; Iran Ataollah Rezvani; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; BWNS; Z****
    2013 24 - 26 Jun Contrary to the constitution which established the government's commitment to assuring and maintaining the sanctity of holy shrines and religious sites and guaranteeing the free practice of rituals. In addition the penal code criminalized disrupting or impeding religious ceremonies and desecrating religious buildings, and specified that it applies to religious minorities. In Iraq followers of all religious groups and sects are free in the practice of religious rites and in the management of religious endowments, their affairs, and their religious institutions.
    And contrary to the plans of the Department of Antiquities who had declared it a heritage site in a decree by the Iraqi Culture Minister Saadoun al-Dulaimi not two years earlier, the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád was razed to make way for the construction of a husseniya or Shiite congregation hall. [Message from the Universal House of Justice date 17 July 2013, SETPE1p170; Al-Monitor 11 December, 2018]
    Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); Z****
    2013 Dec The imprisoned members of the Yaran sent a letter addressed to Iranian President, Dr. Hassan Rouhani in response to the invitation that President Rouhani extended to the citizens of Iran to comment on the draft Charter of Citizens’ Rights on the president’s website.
    • A copy of the letter in English can be found online at BWNS977.
    Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Hassan Rouhani; Z****
    2013 12 Dec After confirmation of a court order in Sanandaj and confiscation of the land belonging to the Bahá'ís which had been used as a cemetery, the site was demolished by a bulldozer. [Iran Press Watch 19720] Sanandaj; Iran Persecution, denial of burial; Z****
    2014 Mar The Bahá'í cemetery in Ahwaz was closed and the alley leading to it was blocked by heavy cement blocks. No organization has accepted responsibility for this action. [Iran Press Watch 19720] Ahwaz; Iran Persecution, denial of burial; Z****
    2014 13 Mar From Rejai Shahr Prison Mr. Behrouz Tavakkoli wrote a letter to his first grandchild who had just been born three days prior in Canada. The letter can be found at Iran Press Watch 9766. Rejai Shahr Prison Behrouz Tavakkoli; Yaran; Z****
    2014 7 May The imprisoned Yaran addressed a letter to Mohammad Javad Larijani, the head of Human Rights Division of the Judiciary Branch of the Islamic Republic of Iran regarding his claim that “No one is in prison for being a Bahá'í and if Bahá'í s do not commit illegal acts their citizenship rights will be protected”. They reiterated some of the acts of oppression and discrimination, security force encounters and human rights violations imposed on the Bahá'í citizens and have asked the officials to change their view toward citizens and minorities.
    The full text of the letter can be viewed at Iran Press Watch 9946
    Iran Yaran, persecution, Iran; Mohammad Javad Larijani; Z****
    2014 9 May Vahid Tizfahm, a former member of the imprisoned Yaran, wrote to his son, Samim, in which he recounts the imprisonment and martyrdom of his own father when he was yet a child. For the full text of the letter see Iran Press Watch10181. Gohardasht; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Vahid Tizfahm; Z****
    2014 6 Jun At her request, the Universal House of Justice sent a message to Her Excellency Ms. Dilma Rousseff, President of the Federative Republic of Brazil on the occasion of the World Cup of football. [BWNS] Brazil Sport; Dilma Rousseff; BWNS; Z****
    2014 Nov Fariba Kamalabadi, after having her fourth request to join her daughter Taraneh for her wedding denied, wrote her a letter from Evin Prison. [Iran Press Watch]
    • See Iran Press Watch 11274 for Taraneh's story of how she grew up without her mother.
    Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Evin Prison; Prisons; Human rights; Taraneh Kamalabadi; Fariba Kamalabadi; Z****
    2015 12 Feb The official opening of the new location of the Afnan Library Trust at Sandy, close to Cambridge. The Afnan Library Trust was established in 1985 to manage the collection bequeathed by Hasan Balyuzi when he passed away in 1980. It consists of some 10,000 books, as well as a vast quantity of manuscripts, original letters, maps, documents, periodicals, and unpublished items – some of them dating back to the nineteenth century. [BWNS1040] The official website can be found here.
    • "In a letter dated the 10 November and the 20 November 1979 he (Hasan Balyuzi) left instructions that all his books and document are to be kept together perpetually... and that they are to form the nucleus of the Afnán Library, founded in the name of his father, Muvaqqari'd-Dawlih, and dedicated to Khadíjih Bagum". [KBWBix]
    Sandy; Cambridge; United Kingdom Afnan Library Trust; Afnan; Hasan Balyuzi; Libraries; Bahai studies; Scholarship; BWNS; Z****
    2015 22 Apr Pressures on Jamaleddin Khanjani’s family had increased since his arrest in 2008. There country home in Semnan was demolished by Security Forces. The family had been given 48 hours to evacuate the house and even though they had succeeded in obtaining a ruling from the Supreme Court to stop the demolition, the home was destroyed. Authorities objected to a house that had been built with a City permit 18 years previously claiming that the owner of this property is unknown and the deed was not acceptable. The farmland, where the house was situated, had belonged to the family for more than 200 years.
    Their farm had more than 40 thousand fruit trees, however, in recent years the authorities had blocked the road during harvest time to prevent more than 200-300 Tons of apples and peaches from reaching the market. A few years prior they had demolished a water storage facility that the family had legally constructed (the government permit and other documents were all available). More than 100 million Liters of water had been stored for agricultural purposes. The family had a thirty-year permit for a pasture for their cattle however they were forced to sell some and purchase forage for the remainder.
    About two weeks prior the CEO of the family's farming company had been sentence to a one-year imprisonment. He had been in prison a few times before and is now back in prison again.
    Although the Khanjani family included both Bahá’ís and Muslims, systematic confrontations and harassment of the family continued during his incarceration. The authorities erected a security station at the entrance to the property where they inspected the cars of family members and did bodily searches. Everyone had to be inspected to be able to go to his/her home. Even the 85-year old mother of Mr Kanjani had to obtain an access card to go to her residence.
    Semnan’s Revolutionary Guard and Ministry of Information declared the farm to be a military area. They built a duty post next the site of the demolished family home. Authorities prohibited the transfer the animals to a warmer climate in a truck. As a result a number of the sheep died.
    With respect to the condition of Jamaleddin Khanjani in prison; he was over 80 years old and on one occasion, had to be transferred to the hospital once for a heart surgery. He was immediately returned to prison although having a medical furlough would have been the usual procedure.
    Mr. Khanjani's family members had been the objects of persecution as well. Foad, his grandson had been in prison for four years and his granddaughter, Leva, had just completed her sentence. His nephew, Navid, who had filed a complaint with the judicial system for having been deprived of education, was faced with fictitious charges and had been sentenced to 12 years imprisonment. He has had a number of medical issues for which he has not received adequate treatment.
    The workplace of Mr. Khanjani’s son who worked in the optical field had been raided a few months prior. All his belongings and property were confiscated based on unfounded accusations of illicit transactions. He had spent some time in prison and had been recently been released.
    Mr. Khanjani's brother had a factory in Semnan and had imported equipment for making prescription lenses from Germany. He had suspended work in his factory for the anniversary of passing of Bahá’u’lláh and the authorities closed his business based on different excuses. The Ministry of Information asked him why the factory had been closed and he said it was his religious holiday. They shuttered the factory permanently, confiscated all the equipment and auctioned it all without any compensation.
    Although a large number of their family members were Muslim they lived together, the Muslims participating in the Bahá’í commemorations and the Bahá’ís participating in theirs. [Iran Press Watch 11853]
    Semnan; Iran Jamaleddin Khanjani; Persecution; Z****
    2011 - 2016 (The Five Year Plan) The annual number of seminars for undergraduate students offered by the Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity rose from 21 at the start of the Plan to 39. More than 4,000 youth in more than 60 countries were served.

    The seminar for university graduates and for young professionals, first offered in North America in 2008, was extended to Australia, Europe, Latin America and south and Southeast Asia over the duration of the Plan. As of this date more than 700 individuals have taken part. [The Five Year Plan 2011-2016: Summary of Achievements and Learning pg113]

    Australia; Europe; Latin America; Southeast Asia; South Asia; North America Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity; statistics; Z****
    2016 (End of the Five Year Plan) The Preparation for Social Action programme that was implemented at the beginning of the Five Year Plan was expanded to seven additional countries: Cambodia, Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ecuador, Panama, the Philippines and Vanuatu.
    • Over 10,000 had participated in the programme with about 1,800 among these who had studied all of the texts available.
    • In addition some 1,700 individuals serving institutions and agencies of the Fatih in 25 countries had studied a selection the the materials in a seminar setting. [5YPSumPage94-95]
    • Preparation for Social Action was implemented as a course of study at the New Era High School and Senior Secondary in Panchgani.
    Cambodia; Central African Republic; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Ecuador; Panama; Philippines; Vanuatu Five Year Plan (2011-2016); Teaching Plans; Preparation for Social Action; Z****
    2016 14 Jul The Ghorveh Bahá'í cemetery, in the province of Kurdistan, was destroyed by government agents. [Iran Press Watch 19720] Ghorveh; Kurdistan; Iran Persecution, denial of burial; Z****
    2018 15 Mar The Bahá'í cemetery in the city of Kerman was sealed by order of the Kerman judicial authorities and the burial of deceased Bahá'ís was prevented. [Iran Press Watch 19720] Kerman; Iran Persecution, denial of burial; Z****
    2018. 8 Jul The opening of the play about Tahirih called Daughter of the Sun to an audience of 450 people at the Azerbaijan State Academic National Drama. The dramatic presentation was produced by journalist Kamale Selim Muslimgizi and came at a time when the life of Tahirih was gaining renewed attention and interest in Azerbaijani society due, in part because a book on Tahirih’s life and works that was translated and published in 2016 which catalyzed a growing interest among the people of Azerbaijan about the life of this iconic champion of women’s emancipation. Tahirih wrote in Persian, Arabic, and Azeri, a widely spoken language in Qazvin and the surrounding region. Azeri is also the main language of Azerbaijan. Tahirih has long attracted interest among scholars. Western Orientalists of the 19th century wrote of her influence on literature and gender equality. In recent years, there have been numerous academic articles and books about her as well as translations of three volumes of her poetry into English.
    The play will continue its run in Baku and in the coming months will go on stage in other cities across the country. [BWNS1276; 30 April, 1960]
    Baku; Azerbaijan Tahirih; Plays; Arts; Kamale Selim Muslimgizi; BWNS; Z****
    2018 9 Sep Ētahi Karakia Baha’i (Book of Bahá'í Prayers) was launched at the Pūrekireki Marae in Pirongia to coincide with the beginning of Māori Language Week. For Dr. Tom Roa, professor of Maori and Indigenous Studies at the University of Waikato, it was the fourth significant translation of canonical Bahá'í texts he and his team have undertaken. This endeavour comes amid broader efforts to revive the Maori language. Dr. Roa, who has been at the forefront of these efforts, says that Maori speakers are a declining share of New Zealand’s population. Maori people make up only 15 percent of the population, and only a fifth of them can have a conversation in Maori, he notes.
    Providing access to prayers in Maori was a key motivation for the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of New Zealand when it undertook the process in 2004. A small team of Bahá'ís worked with Dr. Roa, who has translated other spiritual texts into the Maori language, including the Bible and the Quran. The 14-year translation project began first with The Hidden Words, Bahá’u’lláh’s preeminent ethical work, and then Baha’u’llah and the New Era, an introduction to the Faith.
    Bahá'í writings have been translated into some 800 languages to date. [BWNS1287; Raglan23 18SEP2018]
    Pirongia; New Zealand Etahi Karakia Bahai; Maoris; Translation; Dr Tom Roa; Z****
    2018 Oct The publication of Man of the Trees: Richard St. Barbe Baker, the First Global Conservationist. by Paul Hanley. [BWNS1292 Regina,Saskatchewan Richard St Barbe Baker; Man of the Trees; Paul Hanley; BWNS; Z****
    2018 24 Oct The body of a Bahá'í citizen, Shamsi Aghdasi Azamian, from Gilavand, a suburb of the city of Damavand was exhumed by unknown individuals several days after being buried in the Gilavand Bahá'í Cemetery and abandoned in the deserts of Jaban in the suburbs of that city. No individual or institution has accepted responsibility for this action, although security forces had told the Gilavand Baha’is earlier that they had no right to bury their deceased member in this place, and that they should perform burials only in Tehran. Her son refused to move the body but found that it had been taken to Tehran which is a distance of some two hours away. [Iran Press Watch 19720]

    Subsequently, a group of progressive Muslims strongly condemned the “desecration and excavation of the grave of a Baha’i compatriot.” In their statement the “systematic and deeply rooted denial of Bahá'í citizens’ rights” was denounced, and the violation of their citizenship rights was called a “hateful” act, “born of ignorant prejudice.” The signatories of the statement called for an open investigation and prosecution of perpetrators and facilitators. The message can be seen at Iran Press Watch19731.

    Gilavand; Damavand; Iran Shamsi Aghdasi Azamian; Persecution, denial of burial; Z****
    2018 1 - 7 Nov More than 7,500 people attended the Parliament of the World’s Religions held at the Metro Toronto Convention Centre. This forum began in 1893 at the World Columbian Exposition in Chicago as an effort to promote an emerging international movement devoted to promoting dialogue among religions. Since that time, it has been held in Cape Town (1999), Barcelona (2004), Melbourne (2009) and Salt Lake City (2015). [Website] Bahá'í presenters were:
    • Bani Dugal: “The Equality of Women and Men: Divine Imperative for an Age of Transition.”
    • Hugh Locke: “Half the Sky, Half the Land: The Role of Women Farmers in Transforming Agriculture,”
    • Payam Akhavan: “Equality and Justice, Global Perspectives” and “Countering War, Hate, and Violence Assembly.”
    • Emily Wright: “Making Interreligious Chaplaincy Education Meaningfully Inclusive” and “A New Cup of Grace—A Ukulele Opera
    • Hooshmand Badee: “Interfaith Peacemaking Perspectives from Across the World.”
    • Nader Saiedi: Presenting the new documentary film The Gate: Dawn of the Bahá’í Faith.
    • Paul Hanley: “Man of the Trees: Richard St. Barbe Baker, the First Global Environmentalist.”
    • JoAnn Borovicka: “Amazing Faiths! An Interactive Workshop on Interfaith Dialogue.”
    • Robert Atkinson: “New Thoughts in Interfaith Spirituality.”
    • Robert Stockman: “The Characteristics of Bahá’í Interfaith Dialogue.” Candace Hill: “From Shiraz to Chicago: Bahá’í Women of the East and the West”
    • Edward Price: “The Divine Curriculum: Understanding the Báb, Divine Educator for the Modern Era.”
    • Sovaida Maani Ewing: “Achieving World Peace: Bahá’í and Catholic Teachings.”
    • Jean Muza: “Bahá’í Civic Engagement: How to Maneuver in America’s Divisive Political Landscape.”
    • Robert Atkinson: “The Golden Rule as the Basis for a Global Justice System: An Interfaith Perspective with a Call to Action.”
    • Edward Price: “The Divine Curriculum Concept as a Framework for Interfaith Inclusion and Love.” [CBN-Preparation; CBN-Inclusion; CBN-Films]
    Toronto; Canada; Chicago; Cape Town; Barcelona; Melbourne; Salt Lake City World Parliament of Religions; Z****
    2018 9 Nov The Universal House of Justice announced that the Office of Social and Economic Development would be succeeded by the Bahá’í International Development Organization with a five-member board of directors to serve a five year term of service with appointment to be made on the Day of the Covenant.
    • In addition a new fund, the Bahá'í Development Fund, was inaugurated which will be supported by the Universal House of Justice, individuals and institutions. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 9 November, 2018]
    • Three days later the Universal House of Justice announced the appointment of the members of the Board of Directors for the Baha'i International Development Organization for the five-year term beginning 26 November 2018: Elisa Caney, Maame Brodwemaba Nketsiah, Lori McLaughlin Noguchi, Sina Rahmanian, and George Soraya.
    BWC Social and Economic Development; Social action; Baha’i International Development Organization; Bahai Development Fund; Universal House of Justice, Letters and messages; Z****
    2018 15 Nov The passing of Shapoor Monadjem, (b. 3 October, 1933, Shiraz, Iran) at his last pioneer post in Maringá, Brazil. He had been a member of the International Teaching Center, a pioneer and member of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Brazil (1963-1983), a Continental Councillor (1983-1993) and a Deputy Trustee of Ḥuqúqu’lláh. [BWNS1296; Bahaikipedia] Maringa; Brazil Shapoor Monadjem; International Teaching Centre; Continental Board of Counsellors; In Memoriam; Z****
    2018 19 - 22 Nov The second annual Arab Sustainable Development Week was held in Cairo from 19 to 22 November to advance the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by the year 2030. More than 120 diplomats, government officials, representatives of regional and international organizations, businesses, and academics attended the event. Speakers included Arab League Secretary-General Ahmed Aboul-Gheit and Egyptian Prime Minister Mostafa Madbouly, among a number of other leaders in the Arab region.
    It was the first time the Bahá'í community had an official presence at a space convened by the Arab League, a regional organization of about 20 nations in North Africa and the Middle East. Bahá'í International Community representatives were Dr. Solomon Belay, from the BIC Addis Ababa office, Shahnaz Jaberi from BIC-Bahrain and Hatem El-Hady from BIC-Egypt. The BIC statement, Summoning Our Common Will: A Baha’i Contribution to the United Nations Global Development Agenda, was distributed at the event. [BWNS1299]
    Cairo; Egypt Solomon Belay; Shahnaz Jaberi; Hatem El-Hady; BIC; Arab League; Sustainable Development; Ahmed Aboul-Gheit; Mostafa Madbouly; Z****
    2019. 08 Jan Imprisoned Bahá'í Hamed bin Haydara, 55, who had been sentenced to death, appeared in court in Sanaa for an unexpected hearing. Mr Haydara had been in Houthi detention in central Sanaa since December 2013. UN human rights representatives have called for the rebels to overturn his death sentence.
    In addition to Mr Haydara, five other Baha’is were held by the rebels in Sanaa, two of whom had been hidden since last April, They were Waleed Ayyash, 51, and Wael Al Al Ariki, 41, a human-rights activist, Sheikh Akram Ayyas, 37, had been in Houthi detention since October 2017, Badea Senai, 66, who was an urban planning adviser for the government, had been in prison since May 2017 and Qwan Mohammad Qadri, 45, who was arrested by the Houthis in August 2016. He is of Iranian descent and was an employee of the British Council in Yemen.
    Under a prisoner exchange deal agreed at UN-led peace talks in Sweden in December, the government has repeatedly requested the release of all Bahá'í detainees held by the Houthi rebels. Each side submitted 8,000 names of Yemeni people they believe to be detained, dead or missing for the other side to locate and release as a confidence-building measure but the Iran-backed rebels have not responded to the government's request on the Bahá'í detainees. [The National 13JAN2019]
    Yemen Hamed bin Haydara; Waleed Ayyash; Wael Al Al Ariki, 41; Sheikh Akram Ayyas; Badea Senai; Qwan Mohammad Qadri, Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Z****

    from the main catalogue

    1. Edward Granville Browne and the Bahá'í Faith, by H.M. Balyuzi: Review, by L. P. Elwell-Sutton, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1972). [about]
    2. Message from Acca, by Anton Haddad (1900). A lengthy report of Abdu'l-Baha's teachings to the Baha'is in America. Can be seen as a precursor to Tablets of the Divine Plan. [about]
    3. Outline of the Bahá'í Movement in the United States, An: A sketch of its promulgator [Ibrahim Kheiralla] and why afterwards denied his Master, Abbas Effendi, by Anton Haddad (1902). [about]
     
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