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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1848 c. Jul Quddús is arrested and taken to Sárí where he is placed under house arrest in the home of Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, a leading cleric. [B171; BKG50; DB300]

Táhirih is arrested and is later taken to Tihrán where she is held in the home of Mahmúd Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, until her martyrdom in August 1852.

Mullá Husayn leaves the army camp near Mashhad where he has been a guest of a brother of the Sháh. He plans to make a pilgrimage to Karbalá. While making preparations for the journey he receives a Tablet from the Báb instructing him to go to Mázindarán to help Quddús, carrying a Black Standard before him. He is also instructed to wear the Báb's own green turban and to take the new name Siyyid `Alí. [B171; BKG50; DB324; MH174]

Sárí; Tehran; Tihrán; Mashhad; Mázindarán; Iran; Persia; Karbalá; Iraq Quddus; arrest; Mirza Muhammad-Taqi; Tahirih; Mahmud Khan; Kalantar; Mulla Husayn; Shah; pilgrimage; Tablet; Bab; Black Standard; green turban; new name; Siyyid `Ali
1848. c. 17 Jul The Bábís leave Badasht for Mázindarán. They are attacked by a mob of more than 500 outside the village of Níyálá. [B170–1; BKG46–7; BW18:380; DB298; GPB68]
  • Bahá'u'lláh travels to Núr with Táhirih. He entrusts her into the care of Shaykh Abú-Turáb-i-Ishtahárdí, to be taken to a place of safety. [BKG48; DB299]
  • Bahá'u'lláh travels to Núr `in easy stages'. By September He is in Bandar-Jaz. [BKG48]
Badasht; Mazindaran; Niyala; Nur; Bandar-Jaz; Iran Badasht; Attacks; Bahaullah, Life of; Tahirih; Shaykh Abu-Turab-i-Ishtahardi
1948 Sep Bahá'u'lláh is in Bandar-Jaz. An edict comes from Muhammad Sháh ordering His arrest.
  • The Russian agent at Bandar-Jaz offers Him passage on a Russian ship at anchor there but He refuses. [BKG50] Birth of Hájí Mírzá Hasan, Adíb, Hand of the Cause and Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Táliqán.
Bandar-Jaz; Taliqan; Iran Bahaullah, Life of; Muhammad Shah; Russian agent; Russia; Adib (Haji Mirza Hasan Talaqani); Births and deaths
1849. 1 Feb The well is completed. Mullá Husayn performs his ablutions and puts on clean clothes and the turban of the Báb. [DB379; MH264–6] Persia; Iran Mulla Husayn; Turbans; Relics; Shaykh Tabarsi
1850. 8 Jul The Báb, divested of His turban and sash, is taken on foot to the barracks in Tabríz. Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alíy-i-Zunúzí, Anís, throws himself at the feet of the Báb and asks to go with Him. [B153; DB507]

  • That night the Báb asks that one of His companions kill Him, rather than let Him die at the hands of His enemies. Anís offers to do this but is restrained by the others. The Báb promises that Anís will be martyred with Him. [B154–5; DB507–8]
Tabriz; Iran Bab, Life of; Bab; Martyrdom of; Turbans; Barracks; Anis (Mirza Muhammad-Aliy-i-Zunuzi); Martyrs
1853. 12 Jan Bahá'u'lláh and His family depart for Baghdád after a one month respite in the home of his half-brother Mírzá Ridá-Qulí. During the three-month journey Bahá'u'lláh is accompanied by His wife Navváb, (Who was six weeks from giving birth upon departure.) His eldest son ‘Abdu'l-Bahá (9), Bahíyyih Khánum (7) and two of His brothers, Mírzá Músá and Mírzá Muhammad-Qulí. Mírzá Mihdí (2), was very delicate was left behind with the grandmother of Àsíyih Khánum. They are escorted by an officer of the Persian imperial bodyguard and an official representing the Russian legation. [BKG102–5; GPB108]
  • CH44–5 says the family had ten days after Bahá'u'lláh's release to prepare for the journey to Iraq.
  • ‘Never had the fortunes of the Faith proclaimed by the Báb sunk to a lower ebb'. [DB651]
  • This exile compares to the migration of Muhammad, the exodus of Moses and the banishment of Abraham. [GPB107–8]
  • See BKG104 and GPB108–9 for conditions on the journey.
Íran; Persia; Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mirza Rida-Quli; Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Abdul-Baha, Life of; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Mirza Musa; Mirza Muhammad-Quli; Russia
1853. 21 Mar Bahá'u'lláh and His companions arrive in Khániqayn, just across the Iraqi border, where they rest in a beautiful orchard to observe Naw-Rúz. [BKG105]
  • The Governor of Tehran had sent soldiers with the party of exiles to the frontier where they were met by Turkish soldiers who escorted them to Baghdád. [Ch47]
Khaniqayn; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Naw-Ruz
1857. c. 1857 Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Four Valleys, addressed to Shaykh ‘Abdu'r-Rahmán-i-Tálabání and describing four stages of the spiritual life. [SA157–8] Baghdad; Iraq Bahallah, Writings of; Chahar Vadi (Four Valleys); Shaykh Abdur-Rahman-i-Talabani
1862. c. 1862 Bahá'u'lláh sends a ring and cashmere shawl to His niece, Shahr-Bánú, the daughter of Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan, in Tihrán to ask for her hand in marriage to ‘Abdu'l-Bahá. Shahr-Bánú's uncle, acting in place of her dead father, refuses to let her go to Iraq. [BKG342–3] Tihran; Iran; Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Rings; Shawls; Shahr-Banu; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan; Abdul-Baha, Life of
1863. c. Jan 1863 The governor of Baghdád, Námiq Páshá, receives the first of ‘five successive commands' from ‘Alí Páshá, the Grand Vizier of Turkey, to transfer Bahá'u'lláh to Constantinople. This order is ignored by the governor, who is sympathetic to Bahá'u'lláh. In the next three months, four more orders will be received and similarly ignored before the governor is compelled to comply. [BKG154; GPB131] Baghdad; Iraq; Istanbul; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Governors; Namiq Pasha; Grand Viziers; Ali Pasha
1863. 26 Mar Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Tablet of the Holy Mariner on the fifth day of Naw-Rúz. [BKG154; GPB147; RB1:228; SA163]

  • The Tablet is recited by Mírzá Áqá Ján. [RB1:228]
  • See GPB147 and RB1:228 for the effect on those present.
  • See RB1:228–44 and SA163–5 for descriptions of the Tablet and analyses of its content.
  • Immediately after it is chanted Bahá'u'lláh orders the tents to be folded and everyone to return to the city. [GBP147; RB1:228–9; SA163]
  • The party has not yet left when a messenger arrives from Námiq Páshá summoning Bahá'u'lláh to the governorate the next day to receive the invitation to go to Constantinople. [RB1:229; SA163]
Mazra‘iy-i-Vashshash; Iraq; Constantinople; Istanbul; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Lawh-i-Mallahul-Quds (Tablet of the Holy Mariner); Naw-Ruz; Mirza Áqa Jan; Namiq Pasha
1863. 27 Mar Bahá'u'lláh meets the deputy governor in a mosque opposite the Government House where the Farmán which had been sent by the Sultán was announced to Him that He and His family were to be exiled to an unknown destination. Námiq Páshá could not bring himself to meet Bahá'u'lláh and give Him this news. At first he summons Him to the courthouse but when He refused to attend he asked Him to meet in the mosque. [CH81-82,BKG154–5; GPB147–8; RB1:229]

  • See BKG155–6 and GPB148 for the effect of this news on the believers.
  • Bahá'u'lláh and His family had been given Ottoman citizenship by this time. [BBRSM66]
  • See BKG156–8 for a list of those chosen by Bahá'u'lláh to migrate with Him.
  • See TN50–3 for the story of the sedition behind Bahá'u'lláh's removal from Baghdád.
  • Fearful of Bahá'u'lláh's growing influence in Baghdád, the Persian Consul had made representation to the Sultan to have Him delivered to the Persian authorities. The Sultan, although the Caliph of Sunni Islam, considered himself a mystical seeker and was no doubt intrigued with Bahá'u'lláh from the reports of the Governor of 'Akká, Námiq Páshá, and his own Prime Minister, 'Alí Páshá. This combination of sympathy and interest led the Ottoman government to invite Him to the capital rather than send Him to a remote location or return Him to Persia. [BBD196; BBIC13, 57note 68]
  • Baghdad; Iraq; Istanbul; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Governors; Namiq Pasha; Ottoman citizenship
    1863. 9 May Bahá'u'lláh and His party leave Firayját for Istanbul although at this point the destination is unknown to the exiles. [CH57, GPB156; SA235]

    • The journey takes 110 days. [GPB156]
    • For the details of the journey see BKG176–96; GPB1567; SW13:277.
    • See BKG180 for a map of the journey.
    • They pass through the following:
      
      Judaydih
      Dilí-'Abbás
      Qarih-Tapih
      Saláhíyyih (stay two nights)
      Dúst-Khurmátú
      Táwuq
      Karkúk (stay two days)
      Irbíl
      By the River Záb
      Bartallih
      Mosul (stay three days)
      Zákhú
      Jazírih
      Nisíbín
      Hasan-Áqá
      Márdiín
      Díyár-Bakr (stay two days)
      Ma'dan-Mis
      Khárpút (stay two or three days)
      Ma'dan-Nuqrih
      Dilik-Tásh
      Sívás
      Túqát
      Amasia (stay two days)
      Iláhíyyih (the last day of the overland journey)
      Sámsún on the Black Sea. (110 days after departure) [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p43]
    • For the number of people on the journey see BKG179 (72), GPB156 (26 plus members of His family plus guards), RB2:5–6 (54) and SW13:277 (72).
    • As the party draws close to Sámsún on the Black Sea Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Súriy-i-Hawdaj. [BKG195; RB2:6]
    • The party remains in Sámsún for seven days. [GPB157]
    Firayjat; Samsun; Istanbul; Judaydih; Dili-'Abbas; Qarih-Tapih; Salahiyyih; Dust-Khurmatu; Tawuq; Karkuk; Irbil; Bartallih; Mosul; Zakhu; Jazirih; Nisibin; Hasan-Áqa; Mardiin; Diyar-Bakr; Ma'dan-Mis; Kharput; Ma'dan-Nuqrih; Dilik-Tash; Sivas; Tuqat; Amasia; Ilahiyyih Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Journeys; Black Sea; Suriy-i-Hawdaj
    1863 16 Aug - 1 Dec Bahá'u'lláh resides in Constantinople. [BKG197, 204; GPB157–61]

    • See BKG197–204 for an account of Bahá'u'lláh's stay.
    • Among the works Bahá'u'lláh reveals in Constantinople is Mathnaví-i-Mubárak. [RB2:29–54]

    News is brought to Bahá'u'lláh by Shamsí Big of the possibility that He will be transferred to Adrianople. [BKG199]

    Bahá'u'lláh refuses to leave, on pain of martyrdom, but Mírzá Yahyá and his comrades, cowardly and fearful, persuade Him to go. [BKG201–3]

    Sultán ‘Abdu'l-‘Azíz issues an edict banishing Bahá'u'lláh to Adrianople. [GPB159–60; RB2:57]

    • See BBIC:34, note 68, BKG201 and GPB159 for reasons for the edict.

      On the same day Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Lawh-i-‘Abdu'l-‘Azíz-Va-Vukalá, a Tablet addressed to the Sultán. When the Grand Vizier peruses it he turns pale. The text of this Tablet is lost. [BKG206; GPB160]

    Istanbul; Edirne; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mathnavi-i-Mubarak; Shamsi Big; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Sultan Abdul-Aziz; Lawh-i-Abdul-Aziz-Va-Vukala; Grand Viziers
    1863. 1 Dec Bahá'u'lláh and His companions leave Istanbul for Adrianople. [BKG204; GPB161; RB2:427]

    • The journey takes twelve days and they pass through the following villages en route. [BKG204; GPB161,The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p43]
    • chik-Chakmachih
      Buyúk-Chakmachih
      Salvarí
      Birkás
      Bábás
      Bábá-Iskí
      
    • See BKG204–5, GPB161 and RB2:62 for the rigours of the journey. The winter is extremely cold and the travellers are not clad for freezing weather.
    Istanbul; Edirne; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Winter
    1866. c. Mar 1866 The Most Great Separation. Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Súriy-i-Amr (Súrih of Command) for Mírzá Yahyá. [CH60, 83, CB84; GBP166]
    • This is the formal announcement to the nominee of the Báb of the station of ‘Him Whom God shall make manifest' and a summons for him to pay allegiance to His Cause. [CB83–4; RB2:161]
    • Bahá'u'lláh directs his amanuensis to take the Tablet to Mírzá Yáhyá. He becomes very angry and a "jealous fire consumed him". He responds by claiming that he is the recipient of a divine revelation and all must turn to him. [CH60, BKG230; CB84; GPB166–7; RB2:162]
    • The announcement that Bahá'u'lláh was the Promised One spread quickly to Iraq and to Persia. The followers were happy for the clarification and glad to be rid of Yáhyá. Only the express command of Bahá'u'lláh prevented them from ridding the world of such nefarious traitor. [CH61]
    • It is believed that Yáhyá's conduct and accusations precipitated the next exile. [CH61]
    Edirne; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Suriy-i-Amr (Surih of Command); Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Lawh-i-Baha; Khatun Jan; Tahirih; Rida Big; People of Baha; people of the Bayan; Most Great Separation; Firsts, other
    1866. 10 Mar Bahá'u'lláh and His family withdraw from the house of Amru'lláh, the residence shared with the exiles, and go to the house of Ridá Big. [BKG230; GPB167; RB2:162]

    • He stays in this house for about one year. [GPB168]
    • See BKG235 for a description of the house of Ridá Big.

    Bahá'u'lláh goes into isolation for two months. He orders that all of the family's goods should be divided. The companions are to choose between Himself and Azal. This has become known as the ‘Most Great Separation'. [BBRSM67; BKG230–2; GPB167–8; RB2:162]

    • See BKG231–2, GPB167 and RB2:163 for the effect of this.
    • See BBRSM59–60 for a description of Azal's leadership.
    Edirne; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; House of Amrullah; Rida Big; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Most Great Separation
    1868. 26 Jul Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz issues a firmán condemning Bahá'u'lláh to perpetual banishment. [BKG283–4; GPB179, 186; RB2:401–2]
    • See RB2:402 for a list of those included in the edict.
    • BKG261, GPB181 and RB2:403 indicate that it was not until the party reached Gallipoli that they were informed that their ultimate destination was `Akká.
    • BBD40 says that it was because of the disloyal Mírzá Yahyá's plotting against Bahá`u`lláh that the Turkish authorities condemned Him to perpetual imprisonment in `Akká.
    Edirne; Turkey; Baghdad; Iraq; Gallipoli; Akka Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Sultan Abdul-Aziz; Khurshid Pasha; Firmans; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal)
    1868. Aug One morning without warning Bahá'u'lláh's house is surrounded by soldiers. The inhabitants are rounded up and taken to government headquarters. They are told to make ready for their departure for Gallipoli. [BKG255; GPB179; RB2:403]
    • The party was given three days to prepare for the journey. It it had been rumoured that they were to be separated, Bahá'u'lláh to one place, 'Abdu'l-Bahá to another and the friends to still another place. [CH62]
    • One of the companions, Karilá'í Ja'far was so grieved by the threatened separation that he attempted to kill himself. He was prevented from do so but was too ill to travel. Bahá'u'lláh refused to leave until the Governor in Adrianople made a promise to care for him until he was well enough to travel. He joined the friends in 'Akká forty days after their arrival. [CH62]
    • The Consuls of European powers offer assistance to Bahá'u'lláh and are prepared to ask the intervention of their governments. Bahá'u'lláh refuses these offers. [BKG255, 257–8]
    • Western accounts of this incident suggest that Bahá`u`lláh asked for such assistance. [BBR187–91]
    • The next day the goods of the Bahá'ís are sold or auctioned for very low prices. [BKG255, 258]
    • Group and individual photographs are taken of the Bahá'í and Azalí exiles in Adrianople, including one of Bahá'u'lláh.
    Adrianople Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of
    1868. 12 Aug Bahá'u'lláh, His family and companions, escorted by soldiers, set out for Gallipoli. [BKG260; GPB180; RB2:409]
    • En route they pass through the villages of Uzún-Kuprí and Káshánih. [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p44]
    Edirne; Gallipoli; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of
    1868. 15 Aug The Bahá'ís imprisoned in Constantinople arrive in Gallipoli to be exiled with Bahá'u'lláh's party. [BKG260] Gallipoli; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of
    1868. 16 Aug They arrive in Gallipoli on the fifth day. [BKG260]
    • GPB180 says it was a four-day journey. CH62 says it took three days of travel by cart and wagon.
    • They remain there for three nights. CH62 says they remained there for a week awaiting replies to telegrams that had been sent to Constantinople. [BKG263; GPB181]
    • BKG261 says they were there for `a few days'.
    Gallipoli; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of
    1868. 21 Aug Bahá'u'lláh and His companions leave Gallipoli on an Austrian-Lloyd steamer. CH62 says it was a Turkish boat. [BKG263; GPB182; RB2:411]
    • There were 72 exiles, 10 soldiers and 2 officers. The journey took 11 days. [CH63]
    • See BKG270 for map of the journey.
    • Towards sunset the same day the steamer touches on Madellí and stops for a few hours. It continues on to Smyrna the same night. [BKG264]
    • Mírzá Yahyá and the four Bahá'ís arrested at Constantinople, including Mishkín-Qalam, are sent to Famagusta in Cyprus. [BKG268; GPB179]
    Gallipoli; Madelli; Smyrna; Famagusta; Turkey; Cyprus Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Ships; Mishkin-Qalam; Mirza Aliy-i-Sayyah-i-Maraghihi (Mulla Adi-Guzal); Aqa Abdul-Ghaffar; Aqa Muhammad-Baqir (Qahvih-chiy-i Mahallati); Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Exile; Cyprus exiles
    1868. 22 Aug Soon after sunrise the ship arrives at Smyrna. [BKG264]
    • It stays for two days. [BKG264; GPB182]
    • The illness of Mírzá Áqáy-i-Káshání (Jináb-i-Muníb) necessitates his removal to the hospital. He dies before 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Mírzá Musá can return to the ship. 'Abdu'l-Bahá makes arrangements with the local funeral director. They hold a simple funeral and burial takes place in Izmír. [CH65, BKG264–5; GPB182]
    • This young and vibrant man arrived in Baghdad before the exile and travelled with the party holding the bridle of the horse of Bahá'u'lláh the whole route, often with 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the other side. When the party reached Constantinople he was instructed to go on teaching trip to Persia and to Iraq, a long and an arduous tour. He rejoined the group in Adrianople just prior to the exile and he was in precarious condition but begged Bahá'u'lláh for permission to be included. It is reported in FAA21 that he died two or three days after the departure of the ship.
    Izmir (Smyrna); Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mirza Aqay-i-Kashani
    1868. 23 Aug The steamer leaves Smyrna at night for Alexandria, which she gains on a morning two days later. [BKG265] Izmir (Smyrna); Turkey; Alexandria; Egypt Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Ships
    1868 26 - 27 Aug The steamer carrying Bahá'u'lláh docks at Alexandria, early in the morning. [BKG265; RB3:6]
    • The exiles change ships, again onto an Austrian-Lloyd ship. [BKG265]
    • Several exiles go ashore to make purchases. One passes by the prison house where Nabíl is detained. Nabíl, watching from the roof of his prison cell, recognizes him. [CH65, BKG265, 267; RB3:6]
    • Nabíl and Fáris Effendi write letters to Bahá'u'lláh which are delivered by a Christian youth. The youth returns with a Tablet from Bahá'u'lláh and gifts from `Abdu'l-Bahá and Mírzá Mihdí. [BKG267–8; RB3:6–7]
    • The ship bearing Bahá'u'lláh and the exiles leaves Alexandria for Port Said. [BKG268]
    Alexandria; Egypt Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Nabil-i-Azam; Faris Effendi
    1868. 29 Aug In the morning the ship arrives in Port Said. At nightfall it travels on to Jaffa. [BKG268] Port Said; Jaffa; Israel Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Ships
    1868. 30 Aug The ship arrives at Jaffa at sunset. At midnight the ship leaves for Haifa. [BKG168] Jaffa; Haifa; Israel Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Ships
    1868. 31 Aug The ship arrives in Haifa in the early morning. [BKG269; GPB182; RB3:11]
    • Bahá'u'lláh and His companions — 70 in all — disembark and are taken ashore in sailing boats. [RB3:11]
    • One of the Bahá'ís, Áqá `Abdu'l-Ghaffár, one of the four companions condemned to share the exile of Mírzá Yahyá, throws himself into the sea when he learns he is to be separated from Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG269; GPB182]
    A few hours later Bahá'u'lláh's party is put aboard a sailing vessel and taken to `Akká. [RB3:12]
    • See CH66 for Bahíyyih Khánum's account of the journey.
    The exiles land in `Akká to begin a confinement in the citadel that is to last two years, two months and five days. [CH67, BBR205; BKG169; DH12; RB3:11]
    • See BKG277–9 for a list of the exiles. Two others joined them immediately after arrival. [BBR205]
    • See BR205–6 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's account of the journey of exile.
    • See RB32:2 and RB3:21 for prophecies regarding Bahá'u'lláh's exile to `Akká.
    • DH17–24 for a history of `Akká before the arrival of Bahá'u'lláh.
    • See DH26–8 and GPB186–7 for a description of the exiles' walk to the prison.
    • See GPB186–7 for Bahá'u'lláh's description of the citadel and the conditions there on His arrival.
    • See BKG275–7 for Áqá Ridá's description of the citadel and the conditions there.
    • See DH30–1 for a description of the citadel building and the accommodation used by Bahá'u'lláh.
    • The first night the exiles are refused both food and drink. [GPB187]
    • Afterwards each prisoner is allocated three loaves of stale black bread as a daily food ration plus filthy water. [GBP187]
    • Within two days all fell ill with typhoid but for two, 'Abdu'l-Bahá and another man who was able to help Him nurse and care for the others. [CH234]
    • Three of the exiles die soon after arrival. Soon after their death Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Lawh-i-Ra'ís, the second Tablet to `Alí Páshá. [BKG283; GPB187; RB3:20, 34]
    • See BKG317–21 and CH250–1 for the story of the Azalís who were confined to `Akká with the exiles.
    • See BBRSM69–70 for details on the system of communications used between the Holy Land and the Bahá'í communities.
    • At first the Governor was disinclined to relax the strict rules of the exiles but eventually allowed Mírzá Ja'far to go into town, accompanied by a soldier, to purchase food. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had sent Mírzá 'bdu'l-Ahad ahead some time before with instructions to open a shop. It was six months before the exiles could make contact with him. During this time a Greek, Dr. Petro, became a friend and, after having made investigations, assured the Governor that the exiles were not criminals. [CH67]
    • The King of Martyrs and his brother The Beloved of Martyrs were the first to make contact with the exiles by telegraph. They were able to provide much need assistance. [CH67]
    • After the restrictions had been relaxed somewhat Shaykh Salmán was able to function as a courier carrying Tablets and letter to and from Persia. When he was arrested in Aleppo, carrying a most important supplication from a friend in Persia to Bahá'u'lláh, he swallowed the letter to avoid detection. [CH67-68]
    Haifa; Famagusta; Akka; Israel; Cyprus Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mishkin-Qalam; Aqa Abdul-Ghaffar; Lawh-i-Rais; Petro. Dr; Mirza Jafar; Citadel; Prophecies; Cyprus exiles; Exile; Firsts, Other
    1868. 3 Sep The firmán of the Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz condemning Bahá'u'lláh to life imprisonment is read out in the Mosque of Al-Jazzár. [BKG284–5; GPB186; RB3:18]
    • See CH64, BKG283–4, 286; GBP186, RB2:402 and RB3:18 for the terms of the edict. They were labelled as malefactors, sowerw of sedition, hardened criminals, enemies of the pure religion of God and of man. The faithful were commanded to shun these outcasts. All of those that did a disservice to the captives might flatter themselves that they "did service to God".
    • See RB3:18–19 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's response.
    • See BKG283–8, RB3:19-20 for conditions of life in the barracks.
    • The local authorities and the clerics did their part to stir up the populus against the exiles. See DH197 and CH239-242 for the story of a man who made an attempt on the life of Bahá'u'lláh.
    • From this time forward Bahá'u'lláh met only with His
    Akka; Israel Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Firmans; Mosque of Al-Jazzar
    1886 In the year Birth of Músá Banání, Hand of the Cause of God, in Baghdád. Baghdad Musa Banani; Hands of the Cause of God
    1897. 1 Mar The birth of Shoghi Effendi, in the house of `Abdu'lláh Páshá. [BBD208; BKG359; DH60, 214; GBF2]
    • He is descended from both the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh: his mother is the eldest daughter of `Abdu'l-Bahá; his father is an Afnán, a grandson of Hájí Mírzá `Abu'l-Qásim, a cousin of the mother of the Báb and a brother of His wife. [CB280; GBF2]
    • He is the Ghusn-i-Mumtáz, the Chosen Branch. [BBD87]
    • `Shoghi' means `one who longs'. [CB281]
    • `Abdu'l-Bahá commands everyone, even Shoghi Effendi's father, to add the title `Effendi' after his name. [CB281; GBF2]
    • `Abdu'l-Bahá gives him the surname Rabbání in the early years of his study in Haifa so that he will not be confused with his cousins, who are all called Afnán. Rabbání is also used by Shoghi Effendi's brothers and sister. [BBD191–2; DH60–1]
    • See GBF6 for the schools he attends.
    • See also Rabbani, The Priceless Pearl;

      Rabbani, The Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith;

      Giachery, Shoghi Effendi: Recollections.

    Akka Shoghi Effendi, Life of; House of Abdullah Pasha; Bahaullah; Family of; Abdul-Baha, Family of; Afnan; Aghsan; Haji Mirza Abul-Qasim; Rabbani (name)
    1898. 1 Jun Áqá Ghulám-Husayn-i-Banádakí is killed by a mob in Yazd after refusing to deny his faith. [BW18:384] Yazd Aqa Ghulam-Husayn-i-Banadaki
    1902 The house in Bandar Anzalí in which Hájí Mírzá Haydar-`Alí is staying is attacked and only the intervention of the governor saves the Bahá'ís. [BW18:385] Bandar Anzali Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali
    1918 (in the year) Shoghi Effendi finishes his education in Arts and Sciences at the American University at Beirut. [DH148; GBF9]
    • He receives a Bachelor of Arts degree. [GBF:9]
    • He serves as `Abdu'l-Bahá's secretary for two years before resuming his education in England. [DH148; GBF9; PP26-7]
    • For a picture of Shoghi Effendi at this time see BW13:131, GBF50-1 and PP88-9.
    Beirut; Lebanon Shoghi Effendi, Life of; American University at Beirut
    1918 15 Mar Áqá Mírzá Javád, I`timádu't-Tujjár, is shot in Bandar Jaz and the houses of the Bahá'ís are looted, causing the death of Javád's 14-year-old nephew. [BW18:387] Bandar Jaz; Iran; Áqa Mirza Javad; I`timadu't-Tujjar; Iranian persecution
    1927 Abu'l-Qásim Faizi, a 19-year-old student who had attended the Tarbiyát School in Tehran but now enrolled at the American University at Beirut visits Haifa to meet Shoghi Effendi. Like Hasan Balyuzi before him, he is immediately possessed by a great desire to serve him. [SETPE1p146-7] Haifa; Tihran; Iran; Beirut; Lebanon Abul-Qasim Faizi; Tarbiyat School; American University at Beirut; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1929 End of Aug Martha Root arrives in Albania, the first Bahá’í to set foot in the country. [MR317]
    • She obtains an audience with King Zog I and is warmly received by him. [MR319]
    • For Martha Root’s own account of her stay in Albania see MR319–20.
    Albania Martha Root; King Zog I
    1931 28 Apr Mr Refo Capari (Chapary), the first Albanian Bahá’í, arrives in Tirana, Albania.
    • He became a Bahá’í in America some time before 1931.
    Tirana; Albania Refo Capari
    1935 The persecution against the Bahá’ís in Iran continues. [BW18:389]
    • Meetings in the Bahá’í Centre in Tihrán are banned.
    • A number of Bahá’ís in Bandar Sháh are arrested and imprisoned.
    • The secretary of the Local Spiritual Assembly of Arák is arrested.
    • Bahá’ís in Qazvín are arrested and harassed.
    • A Bahá’í in Záhidán is arrested.
    Iran; Tihrán; Bandar Sháh; Arák; Qazví; Záhidán; religious persecution; LSA
    1936 Jun The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues. [BW18:389]
    • All Bahá’í meetings are banned throughout Iran.
    • Several local Bahá’í centres are attacked or closed down.
    • Bahá’ís in Bandar Sháh are interrogated by the police for closing their shops on Bahá’í holy days.
    Iran; Bandar Shah Persecution; Holy days
    1936 3–16 Jul The World Congress of Faiths is held in London under the auspices of the World Fellowship of Faiths. [GPB342; GT123]
    • Shoghi Effendi is asked in a personal letter from the chairman of the Congress, Sir Francis Younghusband, to contribute a paper, a task Shoghi Effendi delegates to George Townshend. [GT123; UD104]
    • George Townshend reads the paper ‘Bahá’u’lláh’s Ground Plan of World Fellowship’, which has been approved by Shoghi Effendi. [BW7:635; GT132–3]
    • For text of the paper see BW6:614–19.
    • For the conference programme see BW7:634–45.
    London; United Kingdom World Congress of Faiths; Francis Younghusband; George Townshend; Interfaith dialogue; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1937 The persecution of the Bahá’ís in Iran continues throughout the country. [BW18:389]
    • Many Bahá’ís employed in the police force, army and government departments are dismissed.
    • Six members of the Local Spiritual Assembly of Ahváz are arrested.
    • Bahá’ís closing their shops on Bahá’í holy days in Bandar Sháh are arrested.
    • All Bahá’í meetings in Kirmánsháh, Bírjand, Arák and other towns are prohibited by police order.
    • Five Bahá’í families are attacked in their homes in Cham-tang, near Hindíyán. They are severely beaten and forced to leave the village.
    Iran; Ahváz; Bandar Sháh; Kirmánsháh; Bírjand; Arák; Cham-tang religious persecution; LSA; holy days
    1938 to 1955 The fourth Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Jináb-i-Valíyu'lláh Varqá, the third son of Varqá the martyr. He was born in Tabriz and after the death of his father and brother he was raised by his grandmother, a fanatical Muslim. At the age of 16 his uncle removed him from the home and taught him the Faith. He attended the American University at Beirut and spent summers with 'Abdu'l-Bahá and accompanied the Master to America and served as His interpreter. He returned to Iran where he served on local and national assemblies and was made a Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh in 1938 at a time when the observance of the law spread throughout Iran. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]

    He was elevated to a Hand of the Cause of God in 1951 and passed away in Tubingen, Germany in 1955 while taking a treatment for an illness. [BW13p831-834]

    Tubingen; Germany; Tabriz; Iran; Beirut; Lebanon; Akka Huququllah; Huququllah, Trustees of; Valiyullah Varqa; Hands of the Cause; Varqa; American University at Beirut
    1944 after Aug Following the murder of Bahá’ís at Sháhrúd, Iran, and the widespread publicity on the outcome of the trial, there is an upsurge in persecution of Bahá’ís throughout Iran. [BW18:389]
    • At Ábádih Bahá’ís are beaten and their houses sacked. [BW18:389]
    • The Bahá’í centre at Bandar Jaz is attacked. [BW18:389]
    • Two Bahá’ís are knifed at Bandar Sháh. The attackers are set free and attack a further three Bahá’ís, leaving one an invalid. [BW18:390]
    • Bahá’ís, including women and children, are attacked and beaten at Bushrúyih, their homes and shops looted and burned and the Bahá’í cemetery desecrated. [BW18:390]
    • Bahá’í houses are attacked and looted at Fárán, Káshán and Ná’in. [BW13:390]
    • Bahá’í houses are set on fire in Gulpáygán and Zábul. [BW18:390]
    • Bahá’ís are driven from town in Bujnúrd, Gunábád and Tabas. [BW18:390]
    • The Bahá’í cemetery at Mahmúdábád is desecrated.
    • Bahá’ís are beaten at Miyán-du-áb, Rafsanján, Sangsar and Sírján. [BW18:390]
    • Bahá’ís are stoned at Qasr-i-Shírín. [BW18:390]
    Ábádih; Bandar Jaz; Bandar Sháh; Bushrúyih; Fárán; Káshán; Ná’in; Gulpáygán; Zábul; Bujnúrd; Gunábád; Tabas; Mahmúdábád; Miyán-du-áb; Rafsanján; Sangsar; Sírján; Qasr-i-Shírín religious persecution
    1945 Apr Shoghi Effendi sent the following cable to the Bahá'í world: "My faithless brother Husayn, after long period of dishonourable conduct, has abandoned the Master's home to consort with his sister and other Covenant-breakers". [Bahá'í News, No. 174, p.2] BWC Covenant-breakers; Husayn Ali Rabbani
    1947 1 Feb Reflecting the unity in diversity highly valued by the Baha'i community, Amin Banani, Mildred Mottahedeh, Hilda Yen, and Matthew Bullock presented the statement "A Baha'i Declaration of Human Obligations and Rights" to the UN, which ended by quoting a well-known passage by Baha'u'llah: "The earth is but one country, and mankind its citizens."

    Amin Banani was an influential scholar; Mildred Mottahedeh was a member of the International Baha'i Council from 1961-63 and later a representative of the BIC for many years; Hilda Yen was a leading figure in Chinese-American society who worked as a diplomat for many years; and Matthew Bullock was a Knight of Baha'u'llah for the Dutch West Indies, on this day was also a Knight for the Netherlands Antilles, and later a representative of the BIC. [BWNS1172]

    New York UN; United Nations; Amin Banani; Mildred Mottahedeh; Hilda Yen; Matthew Bullock; BIC; Baha'i International Community
    1948 Dec Amjad Ali arrives in East Pakistan, from Chapra in Bihar, northern India, the first pioneer to the country. Bangladesh; Asia First Bahais by country or area
    1950 Mar In March 1950, Shoghi Effendi would send a further cable: "Faithless brother Hussein, already abased through dishonorable conduct over period (of) years followed by association with Covenant-breakers (in) Holy Land and efforts (to) undermine Guardian's position, recently further demeaned himself through marriage under obscure circumstances with lowborn Christian girl (in) Europe". [Bahá'í News, No. 229, p.1]

    Shoghi Effendi would later defend the use of the term "lowborn Christian girl" as follows: "Regarding his cable concerning Hussein: he has been very surprised to note that the terms 'low-born Christian girl ' and 'disgraceful alliance' should arouse any question; it seems to him that the friends should realize it is not befitting for the Guardian's own brother, the grandchild of the Master, an Afnán and Aghsán mentioned in the Will and Testament of the Master, and of whom so much was expected because of his relation to the family of the Prophet, to marry an unknown girl, according to goodness knows what rite, who is not a believer at all". [Bahá'í News, No. 236, p.4]

    BWC Covenant-breakers; Husayn Rabbani; Hussein Rabbani
    1951 2 Aug Músá and Samí‘ih Banání; their daughter, Violette and her husband, ‘Alí Nakhjavání; their baby daughter, Bahíyyih; and Philip Hainsworth from England arrive in Kampala, the first pioneers to Uganda. Kampala; Uganda Musa Banani; Samiih Banani; Violette Nakhjavani; Ali Nakhjavani; Philip Hainsworth; First Bahais by country or area
    1951 3 Aug The establishment of the Faith in Uganda with the arrival of Mr. and Mrs. Músá Banání, Mrs. Violette and Mr. Ali Nakhjavani, of Iran, with their baby daughter Bahiyyih, and Mr. Philip Hainsworth arrived in Kampala. [Wiki Bahá'í Uganda] Kampala; Uganda; Africa Musa Banani; Violette Nakhjavani; Ali Nakhjavani; Bahiyyih Nakhjavani; Philip Hainsworth; Knights of Bahaullah
    1951 Dec Shoghi Effendi's brother Riáz Rabbáni was the last of his siblings to become a Covenant-Breaker. "With feeling profound concern, grief, indignation, am compelled disclose Bahá'í world recent developments Holy Land furnishing further incontestable proof relationship established old and new Covenant-breakers demonstrating increasing boldness, marked, tragic decline in character and spiritual condition grandchildren `Abdu'l-Bahá. Their shameful attitude and conduct receiving approbation their elders. Evidences multiplying attesting Ruhi's increasing rebelliousness, efforts exerted my eldest sister pave way fourth alliance members family Siyyid Ali involving marriage his granddaughter with Ruha's son and personal contact recently established my own treacherous, despicable brother Riaz with Majdi'd-Din, redoubtable enemy Faith, former henchman Muhammad-'Ali, Archbreaker Bahá'u'lláh's Covenant. Convey information all National Assemblies." [MBW16, CoB358, 362, 364] BWC Covenant-breakers; Riaz Rabbani
    1952 29 Feb Shoghi Effendi appoints the second contingent of Hands of the Cause of God. [BW12:375–6; CT202–3 MBW20–1; PP254; ZK47]
    • They are Fred Schopflocher, Corinne True, Dhikru’lláh Khádem, Shu’á’u’lláh ‘Alá’í, Adelbert Mühlschlegel, Músá Banání and Clara Dunn. [BW12:375–6; MWB19–20]
    • Shoghi Effendi describes their two-fold function: propagation of the Faith and preservation of its unity. [BW12:376; MBW21]
    Haifa Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Fred Schopflocher; Corinne True; Dhikrullah Khadem; Shuaullah Alai; Adelbert Muhlschlegel; Musa Banani; Clara Dunn
    1953 Aug Amín and Sheila Banání, a Persian-American couple, settle in Athens-Kifissia in August 1953 and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for Greece. [BW452] Athens-Kifissia; Greece Amin Banani; Sheila Banani; Knight of Baha’u’llah
    1953 27 Sep Tábandih Paymán arrives in San Marino and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh in November. [BW13:455] San Marino Tábandih Paymán; Knight of Bahá’u’lláh
    1954 Mehraban Isfandiar Sohaili arrives on Mayotte and stays for two months, the first Bahá’í to visit the island. Mayotte Mehraban Isfandiar Sohaili
    1954 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in the Malay Peninsula is established in Seremban. Seremban; Malay LSA
    1954 28 Aug Mihribán Suhaylí (Mehraban Sohaili) arrives on the Comoro Islands and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:450] Comoro Islands Mihribán Suhaylí (Mehraban Sohaili); Knight of Bahá’u’lláh
    1955. c. 1955 The first person to become a Bahá’í in The Gambia, Mr Nichola Banna, a Lebanese merchant, enrols. The Gambia Nichola Banna
    1955 Ridván The first four local spiritual assemblies in The Gambia are formed in Bathurst (Banjul), Serrekunda, Lamin and Brikama. Bathurst (Banjul); Serrekunda; Lamin and Brikama; The Gambia LSA
    1957 19 Nov Nine Hands of the Cause are chosen by Rúhíyyih Khánum to examine Shoghi Effendi’s apartment. [BW 13:341]
    • These are the five members of the International Bahá’í Council (Rúhíyyih Khánum, Mason Remey, Amelia Collins, Ugo Giachery and Leroy Ioas), an Afnán (Hasan Balyuzi), a representative of the Hands of the Western Hemisphere (Horace Holley), a representative of the Hands of the African continent (Músá Banání) and the Trustee of the Huqúqu’lláh (‘Alí Muhammad Varqá). [BW13:341]
    • After seeing that the seals are intact, the Hands examine the contents of Shoghi Effendi’s safe and desk. [BW13:341]
    • The nine Hands sign a document testifying that no Will or Testament of any nature executed by Shoghi Effendi has been found. This is reported to the entire body of Hands assembled in the Mansion of Bahjí. [BW13:341]
    • See CB378–9 for an explanation of why Shoghi Effendi left no Will.
    Haifa; Bahji Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Hands of the Cause; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; International Bahai Council; Charles Mason Remey; Amelia Collins; Ugo Giachery; Leroy Ioas; Hasan Balyuzi; Horace Holley; Musa Banani; Ali-Muhammad Varqa
    1958 26 Jan The foundation stone of the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár of Africa is laid by Hands of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and Músá Banání. [BW13:317] Kampala; Uganda Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Foundation stones; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Musa Banani
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Thailand is formed with its seat in Bangkok. Bangkok NSA
    1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Swaziland, Lesotho and Mozambique is formed with its seat in Mbabane. [BW14:96] Mbabane NSA
    1969 Aug The Bahá’í Faith is legally recognized in Lebanon when the Local Spiritual Assembly of Beirut is incorporated. [BW15:173]
    • This is the first time any Arab government has granted the Faith recognition. [BW15:173]
    Beirut; Lebanon LSA
    1970 27 May The Bahá’í International Community is granted consultative status, category II, by the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) of the United Nations [BBRSM149; BW15:178, 366; BW16:333; BW19:30; VV54]
    • As a result, the Bahá’í International Community begins to be represented at sessions of UN bodies addressing a wide range of issues of particular interest to Bahá’ís, including human rights, social development, status of women, environment, human settlements, agriculture, science and technology, new and renewable resources, population, law of the sea, crime prevention, narcotic drugs, children, youth, the family, disabled persons, the ageing, the United Nations University and disarmament.
    • At such sessions the Bahá’í International Community offers statements on the Bahá’í position on the subject under discussion.
    • Prior to this date individuals were accredited as "observer" representatives of the "Bahá'í International Community" which originally had been established in 1947 under the auspices of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States. Individuals who served as observer representatives on a part-time basis were Mildred Mottahedeh, Dr Ugo Giachery, John Ferraby, 'Azíz Navidi and Dr Amin Banáni among others. In 1963 the responsibility for the BIC was transferred to the Universal House of Justice and in 1965 permanent offices were established in New York with a full-time representative appointed. The first representative was Mildred Mottahedeh who soon asked to be replaced. Dr Victor de Arujo served for 23 years until his retirement in January, 1991. [BW15p358-367]
    New York BIC; United Nations; Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC); Mildred Mottahedeh; Ugo Giachery; John Ferraby; Aziz Navidi; Amin Banani; Victor de Arujo
    1971 Over 500 people become Bahá’ís in Bangladesh. [BINS86] Bangladesh
    1971 4 Sep Músá Banání, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Kampala, Uganda. (b.1886) [BW15:42; VV7]
    • For his obituary see BW15:421–423.
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
    Kampala; Uganda Musa Banani; Hand of the Cause; In Memoriam; Appointment Hand - Second Contingent
    1971 Dec - 1972 Jan The first youth summer school for southern Africa is held at the Leroy Ioas Teacher Training Institute in Mbabane and is attended by 67 people from eight countries. Mbabane; Swaziland
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Bangladesh is formed with its seat in Dacca. [BW15:243]
    • For picture see BW15:153.
    Dacca; Bangladesh NSA
    1972 Dec The first winter school in Bangladesh takes place. [BW15:245] Bangladesh
    1972 29 - 31 Dec The first West African Bahá’í Youth conference is held in The Gambia. The Continental Board of Counsellors sponsored the first West African Bahá’í Youth Conference in conjunction with the National Spiritual Assembly of Upper West Africa. The Conference was held in The Gambia on the campus of Yundum College some fifteen miles from the capital city of Bathurst. Youth representing nine countries in this zone attended: Nigerin, Upper Volta, Ghana, Liberia, Mali, Sierra Leone, The Gambia, Senegal and Mauritania, plus pioneers originating from the United States, Mauritius, Malaysia, Iran, and friiq. A young Bahá’í from Sweden was able to greet the friends during a brief stop on a boat cruise. Counsellors Mr. H. R. Ardikani and Dr. William Maxwell Jr., were present as well as six of their Auxiliary Board members, Mr. Amos Agwu, Mr. Muhammad Al-Salihi, Mrs. H. Vera Edwards, Mr. Friday Ekpe, Mr. Shidan Kouchekzadeh and Dr. B. Sadiqzadeh. A total of fifty-six persons attended.[Bahá'í Works 504] Banjul (Bathurst); Gambia, The; Africa Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences
    1975 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of The Gambia is formed with its seat in Banjul. [BW16:165] Banjul; The Gambia NSA
    1977 The Bahá'í Faith, along with many other religious groups, are banned in Uganda. [BWNS135] Uganda; Africa Baha'i Faith; ban
    1985 A regional office of the Bahá’í International Community affiliated with the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) is established in Bangkok. [BW19:161–2] Bangkok BIC; Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP)
    1985. 28 or 31 Aug Mr Rahmatu'lláh Vujdani, a 57 year old teacher, is executed by firing squad in Bandar 'Abbas. He was an elected member of the Local Spiritual Assembly. [Iranian.com] Bandar 'Abbas; Iran persecution
    1988 Nov More than 2,500 people enrol in Bangladesh. [BINS190:5]
    • A later report indicates that over 5,000 people have become Bahá’ís and 108 new local spiritual assemblies formed. [BINS192:1]
    Bangladesh LSA
    1989 The first travel teachers to visit Albania since World War II arrive from Italy. Albania
    1989 Oct The National Spiritual Assembly of Bangladesh reports the enrolment of 7,500 people in the year since November 1988. [BINS210:1] Bangladesh
    1991 16 Jun The first local spiritual assembly in Albania is formed at Tirana. Tirana; Albania Find ref
    1992 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Albania is formed with its seat in Tirana. [CBN Jan92 p2, BINS270:3–4; BW92–3:119; VV121] Tirana; Albania NSA
    1993 In the year More than 10,000 people become Bahá'ís in Bangladesh. [BINS318:8; BINS319:1] Bangladesh
    1993 Jul 25 – 30 The first summer school of Albania is held in Gdem, attended by about 400 Bahá'ís. [BINS299:3] Gdem; Albania
    1994 Feb 17 – 20 The first Bahá'í ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations) Forum is held in Bangkok. [BINS312:6] Bangkok; Thailand
    1995 May 30 – Jun 1 The first International Medical/Surgical Conference of Tirana is held under the auspices of Health for Humanity and the University of Tirana, attended by more than 400 Albanian physicians. [BINS343:2–3] Tirana; Albania International Medical/Surgical Conference of Tirana
    2000 Jan The establishment of a high school at the Malagwane hill site in Mbabane, the capital of Swaziland, a small cosmopolitan city of about 90,000 inhabitants.
    • The school, located on the outskirts of the city, has been named "The Setsembiso Sebunye High School." In Siswati, the language of Swaziland, it means "the promise of unity."
    • It opened with a double stream (two sections) with 120 students in Forms One and Two (the 8th and 9th year of school). In subsequent years a minimum of 70 new students will be admitted.
    • A two-story, twelve-room building was completed just before the opening of school. This building contains 7 classrooms, a science lab/classroom, and a modern computer room, a library and an administrative/staff room. Each classroom is equipped with computer capabilities to provide both access to a network in support of the curriculum and the internet. This building is the first of a complex of facilities to serve the needs of a modern high school, eventually having about 400 students.
    • The total enrolment for all of the schools (high, primary and pre-primary schools) now exceeds 500. [Home Page]
    Mbabane; Swaziland The Setsembiso Sebunye High School
    2001 31 Aug – 7 Sep United Nations World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, was held in Durban, South Africa. The Bahá'í International Community issued a statement entitled One Same Substance: Consciously Creating a Global Culture of Unity. See BWNS133 for the full text or on the BIC Site. Durban; South Africa United Nations; Racism; Discrimination; Bahai International Community
    2003 11 Mar Bani Dugal Gujral was appointed Principal Representative of the Bahá'í International Community to the United Nations.
    • Ms. Dugal Gujral had been serving as interim Principal Representative since the resignation of Techeste Ahderom in 2001.
    • Ms. Dugal Gujral came to the Bahá'í International Community in 1994 and served as Director of the Community's Office for the Advancement of Women. A native of India, where she practiced law before coming to the United States, Ms. Dugal Gujral holds a Master's degree in Environmental Law from Pace University School of Law in New York. [One Country Vol.14 Issue4]
    New York; NY Bani Dugal Gujral; Baha'i International Community; Office for the Advancement of Women; Techeste Ahderom; UN
    2004 29 Jun The passing of Gloria Faizi in Brisbane, Australia. The Universal House of Justice said they remembered with appreciation "her many contributions to the progress of the Baha'i communities, including her pioneering in Bahrain with her illustrious husband, her work at the Baha'i World Centre, and her devoted travels far and wide as a teacher of the Cause."
    • Gloria Faizi was born into the Ala'i family, distinguished for its service to the Faith. She met the head of the Faith, Shoghi Effendi, when she accompanied her father to the Holy Land as a child. When she was 17, she married Abu'l-Qásim Faizi, and together they assisted Baha'i communities in a remote rural area of Iran before settling in Bahrain in the mid-1940s. Their two children, Naysan and May, were born during their 15 years there. [BWNW318, BW04-05p287]
    Brisbane; Australia; Bahrain Gloria Faizi; pioneer; UHJ; Shoghi Effendi
    2008 15 – 16 Nov Regional Conferences held in Bangui, Central African Republic, Bangalore, India and Uvira, Democratic Republic of the Congo, [BWNS669] Bangui; Central African Republic; Bangalore; India; Uvira; Democratic Republic of the Congo Regional Conferences
    2009 31 Jan – 1 Feb Regional Conferences held in Auckland, New Zealand and Battambang, Cambodia. [BWNS692] Auckland; New Zealand; Battambang; Cambodia Regional Conferences
    2012 21 Apr Plans are announced that the Universal House of Justice is entering into consultations with respective National Spiritual Assemblies regarding the erection of the first local Houses of Worship in each of the following clusters: Battambang, Cambodia; Bihar Sharif, India; Matunda Soy, Kenya; Norte del Cauca, Colombia; and Tanna, Vanuatu. [Riḍván 2012 To the Bahá’ís of the World] Haifa; Israel; Battambang; Cambodia; Bihar Sharif; India; Matunda Soy; Kenya; Norte del Cauca; Colombia; and Tanna; Vanuatu. local Mashriqu’l-Adhkar; Local House of Worship; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
    2013 7 Apr Mr. Ataollah Rezvani, a well-known Bahá'í in the city of Bandar Abbas was shot and killed in his car. It is of note that a few years before his murder, the Friday prayer Imam had incited the local population against the Bahá'ís, referring to them as un-Islamic. He further called on the people of the city to rise up against the Bahá'í community. [BWNS987, BWNS1031] Bandar Abbas; Iran; Ataollah Rezvani; murder
    2013 24 Aug Mr. Ataollah Rezvani is murdered in Bandar Abbas. Rezvani was shot in the back of the head and his body was found in his car near the railway station on the outskirts of the city. His assailants had forced him to drive to that location. His body was discovered following a search when he failed to return home. [http://publicaffairs.bahai.us/388] Bandar Abbas Ataollah Rezvani; persecution
    2015 17 July Some 300 people attend the unveiling of the design of the first local Baha’i House of Worship in Battambang, Cambodia [BWNS 1062]
    • See BWNS for pictures.
    Battambang; Cambodia Local Baha’i House of Worship; Local Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
    2015 15 Nov The groundbreaking ceremony of the first local Baha’i House of Worship in Battambang, Cambodia was attended by some 200 community members. The event coincided with the commemoration of the Twin Holy Birthdays—the Birth of the Bab and the Birth of Baha'u'llah. [BWNS1082]
    • See BWNS for pictures.
    Battambang; Cambodia Local Baha’i House of Worship; Local Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
    2016 8 Mar The earthworks for the Local Baha’i House of Worship in Battambang, Cambodia is completed. [BWNS1100] Battambang; Cambodia Local Baha’i House of Worship; Local Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
    2016. 6 Sep In a letter the BIC calls on Iranian President Rouhani to end systematic economic oppression. The letter signed by Bani Dugal, Principal Representative of the Baha'i International Community to the United Nations, draws attention to the stark contradiction between statements espoused by the Iranian government regarding economic justice, equality for all and reducing unemployment on one hand, and the unrelenting efforts to impoverish a section of its own citizens on the other. New York BIC; Bani Dugal; persecution
    2016 16 Sep For a progress report on the construction of the Local House of Worship in Battanbang, Cambodia see BWNS1120 Battambang; Cambodia Local Baha’i House of Worship; Local Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
    2017 1 - 2 Sep The opening of Cambodia’s first “Local House of Worship” in Battambang, just over two years after the design of the building was unveiled in July 2015.

    The Mashriqu’l-Adhkar was designed by Phnom Penh-based architect Tang Sochet Vitou. It is situated on a 9 hectare property of which 1.5 hectares is used for the temple, an administrative building as well as gardens and ponds. The temple is a frequent topic of conversation among the local population. Even before its completion, it has galvanized action towards the betterment of the community and brought neighbours together. it will help provide for the spiritual needs of Cambodia’s growing Baha’i community which, according to the Ministry of Cult and Religion’s most recent annual report, numbers about 12,000 although some adherents say the figure may now be closer to 20,000. Baha’i communities were first recorded in the kingdom in the 1920s and since 1992 they have grown steadily with the help of aid workers and Asian immigrants.

    In a letter dated 18 December 2014, the Universal House of Justice explained that a Baha’i House of Worship is a “collective centre of society to promote cordial affection” and “stands as a universal place of worship open to all the inhabitants of a locality irrespective of their religious affiliation, background, ethnicity, or gender and a haven for the deepest contemplation on spiritual reality and foundational questions of life, including individual and collective responsibility for the betterment of society.”

    The dedication was marked by a two-day conference bringing together over 2,500 people from Battambang and every other region of Cambodia. A number of Cambodian dignitaries attended along with representatives of Baha’i communities in Southeast Asia. The Universal House of Justice was represented by Ms. Sokuntheary Reth who serves on the Continental Board of Counsellors in Asia. [BWNS1185, BWNS1187, BWNS1189, BWNS1190 (slide show), BWNS1191 (video), BWNS1192]

    Battambang; Cambodia Local Baha’i House of Worship; Local Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Near East is formed with its seat in Beirut, Lebanon. [BW15:146; BW16:264]
    • For picture see BW15:146.
    Lebanon NSA

    from the main catalogue

    1. Bahá'í Students and American University of Beirut in the Early 20th Century, by Reed M. Breneman (2008). The influential activities of the campus Baha'i association in Beirut, 1900-1920 and during the first World War. [about]
    2. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 18 (1979-1983), in Bahá'í World (1986). [about]
    3. Baha'u'llah's Seclusion in Kurdistan, by Bijan Ma'sumian, in Deepen, 1:1 (1993). Reconstruction of parts of this mostly undocumented period in Bahá'u'lláh's life. [about]
    4. Bahai Religious Faith and Tradition in Bangladesh, by Muhammad Jahangir Alam, in Bangladesh e-Journal of Sociology, 8:1 (2011). History of the Faith in eastern Bengal and a sketch of current distribution, organization, and activities of Baha'is in Bangladesh. [about]
    5. From Adrianople to Akka, by Abu'l-Qasim Faizi, in Conqueror of Hearts (1968). A talk to the Oceanic Conference, Palermo, Sicily, on the exile journeys of Baha'u'llah. [about]
    6. From Iran East and West, in Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, 2 (1984). [about]
    7. Jamál Effendi and the early history of the Bahá'í Faith in South Asia, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 9 (1999). Includes maps on Jamal Effendi's journeys in India, and journeys in Southeast Asia. [about]
    8. Lifetime with Bahá'u'lláh, A: Events in Baghdad, Istanbul, Edirne and ‘Akká while in the Company of Bahá'u'lláh, by Aqa Husayn Ashchi, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 14 (2007). One-third of a lengthy primary-source history, annotated by translator. [about]
    9. Map of Stages in Baha'u'llah's Successive Exiles from Tihran to Akka, by Muhammad Labib (1968). Map of Stages in Baha'u'llah's Successive Exiles from Tihran to Akka, compiled and designed by Muhammad Labib in 1968, includes an extensive list of which tablets Baha'u'llah revealed and where. [about]
    10. Map of the Travels of Baha'u'llah (1991). The progressive exiles of Baha'u'llah through the Middle East. [about]
    11. Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-86, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
    12. Midhat Pasha and 'Abdu'l-Baha in 'Akka: The Historical Background of the Tablet of the Land of Bá, by Necati Alkan, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 13 (2005). Background of the tablet Lawh-i-Ard-i-Bá, revealed by Baha'u'llah on occasion of Abdu'l-Baha travelling to Beirut to meet the governor of Syria. Includes an account by Mirza Haydar Ali of the Pasha's visit. [about]
    13. Proselytizing, Development, and the Covenant, by Universal House of Justice, in Messages from the Universal House of Justice: 1963-1986, The Third Epoch of the Formative Age (1996). Teaching vs. proselytization; applying Baha'i social teachings without becoming ensnared in prevailing cultural mores; and the uniqueness of the Baha'i covenant. [about]
    14. References to the Bahá'í Faith in the U.S. State Department's Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, by United States Department of State (1991). Excerpts from the State Department's annual compilation of Country Reports on Human Rights Practices on discrimination against the Baha'i Faith and persecution of its adherents in twenty countries. [about]
    15. Ridván 1996 (Four Year Plan) - To the Followers of Bahá'u'lláh in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Sri Lanka: Bahá'í Era 153, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Country-specific portion of the annual message to the Bahá'ís of the world: South-east Asia. [about]
     
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