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1753 Birth of Shaykh Ahmad Ahsá’í in the village of Mutayrafí in the Ahsá region, the hinterland of Bahrayn. Mutayraff; Bahrain Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsai; Shaykhism; Births and deaths Bibliography; Wikipedia
1771 Birth of Fath-`Alí Khán (later Sháh) in Shíráz. Shiraz; Iran Fath-Ali Shah; Shahs; Births and deaths; Qajar dynasty
1808. 5 Jan Birth of Muhammad Mírzá (later Sháh), son of Crown Prince `Abbás Mírzá and grandson of Fath-`Alí Sháh. Iran Muhammad Shah; Abbas Mirza; Fath-Ali Shah; Shahs; Qajar dynasty; Births and deaths
1812. c. 1812 Birth of Mullá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Zanjání, Hujjat. Iran Hujjat; Births and deaths
1817. c. 1817 Birth of Hand of the Cause Mullá Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardikání (Hájí Amín), in Ardikán, near Yazd. Ardikan; Yazd; Iran Haji Amin (Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani); Births and deaths
1817 Shaykh Ahmad travels to Persia and visits Shíráz and Tihrán. He is in Tihrán when Bahá'u'lláh is born. [DB13] Shiraz; Tihran; Iran Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsai; Shaykhism; Bahaullah, Birth of; Bahaullah, Life of
1817. 12 Nov Birth of Mírzá Husayn `Alíy-i-Núrí (Bahá'u'lláh).
  • He is of royal Persian blood, a descendant of Zoroaster and the Sásáníyán kings of Persia through Yazdigird III, the last king of that dynasty. Through His mother He is a descendant of Abraham through Katurah and Jesse. [BW8:874; GPB94; RB1:305]
  • He is born in Tihrán. His father is Mírzá `Abbás whose ancestral home is Tákur in the province of Núr. His father is also known as Mírzá Buzurg in royal circles. [BKG13; RB1:7]
  • His mother is Khadíjih Khánum. [BBD127; BBRSM57–8]
  • He is born at dawn. [LOG353]
  • For biblical reference see LOG378.
  • RB1:304 for extracts from Shoghi Effendi re: His station.
  • BBD39, GPB157–8 for a condensed history.
  • See GPB93-99 for the significance of Bahá'u'lláh's station.
Tihran; Nur; Iran Bahaullah, Birth of; Bahaullah, Life of; Twin Holy days; Holy days; Mirza Buzurg; Khadijih Khanum; - Basic timeline; Births and deaths BIC Statement on Bahá'u'lláh; Bahá'u'lláh: The Word Made Flesh
1818 May Birth of Mullá Zaynu'l-`Ábidín (Zaynu'l-Muqarrabín), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Najafábád. Najafabad; Iran Zaynul-Muqarrabin (Mulla Zaynul-Abidin); Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
1819 Death of Shaykh `Alí, son of Shaykh Ahmad. Shaykh Ahmad considers this loss as a sacrifice for `the Alí whose advent we all await'. [MH24] Iran Shaykh Ali; Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsai; Births and deaths; Sacrifice
1825. c. 1825 Birth of Áqá Husayn-i-Isfahání (Mishkín-Qalam), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh and well-known calligrapher, in Shíráz. Shiraz; Iran Mishkin-Qalam; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
1826 27 Jun Passing of Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsá'í, the leader of the Shaykhís, in Haddíyyih near Medina near the tomb of Muhammad, at approximately 75 years. He is buried in the cemetery of Baqí` in Medina. [B2; MH20]
  • At his passing Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí becomes his designated successor. [BBD12]
  • BBD12 says it was 1828 and he was 81 years old
  • See CH11 and MH20 for three chief articles of faith of the Shaykhís.
  • See BBRSM8 for a brief account of his life.
  • See MH22 for a picture.
Haddiyyih; Medina; Saudi Arabia Shaykh Ahmad-i-Ahsai; Siyyid Kazim-i-Rashti; Shaykhism; Births and deaths
1829 29 Mar Birth of Áqá Muhammad-i-Qá'iní (Nabíl-i-Akbar), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Naw-Firist, near Bírjand. Naw-Firist; Birjand; Iran Nabil-i-Akbar (Aqa Muhammed-i-Qaini); Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
1831. c. 1831 Birth of Mírzá Yahyá (Subh-i-Azal), half brother of Bahá'u'lláh. Iran Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Births and deaths; Bahaullah, Family of
1831 17 Jul Birth of Násiri'd-Dín Mírzá, later Sháh. Iran Nasirid-Din Shah; Qajar dynasty; Births and deaths
1831 29 Jul Birth of Nabíl-i-A`zam, Muhammad-i-Zarandí, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh. Nabil-i-Azam; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
1835 Birth of Mírzá Áqá Ján-i-Kashání (Khadimu'lláh), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh and His amanuensis. Mirza Aqa Jan; Amanuensis; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
1837. c. 1837 Birth of Mírzá Muhammad Mustafáy-i-Baghdádí, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Iraq. Iraq Mirza Muhammad Mustafay-i-Baghdadi; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
1842 Birth of Hájí Ákhúnd (Mullá `Alí-Akbar Shahmírzádí), who was named a Hand of the Cause by Bahá'u'lláh. Iran Haji Akhund (Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi); Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
1843 Birth of Ahmad, son of the Báb. He passes away shortly after he is born. [B46]
  • DB74 for a picture of his resting-place.
  • The Báb dreams that He drinks a few drops of blood from the wounds of the martyred Imám Husayn. After this dream He feels that the Spirit of God has taken possession of His soul. [BBRSM14; DB253]
Iran Ahmad (son of the Bab); Bab, Life of; Bab, Family of; Cemeteries and graves; Births and deaths; Dreams; Imam Husayn
1844 Birth of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl-i-Gulpáygání, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Gulpáygán. Gulpaygan; Iran Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
1844. 7 Feb Birth of Shaykh Kázim-i-Samandarí, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Qazvín. Qazvin; Iran Shaykh Kazim-i-Samandari; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
1845. c. 1845 Birth of Mírzá `Alí-Muhammad-i-Khurásání, later known as Ibn-i-Asdaq, Hand of the Cause. Iran Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mirza Ali-Muhammad); Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
1847. 22 Feb Birth of Thornton Chase, designated the first American Bahá'í, in Springfield, Massachusetts. Springfield; Massachusetts; United States Thornton Chase; Births and deaths
1848 The birth of Mírzá Mihdí, `the Purest Branch', the son of Bahá'u'lláh and Navváb. [BBD155]

Tihran; Iran Mirza Mihdi (Purest Branch); Births and deaths; Bahaullah, Family of
1948 Sep Bahá'u'lláh is in Bandar-Jaz. An edict comes from Muhammad Sháh ordering His arrest.
  • The Russian agent at Bandar-Jaz offers Him passage on a Russian ship at anchor there but He refuses. [BKG50]
  • Birth of Hájí Mírzá Hasan, Adíb, Hand of the Cause and Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Táliqán.
Bandar-Jaz; Taliqan; Iran Bahaullah, Life of; Muhammad Shah; Russian agent; Russia; Adib (Haji Mirza Hasan Talaqani); Hands of the Cause; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
1852 Birth of Aqa Buzurg Khurasani (Badí‘), Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Mashhad. Mashhad; Iran Badi (Mirza Aqa Buzurg-i-Nishapuri); Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
1852. 21 Feb Birth of Isabella Brittingham, prominent American Bahá'í teacher, in New York City. New York; United States Isabella Brittingham; Births and deaths
1852 Oct Bahá'u'lláh has a vision of the Maiden, who announces to Him that He is the Manifestation of God for this Age. [BBD142–3, 212; BKG823 ESW11–12, 21 GPB101–2; KAN62]

  • This experience compares to the episode of Moses and the Burning Bush, Zoroaster and the Seven Visions, Buddha under the Bodhi tree, the descent of the Dove upon Jesus and the voice of Gabriel commanding Muhammad to ‘cry in the name of thy Lord'. [GPB93, 101]
  • The Báb repeatedly gave the year nine as the date of the appearance of ‘Him Whom God shall make manifest'. The Declaration of the Báb took place in AH 1260; year nine was therefore AH 1269, which began in the middle of October when Bahá'u'lláh had been in prison for about two months. [CB46–7]
  • Subsequently in His Writings Bahá’u’lláh declared that He was the "Promised One" of all religions, fulfilling the messianic prophecies found in world religions. He stated that being several messiahs converging one person were the spiritual, rather than material, fulfilment of the messianic and eschatological prophecies found in the literature of the major religions. His eschatological claims constitute six distinctive messianic identifications: from Judaism, the incarnation of the "Everlasting Father" from the Yuletide prophecy of Isaiah 9:6, the "Lord of Hosts"; from Christianity, the "Spirit of Truth" or Comforter predicted by Jesus in His farewell discourse of John 14-17 and the return of Christ "in the glory of the Father"; from Zoroastrianism, the return of Shah Bahram Varjavand, a Zoroastrian messiah predicted in various late Pahlavi texts; from Shi'a Islam the return of the Third Imam, Imam Husayn; from Sunni Islam, the return of Jesus, Isa; and from the Bábí religion, He whom God shall make manifest.

    While Bahá’u’lláh did not explicitly state Himself to be either the Hindu or Buddhist messiah, He did so in principle through His writings. Later, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá stated that Bahá’u’lláh was the Kalki avatar, who in the classical Hindu Vaishnavas tradition, is the tenth and final avatar (great incarnation) of Vishnu who will come to end The Age of Darkness and Destruction. Bahá’ís also believe that Bahá’u’lláh is the fulfilment of the prophecy of appearance of the Maitreya Buddha, who is a future Buddha who will eventually appear on Earth, achieve complete enlightenment, and teach the pure Dharma. Bahá’ís believe that the prophecy that Maitreya will usher in a new society of tolerance and love has been fulfilled by Bahá’u’lláh's teachings on world peace. [Bahaikipedia]

Tihran; Iran Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Birth of Revelation of; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Visions; Maid of Heaven; Angels; Year nine; - Basic timeline; Interfaith dialogue
1855 5 Mar Birth of John Henry Hyde Dunn, Hand of the Cause, in London. London; United Kingdom John Henry Hyde Dunn; birth; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
1855. 15 Oct 1855 or 1856 Birth of Robert Turner, first black American Bahá'í. United States United States; Births and deaths; Robert Turner
1860 Birth of Shaykh Muhammad-‘Alíy-i-Qá'iní, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, in Naw Firist, near Bírjand. [EB273] Naw-Firist; Birjand; Iran Shaykh Muhammad-Aliy-i-Qaini; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
1863. 18 Apr Birth of William Henry (Harry) Randall, Disciple of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, in Boston. Boston; Massachusetts; United States William Harry Randall; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Births and deaths
1866. 1 Dec Birth of Marion Jack, prominent Bahá'í travel teacher, pioneer and artist, known affectionately as ‘General jack' for her services to the Bahá'í community, in Saint John, New Brunswick.

See LDG1:217 for information on her pioneer work.

Saint John; New Brunswick; Canada Marion Jack; Births and deaths
1867 Birth of Mírzá Badí'u'lláh, fourth son of Bahá'u'lláh and Mahd-i‘Ulyá in Adrianople. [BKG247] Edirne; Turkey Mirza Badiullah; Bahaullah, Family of; Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum); Births and deaths
1869. 12 May Birth of Clara Davis Dunn, Hand of the Cause, in London. London; United Kingdom Clara Dunn; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
1870. 23 Jun Mírzá Mihdí dies from his injuries 22 hours after his fall. [BKG311–12; GPB188; RB3:208]
  • See BKG313, GPB188 and RB3:210 for the prayer of Bahá'u'lláh for His son.
  • He is interred in the cemetery next to the shrine of Nabí Sálih in `Akká. [GBP188; RB3:209]
  • Also see BBD155, BKG311–14, RB3:204–20.
Akka Mirza Mihdi (Purest Branch); Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves
1872. 10 Aug Birth of Martha Root, Hand of the Cause and itinerant Bahá'í teacher, in Richmond, Ohio. Richmond; Ohio; United States Martha Root; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
1872. 22 Nov Muhammad-Báqir-i-Mahallátí, one of the Bahá'ís imprisoned in Cyprus, dies. [BBR306]
  • He had begun his service to Bahá'u'llá'h in Baghdad and was a member of the entourage that accompanied Him to Constantinople in 1963 and further served in His household in Adrianople. See Four on an Island 9-12 for a brief description of his service.
  • This leaves Mishkín-Qalam as the only Bahá'í in Cyprus. [BBR306]
Cyprus Aqa Muhammad-Baqir (Qahvih-chiy-i Mahallati); Mishkin-Qalam; Births and deaths; Cyprus exiles
1873. 12 Apr Birth of Hippolyte Dreyfus, the first French Bahá'í, in Paris. Named by Shoghi Effendi a Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá. Paris; France Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; First Bahais by country or area; Births and deaths
1873. 7 Jun Birth of Amelia Engelder Collins, Hand of the Cause, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Pittsburgh; Pennsylvania; United States Amelia Collins; Births and deaths
1874. 19 May Birth of John Ebenezer Esslemont, Hand of the Cause of God, in Aberdeen, Scotland. Aberdeen; Scotland; United Kingdom Esslemont; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
1874. 6 Jun Birth of Louis George Gregory, Hand of the Cause of God at Charleston, South Carolina. Charleston; South Carolina; United States Louis Gregory; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
1874 14 Nov Birth of William Sutherland Maxwell, Hand of the Cause of God, in Montreal. Montreal; Canada William Sutherland Maxwell; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
1875. 21 Jul Birth of Agnes Baldwin Alexander, Hand of the Cause, in Hawaii.
  • She is a granddaughter of two of Hawaii's most famous missionary families, the Baldwins and the Alexanders.
Hawaii Agnes Alexander; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
1875. 16 Oct Birth of Tarázu'lláh Samandarí, Hand of the Cause of God, in Qazvín. Qazvin; Iran Tarazullah Samandari; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
1876. 14 Feb Birth of Keith Ransom-Kehler, Hand of the Cause and the first American Bahá'í martyr, in Kentucky. Kentucky; United States Keith Ransom-Kehler; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Firsts, Other
1876. 4 Jun `Abdu'l-`Azíz either commits suicide or is assassinated. [BBD2; BBR485; GPB225]
  • Bahá'u'lláh predicted his downfall in the Lawh-i-Fu'ád. RB3:87]
  • Bahá'u'lláh stated that the tyranny of Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz exceeded that of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh because the Sultán exiled Bahá'u'lláh to the Most Great Prison without any reason whereas the Sháh had reason to be fearful of the Bahá'ís because of the attempt on his life. [BKG412]
  • Bahá'u'lláh addressed two Tablets to the Sultán including the Súriy-i-Mulúk (Tablet to the Kings) but he did not respond. [BBD2]
  • See The Summons of the Lord of Hosts p177-181 for the Lawh-i-Fu'ád and p185-235 for the Súriy-i-Mulúk.
Accession of Murád V to the throne. [BBR485]
Istanbul; Turkey Sultan Abdul-Aziz; Births and deaths; Nasirid-Din Shah; Murad V; Lawh-i-Fuad (Tablet to Fuad Pasha); Suriy-i-Muluk (Surih to the Kings)
1876. 14 Jun Birth of George Townshend, Hand of the Cause of God, in Dublin. Dublin; Ireland George Townshend; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
1877. 26 Sep Birth of Siegfried Schopflocher, Hand of the Cause of God, in Germany. Furth; Bavaria; Germany Siegfried Schopflocher; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
1883. 15 Apr Birth in Goslar, Germany, of Dr Artur Eduard Heinrich Brauns, a prominent German Bahá'í, named by Shoghi Effendi a Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá. Goslar; Germany Artur Eduard Heinrich Brauns; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Births and deaths
1884 Birth of Valíyu'lláh Varqá, Hand of the Cause of God, in Tabríz. [BW18:381-834] Tabriz; Iran Varqa, Valiyullah; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Varqa
1886 In the year Birth of Músá Banání, Hand of the Cause of God, in Baghdád. Baghdad; Iraq Musa Banani; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
1887 Mírzá Músá, Áqáy-i-Kalím, the faithful brother of Bahá'u'lláh, passes away in `Akká. [BBD166; BKG369; DH57]
  • He is buried in the Bahá'í section of the Muslim cemetery. [DH81]
  • He was designated by Shoghi Effendi as one of the 19 Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. [BBD166; BW3:80–1]
Akka Mirza Musa; Aqay-i-Kalim; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves
1889 In the year The passing of Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khurásání entitled by Bahá'u'lláh Ism'lláh'l-Asdaq (In the Name of God the Most Truthful) in Hamadán. He was born in Mashhad in 1800, the son of a cleric, around the beginning of the 19th century He furthered his own clerical studies in Karbila under the Shaykhi leader Sayyid Qasim Rashti, eventually gaining the rank of mujtahid, and becoming known by the honorific title Muqaddas (‘the holy one’).
  • As a young man he had been a disciple of Siyyid Kázim and had met Siyyid 'Alí-Muhammad in Karbilá. He was among the first believers who identified with the Message of the Báb. See DB100 and EB7 for the story of how he independently determined His identity when he met Mullá Husayn in Isfahán on his way to deliver a tablet to Bahá'u'lláh in Tehran. The very next day he left Isfahán for Shíráz on foot arriving 12 days later to find that the Báb had already departed for pilgrimage.
  • He took up residence in Shíráz and received a Tablet from the Báb instructing him to change the Call to Prayer. See DB146-148, EB13-14 for the story of how he endured over 900 strokes of the lash on the command of Husayn Khán-i-Írva´ní, the Governor of the province of Fars, and remained indifferent to the pain. (6 August, 1845) He was expelled from the city and proceeded to Yazd. He had similar fate in that city and was banished.
  • On the way to Khurásán he joined Mullá Husayn and those who would participate in the Tabarsí siege where he was on hand for the death of Mullá Husayn. (DB381) After the deception and massacre he was one of the few survivors and, as a prisoner, was taken to Mázindarán to be executed by the family Prince Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá who had commanded the royal troops and had been killed in battle. On route the party called on the clerics to interrogate him and his fellow Bábi and they became convinced that they were not heretics deserving of execution. The prisoners were to be sent to Tehran but escaped and made their way to Míhámí and eventually to Mashad.
  • In 1861, after life in that city became impossible, he went to Baghdád where he attained the presence of Bahá'u'lláh. After 14 months he returned to his native province of Khurásán.
  • He continued in his audacious teaching and as a result was taken to Tehran where he was kept in the Síhåh-Chál. He taught a number of fellow prisoners about the Promised One and converted Hakím Masíh, the Jewish physician assigned to attend to the prisoners. He was the first Bahá'í of Jewish background in Tehran (and was the grandfather of Lutfu'lláh Hakím, a former member of the Universal House of Justice.) After 28 months imprisonment he was pardoned but refuse to leave without his fellow prisoners. The Sháh released 40 of the 43 prisoners. (The remaining three were guilty of actual crimes.)
  • After Tehran he went to Khurásán and returned to the capital some three years later to help in changing the hiding place of the remains of the Báb. Then he travelled to Káshán, Isfahán and Yazd where he convinced some of the Afnáns to accept the truth of their Nephew's claims. After returning to Khurásán he was given permission to make a pilgrimage to 'Akká where he remained for some four months, returning by way of Mosul and Baghdád. When he reached Hamadán he was exhausted. Twelve days after his arrival he passed.
  • He had been the recipient of many tablets from Bahá'u'lláh including a Tablet of Visitation after his passing. One of the most well-know tablets was the Lawh-i-Ahbáb (Tablet of the Friends). It is thought He revealed this Tablet some time after leaving the barracks in 'Akká, about 1870-1871. [RoB3p258-260, List of the Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh]
  • He was the father of Ibn-i-Asdaq who Bahá'u'lláh appointed a Hand of the Cause of God. [EB19]
  • ‘Abdu’l-Baha posthumously referred to him as a Hand of the Cause of God.
  • References [LoF32-41, MF5-8, DB381. EB7-23, BBR 69-70]
Hamadan; Iran Hands referred to as such by Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Ismullahul-Asdaq (Mulla Sadiq Khurasani)
1889. 19 Nov Birth of General Shu`á`u'lláh `Alá'í, Hand of the Cause of God, in Tihrán. Tihran; Iran Shuaullah Alai; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
1892 Nabíl, inconsolable at the death of Bahá'u'lláh, commits suicide by drowning himself in the sea. [AB56; BBD167; BKG427–8; DH81; EB270; GPB222]
  • He leaves a note paying homage to `Abdu'l-Bahá, writing the date of his death in the single Arabic word `Gharíq' (drowned), the numerical value of which is AH 1310 (AD 1892–3). [MF35; RB1:205]
  • See DH81 for his own epitaph.
  • He is buried in the Muslim Cemetery near `Akká. [DH81]
  • He is one of 19 Apostles of Bahá’u’lláh.
Akka Nabil-i-Azam; Suicide; Apostles of Bahaullah; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves
1892 6 Jul The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Nabil-i-Akbar Áqá Muhammed-i-Qá'iní. He was born in Naw-Firist, Persia (Iran) on 29 March 1829.
  • “It has been claimed that no one within the enclave of the Baha’i Faith has ever surpassed the profundity of his erudition.” Bahá’u’lláh addressed the Lawh-i-Hikmat* (Tablet of Wisdom), in his honour. [EB115]
  • He was imprisoned a number of times in Iran for his Bahá’í activities and eventually moved to Ashkhabad (‘Ishqábád, Turkmenistan). He died in Bukhárá, Uzbekistan. ‘Abdu’lBahá designated him a Hand of the Cause of God. [LoF28-31]
  • For details of his life see EB112–15.
  • See OPOP86 for "Pilgrim's Note" concerning what Jináb-i-Fádil said that 'Abdu'l-Bahá said about Nabil's suicide.
  • Bukhara; Uzbekistan; Naw-Firist; Iran Nabil-i-Akbar (Aqa Muhammed-i-Qaini); Hands referred to as such by Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Lawh-i-Hikmat (Tablet of Wisdom)
    1896. 15 Feb Birth of Leroy C. Ioas, Hand of the Cause of God, in Wilmington, Illinois. Wilmington; Illinois Leroy Ioas; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1896. 19 Apr Násiri'd-Dín Sháh is assassinated on the eve of the celebration of his jubilee. He ascended the throne in 1848 and by the Islamic lunar calendar it marked the 50th year of his reign. [BKG455]
    • BBRXXIX and BBRSM219 say it was 1 May.
    • His assassin, Mírzá Ridá-yi-Kirmáni, a Pan-Islamic terrorist, was a follower of Jamálu'd-Dín-i-Afghání, one of the originators of the Constitutional movement in Iran and an enemy of the Faith. [BBRSM87; GBP296]
    • For an account of his assassination see PDC67–8.
    • See BKG430–55 for a history of his reign.
    • He is succeeded by his son Muzaffari'd-Dín. [GPB296]
    • See also CBM54-56.
    Nasirid-Din Shah; Shahs; Qajar dynasty; History (general); Births and deaths; Jamalud-Din-i-Afghani; Assassinations
    1896 1 May The martyrdom of Hand of the Cause of God Varqa (‘Dove’), Mírzá ‘Ali-Muhammad. (b.1856) He and his young son, Ruhu’lláh, were killed by, Hajib’ud-Dawleh, one of the Qajar courtiers, in fact the Chief Steward, in the aftermath of the assassination of Nasir'd-Din Shah. [GPB296, BBRXXIX]
  • For the story of their lives see MRHK405–22 and World Order: Winter 1974-1975, Vol. 9 No.2 p29-44.
  • For a Western account of the episode see BBR361–2.
  • He was posthumously named a Hand of the Cause of God by 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • ‘Abdu’l-Bahá named him posthumously as a Hand of the Cause and Shoghi Effendi designated him as one of the Apostles of Bahá-u-lláh. [EB75-97 LoF42-49, BBR361-362, SoBSNBp225-229]
  • See Varqá and Son: The Heavenly Doves by Darius Shahrokh.
  • See also Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • Yazd; Tihran; Iran Varqa, Mirza Ali-Muhammad; Varqa, Ruhullah; In Memoriam; Apostles of Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed by Abdul-Baha; Hands appointed by Abdul-Baha; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Varqa
    1896. 13 May Birth of Dr Ugo Giachery, Hand of the Cause of God, in Palermo, Sicily. Palermo; Sicily Ugo Giachery; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1897 In the year The passing of Hand of the Cause Mullá Muhammad-Ridá in a Tehran prison.
    • born in Muhammad-Ábád in the province of Yazd into a well-known family in about 1814. He is provided a good education and he becomes a divine known for his piety, eloquence and courage.
    • Becomes a follower of the Báb in the early days of the Revelation. He recognizes Bahá'u'lláh as the Promised One of the Bayan some time after 1855 upon reading Qasídiy-i-Varqá'íyyih, "Ode of the Dove". (Bahá'u'lláh had composed this ode while still in Sulaymáníyyih.)
    • He became well-known for his courage in teaching and his endurance in withstanding abuse. He was found to be picking his teeth while being bastinadoed and, while a elderly man, withstood a brutal flogging on his bare back in the prison yard. (A witness to this flogging, Ghulám-Ridá Khán, a notable of Tehran who happened to be imprisoned at the same time, became a believer upon seeing his steadfastness under the lashing.) [RoB1p84-91, EB89-111, LoF21-27]
    • 'Abdu'l-Bahá referred to a few of the believers posthumously as being Hands of the Cause (see MF5 and BW14p446) Adib Taherzadeh points out that "since there are one or two others by the same name (Shaykh-Ridáy-i-Yazdí) it is not possible to identify him. However, some believe strongly that he is Mullá Muhammad-i-Ridáy-i-Muhammmad-Ábádí. [RoB4p186n]
    Muhammadabad; Yazd; Tihran; Iran Hands referred to as such by Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Zdupl
    1897 The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Shaykh Muhammad-Ridáy-i-Yazdí (Mullá Ridá) while incarcerated in the Síyáh-Cháh. He was born in Muhammadábád, Yazd in 1814. [LoF21-27]
  • He was a fearless teacher who was outspoken and often suffered imprisonment and torture. "Other than seventeen-year-old Badi, no one has surpassed Mulla Rida's unusual power of endurance. The rare combination of endurance, eloquence, courage and humour made him that unique hero who illuminated the pages of the history of the Baha'i Faith." [Extract from a Persian book called Masabih-i-Hidayat, Volume I by Azizu'llah-i-Sulaymani]
  • Muhammadabad; Yazd; Tihran; Iran Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed by Abdul-Baha; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Shaykh Muhammad-riday-i-Yazdi; Mulla Rida; Zdupl
    1897. 24 Feb Birth of Jalal Khazeh (Jalál Khádih), Hand of the Cause of God, in Tihrán. Tihran; Iran Jalal Khazeh; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1898. 21 Dec Birth of Dorothy Beecher Baker, Hand of the Cause of God. Dorothy Baker; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1899. 16 Feb The third group of Western pilgrims arrives in the Holy Land. [BFA1:145]
    • See BFA1:145 for those in the group.
    Birth of Hermann Grossmann, Hand of the Cause of God, in Rosario de Santa Fé, Argentina, into a family of German background.
    Rosario de Santa Fe; Argentina Pilgrims; Herman Grossmann; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1901 2 Nov Birth of John Robarts, Hand of the Cause of God, in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Waterloo; Ontario; Canada John Robarts; Births and deaths
    1901 26 Nov The Day of the Covenant The Day of the Covenant is a Bahá'í holy day honouring the Covenant of Bahá’u’lláh, in particular, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá as the “Centre of the Covenant" and as such, the successor, the interpreter and the exemplar of the Bahá'í Faith. Bahá'u'lláh's Covenant also provided for the extension of this covenant to the Guardian and to the Universal House of Justice.
    The first celebration of the Day of the Covenant in North America was marked on this day.
    • Prior to this time some of the believers celebrated the birth of 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the 22nd of May. Others marked the 29th of May, the anniversary of the passing of Bahá'u'lláh and thusly, the day on which He acceded to the leadership of the Bahá'í community.
    • 'Abdu'l-Bahá chose the day November 26th, as reckoned by the Gregorian calendar, as approximately half a year away from this date, to commemorate His appointment of the Centre of the Covenant.
    • The day was know as Jashn-i-A'zam (The Greatest Festival) in the East because He was Ghusn-i-A'zam, the Greatest Branch or the "Most Might Branch" [GPB238, BFA2:XV, 56; SA247, Day of the Covenant by Christopher Buck, AB523]
    New York; United States Day of the Covenant; Firsts, Other; Covenant (general); Holy Days; Abdul-Baha, Birth of; Bahaullah, Ascension of; Bab, Declaration of
    1904 c. The birth of Zikrullah Khadem, Hand of the Cause of God, in Tihrán. [ZK3] Tihran; Iran Zikrullah Khadem; Births and deaths
    1905 29 Apr Birth of `Alí-Akbar Furútan, Hand of the Cause of God, in Sabzivár, Khurásán. Sabzivar; Khurasan; Iran Ali Akbar Furutan; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1906 c. Birth of `Abu'l-Qásim Faizí, Hand of the Cause of God, in Qum. Qum; Iran Abul-Qasim Faizi; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1907 8 Jan The death of Muzaffari'd-Dín Sháh. [BBR354, 482] Iran Muzaffarid-Din Shah; Shahs; Qajar dynasty; Births and deaths
    1908 7 Sep The birth of Hasan Muvaqqar Balyuzi, Hand of the Cause of God. [SBBR5:XI] Hasan Balyuzi; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1909 (In the year) The passing of Robert Turner (b. 15 October, 1856, Virginia d. 1909 California)
    • the first African-American Baha'i and a member of the first Western Pilgrimage to Haifa in 1898, led by his employer Mrs. Phoebe Hearst. He was a butler in her household for more than 35 years. He was taught the Baha'i Faith by Lua Getsinger in the process of serving tea and remained a devoted believer his entire life. "Such was the tenacity of his faith that even the subsequent estrangement of his beloved mistress from the Cause she had spontaneously embraced failed to becloud its radiance, or to lessen the intensity of the emotions which the loving-kindness showered by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá upon him had excited in his breast." (GPB259) [A Vision of Race Unity, Vingp101, AZBF475, An Early Pilgrimage by May Maxwell]
    • He received a Tablet from 'Abdu'l-Bahá while on his deathbed and a tribute after his passing. [AY60, AY61, 339, AB72]
    • He was one of the nineteen Western Bahá'ís designated as a Disciple of 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
    • A Tablet to him from 'Abdu'l-Bahá can be found in SWABpg114 #78 and 'Abdu'l-Bahá in America (website).
    • See also Bahaikipedia, Bahá'í Chronicles.
    • Find a Grave.
    Virginia; California; United States Robert Turner; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Firsts, Other; Phoebe Hearst; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1909 20 Aug Birth of Paul Haney, Hand of the Cause of God, in Chicago.
    • His given name is `Abdu'l-Bahá, bestowed upon him by `Abdu'l-Bahá Himself at his birth.
    Chicago; United States Paul Haney; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1910 The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Hájí Mullá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí, (Hájí Akhund). He was born in Shahmírzád around 1842/3.
    • Bahá’u’lláh had entrusted him with the sacred task of moving and hiding the remains of the Báb. In Tehran he transferred the remains to Hand of the Cause Amínu’l-Bayán who moved them through innumerable dangers to a safe hiding place in the Mosque of the Imámzádih Zayd in Tehran, where they lay concealed until the time when, at the behest of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, they were transferred to the Holy Land to be laid in their permanent resting place on the slopes of Mount Carmel. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
    • He was appointed a Hand of the Cause by Bahá’u’lláh. [LoF3-8]
    Tihran; Shahmirzad; Iran Haji Akhund (Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi); Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Activities
    1910 4 Mar Hand of the Cause of God `Alí-Akhar-i-Shahmírzádí (Hájí Ákhúnd) passes away in Tihrán. [BBD14; EB266] Tihran; Iran Haji Akhund (Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi); Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam
    1910 8 Aug Birth of Mary Sutherland Maxwell, Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, Hand of the Cause of God, in New York City. New York; United States Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1912 c. Mishkín-Qalam passes away in the Holy Land. [BBD157; EB272] Haifa Mishkin-Qalam; Births and deaths
    1912 Birth of `Alí Muhammad Varqá, Hand of the Cause of God, in Tihrán. Tihran; Iran Varqa, Ali-Muhammad; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Varqa
    1912 29 Apr Mírzá Yahyá dies in Famagusta. [BBD243; BBR312]
    • He had been deserted by most of his followers and is given a Muslim funeral. [BKG426; GPB233]
    • Years later his sons and their relatives reconcile themselves to the authority of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [Ch237-238]
    Famagusta; Cyprus Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Covenant-breakers; Cyprus exiles; Births and deaths
    1912 30 Sep Thornton Chase, the first American Bahá'í, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, passes away in California before 'Abdu'l-Bahá'í and His retinue arrive. He is buried at Inglewood. [BBD71; BFA2:XVII] California; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Thornton Chase; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves
    1913 13 May Birth of H. Collis Featherstone, Hand of the Cause of God, at Quorn, South Australia. Quorn; South Australia Collis Featherstone; Births and deaths
    1914 9 Jan John Ferraby, Hand of the Cause of God, is born in Southsea, England. Southsea; United Kingdom John Ferraby; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1914 21 Jan Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl-i-Gulpáygání, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, passes away in Cairo. [AB404; BBD67]
    • For a brief biography see EM263–5, SDH113.
    • His resting place is now next to that of Lua Getsinger in the Bahá'í cemetery in Cairo.
    • His numerous works include Fará'id (The Peerless Gems) 1898; The Brilliant Proof; 1912; Bahá'í Proofs, 1902; and Al-Duraru'l-Bahíyih (The Shining Pearls, published in English as Miracles and Metaphors), 1900. [BBD7]
    Cairo; Egypt Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Apostles of Bahaullah; Lua Getsinger; Cemeteries and graves; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1916 1 May Lua Getsinger, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, dies of heart failure in Cairo. [BBD87; SW7, 4:29]
    • For an her obituary see SW7, 4:29-30.
    • She is buried in the Protestant Cemetery in Cairo. In 1939 a court ruling enables the Bahá'ís to reinter her in the first Bahá'í cemetery established in Egypt. Her grave is now beside that of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl. [GPB344]
    • See also Sears and Quigley, The Flame.
    Cairo; Egypt Lua Getsinger; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Cemeteries and graves; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1917 The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-Taqíy-i-Abharí (Ibn-i-Abhar). He was born in 1853/4 in Abhar.
    • For four years he suffered in Síyáh-Chál wearing the very same chains as Bahá’u’lláh had worn in 1852.
    • His services during the time of the Master included teaching journeys through Persia, the Caucasus and India. He also made some eleven journeys to the Holy Land with the permission of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá.
    • A special service rendered by Ibn-i-Abhar was the promotion of the education of women. He and his wife played an important part in the advancement of women in Persian society.
    • In 1886 Bahá’u’lláh appointed him a Hand of the Cause. He died in 1917. [LoF13-16, BBD114, EB268]
    Abhar; Tihran; Iran; Caucasus; India Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Haji Mirza Muhammad-Taqiy-i-Abhari; Ibn-i-Abhar (Mulla Muhammad Taqi); Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Chains; Women; Gender; Equality
    1917 The passing of Ibn-i-Abhar (Mullá Muhammad Taqí), Hand of the Cause of God. [BBD114; EB268] Ibn-i-Abhar (Mulla Muhammad Taqi); Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam
    1918 Shaykh Kázim-i-Samandar, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, passes away early in the year.
    • For the story of his life see EB191-215.
    Iran Shaykh Kazim-i-Samandari; Apostles of Bahaullah; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1919 13 Aug Adíb, Mírzá Hasan Táliqání, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Tihrán. [BBD98]

    EB273 says he died on 2 September.

    • For a brief history of his life see EB272-3.
    Tihran; Iran Adib (Haji Mirza Hasan Talaqani); Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam
    1919 2 Sep The passing of Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan, entitled Adíbu'l-'Ulamá, know as Adíb in Tihrán. He was born in Talaqán in 1848 and became a Bahá’í around 1889.
  • Bahá’u’lláh appointed him a Hand of the Cause of God. [SDH138-140]
  • He was one of the founders of the Tarbíyat Schools in Tihrán. He died in Tihrán. [LoF17-18]
  • Tihran; Talaqan; Iran Adib (Haji Mirza Hasan Talaqani); Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Tarbiyat School
    1920. 27 Jan The death of Joseph H. Hannen, Disciple of 'Abdu'l-Bahá a week after he was knocked down by a car in Washington, DC. It was Joseph Hannen who served as a note-taker for many of the talks of 'Abdu'l-Bahá during His tour in the United States. A number of the entries in Promulgation of Universal Peace are accredited to him. [The Washington Times28 January, 1928] Washington DC; United States Joseph Hannen; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Births and deaths
    1920 24 May Charles Greenleaf, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, passes away at the home of William Harry Randall in Boston. [SBR105]
    • For details of his life see SBR97-105.
    • For his obituary see SW11, 19:321-2.
    Boston; Massachusetts; United States Charles Greenleaf; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; William Harry Randall; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1920 Dec The passing of Hájí Mírzá Haydar-Alí Isfaháni known as 'the Angel of Mount Carmel' in Haifa. He is buried in the Bahá'í Cemetery on Mount Carmel.
    • For the story of his life see RB2:438–50.
    • His autobiography was published as Stories from the Delight of Hearts - The Memoirs of Hají Mírzá Haydar-Alí, was translated by A Q Faizi and published by Kalimat in 1980.
    • Acting on the request of 'Abdu'l-Bahá he wrote Bahá'í Martyrdoms in Persia in the Year 1903 AD. It covers the events from March to September and was published in English as a 28-page book in 1904 and 1917.
    Haifa Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali; Births and deaths
    1920 27 Dec Hájí Mírzá Haydar-`Alí, the `Angel of Carmel' passes away in Haifa. [BBD98; EB250]
    • For his biography see EB237-50 and Stories from The Delight of Hearts: The Memoirs of Hájí Mirzá Háydar-'Alí].
    Haifa Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali; Births and deaths
    1921 (in the year) The birth of Eduardo Duarte Vieira, the first African Bahá'í martyr, is born in Portuguese Guinea. Portuguese Guinea (Guinea Bissau); Guinea Bissau Eduardo Duarte Vieira; Births and deaths
    1922 9 Jan William H. Hoar, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, passes away in Fanwood, New Jersey. [SW12, 19:310]
    • For his obituary see SW12, 19:310-12.
    Fanwood; New Jersey; United States William Hoar; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1924 in the year The passing of Mírzá Mahmúd-i-Zarqání (b. c1875).

    He was 'Abdu'l-Bahá's secretary on his western trip and is the author of Mahmud's Diary. In his youth he travelled and taught around Iran and from 1903 he began travelling to and in India, learning Urdu. He also made a pilgrimage to Haifa where he transcribed Tablets and from there accompanied 'Abdu'l-Bahá on His journey to Europe and to America. [Ahmad Sohrab's Diary Edinburgh p.5]

    Mirza Mahmud-i-Zarqani; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Mahmuds Diary; Abdul-Baha, Travels of
    1925 22 Nov John Esslemont, Hand of the Cause of God, Disciple of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, passes away in Haifa. [BW3p84-85, BBD81, SETPE1p108-110]
    • For letters of Shoghi Effendi announcing his death and giving details of his life and funeral see BA97–8 and UD40–3.
    • For an obituary see BW1:133–6 and BW8:929–35.
    • He is buried next to the grave of Vakílu’d-Dawlih, the chief builder of the House of Worship at ‘Ishqábád. [DJEE37]
    • Shoghi Effendi elevates him to the station of Hand of the Cause of God on his death. The announcement is made on November 30th. [BA7-98; BWT3:333; DJEE40; PP92; UD403, MoCxxii
    • See also Moojan Momen, Dr John E. Esslemont (BPT UK 1975) and BW8p929-935 for "John Ebenezer Esslemont: His Life and Service" by Jesse E. Revell.
    Haifa Esslemont; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Vakilud-Dawlih; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Cemeteries and graves
    1926 24 Jun Enoch Olinga, future Hand of the Cause of God, is born in Abaango, Uganda. Abaango; Uganda Enoch Olinga; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1926 26 Dec Howard MacNutt, Disciple of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, passes away in Florida after being struck by a motorcycle while walking. (b. 13 July, 1858 in Philadelphia) He had been a student of Ibrahim George Kheiralla in New York and had learned both Persian and Arabic to better understand the Writings. Howard MacNutt was elected to the Bahá’í Board of Counsel for New York when it was established on December 7, 1900 and served on the body for many years. [SEBW42]
    • In 1905 Howard and his wife went on pilgrimage and attended a Nineteen Day Feast held by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, Who encouraged him to establish the practice in America. MacNutt consulted with the New York Board of Counsel after returning and a Feast was held in New York on May 23, 1905.
    • Howard wrote a booklet consisting of what he learnt while on Pilgrimage titled Unity Through Love.
    • MacNutt also edited Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl's Bahá'í Proofs before it was first published in 1902 and revised Ali Kuli Khan's manuscript translation of the Kitáb-i-Íqán for publication in 1904.
    • He held a belief that `Abdu'l-Bahá had no extraordinary spiritual station and he did not regard Him as being different in Spirit from other men, that through works and service and overcoming all He attained to His station. This opinion resulted in MacNutt failing to appreciate the Bahá'í teaching that Covenant-breaking is a spiritual disease. When `Abdu'l-Bahá came to the United States in 1912 He assigned to MacNutt the task of meeting with a group of potential Covenant-breakers in Chicago and warning them. He also ordered MacNutt to break all communication with Ibrahim Kheiralla and other Covenant-breakers. When MacNutt failed to do as directed, `Abdu'l-Bahá advised him that he had violated the Covenant himself and commanded him to repent before a group of New York Bahá'ís, which he did on 18 November 1912. The matter was not resolved; `Abdu'l-Bahá cabled Ali Kuli Khan on 16 April 1913, "MACNUTT REPENTED FROM VIOLATION OF COVENANT BUT WAS NOT AWAKENED." After several months of correspondence between MacNutt and `Abdu'l-Bahá via Ali Kuli Khan, MacNutt satisfied `Abdu'l-Bahá that he had come to understand and had repented for his earlier errors. Even though `Abdu'l-Bahá recognized MacNutt as a Bahá'í his reputation in the Bahá'í community remained tarnished. To redeem himself he took on the task of compiling `Abdu'l-Bahá's talks in the United States and Canada and editing them. It was published as The Promulgation of Universal Peace, the name chosen by 'Abdu'l-Bahá himself, in 1922. MacNutt's preface contains a long and important statement about `Abdu'l-Bahá's station. His redemption was complete. [PUPxx]
    • For further details of his life and his brush with Covenant-breaking see SEBW35–42. Also see "In Memoriam: Arthur Pillsbury Dodge, 1849-1915", SoW, Vol. 6, No. 19 (2 March 1916) p165 as well as BFA1p125, 168-17, DJT369-372, AOY111-126
    • See BW2p218 for a photo.
    .
    Dade City; Pasco County; Florida; United States Howard MacNutt; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Promulgation of Universal Peace (book)
    1928 The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Mírzá 'Alí-Muhammad, known as Ibn-i-Asdaq. He was born in Mashhad in 1850/1.
  • His father was Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas-i-Khursúní, referred to as a Hand of the Cause of God by 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [EM19] While still a child he suffered imprisonment with his father in Tehran.
  • He begged Bahá’u’lláh permission to be a martyr. Baha’u’llah said that if one lived right he might attain martyrdom. In 1882 Baha’u’llah conferred the station of martyr on him calling him “Shahid Ibn-i-Shahid” (“Martyr, son of the Martyr”) .”
  • He is the first of the Hands of the Cause of God named by Bahá’u’lláh.
  • ‘Abdu’l-Bahá gave him a special mission to teach members of the “ruling class” the Faith.
  • He was deeply involved in the planning and construction of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár in ‘Ishqábád.
  • Ibn-i-Asdaq, Mírzá ‘Alí-Muhammad, Hand of the Cause of God, Apostle of Bahá’u’lláh, passes away in Tihrán. [BBD115, EM176, LoF9-12, RoB4p286]
  • For details of his life see EB171–6.
  • Tihran; Mashhad; Iran In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Apostles of Bahaullah; Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mirza Ali-Muhammad); Apostles of Bahaullah; Mulla Sadiq-i- Muqaddas-i-Khursuni; Names and titles; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad
    1928 27 May Hájí Amín, Abu’l-Hasan-i-Ardikání, Hand of the Cause of God and Apostle of Bahá’u’lláh, passes away in Tihrán. [BBD7; EB263]
    • For his biography see EB263.
    • He is named a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously by Shoghi Effendi. [BBD7; EB263]
    • See BBD7 for a picture and an account of his life.
    Tihran; Iran Haji Amin (Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani); Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; In Memoriam; Apostles of Bahaullah
    1929 11 Feb William ‘Harry’ Randall, Disciple of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, dies.
    • For Shoghi Effendi’s obituary of him see BW3:213.
    William Harry Randall; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Births and deaths
    1930 19 Aug Louis Jean-Baptiste Bourgeois, designer of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár in Wilmette, passes away in that city. He was born in Saint-Célestin-de-Nicolet, Quebec on March 19, 1856. [DP145]
    • For details of his life see DP76–86.
    Wilmette; United States Louis Bourgeois; Architects; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1930 17 Nov Ethel Rosenberg, (b.6 August, 1858, Bath) Disciple of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, ‘England’s outstanding Bahá’í pioneer worker’, passes away in London. [BW4:118–19; ER274–5]

    She became a Bahá’í around 1899 and went on her first pilgrimage in 1901. While ‘Abdu’l-Bahá was in London, Ethel Rosenberg was His social secretary, arranging appointments for the Master. ‘Abdu’l-Bahá asked Ethel Rosenberg and a number of other people to form a committee to decide what to do about collecting funds and publishing Bahá’í books. Their first published book was ‘Abdu’l-Bahá in London. She made her third pilgrimage in November 1921, but arrived just after ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s passing. Shoghi Effendi sent her home with instructions to call for the election the first National Spiritual Assembly of England. She served on this body for a number of years. Shoghi Effendi named her an ‘Apostle of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’. [In the Footsteps of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá p9]

    London; United Kingdom Ethel Rosenberg; In Memoriam; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Births and deaths
    1931 13 Jan Consul Albert Schwarz, Disciple of Abdu’l-Bahá, ‘Germany’s outstanding Bahá’í pioneer worker’ passes away. [BW4:118–19, 264]
    • For his obituary see BW4:264–6.
    Consuls; Albert Schwarz; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1933 23 Oct Keith Ransom-Kehler dies of smallpox in Isfahán. [BW5:24, 398]
    • For her obituary see BW5:389–410.
    • She is buried near the grave of the King of Martyrs. [BW5:398]
    • For a picture of her grave see BW5:399.
    • Shoghi Effendi names her America’s ‘first and distinguished martyr’. [BW5:398]
    • Shoghi Effendi elevates her to the rank of Hand of the Cause on 28 October, 1933. [BW5:398, MoCxxii]
    • For her mission in Iran see BW5:23–7.
    • See also PP306–7.
    • See Other People Other Places by Marzieh Gail (pages 176-181) for a pen portrait of Keith Ransom-Kehler .
    Isfahan; Iran Keith Ransom-Kehler; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Cemeteries and graves; Names and titles; Firsts, Other
    1938 to 1955 The fourth Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh was Jináb-i-Valíyu'lláh Varqá, the third son of Varqá the martyr. He was born in Tabriz and after the death of his father and brother he was raised by his grandmother, a fanatical Muslim. At the age of 16 his uncle removed him from the home and taught him the Faith. He attended the American University at Beirut and spent summers with 'Abdu'l-Bahá and accompanied the Master to America and served as His interpreter. He returned to Iran where he served on local and national assemblies and was made a Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh in 1938 at a time when the observance of the law spread throughout Iran. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]

    He was elevated to a Hand of the Cause of God in 1951 and passed away in Tubingen, Germany in 1955 while taking a treatment for an illness. [BW13p831-834]

    Tubingen; Germany; Tabriz; Iran; Beirut; Lebanon; Akka Varqa, Valiyullah; Huququllah; Huququllah, Trustees of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; American University at Beirut; Varqa
    1938 25 Jul The passing of Queen Marie of Romania. [BBD144; GPB395]
    • For her services to the Bahá’í Faith see GPB389–96.
    • For tributes paid by her to the Bahá’í Faith see BW8:269–71.
    • For her relationship with the Bahá’í Faith see BW8:271–6.
    • For tributes to her see BW8276–82.
    Romania Queen Marie of Romania; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1939 28 Sep Martha Root, ‘foremost Hand raised by Bahá’u’lláh’, passes away in Honolulu. (b. 10 August,1872 Richwood Union County Ohio, USA) [BBD198–9; GPB388; MRHK486; PP105]
    • Photos of her gravesite 1, 2 and 3. Directions to the gravesite.
    • For Shoghi Effendi’s tribute to her see GPB386–9.
    • On the 2nd of October Shoghi Effendi announced her appointment to the rank of Hand of the Cause of God. [MoCxxii]
    • Shoghi Effendi calls her the ‘archetype of Bahá’í itinerant teachers’, the ‘foremost Hand raised by Bahá’u’lláh since ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s passing’, ‘Leading ambassadress of His Faith’ and ‘Pride of Bahá’í teachers’. [GPB386]
    • From the Guardian...her "acts shed imperishable lustre American Bahá'í Community". [PP106]
    • For her obituary see BW8:643–8.
    • She is buried in the Nuuanu Cemetery, Honolulu.
    • See also Garis, Martha Root: Lioness at the Threshold and Martha Root: Herald of The Kingdom.
    • See Other People Other Places by Marzieh Gail (pages 170-175) for a pen-portrait of Martha Root.
    • She was designated a Hand of the Cause of God on the 3rd of October, 1954
    Honolulu; Hawaii Martha Root; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Cemeteries and graves; In Memoriam
    1940 1 Mar May Bolles Maxwell passes away in Buenos Aires. [BBD153; BW8:631 TG49]
    • Shoghi Effendi awards her the honour of a ‘martyr’s death’ and a Disciple of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [BW8:631; MA38]
    • She was the first Bahá'í on European soil and the "mother" of both the French and the Canadian Bahá'í communities. [PP149]
    • For the story of her life see BW17:437–8.
    • Shoghi Effendi asks her husband, Sutherland Maxwell, to design her tomb, which is to be a ‘historic centre’ for ‘pioneer Bahá’í activity’. [BW8:642]
    • For an account of the erection of the monument to her see PSBW83–6.
    Buenos Aires; Argentina May Maxwell (Bolles); Births and deaths; Names and titles; Sutherland Maxwell; Architecture; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; First Bahais by country or area
    1941 17 Feb John Henry Hyde Dunn, passes away in Sydney. [BW9:595; SBR166]
    • Shortly after his passing Shoghi Effendi appoints him to the rank of Hand of the Cause of God. (26 April, 1952) [MoCxxii]
    • For the story of his life see SBR153–68.
    • For his obituary see BW9:593–7.
    Sydney; Australia John Henry Hyde Dunn; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi
    1942 25 May ‘Abdu’l-Jalíl Bey Sa‘ad passes away and is named a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously. [BW9:597]
    • For his obituary see BW9:597–9.
    • On the day of his passing Shoghi Effendi announced his appointment to the rank of Hand of the Cause of God. [MoCxxii]
    Abdul-Jalil Bey Saad; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; In Memoriam
    1942 25 Jun The passing of 'Abdu'l-Jalíl Bey Sa'ad who was, for many years, the president of the National Spiritual Assembly and a judge in the Civil Courts in Egypt. Through his sustained effort the Declaration of Trust was recognized as valid and legalized in 1934.
    • He made an important contribution in translating into Arabic. Among his accomplishments were The Dawn-Breakers, Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era, Laws of Personal Status and Rules of Procedure.
    • In 1941 he employed the Declaration of Trust as an instrument to induce the Ministry of Civil Defence to grant permission to build the Hazíratu'l-Quds in Cairo. While supervising this project in the intense heat he fell ill and died suddenly after an operation.
    • Shoghi Effendi appointed him to the rank of Hand of the Cause of God on the day of his passing. [MoC597-599]
    Egypt Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Abdul Jalil Bey Saad; Declaration of Trust; Haziratul-Quds; Dawn-Breakers (book); Esslemont; Arabic language; Translation
    1945 13 Mar Siyyid Mustafá Rúmí passes away at the age of 99, in Burma. [BW10:519; PH23]
    • He is named a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously. [BW10:519]
    • For his obituary see BW10:517–20.
    • For Shoghi Effendi’s tribute see BW10:519–20 and DND215.
    Myanmar (Burma) Siyyid Mustafa Rumi; Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1946 11 Aug The passing of Orcella Rexford in Los Angeles. She is buried near the grave of Thornton Chase in the Inglewood Park Cemetery. [BW11p495-498] Los Angeles; United States Orcella Rexford; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves; Thornton Chase
    1946 13 Dec The passing of Muhamman Taqí Isfahání. He had been born in Persia and was horrified by the behaviour of Mullá Huhammad Báqir (The Wolf) and Imám-Jum'íh who killed the two brothers Muhammad Hasan and Muhammad Hasan so he left for Egypt and encounter many believers on his way. He passed through Akka and met both Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'-Bahá.
    • His name is closely associated with the early progress of the Faith in Egypt. His house was the centre of activity and was were both Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl and Lua Getsinger spent their last days. He received 'Abdu'l-Bahá during His visit to Egypt. He was the chief member of the Publishing Committee and helped to translate many books into Arabic such as the Iqán and Some Answered Questions.
    • The Guardian announced his elevation to the rank of Hand of the Cause of God two days after his passing and donated a sum of money to be used for his tomb. He is buried in the Bahá'í Cemetery. [MoCxxii, BW11p500-502]
    Egypt Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Hands of the Cause, Activities; In Memoriam; Muhamman Taqi Isfahani; Lua Getsinger; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Translation
    1946 13 Dec Muhammad Taqíy-i-Isfahání passes away in Egypt. He was born in Iran. [BW11:500]
    • Shoghi Effendi names him a Hand of the Cause of God posthumously. [BW11:502]
    • For his obituary see BW11:500–2.
    Egypt Muhammad Taqiy-i-Isfahani; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi
    1951 30 Jul Louis Gregory, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Eliot, Maine, near Green Acre. [BW12:666; TMW310, LOF98]
    • Soon after his passing he is designated by Shoghi Effendi the first Hand of the Cause of his race. (On 5 August, 1951) [BBD91; BW12:666, MoCxxii]
    • See TG114, 117-8 for a description of his passing .
    • For his obituary see BW12:666–70.
    • For biographical information on Hand of the Cause Louis Gregory see Gayle Morrison, To Move the World: Louis G. Gregory and the Advancement of Racial Unity in America (Wilmette, IL, USA Bahá’í Publishing Trust, 1982, 1999 printing).
    • For short biographical information see Bahá'í Encyclopedia]
    Eliot; Maine; United States Louis Gregory; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Firsts, Other
    1951 30 Nov Shoghi Effendi announces plans for the Great Jubilee commemorating the centenary of the birth of the Revelation of Bahá’u’lláh in the Síyáh-Chál. [BW12:24–6, 115–16; MBW16–18] Haifa Great Jubilee; Centenaries; Bahaullah, Birth of Revelation of
    1951 20 Dec Roy C. Wilhelm, (b.17 September, 1875) passes away in Lovel, Maine. [BW12:662]
    • On his passing Shoghi Effendi designates him a Hand of the Cause of God. (23 December, 1951) [MoCxxii, BW12:662]
    • For his obituary see BW12:662–4.
    • Find a grave
    Lovel; Maine; United States Roy Wilhelm; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi
    1952 26 Mar Sutherland Maxwell, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Montreal. (b.14 November, 1874) [DH143; MBW132; PP246]
    • For his obituary see BW12:657–62.
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
    • For his relationship with Shoghi Effendi and work on the superstructure of the Shrine of the Báb see PP236–43.
    • Shoghi Effendi names the southern door of the Báb’s tomb after him in memory of his services.
    • On June 16th, 1952, friends for the Montreal area gather at the grave to place, under the headstone, an alabaster box that had been sent by the Guardian. The box contains a piece of plaster taken from the walls of the prison in Máh-Kú where the Báb had been incarcerated in 1847. Another piece of plaster from the same source had been placed under the first golden tile of the dome of the Shrine of the Báb. The superstructure of the Shrine had been designed by Sutherland Maxwell. [TG55]
    Montreal; Canada Sutherland Maxwell; Architects; Fortress of Mah-Ku; Gifts; Relics; Bab, Shrine of; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1952 8 Oct Holy Year, "The Great Jubilee", October 1952 to October 1953, is inaugurated. [BW12:116; DG84; PP409–10; SBR170–1]
    • Centenary celebrations of the birth of Bahá’u’lláh’s mission are initiated. [MBW16–18]
    • Four international conferences are scheduled in Kampala, Wilmette (dedication of the Temple), Stockholm and New Delhi. [SETPE2p31-43]
    Kampala; Uganda; Wilmette; United States; Stockholm; Sweden; New Delhi; India Great Jubilee; Holy Years; Centenaries; Bahaullah, Birth of Revelation of; Siyah Chal (Black Pit)
    1952 12 Nov Dagmar Dole, pioneer to Alaska and Denmark, passes away in Glion, Switzerland.
    • Shoghi Effendi says she is the ‘first to give her life for the Cause in the European project’. [BW12:702; ZK66–7]
    • For her obituary see BW12:701–2.
    Glion; Switzerland; Alaska; United States; Denmark Dagmar Dole; In memoriam; Births and deaths
    1953 27 Jul Siegfried (Fred) Schopflocher, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Montreal and is buried beside the grave of Sutherland Maxwell in Mount Royal Cemetery. He was born in Germany in 1877. [BW12:664-666, LOF390, TG119, CBNS 24 July 2014, Bahá'í Chronicles, SCRIBD, Schopflocher, Siegfried (1877–1953) by Will C. van den Hoonaard]
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
    • See TG32, 228 for a short biography.
    • See Schopflocher, Siegfried by Will C. van den Hoonaard.
    • For his obituary see BW12:664–6.
    • He was known as the “Temple Builder” because of his great contributions to the completion of the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár of the West. [BW12:664-666]
    Montreal; Canada Siegfried Schopflocher; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Second Contingent; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
    1953 2 Aug Fred Schechter, an American, arrives in Djibouti and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for French Somaliland. [BW13:451]
    • Mr Schechter went on to pioneer to several Latin American countries, he spent thirteen year on the Continental Board of Councillors for the Americas and served on the International Teaching Centre. He passed away on 27 January 2017 in California, U.S.A. He was 89 years old. [BWNS1149]
    French Somaliland (Djibouti); Djibouti Fred Schechter; Knights of Bahaullah; Counsellors; International Teaching Centre, Members of; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; BWNS
    1954 10 Jan Dorothy Baker, (b.21 December, 1898) Hand of the Cause of God, dies in a plane crash in the Mediterranean Sea, near the island of Elba. [BW12:670]
    • For the Guardian’s cable see BW12:670, CF161.
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed her among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
    • For her obituary see BW12:670–4.
    • See also Freeman, From Copper To Gold.
    • See TG229 for a short story about her and a comment from her on the Long Obligatory Prayer.
    • See Remembering Dorthy Baker at Bahá'í Blog.
    Mediterranean Sea; Elba; Italy Dorothy Baker; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent; Obligatory prayer, Long
    1955 12 Nov Hand of the Cause of God Valíyu’lláh Varqá passes away in Stuttgart.
    • For his obituary see BW13:831–834.
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
    Stuttgart; Germany Varqa, Valiyullah; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Varqa
    1956 25 Feb Husayn Uskuli, (b. 1875) long-time pioneer to Shanghai from ‘Ishqábád, passes away in Shanghai at the age of 82 and is buried in the Kiangwan Cemetery in Shanghai. [PH29, BW13p871-873]
    • He heard about the Faith at the age of 18 from Mírzá Haydar-'Alí. After his marriage he moved to 'Ishqábád where he was very active in the community. After his move to Shanghai his home was the centre of activity and hospitality for all those passing through. He was the only foreign-born Bahá'í to remain in China after the regime change. The xenophobic attitude of the government precluded any meaningful contact with the local citizenry.
    • He was survived by four daughters and a son.
    Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Shanghai; China Husayn Uskuli; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1956 20 May Louisa Mathew Gregory, whose wedding to Hand of the Cause of God Louis Gregory in 1912 was the first interracial western Bahá’í marriage, passes away in Eliot, Maine. [BW13:878]
    • For her obituary see BW13:376–8.
    Eliot; Maine; United States Louisa Mathew Gregory; Louis Gregory; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Firsts, Other
    1957 25 Mar Hand of the Cause of God George Townshend passes away in Dublin, Ireland. (b.14 June, 1896) [BBD226, BW02-03p169]
    • For his obituary see BW13:841–846.
    • See also David Hofman's biography, George Townshend.
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
    • /ul>
    Dublin; Ireland Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; George Townshend; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent
    1960 12 Jul Horace Hotchkiss Holley, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Haifa. (b. 7 April, 1887 in Torrington, CT) [MC226-227, BW13:849]
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
    • For his obituary see BW13:849–858.
    • For cable from the Hands of the Cause see MC217–18.
    • See also SBR214-247, LoF253-264 and Holley, Horace Hotchkiss by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram.
    • His publications Bahaism: The Modern Social Religion, Religion for Mankind, World Unity, Bahai, The Spirit of the Age, Baha'i Scriptures; Selections from the Utterances of Bahaʼuʼllah and Abdul Baha, Read-aloud Plays, Divinations and Creation, The World Economy of Baháʼuʼlláh, The Inner Garden; A Book of Verse .
    Haifa; Torrington; CT Horace Holley; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent; Bahai Scriptures (book); Read-aloud Plays; Plays
    1960 18 Nov Clara Dunn, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Sydney. (b.12 May 1869) [BW13:859; MC245]
    • For her obituary see BW13:859–62.
    • For cable from the Hands see MC245.
    • See also SBR153–75.
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed her among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
    Sydney; Australia Clara Dunn; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Second Contingent
    1961 3 Apr Corinne True, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Chicago. [BW13:846]
    • For her obituary see BW13:846–9.
    • For cables from the Custodians see MC257.
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed her among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
    • See also Rutstein, Corinne True.
    Chicago; United States Corinne True; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Second Contingent
    1962 1 Jan Amelia Collins passes away in Haifa. (b. 7 June, 1873) [BW13:399, 840; MC12]
    • For her obituary see BW13:834–41.
    • Shoghi Effendi appoints her (publicly) among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
    • For the cable of the Hands of the Cause see MC333.
    • See also Faizí, Milly ,"The Fulfilled hope of 'Abdu'l-Bahá" by Richard Francis and PSBW73–106.
    • For a timeline of her life see Shareable Bahá'í Resources
    • While serving in Haifa she was given 'Abdu'l-Bahá's room. She was the last person to occupy it. [TG231]
    Haifa Amelia Collins; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent; In Memoriam
    1965 22 Jul Leroy Ioas, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Haifa. (b.15 February, 1986) [BW14:291-300, VV7]
    • For his obituary see BW14:291–300.
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
    • For cable of the Universal House of Justice see WG157.
    Haifa Leroy Ioas; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent
    1966 7 Apr The passing of Ali Kuli Khan in Washington, DC. [BW14p351] Washington DC; United States Ali-Kuli Khan; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1966 14 Apr Jessie Revell, formerly a member of the International Bahá’í Council, passes away in Haifa. [BW14:300]
    • For her obituary see BW14:300–3.
    Haifa Jessie Revell; Births and deaths
    1967. 25 Dec The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Charles Dunning (b.27 March, 1885 need Leeds). [BW14p305-308] Cardiff; Wales; United Kingdom Knights of Bahaullah; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1968 1 or 2 Jan The passing of Euphemia (Effie) Eleanor Baker (b.25 March 1880 at Goldsborough, Victoria) in Waverley, New South Wales.
    • For Effie Baker's obituary see BW14:320-1.
    • She became a Bahá'í in 1922 after attending a lecture by Clara and Hyde Dunn in Melbourne. She was the first woman to converted to the Faith in Australia.
    • She served in Haifa from 1925 to 1936. See SETPE1p105-107 for her contribution during that period.
    • In the 1930s Effie Baker travelled to Persia to take photographs of historical sites. Many of these photographs were included in The Dawnbreakers. [BW14:320]
    • She was buried in the Bahá'í Cemetery in Mona Vale. [Australian Dictionary of Biography]
    Waverly; New South Wales; Australia Effie Baker; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1968 7 Jul The passing of Hand of the Cause Hermann Grossmann in Neckargemünd, near Heidelberg, (b.16 February, 1899) [BW15p416-421]
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
    • For his biography see Herman Grossmann: Hand of the Cause of God, A Life for the Faith by Susanne Pfaff-Grossmann.
    Neckargemund; Germany In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent; Herman Grossmann
    1968 7 Jul Hermann Grossman, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Germany. [BW15:416]
    • For his obituary see BW15:416–21.
    • For cable of the Universal House of Justice see BW15:416 and WG157–8.
    Germany Herman Grossmann; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam
    1968 10 Aug Dr Lutfu’lláh Hakím, former member of the Universal House of Justice, passes away in Haifa. [BW15:434]
    • For his obituary see BW15:430–4.
    • For cable of the Universal House of Justice see BW15:434 and WG158.
    Haifa Lutfullah Hakim; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1968 2 Sep Tarázu’lláh Samandarí, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Haifa. (b.1874 in Qazvin, Persia)
    • For his obituary see BW15p410-416.
    • For cable of the Universal House of Justice see BW15:416 and WG158–9.
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
    Haifa Tarazullah Samandari; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam
    1970 The passing of Florence Evaline (Lorol) Schopflocher in Montreal (b.1886)
    • Wife of Hand of the Cause of God Siegfried Schopflocher. For his "In Memoriam" see BW7p664.
    • She circled the globe nine times on travel teaching tours and visited some 86 countries, many of them multiple times. She travelled to Iran twice visiting parts not previously visited by Western Bahá'ís.
    • She visited the Guardian 11 times.
    • She had several audiences with King Feisal in Iraq and discussed the question of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád with him.
    • Favourite themes for her public talks were the World Order letters of Shoghi Effendi and the emancipation and education of women.
    • She is interred in the Mount Royal Cemetery in Montreal. A radiant star went from the West to the East. [BW15p488-489
    • Find a grave
    Montreal; Quebec; Canada Lorol Schopflocher; Siegfried Schopflocher; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
    1970. 20 Feb The passing of Curtis Demude Kelsey (b. 6 March, 1894 in Salt Lake City, UT) in Bradenton, FL.
    • He became a Bahá'í in 1917 through the influence of his mother, a talented poetess and writer who learned of the Faith in 1909.
    • Roy Wilhelm had sent three generators to the Holy Land and had asked permission from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to have Curtis come and install them. His request was granted and Curtis spent from September, 1921 until April, 1922 in the Holy Land. The units were installed at the Shrine of the Báb, (See SETPE1p38) at Bahjí (See SETPE1p55) and at the home of 'Abdu'l-Bahá at #7 Haparsin Street and the work was completed at all three locations on the last day of Ridván, 1922.
    • On the 6th of August, 1928 he married Harriet Morgan Kelsey (d. 18 March, 1971), a gifted musician and the a teacher. They raised four children.
    • In 1953 while on pilgrimage Shoghi Effendi asked him to extend his stay to install a pump and watering system for the grounds at Bahjí.
    • He served on the Spiritual Assembly of West Englewood (now Teaneck) for some 30 years.
    • Curtis spent some time serving as an Auxiliary Board Member and gave talks at summer schools.
    • He passed away while serving at his place of retirement in Bradenton Florida. [BW15p468-473]
    Bradenton; FL; United States Curtis Kelsey; Harriet Kelsey; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1971 1 Jan The passing of Agnes Baldwin Alexander, Hand of the Cause; “the daughter of the Kingdom”, and “the beloved maid-servant of the Blessed Perfection” (‘Abdu’l-Baha); the only Hand of the Cause mentioned in the Tablets of the Divine Plan; The first Baha’i to set foot on Hawaiian soil; the first Baha’i to settle in Japan; and the first Baha’i to teach the Faith in Korea passes away in Honolulu. (b. 21 July 1875) [BW15:423; VV8]
    • She was appointed a Hand of the Cause on the 27th of March, 1957 after the passing of Hand of the Cause of God George Townshend. [MoCxxiv]
    • For her obituary see BW15:423–30.
    • See Life of Agnes Alexander by Duane Troxel.
    Honolulu; Hawaii Agnes Alexander; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Firsts, Other
    1971 4 Sep Músá Banání, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Kampala, Uganda. (b.1886) [BW15:42; VV7]
    • For his obituary see BW15:421–423.
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
    Kampala; Uganda Musa Banani; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Second Contingent
    1972 6 Aug ‘Abdu’l-Hamíd Ishráq-Khávarí, Iranian scholar, author, translator and promoter of the Bahá’í Faith, passes away. [BW15:520]
    • For his obituary see BW15:518–20.
    Tihran; Iran Abdul-Hamid Ishraq-Khavari; In Memoriam; Birth and deaths
    1972 17 Dec The passing of Matthew Bullock (b. 11 September, 1881 in Dabney, North Carolina) in Detroit, Michigan.
    • He was a singer, a talented athlete, a football coach, a teacher, a soldier, a war hero, a civic leader, a church leader.
    • Lawyer-graduated from Harvard Law School in 1907.
    • Found the Faith in 1940 after many years of careful investigation.
    • Husband to Katherine Wright, (d. 1945), father to Matthew W. Bullock Jr (a judge) and Julia Gaddy (librarian).
    • Chairman of the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Boston.
    • Travel teacher to Haiti, Costa Rica, Mexico, Belgian Congo, Liberia.
    • Elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of the the United States in 1952.
    • Represented the NSA at the first Intercontinental Bahá'í Conference in Uganda, East and received permission to visit the Holy Land on pilgrimage prior to attending the Conference.
    • Became a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh in 1953 for Dutch West Indies when he and four other members of the NSA resigned to take up pioneer posts.
    • He received an honorary degree from Harvard in recognition of the lifetime of achievements.
    • He spent his last years in Detroit in the care of his daughter. [BW15p535-539]
    Dabney, NC; Detroit; United States In Memoriam; Matthew Bullock; Knights of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
    1973 5 Sep John Ferraby, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Cambridge, England. (b. 9 January,1914) [BW16:511, VV8]
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
    • For his obituary see BW16:511–12.
    Cambridge; United Kingdom John Ferraby; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Third Contingent
    1974 4 Feb The death of Charles Mason Remey, Hand of the Cause of God (1951-60) and subsequently a Covenant-breaker. in Florence, Italy. (b.15 May 1874) [Wikipedia]
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
    • He was declared a Covenant-breaker by the Hands of the Cause on the 26th of July, 1960.
    Florence; Italy Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Births and deaths
    1974 18 Aug Laura Clifford Dreyfus-Barney, compiler of Some Answered Questions, passes away in Paris. [BW16:296]
    • For her obituary see BW16:535–8.
    Paris; France Laura Clifford Barney; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1979 16 Sep Enoch Olinga—Hand of the Cause of God and Knight of Bahá’u’lláh—his wife and three of his children are murdered in Kampala, Uganda. (b.24 June, 1926) [BBD 172; BW18:633]
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
    • For his obituary see BW18:618–35.
    Kampala; Uganda Enoch Olinga; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Knights of Bahaullah; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Third Contingent; Persecution, Uganda
    1979 29 Dec Rahmatu’lláh Muhájir, Hand of the Cause of God and Knight of Bahá’u’lláh, passes away in Quito, Ecuador. (b. 1923) [BW18:486, 651]
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
    • For his obituary see BW18:651–9.
    • See also Muhájir, Dr Muhajir: Hand of the Cause of God, Knight of Bahá’u’lláh.
    Quito; Ecuador Rahmatullah Muhajir; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Knights of Bahaullah; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Third Contingent
    1980 12 Feb Hasan M. Balyuzi, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in London. (b. 7 September, 1908) [BW18:635; VV52]
    • For his obituary see BW18:635–51 and SBBR5:XI–XX.
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
    London; United Kingdom Hasan Balyuzi; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam
    1980 29 Jul Adelbert Mühlschlegel, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away at his pioneer post in Athens, Greece. (b.16 June 1897) [BW18:613; VV52]
    • For his obituary see BW18:611–13.
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
    Athens; Greece Adelbert Muhlschlegel; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam
    1980 20 Nov Abu’l-Qásim Faizí, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Haifa. (b.1906) [BW18:659; VV52] Haifa Abul-Qasim Faizi; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Third Contingent
    1982 3 Dec Paul Haney, Hand of the Cause of God, dies in Haifa in an automobile accident. [BW18:617; VV52]
    • He was appointed a Hand of the Cause of God on the 19th of March,1954 following the death of Hand of the Cause of God Dorothy Baker. [MoCxxiv}
    • For his obituary see BW18:613–18.
    Haifa Paul Haney; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Appointments
    1982 29 Dec The passing of Stanwood Cobb,(b. November 6 Newton, Massachusetts , 1881 – d. December 29, 1982) noted Bahá'í lecturer, educator and author at his home in Chevy Chase, Maryland at the age of 101 after 75 years of service to the Cause.
    • He was the author of some 30 books, numerous articles and was an editor of Star of the West until 1939 and co-editor of World Order. He founded Avalon Press in 1935 through which he published his works.
    • His first exposure to the Faith was at Green Acre. While serving as an college instructor in Constantinople he made a visit to 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Akka disguised as a Turk while He was still a prisoner. He met Him again in 1910 and while He was in Paris and the United States during His Western Travels.
    Chevy Chase; United States Stanwood Cobb; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1984 16 Nov Shu’á’u’lláh ‘Alá’í, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Scottsdale, Arizona. (b. 16 November 1889) [BW19:594; VV123]
    • BW19: 159 says this was 17 November.
    • For his obituary see BW19:593–5.
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
    Scottsdale; Arizona; United States Shuaullah Alai; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Second Contingent
    1986 13 Nov Zikrullah Khadem (Dhikru’lláh Khádem), Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Skokie, Illinois. (b.1904) [VV123; ZK151]
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
    • See also Khadem, Zikrullah Khadem: The Itinerant Hand of the Cause of God.
    Skokie; Illinois; United States Zikrullah Khadem; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Second Contingent
    1988 18 Dec H. Borrah Kavelin, former member of the first House of Justice, passes away in Albuquerque, New Mexico. [VV97] Albuquerque; New Mexico; United States H. Borrah Kavelin; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Births and deaths; In Memoriam
    1989 3 Jul The passing of Bobbie Cowan in Invermere, BC. [AC297] Invermere; British Columbia; Canada Bobbie Cowan; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1989 5 Jul Dr Ugo Giachery, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away while on a visit to Western Samoa. [BINS204:1; VV123]
    • For the cable of the Universal House of Justice see BINS204:1.
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
    Samoa Ugo Giachery; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent
    1990 22 Feb Jalál Kházeh, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Toronto. (b.1897) [BINS219:90]

    Note: VV123 says it was 20 February.

    • He was appointed a Hand of the Cause of God on the 6th of December, 1953 after the passing of Hand of the Cause of God Siegfried Schopflocher. [MoCxxiv]
    Toronto; Canada Jalal Khazeh; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Appointments
    1990 29 Sep The passing of Hand of the Cause of God H. Collis Featherstone in Katmandu, Nepal. He was born at Quorn, South Australia on May 5th, 1913. [BINS232:8, VV12, The Bahá'í Encyclopedia, Find a grave]
    • For his obituary see BW20p809-818.
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
    • See Bahá'í Recollections for an article complete with pictures by Narenda Pande about Mr. Featherstone last days and funeral.
    Kathmandu; Nepal; Quorn; South Australia Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Collis Featherstone; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Third Contingent
    1991 18 Jun The passing of Hand of the Cause of God, Knight of Bahá'u'lláh, John Aldham Robarts at Rawdon, Quebec. He was born in Waterloo, Ontario 2nd of November, 1901. [VV124]
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
    • Bahá’í World, Vol. 20, 1986-1992, “In Memoriam,” pp. 801-9.
    • For his obituary see BINS250:10.
    • For picture see VV124.
    • For the story of how he came to learn of the Faith see SBR137.
    Rawdon; Quebec Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Knights of Bahaullah; John Robarts; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1992 25 Mar William Sears, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Tucson, Arizona. (28 March, 1911) [BINS267; VV124]
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
    Tucson; Arizona; United States Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; William Sears; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Third Contingent
    1992 18 Jun The passing of Counsellor Isobel Sabri, member of the International Teaching Centre in England. She was born in California in 1924. Letter from the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada to all Local Spiritual Assemblies date the 16th of October 1992. [VV124] California; United States; United Kingdom Counsellors; Isobel Sabri; International Teaching Centre, Members of; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1993 6 Jan The passing of John Birks "Dizzy" Gillespie. His autobiography was entitled “To Be, or Not...to Bop". [VV141
    • See Bahá'í World 1994-95 pg251 for an article by Anne Boyles entitled "The Language of the Heart: Arts in the Bahá'í World Community" for mention of Dizzy Gillespie.
    Englewood; New Jersey; United States Dizzy Gillespie; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1993 15 Apr The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Stanley Bagley, (b.2 February, 1912). He had been a pioneer Belgium, France, Guadeloupe, Martinique, the United States as well as Sicily where he and his family received the Knighthood for their service. [BW93-94p319] United States In Memoriam; Stanley Bagley; Knights of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
    1993 16 Oct The passing of Marzieh Nabíl Carpenter Gail, the second child and eldest daughter of the first Persian-American marriage in the Bahá'í Faith between Persian diplomat Ali-Kuli Khan and Boston debutante Florence Breed. (b. 1 April, 1908) [BW1993-1994p320-321, Find a grave]
    • A translator (Arabic and Persian into English) and author. Poet Roger White would say of his friend: "She is the first lady of Bahá'í literature and I and many writers are indebted to her for leading the way."
    • translations include: The Seven Valleys and the Four Valleys (1945) and The Secret of Divine Civilization (1957) with her father; Memorials of the Faithful (1971); Selections from the Writings of 'Abdu'l-Bahá (1976) with a Committee at the Bahá'í World Centre; My Memories of Bahá'u'lláh (1982).
    • author of a dozen Bahá'í and non-Bahá'í books in addition to countless essays, articles, and short stories. Her remembrances of 'Abdu'l-Bahá are contained in The Sheltering Branch (1959), and those of His Exalted Sister in Khanum: The Greatest Holy Leaf (1981).
    • Many of her essays and pioneering stories are contained in Dawn Over Mount Hira (1976) and Other People, Other Places (1982). As well she wrote “Six Lessons in Islam” (1953), Summon Up Remembrance (1987), Arches of the Years (1991) and, “Bahá'í Glossary” (1955). [Bahá'í Studies Review, Vol6, 1996]
    San Francisco; United States Marzieh Gail; Ali-Kuli Khan; Florence Breed; Bahai scholars; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    2000 19 Jan The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum in Haifa. She was born in New York on 8 August 1910. [One CountryVol.11,Issue4, Mess86-01p699-700, 19 January, 2000]
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed her as a Hand of the Cause of God after the passing of her father, Hand of the Cause of God Sutherland Maxwell on the 26th of March, 1952. [MoCxxiv]
    Haifa Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths
    2000 17 Feb The passing of Mildred Mottahedeh in New York. She had been elected to the International Bahá’í Council, the first globally elected Bahá’í body and was the first Bahá'í International Community representative to the United Nations. She was born in Seabright, New Jersey, on 7 August 1908 and was 91. [One Country Jan-Mar 2000 Vol 11 Issue 4, TP705-706] New York; Seabright; New Jersey; United States International Bahai Council; Bahai International Community; Mildred Mottahedeh; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Firsts, Other
    2000 22 Aug The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Audrey Robarts (née FitzGerald) in her 96th year. She is buried with her husband, Hand of the Cause of God John Robarts, in the Ecumenical Cemetery in Rawdon who predeceased her on the 18th of June, 1991. Rawdon; Quebec; Canada Audrey Robarts; Knights of Bahaullah; Births and deaths; In Memoriam
    2001 13 Dec The passing of Giovanni (Gianni) Ballerio in Geneva at the age of 58 after a battle with cancer. He was 58.
    • He had been a representative of the Bahá'í International Community at the United Nations in Geneva and in New York since 1981. [One Country Vol.13 Issue 3]
    Geneva; Switzerland Giovanni (Gianni) Ballerio; Bahai International Community; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    2001 16 Dec The passing of Philip Hainsworth at the age of 82 in Sevenoaks, Kent, England. Shoghi Effendi had described him as "the spiritual Stanley of Africa". [BW01-02p304-305] Sevenoaks; Kent; United Kingdom; Africa Philip Hainsworth; Births and deaths
    2003 3 Mar The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Una Dean, née Townshend, in Edmonton, Canada. Una lived a full life of Bahá'í service. In 1946 she was the first Bahá'í in Dublin and was later a member of the first spiritual assembly. She also helped to form the first spiritual assembly in Liverpool. In October 1953 she was the first Bahá'i in Malta, a goal of the Ten Year Crusade. In 1954 she returned to Ireland to tend to her ailing father and to assist him in writing Christ and Bahá'u'lláh. After his passing in 1957 she moved to America, met and married her husband, Dick Dean, and moved to Edmonton where she served on the Local Assembly until 1987. [BW02-03p169] Edmonton; Alberta; Canada; Malta; Ireland; Liverpool; Dublin Una Dean; Una Townshend; Knights of Bahaullah; Births and deaths; In Memoriam
    2003 22 Aug The passing of Ruth Pringle in Ciudad, Costa Rica at the age of 83 after 5 decades of service to the Faith, 2 decades as on the Continental Board of Counsellors. [BWNS250, BW'03-‘04pg236] Ciudad Colon; Costa Rica Ruth Pringle; Counsellors; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; BWNS
    2003 26 Nov The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Ali Akbar Furútan in Haifa at the age of 98. [BWNS261, BW'03-‘04pg227]
    • Born in Sabzivar, Iran, on 29 April 1905.
    • Moved with his family to Ashgabat in what was then Russian Turkestan (now part of Turkmenistan), and, through his years of school and university, he took an active part in the work of the Baha'i communities of Ashgabat, Baku, Moscow, and other parts of Russia.
    • In 1930 expelled from the Soviet Union during the Stalinist persecution of religion and from that time on played an ever more significant role in the work and administration of the Iranian Baha'i community. [BW03-04p227-230]
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
    • For a tribute from the Universal House of Justice see message of 27 November, 2003.
    Haifa; Sabzivar; Iran; Ashgabat; Turkmenistan; Baku; Moscow Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Ali Akbar Furutan; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent; BWNS
    2004 2 Apr The passing of Ola Pawlowska in Newfoundland, Canada. Knight of Bahá'u'lláh for St. Pierre and Miquelon, translator of the Writings (into Polish), pioneer to Poland, Luxembourg and Congo (30 years), Auxiliary Board Member. [BW'03-‘04pg236, BWNS248] Newfoundland; Canada; St Pierre and Miquelon; Poland; Luxembourg; Congo Knights of Bahaullah; Ola Pawlowska; Births and deaths; BWNS
    2004 19 Apr The passing of Mr Aziz Ismayn Yazdi in Vancouver, Canada at the age of 94. Aziz Yazdi lived in Egypt, Syria, Iran, Iraq, Great Britain, Uganda, Kenya, Israel, and finally Canada. In 1968 he was appointed to the Continental Board of Counsellors in Central and East Africa and was an inaugural member of the International Teaching Centre in Haifa. [BWNS297, BW'03-‘04pg239] Vancouver; Canada; Egypt; Syria; Iran; Iraq; United Kingdom; Uganda; Kenya; Israel Aziz Ismayn Yazdi; Counsellors; International Teaching Centre, Members of; In memoriam; Births and deaths; BWNS
    2005 6 Sep The passing of former Universal House of Justice member David S. Ruhe near Newburg, New York. He served on the Universal House of Justice from 1968 to 1993. [BWNS388] Newburg; NY; United States David Ruhe; Universal House of Justice, Members of; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; BWNS
    2007 11 May The passing of His Highness Susuga Malietoa Tanumafili II, the Samoan head of state. He was one of the longest reigning monarchs in the world and had been head of state since independence from New Zealand in 1962. [BWNS543] Samoa Malietoa Tanumafili II of Western Samoa; In memoriam; Births and deaths; Bahai royalty; BWNS
    2007 24 May The passing of Hadi Rahmani-Shirazi in the United Kingdom.
    • pioneered to Afghanistan at the Guardian's behest
    • served on the National Spiritual Assembly and the Auxiliary Board in the Cradle of the Faith
    • served as the executive director of the Nawnahalan Company
    • among first appointed to institution of the Counsellors created by the Universal House of Justice in June 1968
    • relocated to the United Kingdom in the early 1980s
    • contributed greatly to the development of the Institution of Huququ'llah through his services as a Deputy. [UK BAHA'I NEWS EMAIL SERVICE message from the National Spiritual Assembly nsa@bahai.org.uk 24 May 2007]
    United Kingdom; Afghanistan; Iran Hadi Rahmani-Shirazi; Nawnahalan Company; Counsellors; Huququllah; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    2007. 1 Jun The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Jameson (Jamie) Bond (b. 6 November, 1917 Toronto, ON) in Duncan, BC. [SDSC262, 387-388, 406]
    • See Sole Desire Service Cause An Odyssey of Bahá'í Service: Gale and Jameson Bond by Don Brown for a biography.
    Toronto; Duncan; BC Jamie Bond; In Memoriam; Knights of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
    2007 22 Sep The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Dr. Ali-Muhammad Varqa at his home in Haifa. (b.1911) He was the last survivor of the 27 Hands of the Cause who were alive when Shoghi Effendi passed away in 1957. [BWNS579]
    • He had been appointed Hand of the Cause on the 15th of March, 1955 after the passing of his father Hand of the Cause of God Jináb-i-Valíyu'lláh Varqá, [MoVxxiv]
    Haifa Varqa, Ali-Muhammad; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Varqa; Hands of the Cause, Institution; Appointed arm; BWNS
    2009. 14 Apr The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Gale Bond, née Keass (b. 13 November, 1919 in Emod, Hungary) in Cowichan, BC. [SDSC397]
    • See Sole Desire Service Cause An Odyssey of Bahá'í Service: Gale and Jameson Bond by Don Brown for a biography.
    Emod; Hungary; Cowichan; BC Gale Bond; In Memoriam; Knights of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
    2010 27 Apr The passing of Dr Nossrat Peseschkian (b. 18 June, 1933 in Iran d. 27 April, 2010 in Wiesbaden, Germany). He came to Germany in 1954 for his studies in medicine at the universities of Freiburg, Frankfurt am Main and Mainz. After his medical specialization and his dissertation, he had his postgraduate training in psychotherapy in Germany, Switzerland, Austria and the United States. Prof. Peseschkian was the founder and leading figure in the growth and development of Positive Psychotherapy for almost 40 years. As an international lecturer, he had traveled to 67 countries worldwide. A global network of over 100 local, regional and national centers of Positive Psychotherapy has been established in 33 countries to date. Among his works is the book "Oriental Stories as Tools in Psychotherapy: The Merchant and the Parrot", which includes short stories from Persia and other countries that can be used in psychotherapy. [Wikipedia] Wiesbaden; Germany Nossrat Peseschkian; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Psychology; Stories; Persian literature
    2011 15 Jul The passing of former Universal House of Justice member Dr. Peter J. Khan in Brisbane, Australia. He served as a member of the Universal House of Justice from 1987 until April 2010. [BWNS840, BWNS841] BWC Peter Khan; Universal House of Justice; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; BWNS
    2011 1 Dec The passing of former Universal House of Justice member Mr. Ian C. Semple in Switzerland. He served as a member of the Universal House of Justice from 2005 to 2013. [BWNS871] Switzerland Ian Semple; Universal House of Justice, Members of; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; BWNS
    2012 20 Feb The passing of Anneliese Bopp, former Counsellor member of the International Teaching Centre at Bad Bruckenau, Northern Bavaria, Germany. [BWNS892] Bad Bruckenau; Germany Anneliese Bopp; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; International Teaching Centre; BWNS
    2013 13 Aug The passing of former Universal House of Justice member Mr. Hushmand Fatheazam in Vancouver, Canada. He served on the Universal House of Justice for forty years since 1963. [BWNS964] Vancouver; Canada Hushmand Fatheazam; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; BWNS
    2015 21 Mar The implementation of the Badí' Calendar on the first day of the ten Váhid of the first Kull-i-Shay’ of the Bahá’í Era.

    "Báb introduced the calendar and its broad pattern of periods and cycles, months and days. Bahá’u’lláh provided essential clarifications and additions. Aspects were elucidated by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, and arrangements for its adoption in the West were put in place at the direction of Shoghi Effendi, as described in the volumes of The Bahá’í World. Still, ambiguities surrounding some Islamic and Gregorian dates, as well as difficulties in the correlation of historical observances and astronomical events with explicit statements in the Text, left certain issues unresolved. When responding to questions concerning the calendar, both ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi left these matters to the Universal House of Justice. Of its many features, three require clarification for the calendar’s uniform application: the means for the determination of Naw-Rúz, the accommodation of the lunar character of the Twin Holy Birthdays within the solar year, and the fixing of the dates of the Holy Days within the Badí‘ calendar." [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 10 July, 2014] (notes below extracted from the message)

    The Festival of Naw-Rúz: The birthplace of the Abhá Beauty, will be the spot on the earth that will serve as the standard for determining, by means of astronomical computations from reliable sources, the moment of the vernal equinox in the northern hemisphere and thereby the day of Naw-Rúz for the Bahá’í world.

    The Festivals of the Twin Birthdays: They will now be observed on the first and the second day following the occurrence of the eighth new moon after Naw-Rúz. This will result in the observance of the Twin Birthdays moving, year to year, within the months of Mashíyyat, ‘Ilm, and Qudrat of the Badí‘ calendar, or from mid-October to mid-November according to the Gregorian calendar.

    The dates of the Holy Days are: Naw-Rúz, 1 Bahá; the Festival of Riḍván, 13 Jalál to 5 Jamál; the Declaration of the Báb, 8 ‘Aẓamat; the Ascension of Bahá’u’lláh, 13 ‘Aẓamat; the Martyrdom of the Báb, 17 Raḥmat; the Day of the Covenant, 4 Qawl; and the Ascension of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, 6 Qawl. These dates have been fixed within the solar calendar in accordance with explicit statements of Bahá’u’lláh, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, and Shoghi Effendi. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 10 July, 2014]

    Badi calendar; Bahaullah, Birth of; Bab, Birth of; Naw-Ruz; Holy days; Gradual implementation of laws; Laws
    2017 18 - 22 Oct The Iranian Baha’i community was targeted during the bicentenary period. Between 18 and 21 October, some 19 individuals were arrested in Kermanshah, Tehran, and Birjand, and the homes 25 Baha’is were raided. Twenty-six Baha’i-owned shops around the country were sealed off by authorities because the owners observed the Holy Day on 21 October. These closures occurred in Shiraz, Marvdasht, Gorgan, and Gonbad. [BWNS1215] Iran; Kermanshah; Tihran; Birjand; Shiraz; Marvdasht; Gorgan; Gonbad Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Bahaullah, Birth of; BWNS
    2017 20 - 22 Oct From the time of the setting of the sun on October 21st in Kiribati, an island republic in the Central Pacific just west of the International Date Line, until sunset in Hawaii on the 22nd of October, 72 hours later, celebrations were held in thousands of localities throughout the world commemorating the 200th anniversary of the birth of Bahá'u'lláh.

    Coverage on the bicentenary website began soon after 8:00 GMT on 20 October and concluded at 4:00 GMT on 23 October documenting some of the thousands of celebrations. [BWNS1201, BWNS1203, BWNS1205, BWNS1206, BWNS1207, BWNS1208, BWNS1209, BWNS1210, BWNS1211, BWNS1221, BWNS1213, BWNS1214, BWNS1216, BWNS1218]

    • A number of countries issue commemorative stamps to mark the occasion of the bicentenary of Bahá'u'lláh's birth.
    Worldwide Bahaullah, Birth of; Twin Holy days; Holy days; Centenaries; Websites; Internet; Publications; Stamps; BWNS
    2017 22 Oct The bicentenary of the birth of Bahá'u'lláh is commemorated around the world. A multi-lingual web page is implemented to track the celebrations. [BWNS1212] BWC Bahaullah, Birth of; Twin Holy days; Holy days; Bahaullah, Life of; Centenaries; BWNS
    2017 22 Oct Yemeni security forces raided a Baha’i gathering in Sana’a opening fire on the small group of people assembled to commemorate the bicentenary of the birth of Baha’u’llah. The attack occurred in the family home of prominent tribal leader Walid Ayyash, who had been abducted in April and whose whereabouts were unknown. The attackers were reportedly in four cars and an armored vehicle which they used to break down the front door of the house. They arrested Mr. Ayyash’s brother, Akram Ayyash.
    This event proved unequivocally the extent of Iran’s role in the persecution of the Baha’is in Yemen, especially in Sana’a, which is under the control of Iranian-backed militias. Similar attacks occurred in Iran during the period of celebration of the bicentennial of the birth of Bahá'úlláh. [BWNS1215]
    Sanaa; Yemen; Iran Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Bahaullah, Birth of; BWNS
    2017. 30 Nov Baha’is celebrated the bicentennial of the birth of Bahá'u'lláh in a ceremony in Baghdad attended by representatives from the Iraqi parliament, the Iraqi High Commission for Human Rights (IHCHR), the United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq, civil society as well as media activists. This is considered the most prominent ceremony where Baha’is officially announced themselves for the first time in 47 years, as the Baathist Revolutionary Command Council issued Decree No. 105 in 1970 to ban Baha’i activities. As a consequence, Baha’i administrative institutions in Iraq were dissolved and any activity where Baha’is declared their religious identity was punishable by imprisonment. During the proceedings they asked for support to rescind the law on prohibiting Baha’i activity, which is still in effect despite the fact that the law contradicts the 2005 constitution, which guarantees freedom of belief to all citizens. Millions of Baha’is around the world celebrated the honorary bicentennial of the birth of Baha'u'llah on Oct. 21-22. Baha’is in Baghdad celebrated after one month of postponements given the security difficulties and challenges surrounding the ceremony. [Al-Monitor.com] Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Birth of; Twin Holy days; Holy days; Centenaries; Websites; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    2017. 17 Dec The announcement by the Universal House of Justice of the passing of former House member Mr. Hartmut Grossmann.

    "...he poured out his life in uninterrupted service to the Cause of Bahá’u’lláh, as a teacher, pioneer, and member of the National Spiritual Assemblies of Germany (1963-1969) and Finland (1977-1980), the Continental Board of Counsellors in Europe, (1980-1988) the International Teaching Centre (1988-2003) and, ultimately, of the Universal House of Justice (2003-2008)." [BWNS1228]

    He was the son of Hand of the Cause of God Hermann Grossmann (1899-1968). He was predeceased by his wife Ursula. [BWNS622; Bahá'í Chronicles]

    Germany Hartmut Grossmann; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; BWNS

    from the main catalogue

    1. Answered Questions, Some, by Abdu'l-Baha (1990). [about]
    2. Answered Questions, Some, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2014). New 2014 translation (with a version side-by-side with the original). [about]
    3. Bab, Birth of, by Christopher Buck and J. Gordon Melton, in World Religions: Belief, Culture, and Controversy (2010). [about]
    4. Bab, Birth of, by Christopher Buck and J. Gordon Melton, in Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices, Vol. 1, ed. J. Gordon Melton & Martin Baumann (2010). [about]
    5. Báb, Festival of the Birth of the (October 20), by Christopher Buck and J. Gordon Melton, in Religious Celebrations: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations (2011). [about]
    6. Baha'u'llah, birth and ascension of, by J. Gordon Melton, in World Religions: Belief, Culture, and Controversy (2011). [about]
    7. Bahá'u'lláh, Birth/Ascension of, by Christopher Buck and J. Gordon Melton, in Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices, Vol. 1, ed. Gordon Melton & Martin Baumann (2010). [about]
    8. Bahá'u'lláh, Festival of the Birth of (November 12), by Christopher Buck and J. Gordon Melton, in Religious Celebrations: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations (2011). [about]
    9. Birth and Call of Jesus Christ: A Bahá'í-inspired retelling, by David Merrick (2010). The story of the birth of Jesus and his call to the world of humanity. [about]
    10. Birth and Childhood of Baha'u'llah, by David Merrick (2008). Childhood and Early Life of Baha'u'llah, told in plain English and suitable for reading aloud. [about]
    11. Birth and Childhood of the Bab, by David Merrick (2007). Childhood and Early Life of the Bab, told in plain English and suitable for reading aloud. [about]
    12. Christianity from a Bahá'í Perspective, by Robert Stockman (1998). Includes two topics: "A Baha'i approach to the Bible" and "Baha'i Writings on Jesus Christ." [about]
    13. Days of Remembrance: Selections from the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh for Bahá'í Holy Days, by Bahá'u'lláh (2017). Forty-five selections revealed for, or relating to, nine Bahá’í Holy Days. [about]
    14. Days of Remembrance: Selections, by Bahá'u'lláh (2015). Three English translations of short Tablets by Bahá’u’lláh from a forthcoming collection of Holy Writings called Days of Remembrance, about the nine Bahá'í holy days. [about]
    15. Episode in the Childhood of the Bab, An, by Stephen Lambden, in In Iran: Studies in Babi and Bahá'í History vol. 3, ed. Peter Smith (1986). Parallels legends of the Bab's early childhood with those of Jesus. [about]
    16. Internet Communications; Virgin Birth; Encyclopedia; Administrative Order, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Questions on email discussion groups and the Covenant, the Baha'i stance on the Virgin Birth of Christ, the spirituality of administrating, the spiritual destiny of the American Baha'i community, and the status of the Baha'i Encyclopedia. [about]
    17. Marking the Bicentenary of the Birth of Bahá'u'lláh, by Universal House of Justice (2017). Thoughts on the meaning of Baha'u'llah's life and current Baha'i activities, inspired by the 200th anniversary of his birth. [about]
    18. Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
    19. Messianic Concealment and Theophanic Disclosure, by Moojan Momen, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). [about]
    20. Regarding the implementation of the Badi` calendar, by Universal House of Justice (2014). Message to the Bahá’ís of the world on the updated calendar of Baha'i holy days. Includes a table of Bahá’í Dates 172 to 221 B.E., and a letter to an individual explaining the date of the astronomical new moon in Islamic and Baha'i calendars. [about]
    21. Tablet on the Birth of the Greatest Name II, by Bahá'u'lláh (1999). Tablet revealed in commemoration of Baha'u'llah's birthday (November 12, 1817). [about]
    22. Tablet on the Birth of the Greatest Name II, by Universal House of Justice (2004). Short letter about a tablet revealed in commemoration of Baha'u'llah's birthday. [about]
    23. Tablet Revealed by Bahá'u'lláh Commemorating His Birth, by Bahá'u'lláh (2016). A short tablet by Baha'u'llah in which he commemorates his birthday (November 12, 1817), proclaims the greatness of his cause, and exhorts all to turn to God and recognise his revelation. [about]
    24. Varqá, Ali-Mohammad, by Iraj Ayman, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2017). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
     
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