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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1819. 20 Oct Birth of Siyyid `Alí-Muhammad (The Báb), before dawn, in Shíráz. [B32; GH13; DB72]
  • The Primal Point (Nuqtiy-i-Úlá). [BBD185]
  • The Promised One of Islam, the Qá'im. [BBD188]
  • Siyyid-i-dhikr (Lord of Remembrance). [BBD212]
  • His mother is Fátimih-Bagum (Zajra Bagum). [B33, 46; KB20; RB2:382]
  • His father is Mírzá Muhammad Ridá. [BW4:234–5; LOG351; SE206; TN4]
  • He is a direct heir of the House of Háshim and descended thus from Muhammad and through Him from Abraham. [BW8:874]
  • Designations of the Báb include `Abdu'dh-dhikr (Servant of the Remembrance), Bábu'lláh (the Gate of God) and Hadrat-i-A`lá (His Holiness the Most Exalted One). [BBD1, 30, 93]
  • For biblical reference see LOG378. See RB1:304 for extracts from Shoghi Effendi re: His station.
  • See BBD39, GPB157–8 for a condensed history.
  • See B32 and TN4 for discussion of the date of His father's death.
  • See DB28–30. See DB75 for the extent of His schooling. See DB75 n1 for his education.
  • See B32 and TN4 for discussion of the date of His father's death.
Shiraz; Iran Bab, Life of; Bab, Familhy of; Fatimih Bagum; Zajra Bagum; Mirza Muhammad Rida; House of Hashim; - Basic timeline
1856 Mar During His absence Mírzá Musá rents a house in the Karkh district in the west of the city. The house is large, two or three stories, and is made of simple mud brick with a surrounding central courtyard. At some point before His departure on the 22nd of April, 1863, the house is purchased. He later names it "The Most Great House" and designates it a place of pilgrimage. It is also referred to as the "Throne of His Glory", and the "Lamp of Salvation between earth and heaven". [CEBF66]
  • After His departure the House was held in the names of various custodians and allowed to fall into disrepair. [CEBF66]
Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); Life of Bahaullah
1864 c. At some point during this period After years of imprisonment in Tehran, Àbdu'r '-Rasúl-Qumí visited Bahá'u'lláh in Adrianople then took up residence in Baghdad, caring for the garden of the House of Bahá'u'lláh. He was well-known to the Muslims and a target of their attacks. One morning as he was carrying skins of water from the Tigris River he was ambushed by a number of attackers and was mortally wounded. He managed to disperse the assailants, drag himself to the garden where he watered the flowers for the last time.

His name is mentioned in many Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh, consoling his family. His son was appointed caretaker of the pilgrims in 'Akká and he served in this capacity until the days of Shoghi Effendi. [FAA8]

Baghdad; Iraq; Edirne; Turkey House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); Abdur-Rasul-Qumi; Gardeners; Caretakers; Murders
1866. 10 Mar Bahá'u'lláh and His family withdraw from the house of Amru'lláh, the residence shared with the exiles, and go to the house of Ridá Big. [BKG230; GPB167; RB2:162]

  • He stays in this house for about one year. [GPB168]
  • See BKG235 for a description of the house of Ridá Big.

Bahá'u'lláh goes into isolation for two months. He orders that all of the family's goods should be divided. The companions are to choose between Himself and Azal. This has become known as the ‘Most Great Separation'. [BBRSM67; BKG230–2; GPB167–8; RB2:162]

  • See BKG231–2, GPB167 and RB2:163 for the effect of this.
  • See BBRSM59–60 for a description of Azal's leadership.
Edirne; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; House of Amrullah; Rida Big; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Most Great Separation
1866 10 Mar - c. Mar 1867 Bahá'u'lláh reveals numerous Tablets in the months that follow.

  • See GBP170–1 for a description of the number of verses revealed every day.
  • See BKG245 and GPB171 for list of Tablets revealed before Bahá'u'lláh's arrival in the house of ‘Izzat Áqá.
  • In addressing the Tablets to the Kings and the Queens of the earth Baha'u'lláh addressed them as "Servants of the Most High God and Guardians under Him of the people entrusted to their guidance" and called on them to join with Him in establishing an International Arbitration Council so that humanity should never again suffer the misery of war. His approach was now more direct, He claimed Divine authority and that He was the Chosen One, Whom, under various names, all the religions of the world were awaiting. [CH63]
Edirne; Turkey Bahaullah, Writings of; House of Izzat Aqa; Tablets to Kings and rulers; International Arbitration Council
1867. c. Mar Bahá'u'lláh moves back to the now empty house of Amru'lláh. [GPB168]
  • He stays for about three months. [GPB168]
  • BKG239 says that within six months of Bahá'u'lláh's return to the house the owner sold it.
Edirne; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Houses of; House of Amrullah
1867. c. Jun Bahá'u'lláh rents the house of ‘Izzat Áqá. [BKG239; GPB168]

  • See BKG241 for a description of this house.
Edirne; Turkey Bahaullah, Houses of; Bahaullah, Life of; House of Izzat Aqa; Houses
1867 Sep - Aug 1868 Nabíl-i-A‘zam is dispatched to Iraq and Iran to inform the Bábís of the advent of Bahá'u'lláh. He is further instructed to perform the rites of pilgrimage on Bahá'u'lláh's behalf in the House of the Báb and the Most Great House in Baghdad. [BKG250; EB224; GPB176–7]
  • For details of his mission see EB224–7.
  • On hearing Nabíl's message, the wife of the Báb, Khadíjih Khánum, immediately recognizes the station of Bahá'u'lláh. [EB225]
  • For the rites of the two pilgrimages performed by Nabíl see SA113–15. The first pilgrimages to the residence of Bahá'u'lláh take place. [GPB177]
Shiraz; Iran; Baghdad; Iraq Nabil-i-Azam; Pilgrimage; Khadijih Khanum; House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
1870 `Údí Khammár completes the restoration and expansion of the mansion at Bahjí originally built by `Abdu'lláh Páshá in 1821. [BBD42, 128; DH106-107]
  • See DH107 for the inscription he places over the door.
Akka Udi Khammar; Abdullah Pasha; Bahji; Inscriptionss; House of Bahaullah (Bahji)
1870. Oct Bahá'u'lláh is moved to the house of Malik in the Fákhúrah quarter, in the western part of `Akká. [BBRXXIX, 209; BKG315; GPB189; RB3:221]
  • Movements of troops required use of the barracks. [BKG315; RB3:221]
  • Bahá'u'lláh's occupation of this house lasts three months. BBR209–10; BKG315; GPB189]
  • This is four months after the death of the Purest Branch. [BKG315; GPB189; RB3:221]
House of Malik
1971 c. Jan Bahá'u'lláh is moved to the house of Khavvám, across the street from the house of Malik. [BBR209–10; BKG315; GPB189]
  • His occupation of this house lasts a few months. [BKG319]
House of Khavvám house of Khavvam
1871 c. May Bahá'u'lláh is transferred to the house of Rábi`ih. [GPB189]
  • His occupation of this house lasts four months. [BKG319; DH38–9]
Akka House of Rabiih; Bahaullah, Houses of
1871 mid-year `Údí Khammár, a wealthy Maronite Christian merchant, and his family move into the recently restored mansion at Bahjí, leaving their `Akká house empty. [BKG316–17; DH203] Bahji Udi Khammar; Bahji; House of Udi Khammar; Bahaullah, Houses of
1871. Sep Bahá'u'lláh is transferred to the house of `Údí Khammár in `Akká. [BBD109; BKG317; DH39, 203; GPB189]
  • The house is so small that 13 people of both sexes occupy one room. The remainder of Bahá'u'lláh's companions take up residence in other houses and the Khán-i-`Avámíd. [GBP189]
  • Bahá'u'lláh's occupation of this house lasts two years. [BKG319]
  • See BKG317 for the initial response of His neighbour, Ilyás `Abbúd.
  • See DH201–3 for a biography of `Údí Khammár.
Akka Bahaullah, Houses of; House of Udi Khammar; Udi Khammar; House of Abbud; Ilyas Abbud; Khan-i-Avamid
1872 Restoration of the House of the Báb begins at the request of Khadíjih Bigum. On its completion she takes up residence there. [EB232] Shiraz; Iran Khadijih Bagum; House of the Bab (Shiraz); Restoration
1872. 22 Jan Three Azalís, among them Siyyid Muhammad-i-Isfahání, the Antichrist of the Bahá'í Revelation, are murdered by seven Bahá'ís. [BBD163; BKG3256 DH41; GPB189; RB3:235]
  • Siyyid Muhammad Isfahání, Nasr’ulláh Tafríshí, Áqá Ján Ka’j Kuláh and Ridá Qulí these four kept vigil near the land gate to ensure no one would meet Bahá’u’lláh. They kept watch from the second story window of a building overlooking the land gate so that if a pilgrim, after spending some six months traveling on foot, intended to enter the city they could somehow prevent his entrance. This situation lasted for some time. After two years and a few months, Bahá’u’lláh was released from the prison. Some of the friends, including Salmání, decided to get rid of these enemies and during the night went to their place and killed Siyyid Muhammad, Áqá Ján and another person. [Sweet and Enchanting Stories, Aziz Rohani, P 31]
  • Bahá'u'lláh is taken to the Governorate where He is interrogated and imprisoned for 70 hours. [BKG327; GBP190; RB3:237]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá is thrown into prison and kept in chains the first night. Twenty–five of the companions were also imprisoned and shackled. [BKG328; GBP190; RB3:237]
  • See BKG331, GPB191 and RB3:238 for the effect of the murders on the local population.
  • Ilyás `Abbúd puts a barricade between his house and the house of `Údí Khammár, where Bahá'u'lláh lives. [BKG331; GPB191]
  • See BKG330, DH44 and RB3:239 for the fate of the murderers, who are imprisoned for seven years.
Akka Siyyid Muhammad-i-Isfahani; Ilyas Abbud; House of Abbud; House of Udi Khammar; Bahaullah, Houses of; Antichrist; Murders; Opposition; Azali Babis
1873. Early part Bahá'u'lláh completes the revelation of The Kitáb-i-Aqdas in the southeast corner room of the house of `Údí Khammár. [BBD132; BKG351; DH46; GPB213; RB3:275; SA248]
  • There is evidence to suggest that at least some of the work was written earlier as confirmed by the book's reference to the fall of Napoleon III in 1870 and there is further evidence to suggest that parts of The Kitáb-i-Aqdas were revealed as early as 1868. [SA16–17, 248]
  • For the significance of The Kitáb-i-Aqdas see BKG351–3, BW15:87–91, GPB213–15 and RB3:275–399.
  • For analyses of its significance, content and application, see RB3:275–399 and SA248–52.
  • The Law of the Huqúqu'lláh that had first been ordained by the Báb in the Persian Bayán, chapter 19 of unit 5, was reiterated in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, verses 227-233 and in the Questions and Answers.
  • At first Bahá'u'lláh declined to accept the Huqúq from the believers stating that the funds were not needed. [Huqúqu'lláh: The Right of God p9]
  • "After the Kitáb-i-Aqdas had been revealed in response to the pleas of the friends, Bahá’u’lláh withheld it from publication for some time and even then, when a number of devoted Bahá’ís, having learned of the law, endeavored to offer the Ḥuqúqu’lláh, the payment was not accepted. The Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh show His acute consciousness of the way in which material wealth has been permitted to degrade religion in the past, and He preferred the Faith to sacrifice all material benefits rather than to soil to the slightest degree its dignity and purity. Herein is a lesson for all Bahá’í institutions for all time." [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1987]
Akka Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Napoleon III; Huququllah; - Basic timeline; Laws (general); House of Udi Khammar; Charters
1873. c. Mar Ilyás `Abbúd offers to provide a room in his house for `Abdu'l-Bahá and Munírih Khánum after their marriage. He furnishes a room, opens a doorway into it through the dividing wall and presents it to Bahá'u'lláh for `Abdu'l-Bahá's use. [BKG348; DH45] Ilyas Abbud; House of Abbud; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Munirih Khanum
1873 Late in the year Bahá'u'lláh acquires the house of `Abbúd. It is joined to the house of `Údí Khammár to make one residence and Bahá'u'lláh moves to the side of the house previously occupied by `Abbúd. [BBD106, 109; BKG319; DH51]
  • He lives here for four years. [BBD106, 109; BKG319; DH51]
  • See BBD1 for information on Ilyás `Abbúd.
Akka Ilyas Abbud; House of Abbud; Bahaullah, Houses of
1879. Summer An epidemic of plague breaks out in `Akká and environs. Among others who feel its effects are `Údí Khammár and his family who leave the mansion at Bahjí. [BBD42, 128; BKG362; DH91, 203; GPB194] Akka; Bahji Udi Khammar; Bahaullah, Houses of; Bahji, Mansion
1886 In the year The death of the wife of Bahá'u'lláh, Ásíyih Khánum, entitled Navváb (the Most Exalted Leaf) in the House of `Abbúd. [BBD170; BKG369; DH57, 213]
  • See CB119–20 for comments on her nature and station and for Tablets revealed by Bahá'u'lláh in her honour.
  • After her passing Bahá'u'lláh reveals a Tablet for her in which He calls her his `perpetual consort in all the worlds of God'. [GPB108]
  • See CB120–1 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's commentary on Isaiah 54, which refers to Navváb.
  • She is interred in the Bahá'í section of the Muslim cemetery. [BBD170; DH57, 81]
  • Muhammad-Yúsuf Páshá demands that `Abdu'l-Bahá vacate the house of `Abbúd even during Navváb's illness. [BKG369]
House of `Abbud Navvab (Asiyih Khanum); Muhammad-Yusuf Pasha; Ibn-i-Abhar (Mulla Muhammad Taqi)
1890. Apr Bahá'u'lláh visits Haifa for a third time. He spent about two weeks there on this visit. [BBD94; BPP173; DH109; GPB194; RB4:351]
  • He first stays near Bayt-i-Zahlán, near the town. [BKG374]
  • He then moves to Oliphant House in the German colony. His tent is pitched on a piece of land opposite (currently on Ben Gurion 6). The plot upon which the tent of Bahá’u’lláh was pitched, is now a centre for soldiers named General Pierre Koenig Soldier Centre. [BKG374; BPP173]
Haifa; Oliphant House; Bayt-i-Zahlan German colony
1891. 27 Jun Bahá'u'lláh visits Haifa for the fourth time. [BKG374; DH109; GPB194; RB4:351]
  • He stays three months. [BBD94; BKG374; DH109; GPB194; RB4:351]
  • He lives in the house of Ilyás Abyad near the Templar colony, His tent pitched nearby on the foot of Mount Carmel on HaGefen Street. [BKG374; DH186]
  • Bahá'u'lláh instructs to the Master to arrange the transportation of the remains of the Báb from Persia to the Holy Land and their interment in a mausoleum below the clump of cypress trees at a spot which He indicated with His hand. It is stated that there were 15 tiny cypress trees at that time, each one the size of a finger. See Rob4p363 for a photo of the site indicated. [AB45; BKG374; DH134–5; GPB194]
  • For a story of the difficulties in obtaining land for access to the site of the Shrine of the Báb see SES79-80.
  • One day He pitches His tent a few hundred yards east of the Carmelite monastery and visits the monastery. [DH186]
  • Bahá'u'lláh visits the cave of Elijah. [BKG375; DH174; RB4:3512]
  • He reveals the Lawh-i-Karmil (Tablet of Carmel), the `Charter of the World Spiritual and Administrative Centres of the Faith' near the site of the future Mashriqu'l-Adhkár. [BBD1 18–19; BKG375; DH109, 174; MBW63; RB4:352]
  • For the text of this Tablet see BKG376–7, G14–17 and TB3–5.
  • For an analysis of the text see RB4:353–67.
Haifa Bab, Shrine of; Carmelite monastery; Cave of Elijah; Lawh-i-Karmil (Tablet of Carmel); Charters; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); House of Ilyas Abyad; Templars title; title
1892 After the ascension of Bahá'u'lláh `Abdu'l-Bahá asks Nabíl to choose a number of passages from the writings of Bahá'u'lláh to be used as a Tablet of Visitation. This Tablet is also used at observances commemorating the Martyrdom of the Báb. [BBD234; BKG427; GPB222; RB4:419]
  • For an analysis of this Tablet, see SA121–2.
`Abdu'l-Bahá rents the house now known as the Pilgrim House at Bahjí from its Christian owner Iskandar Hawwá', the husband of `Údí Khammár's daughter Haní. [DH114, 226]
Pilgrim House at Bahji Bahaullah, Ascension of; Bahaullah, Life of; Holy days; Nabil-i-Akbar; Tablets of Visitation; Iskandar Hawwa; Nabil-i-Akbar
1896 c. Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá rents the former Governorate of `Abdu'lláh Páshá in the northwest corner of the city of `Akká at the inner moat. [BBD13, 108; DH60]
  • He establishes it as His residence and as the home for His daughters, their husbands and families. [DH60-4, BW16:104]
  • See also BW16:104–6, DH60–4.
Akka Abdullah Pasha; House of Abdullah Pasha; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Family of
1897. 1 Mar The birth of Shoghi Effendi, in the house of `Abdu'lláh Páshá. [BBD208; BKG359; DH60, 214; GBF2]
  • He is descended from both the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh: his mother is the eldest daughter of `Abdu'l-Bahá; his father is an Afnán, a grandson of Hájí Mírzá `Abu'l-Qásim, a cousin of the mother of the Báb and a brother of His wife. [CB280; GBF2]
  • He is the Ghusn-i-Mumtáz, the Chosen Branch. [BBD87]
  • `Shoghi' means `one who longs'. [CB281]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá commands everyone, even Shoghi Effendi's father, to add the title `Effendi' after his name. [CB281; GBF2]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá gives him the surname Rabbání in the early years of his study in Haifa so that he will not be confused with his cousins, who are all called Afnán. Rabbání is also used by Shoghi Effendi's brothers and sister. [BBD191–2; DH60–1]
  • See GBF6 for the schools he attends.
  • See also Rabbani, The Priceless Pearl;

    Rabbani, The Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith;

    Giachery, Shoghi Effendi: Recollections.

Akka Shoghi Effendi, Life of; House of Abdullah Pasha; Bahaullah; Family of; Abdul-Baha, Family of; Afnan; Aghsan; Haji Mirza Abul-Qasim; Rabbani (name)
1898. 10 Dec The first Western pilgrims arrive in `Akká. [AB68; BBD13; BBRXXX; DH214; GPB257; SCU13; Bahá'í Teachings]
  • They divide themselves into three parties, using Cairo as a staging post. [AB68; BFA1:143; SBBH1:93]
  • See AB68–72; BFA2:9; DH61; GPB257, 259 for those included in the pilgrimage group.
  • Included were Mrs Hearst's nieces, a few American friends and, joining in London, Mrs Mary Thornburgh-Cropper and her mother. [SCU13. CH234-236]
  • See BFA1:143–4 for those included in the first group.
  • Among the group is Robert Turner, the first member of the black race to become a Bahá'í. For 35 years, Turner faithfully served as butler to Phoebe Apperson Hearst and Senator George Hearst, parents of newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst. [AB72; BBD227; BFA1:139; GPB259]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá receives the pilgrims in the House of `Abdu'lláh Páshá. [BBD13, 108; DH61]
  • See AB68–71; BW16:104–5; CH235–6 and GPB257–9 for the pilgrims' responses to the pilgrimage.
  • Edward Getsinger makes a recording of `Abdu'l-Bahá chanting a prayer. [BFA1:160]
  • The Getsingers returned from the pilgrimage with an Arabic copy of The Kitáb-i-Aqdas which was later translated by Anton Haddad. [BFA2:11]
Akka; Cairo; Egypt Pilgrims; Pilgrimage; Firsts, Other; Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper; Robert Turner; Edward Getsinger; Lua Getsinger; Anton Haddad; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); House of Abdullah Pasha; Abdul-Baha, Voice recording of
1899 31 Jan The remains of the Báb arrive in the Holy Land. [BBD209; DH66; GPB274]
  • They are stored in the room of the Greatest Holy Leaf in the house of `Abdu'lláh Páshá until the Shrine of the Báb is completed. [DH66]
Akka Bab, Remains of; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Bab, Shrine of; House of Abdullah Pasha
1901 24 May The name of the Chicago Board of Council is changed to the House of Justice. [BFA2:48]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá requests that this name be changed a year later. [BFA2:49]
Chicago; United States Board of Council; House of Justice; Spiritual Assemblies
1902 - 1903 `Abdu'l-Bahá commissions the restoration of the House of the Báb in Shíráz under the supervision of Áqá Mírzá Áqá, an Afnán and nephew of `Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB108; EB236; GPB300]
  • Also see Memories of the Báb, Bahá’u’lláh and `Abdu’l-Bahá by Mírzá Habíbu’lláh Afnán, (Ahang Rabbani trans.) pages 219-222.
Shiraz; Iran House of the Bab (Shiraz); Restoration; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Aqa Mirza Aqay-i-Afnan (Nurud-Din); Afnan
1902 10 May The Chicago House of Justice changes its name to the House of Spirituality. [BFA2:XV] Chicago House of Justice; House of Spirituality; Spiritual Assemblies
1902 28 Nov Construction begins on the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár of `Ishqábád with the laying of its cornerstone. [BFA2:116-17]
  • BBRXXX says this was 12 December. The discrepancy may lie in the use of two different calendars.
  • The foundation stone is laid in the presence of General Subotich, governor-general of Turkistan. [BFA2:116–17; GPB300; see discussion of Krupatkin vs Subotich in whitmore_city_love]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá commissions Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-Taqí, the Vakílu'd-Dawlih, son of Hájí Siyyid Muhammad, the uncle of the Báb for whom Bahá'u'lláh had revealed The Kitáb-i-Íqán, to be in charge of the project. [AB109]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá Himself delineates the general design and a Russian architect, Volkov, plans and executes the details of the construction. [AB109–10]
  • A meeting hall and some of its dependencies had been built before 1900.
  • Its dependencies include two Bahá'í schools, a travellers' hostel, a medical dispensary and Hazíratu'l-Quds. [BBD122; BBR442; BBRSM:91]
  • For a Western account of this see BBR442–3.
  • See jacket of BBR for a photograph of work on the Temple.
`Ishqabad Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Dependencies of; General Subotich; Krupatkin; Haji Mirza Muhammad-Taqi (Vakilud-Dawlih); Haji Siyyid Muhammad; Volkov; Haziratul-Quds
1903 7 Mar Inspired by the news of the `Ishqábád Temple project, the Chicago House of Spirituality asks `Abdu'l-Bahá for permission to construct a Mashriqu'l-Adhkár. [BFA2:XVI, 118; BW10:179; GPB348] `Ishqabad; Chicago Temple; House of Spirituality; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
1903 30 May A letter from `Abdu'l-Bahá is received by the Chicago House of Spirituality giving His approval for the building of a Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in North America. [BFA2:119] Chicago House of Spirituality; Mashriqu'l-Adhkár
1903 7 Jun Eight days after `Abdu'l-Bahá's first Tablet arrives, a second Tablet arrives from Him approving the project. [BW10:179; CT41; GPB262, 349; MBW142] Chicago House of Spirituality; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
1907 `Abdu'l-Bahá starts to move His family to the house that He has designed and built in the German colony at the foot of Mount Carmel in Haifa. [BBD107; DH145]
  • Laura Clifford Barney helped to purchase the land for the house and to pay for its construction. [DH145]
  • Some members of the family occupy it as early as February 1907, if not before. [DH145; GBF56]
Haifa House of Abdul-Baha (Haifa); Laura Clifford Barney
1907 Feb Corinne True travels to `Akká to present `Abdu'l-Bahá with a scroll with the signatures of 800 Bahá'ís calling for construction to start on the American House of Worship. [CT51–3]
  • BW13:847 says the scroll contained over a thousand signatures.
`Akká Corinne True; House of Worship; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
1907 26 Nov The first national Bahá'í conference is held in America. [BFA2:XVI; BW10:179]
  • At the invitation of the House of Spirituality of Chicago, nine Bahá'ís from various communities join some ten from the Chicago area at a one-day conference to foster national cooperation on the Temple project and to choose a suitable site for the Temple. [BFA2:280; CT78; GPB262, 349]
Chicago national conference; House of Spirituality; Temple; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
1908 `Abdu'l-Bahá's house in Haifa is completed. [BBD 107] Haifa House of Abdul-Baha (Haifa)
1908 The outer structure of the House of Worship in `Ishqábád is completed and the dome is in place. [AB110, EB267]
  • The outer decoration will not be completed until 1919.
  • For a description of the Temple, its gardens and environs see BW1:79–81, GPB300–1 and PUP71.
`Ishqábád House of Worship; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
1908 9 Apr Two building plots for the future House of Worship are purchased in Wilmette for the sum of $2000. [BFA2:XVI; BW10:179, GPB262] Wilmette House of Worship; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
1909 months following Mar Construction of the Eastern Pilgrim House in Haifa begins. [BBD178]
  • Mírzá Ja`far Rahmání, (also know as Áqá Mírzá Ja’far Shírází) a believer from `Ishqábád, is given permission by `Abdu'l-Bahá to build it. [DH177, SES25-26]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá composes an inscription that it place above the entrance that reads, "This is a spiritual Hostel for Pilgrims, and its founder is Mírzá Ja'far Rahmani. AH 1327."
  • This is the first property to be granted tax exemption by the civil authorities. [GPB307, SES43-47]
Haifa; Eastern Pilgrim House; Mirza Ja`far Rahmani; Áqa Mirza Ja’far Shirazi; BWC Pilgrimage
1909 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá gradually moves His family from `Akká to Haifa. [DH214] Haifa; Akka Abdul-Baha, House of
1910 Aug Having moved all His family to Haifa, `Abdu'l-Bahá Himself moves from the House of `Abdu'lláh Páshá to His new home at 7 Haparsim (Persian) Street, Haifa. [BBD13, 107; DH145] Haifa; Akka Abdul-Baha, House of; House of Abdullah Pasha
1912 1 May `Abdu'l-Bahá lays the cornerstone of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in Wilmette. [239D:51; AB186; GPB288, 349; MBW143]
  • Talk at Dedication of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár Grounds. [PUP71]
  • The cornerstone has been offered by Mrs Nettie Tobin. [AB186]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá asks delegates from the various Bahá'í communities and Bahá'ís from different backgrounds each to dig the earth to lay the stone. [AB186–7]
Chicago; United States Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Nettie Tobin; Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Cornerstones
1912 26 Aug Talk at Franklin Square House, Boston, Massachusetts. [PUP280] Boston; MA Franklin Square House; `Abdu'l-Baha's second Western tour
1919 Nov William Harry Randall, an American, asks `Abdu'l-Bahá if he might contribute to the building of the Western Pilgrim House. [DH179]
  • Plans are drawn up and work begun but the funds available are insufficient to continue the work until 1923, when money is contributed by Amelia Collins. [BBD178; DH180; GPB307]
Haifa William Harry Randall; `Abdu'l-Baha; Western Pilgrim House; Amelia Collins
1920 The House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád is seized by Shí'ís. [BBD109; GBF33; GPB356-7] Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
1920 Apr Louis Bourgeois is selected as the architect for the Chicago House of Worship. [DP94; GPB303; SBBH1:145]
  • For details of the designs and selection process see DP76-100.
  • See CT159 for the source of inspiration for the design.
Wilmette Louis Bourgeois; House of Worship; Wilmette Temple; Chicago Temple; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
1921 The Kingdom of Iraq under British Administration or Mandatory Iraq begins. It will last until 1932. [Mandatory Iraq] Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
1921 after Mandate After the establishment of British control of Iraq and the appearance of religious freedom and greater security, 'Abdu'l-Bahá authorizes repairs to begin on the House. The renovations attract the attention of neighbouring Shi'as and after the passing of the custodian, Muhammad Husayn Bábí, they sue for possession on the grounds that he had no heirs. [SETPE1p25] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1921 Feb The Shi'a petition for the possession of the House in Baghdád is granted and the Bahá'is are evicted. [SETPE1p25] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1921 Apr The Minister of Justice overturns an earlier ruling and possession of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád is returned to the Bahá'ís. [SETPE1p25] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1921 23 Nov A second suit for the possession of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdad is decided in favour of the Shi'a claimants. This allows them to apply to the Peace Court in 1922. [SETPE1p25]
  • Before the application goes before the Court the Shi'a group prevail upon King Faisal to give an illegal personal order to the Governor of Baghdád to evict the Bahá'ís and the return the keys to them. All this is against the opinion of the British High Commissioner. [SETPE1p25]
  • The case is passed from court to court and finally brought before the Court of Appeal in Baghdád which, by a majority of four (the Iráqí members) to one (the British Presiding Justice), decides in favour of the plaintiffs. [SETPE1p25]
Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1921 4 Dec On the seventh day after the passing of `Abdu'l-Bahá, corn is distributed in His name to about a thousand of the poor.
  • Up to this day 50 to 100 poor are fed daily at the Master's House. [BW15:122]
Haifa Abdul-Baha, Life of; House of Abdul-Baha (Haifa)
1922 Feb-Mar Shoghi Effendi calls together a group of well-known Bahá'ís to discuss the future development of the Faith and the possible election of the Universal House of Justice. [BBRSM:120, 126; ER207; PP247-8]
  • See ER207-8 and PP55 for those attending.
  • It seems he decided that a firm base of local and national institutions to support the House of Justice would be required first. [PP248; SBR66]
Haifa Shoghi Effendi; Universal House of Justice
1922 22 Feb Subsequent to the decision of the Court of Appeal the government of Iraq takes over the keys for the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád. [SETPE1p26] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1922 22 Feb King Feisal of Iraq orders the Bahá'ís to be turned out of the Most Great House in Baghdád to keep the peace. [BW354; GPB343; PP54] Baghdad King Feisal; Most Great House; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1922 9 Apr Work commences on the Western Pilgrim House. [PP69] Haifa Western Pilgrim House
1923 Amelia Collins contributes the funds necessary to complete the Western Pilgrim House. [DH180; PSBW76] Haifa Amelia Collins; Western Pilgrim House; BWC Pilgrimage
1923 The keys for the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád are delivered to the Shi'as by the government. [PP94-5, GBF33] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1923 Jul The Bahá'ís appeal to the Peace Court for possession of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád. [SETPE1p26] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1923 20 Dec The Peace Court rules in favour of giving the Bahá'ís possession of House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád, however, the Council of Ministers, with the approval of King Feisal, orders that the property not be returned until ownership can be established. [SETPE1p26]
  • The Guardian sends 19 cables to various individuals and national bodies with instructions that the Bahá'ís should send cables to the British High Commissioner in Iráq, Sir Henry Dobbs, as well as to the British authorities in Iráq and in London as well as to King Feisal to protest the action of the Council of Ministers. In communities were the numbers are stronger, Persia and America, he instructs that every local assembly protest directly. The Guardian himself sends over 600 pieces of correspondence during the following six months concerning this issue. [PP94-6, GBF33-34 BA94-95]
  • The Iráqí government refuses to bow to the pressure put upon them. [PP96]
Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1924 Nov The Supreme Court of Iraq decides against the Bahá'ís in the dispute over the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád. [UD37-8] Iraq Court cases; House of Bahaullah (Baghdad)
1925 16 Jan Shoghi Effendi reports in a letter that the case of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád is now before the court of the First Instance and has been postponed for some time. He states that, should the appeal be successful, the opponents are likely to refer the case to the Court of Appeal and, should that happen, the government is likely to delay the return of the keys for the House. [BA76] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1925 22 Nov John Esslemont, Hand of the Cause of God, Disciple of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, passes away in Haifa. [BW3p84-85, BBD81, SETPE1p108-110]
  • For letters of Shoghi Effendi announcing his death and giving details of his life and funeral see BA97–8 and UD40–3.
  • For an obituary see BW1:133–6 and BW8:929–35.
  • He is buried next to the grave of Vakílu’d-Dawlih, the chief builder of the House of Worship at ‘Ishqábád. [DJEE37]
  • Shoghi Effendi elevates him to the station of Hand of the Cause of God on his death. The announcement is made on November 30th. [BA7-98; BWT3:333; DJEE40; PP92; UD403, MoCxxii
  • See also Moojan Momen, Dr John E. Esslemont (BPT UK 1975) and BW8p929-935 for "John Ebenezer Esslemont: His Life and Service" by Jesse E. Revell.
Haifa; Ishqabad Esslemont; Hands of the Cause; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Vakilud-Dawlih; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Appointments
1925 Dec The Guardian express his "heartfelt and abiding gratitude" to Milly Collins and seven others who had donated the necessary funds to complete the Western Pilgrim House construction project. It had been started in 1919 with a donation from Ruth and Harry Randal but had come to a halt when the funds ran out. [Millyp7] Haifa Western Pilgrim House; Milly Collins
1925 13 Dec The keys to Bahá’u’lláh’s house in Baghdád are given to the Shí’ís. [UD45] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad; Shi’is
1926 14 Nov Iraq's highest tribunal rules against the Bahá'ís in the question of ownership of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád. Shoghi Effendi immediately sends a cable urging the American National Assembly and all local assemblies to write or cable the Iraq High Commissioner through the British Consular authorities, to the King of Iraq and to the British central authorities to protest against the injustice. [SETPE1p138] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1927 Oct Shoghi Effendi entrusts Dr William Slater and his wife Ida Slater, who are visiting Haifa on a 19-day pilgrimage, with carpets from the Shrines of the Báb and 'Abdu'l-Bahá for the House of Worship in Chicago. [SETPE1p149] Haifa; Chicago; United States William Slater; Ida Slater; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Bab, Shrine of
1928 26–30 Apr The National Convention of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada is held in the Foundation Hall of the House of Worship for the first time. [BW2:180; CT167]
  • See BW2:180 for a picture.
Wilmette National Convention; House of Worship; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
1928 11 Sep The case of Baha'u'llah's House in Baghdad is put before the League of Nations by means of a petition to the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations From the Baha'is of ‘Iráq. [Text of the Petition] Geneva; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
1928 11 Sep The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Iraq submits a petition to the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations for the return of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád. [BW3:198–206]
  • See BA164-165 for letter from Shoghi Effendi.
  • Baghdád; Iraq; Petition to the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
    1928 26 Oct-13 Nov The case of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád is taken before the fourteenth session of the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations. [BW3:207]
    • The right of the Bahá’ís to the House is upheld and the government of Iraq is strongly pressed to find a solution but the House is not returned to the Bahá’ís. [BW3:207–9; GBF35; PP96–7]
    • For Shoghi Effendi’s comment on these developments see BW3:206–9.
    • The Shí’ís turn the House into a Husayníyyih, where the martyrdom of the Imám Husayn is mourned. [BBD113–14]
    Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad; Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations; Shi’is; Husayniyyih
    1928 Nov It is recommended to the Council of the League of Nations to request that the British Government make representations to the Iraqi Government to redress the denial of justice to the Bahá'ís with reference to House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdad. [GBF35] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
    1929 4 Mar The Council of the League of Nations adopts the conclusion reached by the Mandates Commissions upholding the claim of the Bahá’í community to the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád. [BW3:50-55]
    • For Shoghi Effendi’s response to this see BW3:206–9 and BA175-180.
    Baghdád; Iraq; Council of the League of Nations; Mandates Commissions; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
    1929 16 Mar In December of 1925 the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of United States and Canada adopted the "Unified Plan of Action" and among the resolutions was to raise some $400,000 over the following three years to construct the first unit of the superstructure of the Temple. By the end of 1926 only $51,000 had been collected and the following year was just as disappointing. At the National Convention in 1928 Fred Schopflocher's donation of $25,000 inspired contributions and the Fund rose to about $87,000 by March 1929. On this day Fred and Lorol Schopflocher contributed a further $100,000. [LoF388-389]
    • See "1937 May".
    Montreal; Wilmette; House of Worship; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar; Fred Schopflocher; Lorol Schopflocher; Unified Plan of Action
    1929 Apr Shoghi Effendi announces that the Council of the League of Nations had pronounced in favour of the Bahá'í petition regarding the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdad. Unfortunately, King Faisal, a Sunni, relents under the pressure of the Shi'iah element and the property was never returned. [Bahá'í News Letter, no. 31 (April 1929), p.6, SETPE1p169] Baghdad House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
    1929 summer Shoghi Effendi makes plans to hold an international conference to consider, among other things, how to establish national spiritual assemblies as a prelude to the Universal House of Justice. [PP250]
    • He cancels the conference when he perceives that the Bahá’ís will find it a source of confusion and misunderstanding. [BBRSM126; PP250]
    Haifa Universal House of Justice
    1929 6–26 Nov The case of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád is taken before the sixteenth session of the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations. [BW4:237]
    • The text of the petition was conceived and drafted by Monfort Mills. Shoghi Effendi paid tribute to his work in a letter dated March 20, 1929. [BA180]
    • The right of the Bahá’ís to the House is upheld and the government of Iraq is strongly pressed to find a solution but the House is not returned to the Bahá’ís. [BW4:237; GBF35; PP96–7]
    Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad; Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations; Montfort Mills
    1930 2 Jan Martha Roots meets with King Faisal of Iraq in Baghdad. The King says that a committee has been formed to study the problem and to settle it in such a way as to satisfy all groups interested in the matter. [MRHK149] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad; Martha Root
    1931 1 May The superstructure of the Wilmette House of Worship is completed and dedicated. [BW10:180; DP:156–7; SBBH1:145] Wilmette House of Worship; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
    1932 3 Oct The term of The Kingdom of Iraq under British Administration or Mandatory Iraq comes to an end. It had been created in 1921 following the Iraqi Revolt in 1920 and enacted via the 1922 Anglo-Iraqi Treaty. The British chose Faisal I bin Hussein bin Ali al-Hashimi as king of of Iraq and Syria. He fostered unity between Sunni and Shiite Molsems and tried to promote pan-Arabism with the goal of creating an Arab state in Iraq, Syria and the rest of the Fertile Crescent. Faisal died in Switzerland at the age of 48, under what some consider to be suspicious circumstances, while there for a medical examination. [Wikipedia]

    • Iraq is admitted to the League of Nations. [BW5p357]
    Baghdad; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad; Faisal I bin Hussein bin Ali al-Hashimi; King Faisal; The Kingdom of Iraq under British Administration; Mandatory Iraq
    1932 3 Nov-6 Dec Meeting of the 22nd Session of the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations in Geneva at which the Bahá’ís plead their case for the possession of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád. [BW5:351–4] Geneva; Baghdád; Iraq; Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
    1933 23 Oct-4 Nov The 24th session of the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations is held in Geneva at which the case of the possession of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád is again raised. [BW5:354–5] Geneva; Baghdád; Iraq; Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
    1937 May Fred Schopflocher contributes and additional $100,000 (see 16 March, 1929) to the goal of $350,000 to complete the exterior ornamentation of the House of Worship. For is dedication to the construction the Guardian designated him as "Chief Temple Builder". [LoF 388-390, BW12p664] Wilmette; House of Worship; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar; Fred Schopflocher; Unified Plan of Action; Chief Temple Builder
    1942 The House of the Báb in Shíráz is attacked and damaged by fire. [BBD108; BW18:389] Shiraz; Iran House of the Bab (Shiraz); Persecution
    1943 5 Apr Sir Ronald Storrs visits the House of the Báb in Shiraz. [BW 11:461] Shiraz; Iran Sir Ronald Storrs; House of the Bab (Shiraz)
    1944 A Bahá’í committee in Tihrán identifies the House of Bahá’u’lláh in the city and purchases it. Tihrán House of Bahá’u’lláh
    1944 19–25 May An international celebration of the Centenary of the founding of the Faith is held at the House of Worship in Wilmette.
    • For a description of this event see BW10:158–61.
    • For the programme see BW10:162–70.
    • For a list of the countries participating in the conference see BW10:168.
    Wilmette Centenary of the founding of the Faith; House of Worship; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
    1944 22–23 May The Centenary of the Declaration of the Báb is celebrated at the House of the Báb in Shíráz. [BW10:181]
    • Ninety delegates to the national convention and members of the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran assemble discreetly for the occasion.
    • For details of this event and the caution with which the arrangements for it are made see BW10:181–3.
    • The Guardian sends the Persian Bahá’ís a lengthy letter detailing how the observance and the week-long festivities to follow are to be made. [BW10:183]
    • For details of the events see BW10:183–8.
    Shiraz; Iran Declaration of the Bab; House of the Bab (Shiraz); National conventions; NSA; Centenaries
    1946 The restoration of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tihrán is completed. Tihrán House of Baha’u’llah
    1947 23 Sep The passing of Haji Mahmúd Qassabchí. He became a Bahá'í in 1911 after reading accounts of the travels of 'Abdu'l-Bahá in the Star of the West. After WWI he undertook the restoration of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdad. A few years later he played a leading part in the purchase and the establishment of the Hazíratu'l-Quds of Baghdad and the erection of the Haziratu'l-Quds in the village of Avashiq, the first in Iraq. His most imperishable service was the construction of three rooms at the rear of the Shrine of the Báb that were temporarily used as the International Bahá'í Archives before the construction of its permanent seat. [BW11p502-503] Baghdad; Iraq Haji Mahmud Qassabchi; In Memoriam; House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); Bab, Shrine of
    1948 Douglas P. Hillhouse, a Captain in the United States military, is stationed on St Thomas until 1951, the first Bahá’í to reside on the island. St. Thomas Douglas P. Hillhouse
    1949 24 Apr The passing of Montfort Mills.
    He had been a believer since 1906 and by 1909 he had made two pilgrimages to 'Akká as well as a third in early 1921.
    In 1922 he and Roy Wilhelm are invited to Haifa to discuss the possibility of calling for the formation of the Universal House of Justice.
    He was the first chairman of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada when it first formed in 1922 and was elected to that body seven times between 1922 and 1937 and was responsible for the final draft of the Declaration of Trust and By-Laws adopted in 1927.
    One of his most outstanding achievements was his rôle in the case of the appeal for possession of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád. He made two trips to Baghdad and had audiences with King Feisal. During one of these trips he was brutally assaulted and suffered the effects for many years.
    He met with Professor E. G. Browne and, after hearing Mr. Mills explanation of the evolution of the Faith and of the Covenant, Mr. Browne realized he had been veiled by conflicting claims and disturbances following the martyrdom of The Báb and expressed a desire to translate later Bahá'í works but died before this contribution could be made. [BW11p509-511]
    House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad; In Memoriam; E. G. Browne
    1951 9 Jan Shoghi Effendi announces the establishment of the International Bahá’í Council. [BBD118; BBRSM127; GBF109; MBW7–8; PP252]
    • It is a forerunner to the Universal House of Justice. [BBD118]
    • For its functions see MBW7–8.
    • Its seat is the Western Pilgrim House. [BBD178]
    • For the stages of its evolution see CB324.
    Haifa International Bahai Council; Universal House of Justice; Western Pilgrim House
    1951 2 Mar Shoghi Effendi announces the completion of the restoration of the House of ‘Abbúd. [MBW8] ‘Akka House of Abbud; Restoration
    1953 19 Apr Shoghi Effendi announces plans to build a House of Worship in Frankfurt. [BW13:733; LDG191–2]
    • For the difficulties in pursuing the project see BW13:733–7.
    Frankfurt; Germany Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship)
    1953 1 May The House of Worship in Wilmette is consecrated in a simple ceremony for Bahá’ís only. [BW12:143, 152; ZK93]
    • For details of the dedication see BW12:152–4.
    Wilmette; US House of Worship; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
    1953 2 May The House of Worship in Wilmette is dedicated in a public ceremony. [BW12:142, BWNS218]
    • For the text of the Guardian’s message of dedication see BW12:141–2.
    • For an account of the event see BW12:154–63.
    • Towards the end of his life in Tehran, Ahmad (of "Tablet of Ahmad" fame) had entrusted the original Tablet to his grandson Jamal who in turn, out of the purity of his heart and his devotion to the Faith of God offered it as a gift to Hand of the Cause, Trustee of Huqúq, the son and brother of two illustrious martyrs, Jinab-i-Valiyu'llah Varqá. When Jinab-i-Varqa, according to the instructions of the beloved Guardian, was sent to take part in this dedication ceremony he brought this most precious Tablet as his offering to the archives of the Bahá'ís of the United States. [A Flame of Fire by A.Q. Faizi.]
    Wilmette; US House of Worship; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
    1953 3 – 6 May The All-America Intercontinental Teaching Conference is held in Chicago. [BW12:133]
    • For the texts of Shoghi Effendi’s messages to the conference see BW12:133–41 and MBW142–6.
    • Twelve Hands of the Cause are present. [BW12:143]
    • At the conference, five members of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States resign from that body in order to go pioneering: Elsie Austin, Dorothy Baker, Matthew Bullock, Mamie Seto and Dr William Kenneth Christian. [ZK102]
    • Extract from the cecond message to All-American Intercontinental Conference from Shoghi Effendi... [MBW150]
      .....the lands contributed in Latin America for a similar purpose approximate one-half of a million square meters, ninety thousand of which have been set aside near Santiago, Chile, for the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár of South America..
    Chicago; US; Santiago; Chile; Latin America Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching; Hands of the Cause; Pioneering; Elsie Austin; Dorothy Baker; Matthew Bullock; Mamie Seto; William Kenneth Christian; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Chile; Land purchases
    1954 The purchase of the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Istanbul is concluded. [SS38] Istanbul House of Baha’u’llah
    1955 23 Apr Ramadán begins. Shaykh Muhammad-Taqí Falsafí makes an inflammatory speech against the Bahá’ís from a mosque in Tihrán. [BW18:390]
    • This is broadcast on national radio and stirs up the people against the Bahá’ís. [BW18:390]
    • Beatings, killings, looting and raping go on for several weeks, usually incited by the local ‘ulamá. [BW18:390–1; MC16–17; ZK215–6]
    • The House of the Báb in Shíráz is attacked and damaged by a mob led by Siyyid Núru’d-Dín, a mujtahid.
    Tihran; Shiraz; Iran Shaykh Muhammad-Taqi Falsafi; House of the Bab (Shiraz); Siyyid Nurud-Din; Persecution
    1955 May-Jul Persecutions against the Bahá’ís continue throughout Iran. BW18:391]
    • Many Bahá’ís are beaten, including women and children.
    • Bahá’í houses and shops are looted and burned.
    • Bahá’ís employed in government service are dismissed.
    • Bodies of dead Bahá’ís are disinterred and mutilated.
    • Young Bahá’í women are abducted and forced to marry Muslims.
    • Several Bahá’í women are publicly stripped and/or raped.
    • Crops and orchards belonging to Bahá’ís are looted and destroyed.
    • Bahá’í children are expelled from schools.
    • The House of the Báb in Shíráz is damaged.
    Shiraz; Iran Persecution; House of the Bab (Shiraz)
    1955 1 Jun The House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tákur, Mázandarán, Iran, is taken over. [BW18:391] Tákur; Mázandarán; Ira House of Bahá’u’lláh; religious persecution
    1955 23 Aug Shoghi Effendi announces plans to begin construction on the House of Worship in Kampala, Uganda. [MBW90; PP312] Kampala; Uganda House of Worship; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
    1956. c. 1956 Shoghi Effendi acquires the title to the Pilgrim House at Bahjí from the Israeli government as part of the exchange for the Bahá’í properties at Ein Gev. [BBD177; DH226] Bahjí Pilgrim House at Bahji
    1956 Shoghi Effendi buys the ruined house known as the Master’s Tea House. ‘Akká Master’s Tea House
    1958 26 Jan The foundation stone of the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár of Africa is laid by Hands of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and Músá Banání. [BW13:317] Kampala; Uganda Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Foundation stones; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Musa Banani
    1958 22 Mar The foundation stone of the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár of the Antipodes is laid by Hands of the Cause Charles Mason Remey and Clara Dunn. [BW13:321] Sydney; Australia Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Charles Mason Remey; Clara Dunn; Foundation stones
    1959 The mansion at Mazra‘ih is renovated. [MC219] ‘Akka Mazraih; Bahaullah, Houses of; Restoration
    1959 The House of ‘Abbúd is renovated and restored. [MC219] ‘Akka House of Abbud; Bahaullah, Houses of; Restoration
    1959 19 Oct The Hands of the Cause announce that the remains of the father of Bahá’u’lláh, Mírzá Buzurg, have been reinterred in the Bahá’í burial ground in the vicinity of the Most Great House in Baghdád. [MC165] Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); Mirza Buzurg
    1959 4 Nov The Hands of the Cause issue a message from their third Conclave. [MC166–70]
    • The date for the election of the Universal House of Justice is fixed at Ridván 1963. [MC166]
    • They call for the election at Ridván 1961 of 21 national spiritual assemblies in Latin America. [MC167–8]
    • They call for the election at Ridván 1962 of 11 national spiritual assemblies in Europe. [MC168]
    • They call for the election at Ridván 1961 of the International Bahá’í Council by postal ballot of the members of the national and regional spiritual assemblies constituted at Ridván 1960. [MC168]
    • The name of Hand of the Cause Charles Mason Remey is missing from the list of signatories to this letter. [MC170]
    ‘Akka Hands of the Cause; Universal House of Justice, Election of; International Bahai Council; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers
    1960 20 Nov The cornerstone of the fifth House of Worship is laid in Langenhain, Germany, by Hand of the Cause of God Amelia Collins. [BW13:739; MC238, 245, 249–50]
    • See also MC14–15, 236.
    Langenhain; Frankfurt; Germany; Europe Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship)
    1961 14 Jan The House of’ Worship in Kampala, the Mother Temple of Africa, is dedicated by Hand of the Cause Rúhíyyih Khánum in a service for Bahá’ís only. [BW13:713–14]
    • For details of the service and a picture see BW13:714. [TG159]
    • Enoch Olinga is not present because of the unrest in British Cameroons. [TG160]
    Kampala; Uganda Mother Temple; House of’ Worship; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
    1961 15 Jan The House of Worship in Kampala is officially opened by Hand of the Cause Rúhíyyih Khánum in a public service attended by 1,500 people. [BW13:715–18; MC15]
    • For message of the Custodians to the dedication service see MC2503.
    • For cable of the Custodians to the Bahá’ís of the world see MC253.
    Kampala; Uganda Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Dedications
    1961 16 Sep The House of Worship in Sydney, the Mother Temple of the Antipodes, is dedicated by Hand of the Cause Rúhíyyih Khánum in a service for Bahá’ís only. [BW13:729; MC15]
    • For details of the service and pictures see BW13:726–32.
    Sydney; Australia Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Dedications
    1961 17 Sep The House of Worship in Sydney is officially opened by Hand of the Cause Rúhíyyih Khánum in two public services, each attended by 900 people. [BW13:732]
    • For message of the Custodians to the dedication service see MC309–12.
    • For cable of the Custodians to the Bahá’ís of the world see MC313.
    Sydney; Australia Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Dedications
    1962 16 Nov The superstructure of the European House of Worship near Frankfurt is completed and the Temple is turned over to the Bahá’ís by the contractor. [BW13:737; MC15] Germany House of Worship; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
    1963 22 Apr The results of the election of the Universal House of Justice are announced at the close of the morning session of the International Convention: Charles Wolcott, ‘Alí Nakhjavání, H. Borrah Kavelin, Ian Semple, Lutfu’lláh Hakím, David Hofman, Hugh Chance, Amoz Gibson and Hushmand Fatheazam. [BBD231–3; BBRSM131; BW14:425 MC425; SS50; VVXI-XII]
    • For a picture of the Hands of the Cause of God with the Universal House of Justice see ZK123.
    Haifa Charles Wolcott; Ali Nakhjavani; Borrah Kavelin; Ian Semple; Lutfullah Hakim; David Hofman; Hugh Chance; Amoz Gibson; Hushmand Fatheazam; Universal House of Justice, Election of; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Firsts, Other
    1963 16 Jun The Universal House of Justice announces that it will for the present use the Western Pilgrim House at 10 Haparsim Street, Haifa, as its seat and that both the Eastern and Western Pilgrim will be housed in the Haifa Pilgrim House. [WG9] Haifa Western Pilgrim House; UHJ; BWC Pilgrimage
    1963 25 Aug The Universal House of Justice announces the demolition by the Soviet authorities of the House of Worship in ‘Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) owing to earthquake damage. [BBD122; BW14:479–81]
    • For a picture of the damaged Temple see BW14:481.
    ‘Ishqábád House of Worship; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
    1964 4 Jul The House of Worship in Langenhain, Germany, is dedicated. [BW14:483–4]
    • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW14:485–6.
    • For pictures see BW14:482, 483, 485, 491.
    • For a description of the teaching conference accompanying the dedication see BW14:586–8.
    • See also MC14–15; PP432–4.
    Langenhain; Frankfurt; Germany; Europe Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship)
    1967 21 Feb The Universal House of Justice establishes the International Bahá’í Audio-Visual Centre in Victor, New York. [BW14:91–2] Victor; New York; United States International Bahai Audio-Visual Centre; Audio-Visual Centers; Universal House of Justice
    1967 Ridván The Universal House of Justice calls upon the Bahá’ís to launch a global campaign proclaiming the message of Bahá’u’lláh to every stratum of society. A special edition of The Proclamation of Bahá'u'lláh is to be presented to Heads of State. [BW14:211, Ridván 1967] BWC; Haifa Universal House of Justice; Proclamation of Bahaullah (book)
    1967 8 Oct The foundation stone of the Mother Temple of Latin America is laid by Hand of the Cause Rúhíyyih Khánum in Panama City. [BW14:494] Panama Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Foundation stones; Latin America
    1970 The House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tihrán undergoes major repair and a fundamental restoration of both exterior and interior parts. Tihran; Iran House of Bahaullah (Tihran); Restoration
    1970 The passing of Florence Evaline (Lorol) Schopflocher in Montreal (b.1886)
    • Wife of Hand of the Cause of God Siegfried Schopflocher. For his "In Memoriam" see BW7p664.
    • She circled the globe nine times on travel teaching tours and visited some 86 countries, many of them multiple times. She travelled to Iran twice visiting parts not previously visited by Western Bahá'ís.
    • She visited the Guardian 11 times.
    • She had several audiences with King Feisal in Iraq and discussed the question of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád with him.
    • Favourite themes for her public talks were the World Order letters of Shoghi Effendi and the emancipation and education of women.
    • She is interred in the Mount Royal Cemetery in Montreal. A radiant star went from the West to the East. [BW15p488-489
    • Find a grave
    Montreal; QC; Canada Lorol Schopflocher; Hand of the Cause of God Siegfried Schopflocher; In Memoriam; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
    1971 Aug The Universal House of Justice erects an obelisk on the site of the future House of Worship of the Holy Land on land that was purchased in 1953 with a gift of $50,000 from Milly Collins. [MBW63, 78-79, BBD 172; BW15:177–8; DH175; MUHJ83–4, SES18-20] Mount Carmel UHJ; House of Worship; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar; obelisk
    1971 16 Oct The inauguration of Shahyad Tower ("King's Memorial Tower") in Tehran. The tower was built in honour of the shah on the occasion of the commemoration of the 2,500th anniversary of the Persian Empire and has become an iconic symbol of the city of Tehran. It has been described as being a tower, an arch, a gate and an obelisk in one and is 50 meters (164 ft) tall and completely clad in some eight thousand blocks of cut marble from Isfahan Province. The main financing was provided by a group of five hundred Iranian industrialists.

    After the Revolution in 1979 it was renamed The Azadi Tower (Liberty Tower) and was, in turn, the gathering place of the "rebels" in 1979 and for those protesting the results of the election in 2009.

    The architect, Hossein Amanat was only 24 years old and a recent graduate when he won the competition for the project. In addition to having a remarkable career in designing buildings for commercial, educational and residential use, he is the architect for such Bahá'í projects as the Universal House of Justice Building, the Centre for the Study of the Holy Texts, the International Teaching Centre and the Mashriqu’l-Adhka in Samoa. He left Iran in 1978 and took up residence in Vancouver in 1980. [Hossein Amanat website]

    Tehran Husayn Amanat; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Azadi Tower; Shahyad Tower; Universal House of Justice, Seat; Centre for the Study of the Holy Texts; International Teaching Centre, Seat; Samoa; Apia
    1972 29 Apr The House of Worship in Panama is dedicated in a series of ceremonies held throughout the day attended by Hands of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, Ugo Giachery and Dhikru’lláh Khádem and four thousand Bahá’ís. [BW15:634; Vv14]
    • For the history of the House of Worship see BW15:643–6.
    • For statistics on the House of Worship see BW15:647–9.
    Panama Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Dedications; Ugo Giachery; Dhikrullah Khadem
    1972 30 Apr The House of Worship in Panama is publicly dedicated by Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum in two sessions. [BW15:634] Panama Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Dedications
    1972 May The northeast and southeast quadrants of the gardens at Bahjí are completed and the southern gardens are extended to ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s Tea House. Akka Bahji; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Tea House
    1972 1 May The international teaching conference in Panama held in conjunction with the dedication of the House of Worship opens. [BW15:635]
    • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW15:635–7.
    Panama House of Worship; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
    1972 7 Jun The Universal House of Justice announces the decision to construct its Seat. [DH172; MUHJ98–9; VV37] Haifa Universal House of Justice, Seat
    1973 The House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tihrán and its adjacent bírúní (reception area) are completely restored to their original structure, design and elegance. Tihrán House of Baha’u’llah
    1973 18 Sep Husayn Amánat is appointed architect of the Seat of the Universal House of Justice. [BW16:133; DH172; VV37] Haifa Universal House of Justice, Seat; Husayn Amanat
    1974 7 Feb The construction of the Seat of the Universal House of Justice is initiated with the acceptance of the design conceived by architect Husayn Amánat. [BW17:73] Haifa Husayn Amanat; Universal House of Justice, Seat
    1975 14 Jan The house of ‘Abdu’lláh Páshá is purchased after lengthy and delicate negotiations. [BBD108; BW16:103, 133; BW17:82; DH73; VV39]
    • For a history of the house see BW16:103–6.
    ‘Akka; ; BWC House of Abdullah Pasha; Property purchases
    1975 5 Jun Excavation of the site of the Seat of the Universal House of Justice begins. [BW16:133; BW18:465]
    • See BW16:399–404 for an article on the Seat by architect Husayn Amánat.
    • See BW17:301 for the significance of the seat.
    Haifa; BWC Husayn Amanat; Universal House of Justice, Seat
    1975 Nov The land for the Samoan House of Worship is purchased on a site overlooking Apia. [BW18:104] Samoa House of Worship; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
    1977 16 Sep In Uganda, 27 religious organizations are banned, including the Bahá’í Faith, and the Bahá’í House of Worship is closed. [BW17:81]
    • The national spiritual assembly and all 1,550 local assemblies are dissolved. [BW17:141]
    Uganda religious persecution; House of Worship; NSA; LSA; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
    1977 17 Oct At the end of the Asian Bahá’í Women’s Conference Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum lays the foundation stone of the Mother Temple of the Indian Subcontinent. [BW17:85, 180, 368–70; VV35] New Delhi; India; Asia Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Foundation stones; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women
    1977 Dec The restoration of the house of ‘Abdu’lláh Páshá begins. [BW17:84] ‘Akka; ; BWC House of Abdullah Pasha; Restoration
    1978 Ridvan Delegates to the International Convention attend a ceremony to further dedicate the new building for the Seat of the Universal House of Justice. The superstructure of the building is completed at this stage. Chairing the event is Hand of the Cause Dr. Ugo Giachery with special guest Ethel Revell, former member of the International Bahá'í Council in attendance. A casket containing dust from both Holy Shrines is placed in a niche specially designed for it.
    • Delegates from 123 National/Regional Assemblies attended. {BW17p293-300]
    BWC; Haifa Universal House of Justice, Seat; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Bab, Shrine of; Caskets containing dust
    1978 23 May The House of Worship in Wilmette is included in the register of historic places in the United States. [BW17:166, 375]
    • For picture see BW17:165.
    Wilmette House of Worship; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
    1979 The House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tihrán is confiscated by the revolutionary government of Iran. [BW17:79] Tihrán House of Baha’u’llah; religious persecution
    1979 27 Jan In Samoa, His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II and Hand of the Cause of God Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum lay the cornerstone of the first Bahá’í House of Worship of the Pacific Islands. [BW17:188, 371; VV36]
    • For the text of the address delivered by His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II see BW17:372.
    • For excerpts from the address of Hand of the Cause of God Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum see BW17:373.
    • For pictures see BW17:374.
    Western Samoa Malietoa Tanumafili II of Western Samoa; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Foundation stones
    1979 spring The House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tákur, Iran, is confiscated by the Revolutionary Government. [BW18:289] Tákur; Iran House of Bahá’u’lláh; religious persecution
    1979 Apr Revolutionary Guards in Iran occupy the House of the Báb in Shíráz and neighbouring Bahá’í properties, explaining that it is a temporary measure intended to protect the building. [BW17:79] Shiraz; Iran House of the Bab (Shiraz); Persecution
    1979 Apr The ban against the Bahá’í Faith in Uganda is lifted and the House of Worship in Kampala is re-opened for worship. [BW17:141] Kampala; Uganda House of Worship; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship), Kampala
    1979 8 – 10 Sep The House of the Báb in Shíráz is attacked and substantially demolished by a crowd accompanied by 25 Revolutionary Guards apparently under the clergyman in charge of the local religious endowments department. [BBD108; BI11; BW18:253] Shiraz; Iran House of the Bab (Shiraz); Persecution
    1979 Dec Work on the demolition of the House of the Báb in Shíráz is resumed and the building almost razed to the ground. [BW18:255] Shiraz; Iran House of the Bab (Shiraz); Persecution
    1980 Sep Building work begins on the Samoan House of Worship. [BW18:104] Samoa House of Worship; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
    1981 The site of the House of the Báb, destroyed by a mob in 1979, is made into a road and public square. [BBD108] Shiraz; Iran House of the Bab (Shiraz); Persecution
    1981 10 Dec The Universal House of Justice announces that the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tákur, Núr, Iran, confiscated by the Revolutionary Government in the spring of 1979, has been totally demolished and the site offered for sale by auction. [BW18:289; BW19:42] Tákur; Núr; Iran House of Bahá’u’lláh
    1982 25 May The Subcommittee on Human Rights and International Organizations of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the United States House of Representatives hears the testimony of six witnesses concerning the persecution of the Bahá’ís in Iran. [BW18:172] Washington; DC Subcommittee on Human Rights and International Organizations of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the United States House of Representatives; religious persecution
    1982 17 Jul A seminar on the life of Bahíyyih Khánum, the Greatest Holy Leaf, is conducted at the Seat of the Universal House of Justice, the first gathering held in the building. [BW18:53–4; VV62]
    • For excerpts from the talk by ‘Alí Nakhjavání on this occasion see BW18:59–66.
    Haifa Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Universal House of Justice, Seat
    1983 Jan - Feb c. The Seat of the Universal House of Justice is completed; the Universal House of Justice formally occupies it. [BBD204; BW19:23; VV62]
    • For a description and history of the building see BW19:24–6.
    • Marble for the Seat of the Universal House of Justice was cut and chiseled by Margraf, a firm from Chiampo, Italy formerly known as Industria Marmi Vincentini. [BWNS1223]
    • For pictures see BW18:466–72 and Construction.
    Haifa Universal House of Justice, Seat
    1983 Ridván The renovation of the House of ‘Abdu’lláh Páshá in ‘Akká is completed. [BW18:77]
    • Delegates attending the fifth International Convention are the first pilgrims to visit it. [BW18:77]
    • For pictures see BW18:78–80.
    ‘Akka House of Abdullah Pasha; Restoration; International Convention; Firsts, Other
    1983 21 Oct The Republic of Panama issues a postage stamp bearing the picture of the House of Worship in Panama. [BW19:157] Republic of Panama House of Worship; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
    1984 3 Jan The Universal House of Justice addresses a letter to the Bahá’í youth of the world encouraging them to volunteer a period of service to the Bahá’í Faith. [AWH14–17; BW19:297–8, 299, 311–13; VV116] Haifa Universal House of Justice; Youth, year of service; Youth
    1984 30 Aug - 2 Sep An International Teaching Conference is held to coincide with the dedication of the House of Worship at Apia, Western Samoa. [BW19:548–54; VV64]
    • For a report of the conference see BW19:548–54.
    • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW19:555–6.
    • For pictures see BW19:475, 547–57 and VV64.
    Apia; Western Samoa House of Worship; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar; International Teaching Conference; Conference
    1984 1 Sep The House of Worship in Apia, Western Samoa, the Mother Temple of the Pacific, is dedicated in the presence of Hand of the Cause of God Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, Hand of the Cause Dr Ugo Giachery, His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II and more than a thousand Bahá’ís from 45 countries. [BW19:100–1; VV64]
    • For a report of the dedication see BW19:552–3.
    • For the text of the address of His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II see BW19:556.
    • For pictures see BW19:553 and VV64.
    • Marble for the House of Worship was cut and chiseled by Margraf, a firm from Chiampo, Italy formerly known as Industria Marmi Vincentini. [BWNS1223]
    Apia; Western Samoa; Pacific; Chiampo; Italy Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Ugo Giachery; Malietoa Tanumafili II of Western Samoa; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Marble
    1985 23 Jan The plans of the Universal House of Justice for the International Year of Peace are outlined to national spiritual assemblies. [AHW31–4; VV86] Worldwide International Year of Peace; Universal House of Justice
    1985 24 Oct On the fortieth anniversary of the United Nations and in anticipation of the United Nations International Year of Peace, the Universal House of Justice addresses a statement to the peoples of the world, The Promise of World Peace, on the theme of universal peace. [BBD174, 187–8; BW19:139, 155; VV59, 86–8]
    • Within six months national spiritual assemblies present copies to 167 world leaders, including 140 to leaders of independent countries. [BW19:139, 334–6]
    • For pictures see BW19:337–44.
    • For text see BW19:324–33.
    BWC; Worldwide United Nations; Universal House of Justice; Promise of World Peace (statement)
    1985 22 Nov The Promise of World Peace is presented to the Secretary-General of the United Nations Javier Perez de Cuellar by Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and representatives of the Bahá’í International Community. [BW19:33, 382; VV87] United Nations; Javier Perez de Cuellar; United Nations, Secretary-Generals; Promise of World Peace (statement); Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Bahai International Community
    1986. 1 Jan The publication of the compilation entitled "Women" by the Universal House of Justice. [Messages63-86p704, Compilation of CompilationsVol 2 p355]
    • Also see a message to an individual from the Universal House of Justice entitled "Women-Their Role in Society and the Establishment of Peace; Membership on the Universal House of Justice". [Messages63-86p707-709]
    BWC Women; Peace; Compilations; Universal House of Justice, Membership on
    1986 24 Dec The House of Worship in New Delhi, India, is dedicated in the presence of Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and more than 8,000 Bahá’ís from 114 countries. [AWH47; BINS161; BW19:102 BW20p732-733, VV92]
    • See VV93–4 for pictures.
    • Marble for the House of Worship was cut and chiseled by Margraf, a firm from Chiampo, Italy formerly known as Industria Marmi Vincentini. [BWNS1223]
    New Delhi; India; Chiampo; Italy Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Dedications; Marble
    1988 Apr The House of Abdu'lláh Páshá is open for the Bahá'ís to visit for the first time on the occasion of the Sixth International Convention. [ARG61-62] Haifa House of Abdullah Pasha; Bahaullah, Houses of
    1988 Dec c. The Government of Western Samoa publishes a Christmas issue of four stamps of religious buildings, among them the Bahá’í House of Worship in Samoa. [BINS196:8] Western Samoa House of Worship; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
    1988 18 Dec H. Borrah Kavelin, former member of the first House of Justice, passes away in Albuquerque, New Mexico. [VV97] Albuquerque; New Mexico; United States Borrah Kavelin; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Births and deaths; In Memoriam
    1989 Apr Some four million persons had visited the House of Worship in New Delhi to this date. [AWH61] New Delhi; India Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship)
    1989 3 Aug The first Latvian resident in Latvia to become a Bahá’í, Lilita Postaza, a renowned tapestry artist, enrols after visiting the Bahá’í temple in India. Latvia Lilita Postaza; House of Worship; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
    1990 The US House of Representatives unanimously adopted a resolution calling for the emancipation of the Iránian Bahá'í community and outlined the steps to be taken by the US government towards this end. [AWH76; VV60] US House of Representatives
    1990 Ridván The launching of a subsidiary Two Year Plan for the Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc countries. [Ridván Message 1992]. Goals were:
    1. attraction of numerous supporters
    2. great increase in the translation, publication and dissemination of Bahá'í literature
    3. the extension of the administrative order in the region by the erection of local and national spiritual assemblies [AWH71]
    Eastern Bloc Universal House of Justice
    1992 Prime Minister Hamilton Green of Guyana made a formal state visit to the temple in Wilmette. Bahá'í Newsreel Vol. 3 number 2 [VV133] Wilmette Prime Minister Hamilton Green of Guyana; House of Worship; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
    1993 29 Apr - 2 May The Seventh Bahá'í International Convention at the World Centre. Those elected to the Universal House of Justice were: Mr. Ali Nakhjavani, Mr. Glenford Mitchell, Mr. Adib Taherzadeh, Mr. Ian Semple, Mr. Peter Khan, Mr. Houshman Fatheazam, Mr. Hooper Dunbar, Mr. Farzam Arbab and Mr. Douglas Martin. [BINS295, BW93-4p51-58]
    • Hugh Chance and David Ruhe announce their retirement. Mr. Chance served since 1963 and Dr. Ruhe since 1968. [BINS295, BS93-4p57]
    • For a report of the Convention see BW93–4:51–8.
    • For pictures see BW93–4:52, 53, 54, 57.
    BWC Universal House of Justice, Election of; Universal House of Justice, Members of; International conventions; Conventions; Ali Nakhjavani; Glenford Mitchell; Adib Taherzadeh; Ian Semple; Peter Khan; Houshman Fatheazam; Hooper Dunbar; Farzam Arbab; Douglas Martin; Hugh Chance; David Ruhe
    1993 23 May The following is a list of Counsellors appointed to the International Teaching Centre for a five-year term: Mr. Kiser Barnes, Mr. Hartmut Grossmann, Mrs. Lauretta King, Mrs. Joan Lincoln, Mr. Shapoor Monadjem, Mr. Donald Rogers, Mr. Fred Schechter, Mrs. Kimiko Schwerin, Mrs. Joy Stevenson. Retiring members were: Mr. Mas'úd Khamsí and Mr. Peter Vuyiya. [From a message from the Universal House of Justice dated the 13th of May, 1993] BWC Universal House of Justice; Counsellors; International Teaching Centre; Kiser Barnes; Hartmut Grossmann; Lauretta King; Joan Lincoln; Shapoor Monadjem; Donald Rogers; Fred Schechter; Kimiko Schwerin; Joy Stevenson; Masud Khamsi; Peter Vuyiya
    1993 12 Jun The Honourable Sir Julius Chan, KBE, Deputy Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea consults with the Universal House of Justice on the future role of his country as an emerging nation and on the destiny of the Pacific region. [BINS297:9; BW93–4:78]
    • For pictures see BINS297:9 and BW93–4:78
    Papua New Guinea; Haifa Julius Chan, Sir; Universal House of Justice; Prominent visitors
    2000 26 Jan The passing of Mr. Adib Taherzadeh, member of the Universal House of Justice since 1988, in Haifa after some months of illness. He was 78. [One Country] BWC Adib Taherzadeh; Universal House of Justice, Members of; In Memoriam
    2000 23 Mar The election of Kiser Barnes to the Universal House of Justice to replace Mr Adib Taherzadeh. [BWNS948] BWC Kiser Barnes; Adib Taherzadeh; Universal House of Justice, Members of
    2002 Apr The Universal House of Justice issues a letter addressed to the world’s religious leaders warning of “the danger posed by "the rising fires of religious prejudice" and calls for decisive action against fanaticism and intolerance”. [One Country Vol.14 Issue 1] Message to the World's Religious Leaders; To the World's Religious Leaders; Universal House of Justice
    2002 26 Jun The announcement by the Universal House of Justice of the publication of Gems of Divine Mysteries in English. Some 82-pages in English, the volume was originally titled Javahiru'l-Asrar, and was written in Arabic during Bahá'u'lláh 's banishment to Iraq, where He was exiled from 1853 until 1863. The book is a letter written in reply to a seeker who asked about the relationship of prophecy to the Babi Faith, and Bahá'u'lláh used that question as an opportunity to elaborate a number of related subjects. The book relates closely to two other major works of Bahá'u'lláh: The Seven Valleys (Haft-Vadi), an exposition on the progression of the soul, and The Book of Certitude (Kitab-i-Iqan). [BW'02-‘03pg37, BWNS174]
    • The volume was originally titled Javahiru'l-Asrar, and was written in Arabic during Bahá'u'lláh's residence in Iraq. [One Country Vol.14 Issue 2]
    BWC Gems of Divine Mysteries; Universal House of Justice
    2003 18 Mar The President of India, Abdul Kalam, visited the Bahá'í House of Worship in New Delhi, the first official visit there by an Indian Head of State since the Temple was opened in December 1986. [BWNS204] New Delhi; India Abdul Kalam; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Prominent visitors; Presidents; Firsts, Other
    2003 28 Apr The retirement of Mr. Ali Nakhjavani and Mr. Hushmand Fatheazam from the Universal House of Justice. Both had served since the inception of the Universal House of Justice in 1963. They are replaced by Mr. Hartmut Grossmann and Dr. Firaydoun Javaheri. [BWNS208] BWC Ali Nakhjavani; Hushmand Fatheazam; Retirement; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Hartmut Grossmann; Firaydoun Javaheri
    2005 21 Mar The election of Dr. Payman Mohajer and Mr. Paul Lample to the vacancies on the Universal House of Justice. They fill the vacancies created by the departure at Naw-Ruz of Mr. Ian Semple and Mr. Douglas Martin, owing to age and the related needs of the Faith. [BWNS358] BWC Payman Mohajer; Paul Lample; Ian Semple; Douglas Martin; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Universal House of Justice, Election of
    2007 21 Nov The Universal House of Justice responded to a communications from the Bahá'ís attending the event of the 2nd of October advising the Friends in Iran to explore contacts with other Iranian individuals and organizations sympathetic to the plight of the Bahá'ís and to continue the effort to secure legal representation for the Bahá'í students. It also encouraged them to convey the gratitude of the Iranian Bahá'ís to the Defenders of Human Rights Centre. [The referenced website is no longer in existence.] Iran; Universal House of Justice; persecution
    2008 23 Apr The retirement of Universal House of Justice members Mr. Hartmut Grossman and Mr. Glenford E. Mitchell. Mr Grossmen served from 2003 and Mr. Mitchell was elected in 1982. [BWNS622] BWC Hartmut Grossman; Glenford Mitchell; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Retirement
    2010 20 Mar The Universal House of Justice announced the retirement of Mr. Peter Khan (member since 1987) and Mr. Hooper Dunbar (member since 1988). [BWNS763] BWC Peter Khan; Hooper Dunbar; Universal House of Justice, Members of
    2011 15 Jul The passing of former Universal House of Justice member Dr. Peter J. Khan in Brisbane, Australia. He served as a member of the Universal House of Justice from 1987 until April 2010. [BWNS840, BWNS841] BWC Peter Khan; Universal House of Justice; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    2011 1 Dec The passing of former Universal House of Justice member Mr. Ian C. Semple in Switzerland. He served as a member of the Universal House of Justice from 2005 to 2013. [BWNS871] Switzerland Ian Semple; Universal House of Justice; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    2012 21 Apr Plans are announced that the Universal House of Justice is entering into consultations with respective National Spiritual Assemblies regarding the erection of the first local Houses of Worship in each of the following clusters: Battambang, Cambodia; Bihar Sharif, India; Matunda Soy, Kenya; Norte del Cauca, Colombia; and Tanna, Vanuatu. [Riḍván 2012 To the Bahá’ís of the World] Haifa; Israel; Battambang; Cambodia; Bihar Sharif; India; Matunda Soy; Kenya; Norte del Cauca; Colombia; and Tanna; Vanuatu. local Mashriqu’l-Adhkar; Local House of Worship; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
    2013 24 - 26 Jun Contrary to the plans of the Department of Antiquities, the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Baghdád is razed to make way for the construction of a mosque. [Message from the Universal House of Justice date 17 July 2013, SETPE1p170] Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
    2013 27 Jun In a message from the Universal House of Justice to all National Spiritual Assemblies it advises of the news of the destruction of the House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad. [Message of 27 Jun 2013]
    In truth, I declare, it shall be so abased in the days to come as to cause tears to flow from every discerning eye...And in the fulness of time, shall the Lord by the power of truth exalt it in the eyes of all the world, cause it to become the mighty standard of His domination, the shrine round which shall circle the concourse of the faithful. [BA99-100, BWNS961]
    Baghdád; Iraq; House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad
    2013 Nov The announcement by the Universal House of Justice of the retirement of Dr. Farzam Arbab and Mr. Kiser Barnes. Mr. Arbab was first elected in 1993 and Mr. Barnes was elected in 2000. [BWNS948] BWC Farzam Arbab; Kiser Barnes; Retirement; Universal House of Justice, Members of
    2014 14 Sep Some 500 people attend the unveiling of the design of the first local Baha’i House of Worship in Norte del Cauca, Columbia [BWNS1020]
    • Julian Gutierrez Chacon is the architect for the House of Worship.
    • The relationship between the environment of the region and the community is also expressed in the design of the House of Worship, which was inspired by the shape of the cocoa pod, a plant that grows abundantly in Colombia and is integral to the identity of the landscape and the lives and economy of the people.
    • See BWNS for pictures.
    Agua Azul; Norte del Cauca; Columbia Local Baha’i House of Worship; Local Mashriqu’l-Adhkar BWSN1153
    2015 17 July Some 300 people attend the unveiling of the design of the first local Baha’i House of Worship in Battambang, Cambodia [BWNS 1062]
    • See BWNS for pictures.
    Battambang; Cambodia Local Baha’i House of Worship; Local Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
    2015 15 Nov The groundbreaking ceremony of the first local Baha’i House of Worship in Battambang, Cambodia was attended by some 200 community members. The event coincided with the commemoration of the Twin Holy Birthdays—the Birth of the Bab and the Birth of Baha'u'llah. [BWNS1082]
    • See BWNS for pictures.
    Battambang; Cambodia Local Baha’i House of Worship; Local Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
    2016 8 Mar The earthworks for the Local Baha’i House of Worship in Battambang, Cambodia is completed. [BWNS1100] Battambang; Cambodia Local Baha’i House of Worship; Local Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
    2016 22 May Some 700 people gathered on the temple land in the small village of Agua Azul, in the municipality of Villa Rica near Norte del Cauca, Colombia to participate in the groundbreaking ceremony of the first local Baha’i House of Worship. [BWNS1109]
    • See BWNS1100 for pictures.
    • Following the groundbreaking ceremony the three-meter high central mound on which the 18-meter tall Temple will stand will be completed, and the foundational work for the surrounding auxiliary structures will be laid. In time, these structures will be painted in the bright colors traditional to buildings in Colombia.
    Agua Azul; Norte del Cauca; Columbia Local Baha’i House of Worship; Local Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
    2016 16 Sep For a progress report on the construction of the Local House of Worship in Battanbang, Cambodia see BWNS1120 Battambang; Cambodia Local Baha’i House of Worship; Local Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
    2017 23 Feb Plans for the construction of the local Baha’i House of Worship in Agua Azul, a village in Norte del Cauca, Colombia, have recently reached an important milestone. Construction officially began in January after building contracts were formalized with a local firm in the region. [BWNS1153]

    Concurrent with the building the House of Worship has been the reinforcement of activities that contribute to the spiritual and material progress of communities in and around Norte del Cauca. Inspired by the Temple, these community-building activities have multiplied, and a spirit of prayer, devotion, and participation has begun to increasingly permeate the area.

    Parallel to this, the community has been undertaking a reforestation project, designated for a "Bosque Nativo" or native forest on an 11-hectare piece of land adjacent to the Temple site to reintroduce native vegetation which has been decimated by years of monoculture plantations of sugarcane.

    • For pictures see BWNS1153
    • For development report dated the 14th of May, 2017 see BWNS1168.
    Agua Azul; Norte del Cauca; Columbia local Mashriqu’l-Adhkar; Local House of Worship; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar BWNS1047
    2017 18 Jun The plan for the design of the Local Mashriqu’l-Adhkar in Tanna was announced. Ashkan Mostaghim of mostaghim & associates, a firm from Sydney, Australia, has been chosen as the Temple’s architect. His design was on the shortlist for the Continental Mashriqu’l-Adhkar in Santiago. [BWNS1175] Tanna; Vanuatu Local Mashriqu’l-Adhkar; Local House of Worship; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar; Ashkan Mostaghim
    2017 1 - 2 Sep The opening of Cambodia’s first “Local House of Worship” in Battambang, just over two years after the design of the building was unveiled in July 2015.

    The Mashriqu’l-Adhkar was designed by Phnom Penh-based architect Tang Sochet Vitou. It is situated on a 9 hectare property of which 1.5 hectares is used for the temple, an administrative building as well as gardens and ponds. The temple is a frequent topic of conversation among the local population. Even before its completion, it has galvanized action towards the betterment of the community and brought neighbours together. it will help provide for the spiritual needs of Cambodia’s growing Baha’i community which, according to the Ministry of Cult and Religion’s most recent annual report, numbers about 12,000 although some adherents say the figure may now be closer to 20,000. Baha’i communities were first recorded in the kingdom in the 1920s and since 1992 they have grown steadily with the help of aid workers and Asian immigrants.

    In a letter dated 18 December 2014, the Universal House of Justice explained that a Baha’i House of Worship is a “collective centre of society to promote cordial affection” and “stands as a universal place of worship open to all the inhabitants of a locality irrespective of their religious affiliation, background, ethnicity, or gender and a haven for the deepest contemplation on spiritual reality and foundational questions of life, including individual and collective responsibility for the betterment of society.”

    The dedication was marked by a two-day conference bringing together over 2,500 people from Battambang and every other region of Cambodia. A number of Cambodian dignitaries attended along with representatives of Baha’i communities in Southeast Asia. The Universal House of Justice was represented by Ms. Sokuntheary Reth who serves on the Continental Board of Counsellors in Asia. [BWNS1185, BWNS1187, BWNS1189, BWNS1190 (slide show), BWNS1191 (video), BWNS1192]

    Battambang; Cambodia Local Baha’i House of Worship; Local Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
    2017. 16 Nov Progress report on the construction of the local Bahá'í House of Worship in Norte del Cauca. [BWNS1222]
    • See BWNS1047 for information on the reforestation project in the vicinity of the Temple.
    Norte del Cauca; Colombia Local Mashriqu’l-Adhkar; Local House of Worship; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar; reforestation

    from the main catalogue

    1. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Tablet on the Functioning of the Universal House of Justice: A Provisional Translation and Commentary, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). [about]
    2. Authority and Centrality of the Universal House of Justice, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 13 (2012). Issues inspired by Udo Schaefer's writings about limitations on infallibility and the House's spheres of jurisdiction. [about]
    3. Baha'i House of Worship in Europe, The, by Massrouri M. and et al. (2005). Brochure about the history and architectural design, with photos, of the Baha'i Temple in Hofheim am Taunus, Germany. [about]
    4. Bahá'í House of Worship, The: The Meaning of the Temple, by W. Kenneth Christian (1975). Text and scan of a flyer about the Chicago House of Worship, summarizing the history and facts of this Mashriqu'l-Adhkar. [about]
    5. Bahá'í Obligatory Prayer and the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, by Universal House of Justice (1998). Obligatory prayer may be performed at home or in the Temple — in private or in public — but on condition that each believer recite it individually. [about]
    6. Bahá'í Shrines, by John Walbridge, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). [about]
    7. Bahá'í Temple Moves Toward Completion, in The Christian Century, 58:43 (1941). One-paragraph blurb from 1941. [about]
    8. Bahá'í Temple of Universal Peace, The, by Albert Ross Vail, in The Open Court, 45:902 (1931). Short essay on the construction of the temple in Wilmette, and an overview of the Baha'i Faith. [about]
    9. Bahá'í Temple, House of Worship of a World Faith, Commemorating Completion of Exterior Ornamentation, The (1942). Photographs and essays about the construction of the American temple in Chicago. Likely published as a progress report to distribute at the 1942 National Convention. [about]
    10. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 18 (1979-1983), in Bahá'í World (1986). [about]
    11. Bourgeois, Jean-Baptiste Louis (1856-1930), by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram (1997). Short biography of the architect and designer of Mashriqu'l-Adhkar at Wilmette, Illinois. [about]
    12. Business, Development, and the Bahá'í Funds (1993). Compilation by the Office of the Treasurer on the challenge for America, business ventures and development, dependencies of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, fundraising, safeguarding contributions, and earmarking. Includes many supplemental letters from the UHJ. [about]
    13. Challenging the Authority of the Universal House of Justice, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Does the Universal House of Justice have the authority to make authoritative interpretations? Does anyone has the right to challenge the authority or actions of the Universal House of Justice? [about]
    14. Chicago the Pagan, by Weimar Port (1953). 2-page description of the Baha'i Temple in Wilmette, with a poem about it by Charles Collins published in the Chicago Tribune. [about]
    15. City of Love, The: Ishqábád and the Institution of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, by Bruce Whitmore, in Bahá'í News, 52:7 (1975). History of the building of the temple in Turkmenistan, north of the Iranian province of Khurasan. [about]
    16. Considerations in Setting Sacred Text to Music for the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram, in Arts Dialogue (1996). [about]
    17. Constitution of the Universal House of Justice, by Universal House of Justice (1972). [about]
    18. Course on Bahá'í Symbolism, by Ernesto Fernandez (2013). Symbolic forms in the Writings and Baha'i architectural systems, and their analogues in universal religious symbolism. Includes Spanish translation, "Curso de simbología bahá ́í." [about]
    19. Daily Lessons Received at Akka: January 1908, by Helen S. Goodall and Ella Goodall Cooper (1979). Includes translations of three Tablets of Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
    20. Development of Precast Exposed Aggregate Concrete Cladding, The: The Legacy of John J. Earley and the Implications for Preservation Philosophy, by Jenna Cellini (2008). Architectural use of concrete and different concrete types, with many references to the Baha'i temple in Wilmette. Link to thesis (offsite). [about]
    21. Earthly Paradise, An: Bahá'í Houses of Worship Around the World, by Julie Badiee: Review, by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 7 (1997). [about]
    22. Election and Infallibility of the Universal House of Justice, by Universal House of Justice, in Messages from the Universal House of Justice: 1963-1986: The Third Epoch of the Formative Age (1996). Answers to three questions: Why were steps taken to elect a Universal House of Justice with the foreknowledge that there would be no Guardian? Was the time ripe for such an action? Could not the International Baha'i Council have carried on the work? [about]
    23. Exploring the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, by Sen McGlinn, in Vizier, 35:6-36:3 (1997). Four topics: Entry by troops and the institution of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar; the House of Worship and the House of Justice; the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar as a Meeting, and the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar as a Building. [about]
    24. Father and the Maiden, The: The Abrahamic Patriarchate and the Divine Feminine, by Mark A. Foster (1999). [about]
    25. Flow of Divine Authority, by Brent Poirier, in Deepen, 3.4:9 (1996). Scriptural authority for the Universal House of Justice to function infallibly without the presence of a living Guardian. [about]
    26. Guardianship and the House of Justice, by Sen McGlinn (1997). [about]
    27. Guardianship and the Universal House of Justice, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 11 (2010). [about]
    28. Guardianship and the Universal House of Justice, The, by Universal House of Justice (1966). Passages from a letter on the relationship between the Guardianship and the Universal House of Justice, the timing of the election of the House, the lack of a will by or a successor to the Guardian, and the House's ability to function on its own. [about]
    29. Guardianship and the Universal House of Justice, The, by Ian C. Semple, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). [about]
    30. Guardianship, The Universal House of Justice, and Infallibility, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 10 (2009). The House is infallible even without the Guardian, because that the Guardian's chief function was interpretation and not legislation. [about]
    31. Hartmut Grossmann, Remarks of, Concerning the Timing of the Lesser Peace (2012). Responding to a talk given by an ex-member of the UHJ, this letter explains: statements of ex-members of the House are personal opinions only; and while we don't know the exact date of the Lesser Peace, the Guardian assures us that it will come. [about]
    32. Haziratu'l-Quds, Functions and Importance of, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi (1997). Two letters from the Universal House of Justice, statements from the Guardian, and compilations prepared by the Baha'i World Center concerning the Baha'i temples, their dependencies, and their uses. [about]
    33. Historical Analysis of Critical Transformations in the Evolution of the Bahá'í World Faith, An, by Vernon Elvin Johnson (1974). Detailed study of major changes in the Faith's history, opposition to such changes, and their resulting tensions and resolutions. [about]
    34. Historical Background of the Panama Temple, by Ruth Pringle, in Bahá'í News (1972). A history of the Bahá’í Faith in Panama during the first and second U.S. Seven Year Plans, from the arrival of the first pioneers in 1939 to the formation of the first Regional Assembly in 1951. [about]
    35. Historical Development of Genoa Square in Acre Israel from the Seventh Century to the Present Day, The, by Amy Suzanne Hollander (1995). A study of the structure, development, space, and historic preservation of a portion of Akka, including discussion of its place in Baha'i history. [about]
    36. History of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Tihran, Iran (1978). Brief history of the birth-place of Baha'u'llah distributed to pilgrims to the site. [about]
    37. House of Abdu'llah Pasha, The, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Short history and restoration of a house associated with "some of the most dramatic and historically significant events of the Heroic Age of the Bahá'í Faith." [about]
    38. House of Baha'u'llah in Baghdad: Case before the League of Nations, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of 'Iraq (1928). [about]
    39. House of Justice (Baytu'l-'Adl), by Moojan Momen, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
    40. Illustrated description of a design in the Persian-Indian style of architecture for the first Mashrak-el-Azkar (Bahai temple) to be erected in America, by Charles Mason Remey (1920). Expanded version of a portion of Remey's earlier Mashrak-el-Azkar [Mashriqu'l-Adhkár]: Descriptive of the Bahai temple, with photographs of Temple models. [about]
    41. Indexes to Bahá'í World volumes: Obituaries, chronologies, contents, illustrations, in Bahá'í World (2013). Seven separate indexes for Bahá'í World, in PDF, Word, and Excel versions. [about]
    42. Infallibility of the Guardianship and of the Universal House of Justice, by Universal House of Justice (1977). Distinction between the interpretive spheres of the Guardian versus the Universal House of Justice. [about]
    43. Infallibility of the Universal House of Justice, by Universal House of Justice, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 11 (2010). [about]
    44. Infallible Institutions?, by Udo Schaefer, in Reason and Revelation: Studies in the Babi and Bahá'í Religions, 13 (2002). Historical and Bahá'í interpretations of infallibility. [about]
    45. Institution of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, The, by Universal House of Justice and Horace Holley, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Five documents from Baha'i World 18 part four section 5: Institution of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, its spiritual significance, the temple on the Indian sub-continent, the Lotus of Bahapur, and the first Mashriqu'l-Adhkar of the Pacific Islands. [about]
    46. Institution of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, The (2017). A statement and compilation prepared by the Research Department of the Universal House of Justice. [about]
    47. Japan Will Turn Ablaze!, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi (1992). Tablets of `Abdu'l-Bahá, letters of Shoghi Effendi and the Universal House of Justice, and historical notes about Japan. [about]
    48. Kitáb-i-Aqdas as a Lens with which to Examine some of the Dilemmas of Modernity, The, by Betsy Omidvaran, in Solas, 2 (2002). Contrast between the Aqdas - the source of laws of future society - and issues of the modern world as it had evolved up to the 19th century. Discussion of Houses of Worship, universal language, financial principles, justice, the Covenant, and unity. [about]
    49. Last Refuge, The: Fifty Years of the Universal House of Justice, by Shahbaz Fatheazam (2015). History of the House by the son of 40-year member Houshmand Fatheazam, an eye-witness to its development; organizational structure of Bahá'í polity and its vision of politics; connections between institutions and culture; personal recollections. [about]
    50. Letter to Corinne True re Women on the House of Justice, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1909). Translation by Amín Faríd of a short letter stating that "men and women are equal in all rights save in the Universal House of Justice; for the Chairman and the members of the House of Justice are men according to the Text of the Book." [about]
    51. Letter to the World's Religious Leaders, by Universal House of Justice (2002). On historic challenges that leaders of religion must respond to, if spiritual leadership is to have meaning in the new global society. [about]
    52. Mashrak-el-Azkar: Descriptive of the Bahai temple, by Charles Mason Remey (1917). Preliminary designs for the first Mashriqu'l-Adhkár to be built in America, showing nine varying treatments in different styles of architecture; includes discussions of the Ashkhabad temple and Baha'i history, and a 1908 letter to Star of West. [about]
    53. Mashriqu'l-Adhkar: Sacred Architecture and the Bahá'í faith, by Kenneth B. Sewell (1992). The nature of Baha'i architecture, the spiritual intentions of the unique design of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, sacred geometry, and the author's original building design. Link to thesis (offsite). [about]
    54. Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (1998). Compilation on the Baha'i temple, the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, "Dawning Place of Remembrance." [about]
    55. Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, by Julie Badiee, in The Bahá'í Encyclopedia (2009). On the "Dawning Place of the Praise of God," a term used to refer to a Bahá’í House of Worship and its surrounding dependencies. [about]
    56. Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, by Moojan Momen, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2010). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
    57. Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, Extracts on the Institution of, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (1985). Readings on the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, in both English (unpublished) and German (published as Das Baha'i-Haus der Andacht Bedeutung und Bestimmung). [about]
    58. Meanings of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, by Sen McGlinn (1997). Summary of the full meanings of Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, "The Dawning Place of the Remembrance of God." [about]
    59. Members of the Universal House of Justice 1963-2014 and Hands of the Cause: Timeline (2003). List of names and dates of all who served on the House of Justice or as Hands. [about]
    60. Memories of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'l-Bahá: Memoirs of Mírzá Habíbu'lláh Afnán, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 4 (2005). Autobiography of a close confidant of the holy family. Includes appendices on Baha'i historical places in Shiraz, the Afnán family genealogy, and excerpts from Houshmand Fatheazam’s diary [about]
    61. Messages from the Universal House of Justice: 1986-2001, by Universal House of Justice (2009). [about]
    62. Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-86, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
    63. Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1968-1973, by Universal House of Justice (1976). [about]
    64. Ministry of the Custodians: An Account of the Stewardship of the Hands of the Cause 1957-1963, by Universal House of Justice (1992). Account of the stewardship of the Hands of the Cause of God from 1957-63, from the passing of Shoghi Effendi to the election of the House, riding the waves of crisis to the moment of victory — the fulfillment of prophecy. [about]
    65. Minutes of the Fourteenth Session, 1928, by Permanent Mandates Commission (1928). Petition to the League of Nations from the Spiritual Assembly of Baghdad regarding confiscation of property. [about]
    66. Minutes of the Sixteenth Session, 1929, by Permanent Mandates Commission (1929). Petition from the Bahai Spiritual Assembly of Baghdad regarding the confiscation of property; measures taken after the Council's decision. [about]
    67. Music, Devotions, and Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram, in Studies in Babi and Bahá'í History, volume 4 (1987). An in-depth examination of the development of music and hymns within American Baha'i devotional life, some history of the Chicago community, and the architecture and construction of the Wilmette temple. Includes sheet music and design plans. [about]
    68. One Common Faith, by Universal House of Justice (2005). Review of relevant passages from both the writings of Bahá'u'lláh and the scriptures of other faiths against the background of contemporary crises. [about]
    69. Orange Tree, Myth of, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Refutation of the "miracle" of an immortal orange tree growing at the site of the former House of the Bab [about]
    70. Palestine: A Study of Jewish, Arab, and British Policies, volume 2, by Esco Foundation for Palestine (1947). One-page discussion of Baha'is being evicted from properties in Iraq, and their appeal to the League of Nations Permanent Mandates Commission. [about]
    71. Photo brochure of the Bahá'í Temple in Wilmette, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1965). A booklet of color photographs, postcard-size and quality, with text and statistics about the Temple. [about]
    72. Pilgrimage in Baha'u'llah's Writings, by Ahang Rabbani (2010). On pilgrimage to the Twin Shrines in the Holy Land and their Tablets of Visitation, to the House of the Bab in Shiraz, and to the House of Baha’u’llah in Baghdad. [about]
    73. Promise of World Peace, by Universal House of Justice (1985). A document distributed to many politicians and prominent individuals since its writing in 1985, it was the first official public statement made by the Universal House of Justice since its inception in 1963. [about]
    74. Publishing Letters from the Universal House of Justice, by Universal House of Justice (2005). Permission must be sought from the House before publishing any of their letters. [about]
    75. Recognition of the Next Manifestation by the Universal House of Justice, by Universal House of Justice (1997). On concerns that a future Universal House of Justice might not recognize the next Manifestation of God. [about]
    76. Recognition of the Next Manifestation of God, by Universal House of Justice (1997). On the eventual recognition of the next Prophet by the Universal House of Justice. [about]
    77. Secret of Divine Civilization translation, capital punishment, and other quesions, by Universal House of Justice (1991). On the capitalization of pronouns, reference to "we Muslims," works of Abdu'l-Baha revealed during the time of Baha'u'llah, the first person to recognize Baha'u'llah, and designer of the temple in Ishqabad. Includes a compilation on capital punishment. [about]
    78. Seed of Creation: A philosophical approach towards the status of Universal House of Justice in respect to Baha'i concept of creation, by Ahmad Aniss (1998). A philosophical approach towards the status of Universal House of Justice in respect to Baha'i concept of creation. [about]
    79. Shoghi Effendi: Recollections, by Ugo Giachery (1973). Biography of Shoghi Effendi from the close standpoint of the author's personal experiences. Short excerpt from book; Part 1 only. [about]
    80. Statistics on Members of the Universal House of Justice, in The Last Refuge: Fifty Years of the Universal House of Justice (2015). 2-page chart showing the nationality, years served, and membership changes of the Universal House of Justice, 1963-2015. [about]
    81. Tablet of Pilgrimage to the House of Bahá'u'lláh: Baghdad, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Rituals in Babism and Bahá'ísm, Pembroke Persian Series Vol. 2 (1994). A provisional English translation of instructions by Baha'u'llah for pilgrimage to the House of Baha'u'llah in Baghdad. [about]
    82. Tablet of Pilgrimage to the House of the Báb: Shiraz, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Rituals in Babism and Bahá'ísm, Pembroke Persian Series Vol. 2 (1994). [about]
    83. Tablets of Pilgrimage (Suriy-i-Hajj): Wilmette Institute faculty notes, by Iraj Ayman (1999). [about]
    84. Temple Song, by Louise R. Waite, in Bahá'í News, 1:4 (1910). Sheet music and audio for an early American Baha'i song. [about]
    85. Temples: Service in Bahá'í Temples, by Shoghi Effendi and Universal House of Justice, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 3 (2000). [about]
    86. Temples, Bahá'í, by Vahid Rafati and Fariborz Sahba, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
    87. Temples, Bahá'í, by Christopher Buck, in Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices, Vol. 6, ed. J. Gordon Melton & Martin Baumann (2010). [about]
    88. Temples, Bahá'í, by Christopher Buck, in World Religions: Belief, Culture, and Controversy (2011). [about]
    89. Textual Context and Literary Criticism: A Case Study based on a Letter from Shoghi Effendi, by Gerald Keil, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 11 (2010). [about]
    90. Thoughts on the Ministry of the Universal House of Justice, Some, by Ali Nakhjavani, in Lights of Irfan (2009). [about]
    91. Translation of Key Bahá'í Terms, by Universal House of Justice (2015). Arabic terms such as "Alláh-u-Abhá", "Yá Bahá’u’l-Abhá", “Mashriqu’l-Adhkár," "Ḥazíratu’l-Quds," and "Bahá" should generally not be translated into other languages, for translations are too inadequate. [about]
    92. Unassailable Foundation of the Cause of God: Questions about the Universal House of Justice, by Universal House of Justice (1965). Why were steps taken to elect a Universal House of Justice with the foreknowledge that there would be no Guardian? Was the time ripe for such an action? Could not the International Baha'i Council have carried on the work? [about]
    93. Universal House of Justice and the Principles of Jurisprudence, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2001). Authorized translation of an excerpt of a tablet on "the wisdom of referring certain important laws to the House of Justice." [about]
    94. Universal House of Justice's Power of Elucidation, The, by Universal House of Justice, in Messages from the Universal House of Justice: 1963-1986, The Third Epoch of the Formative Age (1996). Clarification about the qualitative difference between the Guardian's prerogative of interpretation and the power of elucidation of the Universal House of Justice. [about]
    95. Universal House of Justice, Establishment of, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá, in Compilation of Compilations, Volume 1 (1991). [about]
    96. Universal House of Justice: Significance, Origin, Authority, and Election, The, by Shahin Vafai, in The Essence of the Covenant: Features, History, and Implications (2005). [about]
    97. Various questions: Psychic powers, Persepolis, portrait of Mulla Husayn, etc., by Universal House of Justice (2007). Answers to: psychic powers and "natural" healing; 'Abdu'l-Bahá's statement on Persepolis; inauthenticity of a portrait of Mullá Husayn; a passage on childhood; list of sites for future Houses of Worship; Prayer of the Báb; and a jungle story. [about]
    98. Wellspring of Guidance: Messages of the Universal House of Justice 1963-68, by Universal House of Justice, First Revised Edition (1969). Collection of letters from the first years after the creation of the Universal House of Justice. [about]
    99. Why There are No Women in the Universal House of Justice, by Vladimir Chupin (2011). Upon learning that it is forbidden to elect women to the Universal House of Justice, many people become puzzled, given the Faith's strong emphasis on the equality of the sexes. This essay offers some perspectives. [about]
    100. Wider Horizon: Selected Messages of the Universal House of Justice 1983-1992, by Universal House of Justice (1992). [about]
    101. Women on the House of Justice; meaning of "Umumi", by Universal House of Justice (1997). Clarifies that 'Abdu'l-Baha, in a tablet to Corinne True, indeed refers to the Universal House of Justice when affirming that membership is confined to men only. Includes a portion of Corinne True's original query to 'Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
    102. Women on the Universal House of Justice, by Universal House of Justice (1988). Response to a paper presented at a Baha'i Studies conference which raised the possibility that women could one day be eligible for membership on the Universal House of Justice. [about]
    103. World Order of Baha'u'llah: Six Talks on the Various Aspects of, by Ali Nakhjavani (2004). Transcripts of six talks given at a week-long course on the World Order of Baha'u'llah, sponsored by the NSA of Italy. Document includes compilation and outline. (This online version compiled from three different editions of this book.) [about]
    104. World Order, Evolution Towards: Notes on recent secondary literature, compilation, and two memoranda from the Bahá'í World Centre, by Universal House of Justice, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). Two letters, "Request for Materials about the World Order of Baha'u'llah" and "World Government and the Universal House of Justice," and compilation "Extracts from Letters Written by and on Behalf of the House of Justice on Evolution Towards World Order." [about]
     
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