Search for tag "laws"
|1873. Early part
||Bahá'u'lláh completes the revelation of The Kitáb-i-Aqdas in the southeast corner room of the house of `Údí Khammár. [BBD132; BKG351; DH46; GPB213; RB3:275; SA248]
- There is evidence to suggest that at least some of the work was written earlier as confirmed by the book's reference to the fall of Napoleon III in 1870 and there is further evidence to suggest that parts of The Kitáb-i-Aqdas were revealed as early as 1868. [SA16–17, 248]
- For the significance of The Kitáb-i-Aqdas see BKG351–3, BW15:87–91, GPB213–15 and RB3:275–399.
- For analyses of its significance, content and application, see RB3:275–399 and SA248–52.
- The Law of the Huqúqu'lláh that had first been ordained by the Báb in the Persian Bayán, chapter 19 of unit 5, was reiterated in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, verses 227-233 and in the Questions and Answers.
- At first Bahá'u'lláh declined to accept the Huqúq from the believers stating that the funds were not needed. [Huqúqu'lláh: The Right of God p9]
- "After the Kitáb-i-Aqdas had been revealed in response to the pleas of the friends, Bahá’u’lláh withheld it from publication for some time and even then, when a number of devoted Bahá’ís, having learned of the law, endeavored to offer the Ḥuqúqu’lláh, the payment was not accepted. The Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh show His acute consciousness of the way in which material wealth has been permitted to degrade religion in the past, and He preferred the Faith to sacrifice all material benefits rather than to soil to the slightest degree its dignity and purity. Herein is a lesson for all Bahá’í institutions for all time." [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1987]
||Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Napoleon III; Huququllah; - Basic timeline; Laws (general); House of Udi Khammar; Charters; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of
||The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada draws up and publishes a ‘Declaration of Trust’ and ‘By-laws of the National Spiritual Assembly’. [BW2:89, BW10:180]
- For text see BW2:90–8.
- The Guardian describes it as the Bahá’í ‘national constitution’ heralding ‘the formation of the constitution of the future Bahá’í World Community’. [GPB335; PP302–3]
- The drafting is largely the work of Horace Holley with assistance from the lawyer Mountfort Mills. [SBR234]
- In subsequent years the National Assemblies of India and Burma, of Egypt, Iraq, Persian and the British Isles all adopted this example almost verbatum. [UD101, BA134-5, SETPE1p145-6]
|United States; Canada
||National Spiritual Assembly; Horace Holley; Mountfort Mills; Constitutions; By-laws; Recognition; Firsts, Other
|1929 4 May
||When the British Mandate in Palestine had been set up, an Order-in-Council had been enacted that allowed each of the recognized religious communities to be administered in all affairs of personal status according to their own religious laws and courts. The Bahá'í community had not, however, been accorded this "recognized" status and was thus compelled to submit to the Muslim Courts. In 1929 Shoghi Effendi asked Mountfort Mills to raise the matter with the authorities and the Bahá’í Community of Haifa formally petitions the government that the Bahá’í laws on personal status be recognized in Palestine. [BBR459; PP284]
- Recognition is granted later in the year. [BBR459; DH116; PP284]
||laws of personal status
||The New York Bahá’í community drafts the by-laws of a Bahá’í local assembly. [GPB335]
- These become the pattern for all local Bahá’í constitutions throughout the world. [BBRSM122; GPB335; PP303]
|New York; United States
||Shoghi Effendi writes to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada stating that the laws of fasting, obligatory prayer, the consent of parents before marriage, the avoidance of alcoholic drinks and monogamy should be regarded as universally applicable and binding. [CB313]
||United States; Canada
||Laws; Gradual implementation of laws
|1953 13 Dec
||A separate department for the Bahá’í Faith is established by the Israeli Ministry of Religious Affairs. [GBF137; PP 291; PP320]
||laws of personal status
||Delegates at the United States National Convention petition the Universal National Convention House of Justice requesting that the law of Huqúqu’lláh be made binding on the American Bahá’ís. [AWH30; ZK146–77]
- The Universal House of Justice replies that it is not yet the time to take this step. [AWH30, Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 6 August, 1984]
||National Conventions; Huququllah; Gradual implementation of laws
||The highest legal authority in Germany, the Federal Constitutional Court, overturned the decisions of a number of lower courts that had refused to register the by-laws of a Local Spiritual Assembly on the grounds that the authority granted to the National Spiritual Assembly in the document violated the legal principle requiring the autonomy of all legally incorporated associations.
- ruling affirmed Bahá'í community, by it’s right as a recognized religion, recognized by public knowledge and by the testimony of scholars of comparative religion, had the right to a legal identity. [AWH87]
||LSA; NSA; By-laws
||The Universal House of Justice announces that the law of Huqúqu'lláh will become universally applicable at Ridván 1992. [AWH91–2, 174, Ridván 1991]
||Huququllah; Gradual implementation of laws
||The announcement by the Universal House of Justice that the Law of Ḥuqúqu’lláh is to be in effect for the members of our entire world community. [Ridván Message, AWH106, 175, BW92–3:28, CBN Jan91 p2]
||Huququllah; Gradual implementation of laws
|1999 28 Dec
||In a message from the Universal House of Justice dated the 28 December, 1999 some laws of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas which had not yet been universally applied are put into effect. Those are the laws which directly foster the devotional life of the individual and of the community which pertain to obligatory prayer, fasting and recitation of the Greatest Name ninety-five times a day.
- Those laws of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas which are not yet universally accliable are deliniated in the message dated 8 February, 1999.
||Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Laws; Gradual implementation of laws
|2015 21 Mar
||The implementation of the Badí' Calendar on the first day of the ten Váhid of the first Kull-i-Shay’ of the Bahá’í Era.
"Báb introduced the calendar and its broad pattern of periods and cycles, months and days. Bahá’u’lláh provided essential clarifications and additions. Aspects were elucidated by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, and arrangements for its adoption in the West were put in place at the direction of Shoghi Effendi, as described in the volumes of The Bahá’í World. Still, ambiguities surrounding some Islamic and Gregorian dates, as well as difficulties in the correlation of historical observances and astronomical events with explicit statements in the Text, left certain issues unresolved. When responding to questions concerning the calendar, both ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi left these matters to the Universal House of Justice. Of its many features, three require clarification for the calendar’s uniform application: the means for the determination of Naw-Rúz, the accommodation of the lunar character of the Twin Holy Birthdays within the solar year, and the fixing of the dates of the Holy Days within the Badí‘ calendar." [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 10 July, 2014] (notes below extracted from the message)
The Festival of Naw-Rúz: The birthplace of the Abhá Beauty, will be the spot on the earth that will serve as the standard for determining, by means of astronomical computations from reliable sources, the moment of the vernal equinox in the northern hemisphere and thereby the day of Naw-Rúz for the Bahá’í world.
The Festivals of the Twin Birthdays: They will now be observed on the first and the second day following the occurrence of the eighth new moon after Naw-Rúz. This will result in the observance of the Twin Birthdays moving, year to year, within the months of Mashíyyat, ‘Ilm, and Qudrat of the Badí‘ calendar, or from mid-October to mid-November according to the Gregorian calendar.
The dates of the Holy Days are: Naw-Rúz, 1 Bahá; the Festival of Riḍván, 13 Jalál to 5 Jamál; the Declaration of the Báb, 8 ‘Aẓamat; the Ascension of Bahá’u’lláh, 13 ‘Aẓamat; the Martyrdom of the Báb, 17 Raḥmat; the Day of the Covenant, 4 Qawl; and the Ascension of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, 6 Qawl. These dates have been fixed within the solar calendar in accordance with explicit statements of Bahá’u’lláh, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, and Shoghi Effendi.
[Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 10 July, 2014]
||Badi calendar; Bahaullah, Birth of; Bab, Birth of; Naw-Ruz; Holy days; Gradual implementation of laws; Laws
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- All Abide by His Bidding: The Universal Law of God, by Peter Terry (2007). On the liberty of the individual vis-à-vis the laws of God guiding people to making the "right" choices. [about]
- Applicability of the Laws and Ordinances of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, by Universal House of Justice (2001). List of laws and ordinances of the Aqdas not yet universally applied (as of 2001). [about]
- Bahá'í Shrines, by John Walbridge, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 3 (1989). [about]
- Balance hath been Appointed, The: Some Thoughts on the Publication of the Kitab-i-Aqdas, by Udo Schaefer, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3:1 (1993). Significances of the Aqdas and the possible impact of its publication (1992) upon its Western audience. [about]
- Because Baha'u'llah said so: Dealing with a non-starter in moral reasoning, by Arash Abizadeh, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 5:1 (1995). Discusses a popular but misleading versus more philosophically responsible approaches to revelation. [about]
- Behold the Man: Baha'u'llah on the Life of Jesus, by Juan Cole, in Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 65:1 (1997). Baha'u'llah's lessons from the Judeo-Christian experience for founding a new, post-Islamic religion; invoking Christ to illuminate contemporary situations within Babi-Bahá'í history; implications for his relations with Middle Eastern Christians. [about]
- Biographies of Jamal-i-Burujirdi, by Adib Taherzadeh and Dariush Lamie (1998). Three short biographies of about the man who asked to be exempt from the laws of the Aqdas. [about]
- Capital Punishment and Amnesty International. Letter from the House to Amnesty International on the death penalty. [about]
- Choice Wine: The Kitab-i Aqdas and the Development of Bahá'í Law, by Anthony Lee (1995). [about]
- Commentary on the Kitab-i Aqdas, verse one, by Sen McGlinn (1997). Meanings why recognition of God and his Manifestations are the first two laws of the Aqdas. [about]
- Concept of Divine Law, The, by Mehrdad K. Meshgin, in The Kitáb-i-Aqdas: Studies from the First National Conference on the Holy Book, vol. 1 (1996). [about]
- Crime and Punishment: Bahá'í Perspectives for a Future Criminal Law, by Udo Schaefer, in Law and International Order. Proceedings of the first European Bahá'í Conference on Law and International Order (1996). [about]
- Death Penalty, The: Australian Legal Institutions vs the Bahá'í Faith?, by Roger Le Lievre, in 75 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Australasia (1996). [about]
- Exemption, by Bahiyyih Nakhjavani, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3:1 (1993). Thoughts on Bahá'u'lláh's meaning in "exempting" women from certain Bahá'í obligations, especially pilgrimage. [about]
- Family Law in Iran, by Sen McGlinn (2001). Detailed overview of 20th-century Iranian laws regarding marriage, divorce, marriage rights and duties, dowry, and inheritance. Contains passing mentions of the Baha'i Faith. [about]
- Fast, Bahá'í (March 2–20), by Christopher Buck, in Religious Celebrations: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations (2011). [about]
- Gender in Babi and Bahá'í Law, by Siyamak Zabihi-Moghaddam (2010). [about]
- Hinduism and the Bahá'í Faith, by Moojan Momen (1990). An attempt to explore the relationship between Hinduism and the Bahá'í Faith and to explain the Bahá'í Faith to those who are from a Hindu background. [about]
- Inheritance, by Seena Fazel, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). The apparent contradiction between sexual equality and the unequal inheritance laws contained in the Aqdas. [about]
- Introduction to a Study of the Qur'án: With Additional References from Several Bahá'í Texts, by Study Outline Committee of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1941). A study guide to the Qur'an, consisting of lists of topics and verses. [about]
- Introduction to the Lawh-i Haqqu'n-Nas, An, by Jean-Marc Lepain, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). Summary of the tablet Lawh-i Haqqu’n-Nas, Tablet of the "Right of the People," on the metaphorical character of this world. [about]
- Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book): Questions and Concordances, by Habib Riazati (2000). Study questions, categorized cross-references to the Aqdas and its notes and "Questions and Answers," topical concordances, and other research materials. [about]
- Kitáb-i-Aqdas as a Lens with which to Examine some of the Dilemmas of Modernity, The, by Betsy Omidvaran, in Solas, 2 (2002). Contrast between the Aqdas - the source of laws of future society - and issues of the modern world as it had evolved up to the 19th century. Discussion of Houses of Worship, universal language, financial principles, justice, the Covenant, and unity. [about]
- Kitab-i-Aqdas questions and concordances, by Habib Riazati. The Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh and their relationship to selected passages in The Aqdas; New Laws That Abrogate the Laws of Former Dispensations; Correlation of Paragraphs, Notes, and Questions and Answers of the Aqdas; sample questions. [about]
- Kitab-i-Aqdas, The: Bahá'í Law, Legitimacy, and World Order, by Martha L. Schweitz, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 6:1 (1994). [about]
- Law and Order: Warwick Leaflets, by Warwick Bahá'í Bookshop (1995). [about]
- Law of the Land and the State of the Soul, The: Analyzing Theoretical Frameworks of Bahá'í and Islamic Law Within and Beyond the Nation-State, by Moussa Z. Traore (2012). Details, laws, and constitution of the Baha'i system which, analogous to the United Nations or a Supreme Court, presents a legal framework for a non-State governance structure at the international level. [about]
- Law, Application of, by Universal House of Justice (1991). Questions concerning the violation of Baha'i and civil law, and the removal of administrative rights. [about]
- Laws Abrogated by Bahá'u'lláh (2018). Laws rescinded from previous religions and from the Bayán. [about]
- Laws from the Kitab-i-Aqdas Not Yet Binding, by Universal House of Justice (1974). Which laws of the Kitab-i-Aqdas are and are not currently (as of 1974) binding upon Western believers. [about]
- Laws of the Bayán reflected in The Kitáb-i-Aqdas (2008). List of 32 laws from the Báb's Persian Bayán or the Arabic Bayán which also appear in Bahá'u'lláh's book of laws. [about]
- Laws of the Kitab-i-Aqdas, Further Application of, by Universal House of Justice (1999). Announcement to the Baha'i world that all elements of the laws dealing with obligatory prayer and fasting are now applicable.
- Legislating on Morality, by Universal House of Justice (1988). Areas in which the Universal House of Justice is refraining from legislating on, e.g. abortion and homosexuality. [about]
- Legislative Responsibilities of the Universal House of Justice Regarding Obligatory Prayers, Guardian's Statement on, by Universal House of Justice (1995). Brief note about which aspects of obligatory prayer the House may one day legislate on. [about]
- Local Spiritual Assembly, The, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). The institution of the LSA, its significance, and its by-laws. [about]
- Making the Crooked Straight: A Contribution to Baha'i Apologetics [excerpt], by Udo Schaefer and Nicola Towfigh (2000). Front- and back-matter of the book only: Contents, Preface, Introduction, Conclusion, Bibliography, Index. [about]
- Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
- Monogamy, Sexual Equality, Marital Equality, and the Supreme Tribunal, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Questions about monogamy, the Supreme Tribunal, and the Baha'i concept of equality of the sexes in light of some Baha'i laws and history which appear to undermine it [about]
- Mystical Dimensions of the Bahá'í Administrative Order, The, by Kavian Sadeghzade Milani, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). [about]
- National Spiritual Assembly, The, by Universal House of Justice and Horace Holley, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Includes Holley's brief overview of the nature of an NSA and the history of Bahá`í Temple Unity, NSA by-laws and a list of new NSAs as of 1980-1983. [about]
- Notes on Bahá'í Proofs Based on the Qur'an, Some (2000). [about]
- Obedience, by Darius Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1995). The meanings of infallibility, obedience to Baha'u'llah, the covenant of God with humanity, and the paradox of law being the instrument of liberation, not limitation. [about]
- Obligatory Prayer and Fasting, The Importance of, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá, in The American Baha'i, 31:7 (2000). [about]
- Parallels Between Islamic and Baha'i laws and Constitutional Principles, by Afshin A. Khavari (1998). The roles of Sunnah, Hadith, and Ijtihad in Islamic constitutional law, and the development of the Baha'i legal order and its unique approach to law-making. [about]
- Perspectives on the Inseparable Twin Duties Prescribed in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, by Eamonn Moane, in Solas, 3 (2003). Religions differ in the balance of faith versus good works, the grace of God versus human strivings, and the scheme of salvation. To Baha'is, recognizing the Prophet and obedience to his laws are equal duties. For salvation, faith surpasses deeds. [about]
- Principles of Bahá'í Administration, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (1973). [about]
- Question of Gender, A: A Forum on the Status of Men in Bahá'í Law, by Susan Maneck and Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in dialogue magazine, 2:1 (1987). Six authors address issues of theology, sociology, law, inheritance, equality, the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, marriage, and feminism raised by John and Linda Walbridge's article "Baha'i Laws on the Status of Men" (World Order 1984). [about]
- Quranic Roots of Some Legal and Theological Terms of the Kitáb-i Aqdas Regarding Women and Homosexual Relations, The, by Kamran Ekbal (1995). Interpretations and etymologies of Arabic terms for prostitution, virginity, dowry, menstruation, sodomy, pederasty, uncleanliness, and adultery. [about]
- Reflections on the Structure of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, Some, by Roshan Danesh, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 25:3 (2015). While the Kitab-i-Aqdas might seem unstructured, lacking apparent logical or discernible order, there is meaning to be found in its organization — particularly the first 19 paragraphs: the pivotal constructs of Bahá’í spiritual and social teachings. [about]
- Regarding the implementation of the Badi` calendar, by Universal House of Justice (2014). Message to the Bahá’ís of the world on the updated calendar of Baha'i holy days. Includes a table of Bahá’í Dates 172 to 221 B.E., and a letter to an individual explaining the date of the astronomical new moon in Islamic and Baha'i calendars. [about]
- Secret of Divine Civilization translation, capital punishment, and other quesions, by Universal House of Justice (1991). On the capitalization of pronouns, reference to "we Muslims," works of Abdu'l-Baha revealed during the time of Baha'u'llah, the first person to recognize Baha'u'llah, and designer of the temple in Ishqabad. Includes a compilation on capital punishment. [about]
- Shi`i Islam, by Moojan Momen (1995). Overview of Shi'a Islam, including a section on its relations to the Baha'i Faith. [about]
- Shoghi Effendi's Translation of Terms Related to Law in Bahá'í Scripture, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 16 (2015). Patterns in the Guardian's translation of terms related to the word law; different Arabic/Persian words translated as "law"; quotations in which Shoghi Effendi translated each word in some other way. [about]
- Six Lessons on Bahá'í Law: A Deepening Course for Bahá'ís (1974). [about]
- Special Report on Baha'i Burial vs. Maori Custom, by National Spiritual Assembly of New Zealand (1989). Special report about reconciling Baha'i burial laws with local maori customs where they conflict; includes guidance from the Universal House of Justice. [about]
- Synopsis and Codification of the Laws and Ordinances of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, by Bahá'u'lláh and Shoghi Effendi (1973). [about]
- Tablet on Interpretation of Sacred Scripture (Ta'wíl), by Bahá'u'lláh, in Iqtidarat (n.d.). Tablet on "the legitimacy of figurative scripture interpretation." [about]
- Tablet on the Right of the People, by Bahá'u'lláh (2016). On some situations relating to a person’s private rights, in this case theft and debt, with a larger meditation on the spiritual rights a person earns through righteous deeds, and God’s promise to reward good deeds and punish the wrong. [about]
- Universal House of Justice and the Principles of Jurisprudence, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2001). Authorized translation of an excerpt of a tablet on "the wisdom of referring certain important laws to the House of Justice." [about]
- Universality of the Laws of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, The, by Bijan Samali, in The Kitáb-i-Aqdas: Studies from the First National Conference on the Holy Book, vol. 1 (1996). [about]
- Violation of Baha'i and Civil Law, by Universal House of Justice (1991). Role of Spiritual Assemblies in regulating behavior of Baha'is, removal of administrative rights, and treatment of Baha'is convicted of a criminal offense. [about]