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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1844. 11 Aug The Báb sent Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí to Najaf and Karbalá to proclaim His Cause among the Shaykhís. In Najaf Mullá `Alí delivered a letter from the Báb to Shaykh Muhammad-Hasan Najafí, the leading Shí`í divine and the keeper of the shrines in Iraq. [BBRSM15; DB87-91; SBBH20–1, HotD46]
  • The Shaykh's rejection of the claim led to a violent debate. Mullá `Alí was taken to Baghdád and imprisoned there. After a public trial, a joint tribunal of Sunní and Shí`í `ulamá, he was sent to Istanbul. He was the first martyr of the Bábí Dispensation. It is significant that Mullá Hasan Gawhar, a leading figure of the Shaykhí school, participated in the condemnation as it marks the first major challenge to Bábism from a Shaykhí leader. [B27, 37–8, 58; BBR83–90; BBRSM17; BKG31; DB90–2; MMBA, BBR2p17, GPB10]
  • Istanbul; Turkey; Iraq; Baghdad; Najaf; Karbala Bab, Life of; Mulla Ali Bastami; Ulama; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Shaykhism; Firsts, Other; Trials; Court cases; Persecution, Court cases; Letters of the Living
    1845. 13 Jan The trial of Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí in Baghdád. A fatwá is issued in Baghdád against both Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí and the Báb, condemning the Báb, who is unnamed in the fatwá, to death as an unbeliever. [B64; BBRSM15, 215; SBBH21, 22] Baghdad; Iraq Trials; Mulla Ali Bastami; Qayyumul-Asma (book); Fatwa; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases
    1845. 27 Feb The Báb left Jiddah. [MS2]
  • He disembarked at Muscat and remained there for two months, awaiting news of the outcome of Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí's trial. [MS2]
  • He sent a letter to the Imám of Muscat. [MS2]
  • SBBH23 says the Báb left Jiddah on 4 March.
  • Jeddah; Saudi Arabia; Muscat; Oman Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Mulla Ali Bastami; Trials; Bab, Writings of; Imam of Muscat; Court cases; Persecution, Court cases
    1945 Feb - Mar The Báb returned to Búshihr. He sent Quddús to Shíráz with a letter addressed to His uncle Hájí Mírzá Siyyid `Alí who, upon receiving it, embraced his Nephew's Cause, the first, after the Letters of the Living, to do so in Shíráz. The Báb also entrusted Quddús with a treatise for him entitled Khasá'il-i-Sab`ih (`the Seven Qualifications') and promised him his impending martyrdom. Later he gave his life as one of the Seven Martyrs of Tehran, see 1850 19 or 20 Feb. [B77–8; DB142–3; MS2, GPB9-10]
  • To the departing Quddus He promised intense suffering in Shíráz and eventual martyrdom. [DB142-143]
  • B77 and GPB10 say the Báb arrived in Búshihr in February - March.
  • SSBH1p23 and BBRSM216 say 15 May, 1845.
  • Before leaving on pilgrimage the Báb had stated that He would return to Karbalá and asked His followers to congregate there. An explanation in part for the large following that had gathered there is the messianic expectation associated with the year 1261, a thousand years after the Twelfth Imám's disappearance in 260 A.H.. This gathering was perceived as a threat by the authorities. [BBRSM15, 45, 216; DB157–8; SBBH1p23, 32]
  • The Báb changed His plan to meet His followers in Karbalá and instructed them to go to Isfahán instead. A number abandon Him, regarding this as badá', `alteration of divine will'. [BBRSM16; DB158; MH125; SBBH23]
  • Some speculate that He did not go to Karbalá to avoid conflict and sedition. Many Bábís had gone to Karbalá armed in preparation for holy war, `jihád'. [BBRSM21–2; SBBH1:23]
  • Bushihr; Iran; Shiraz Bab, Life of; Bab, Pilgrimage of; Bab, Family of; Bab, Uncles of; Uncles; Quddus; Haji Mirza Siyyid Ali; Dhasail-i-Sabih (Seven Qualifications); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; First believers; The Bab, Writings of
    1845. c. 16 Apr Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí was removed from his prison cell in Baghdád and taken to Istanbul, where he was sentenced to hard labour in the imperial naval dockyard. Istanbul; Turkey; Baghdad; Iraq Mulla Ali Bastami; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Turkey; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1845. c. Jun After expelling Mullá Husayn and Mullá Sádiq the governor of Fárs, Hasayn Khán ordered that the Báb, the instigator of the commotion, be arrested and brought to Shíráz. [B84; BW18:380; DB148–50; GPB11]
    Bushihr; Shiraz; Iran Governors; Husayn Khan; Quddus; Ismullahul-Asdaq (Mulla Sadiq Khurasani); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Bab, Life of; Persecution
    1845. 30 Jun At Dálakí, some 40 miles northeast of the Búshíhr, the Báb met the soldiers of the governor of Fárs who had been sent to arrest Him. He was escorted to Shíráz. [Bab84, 105; BBR170; BBRSM216; DB148–9; GPB11; TN6, SBBH1pxxv111]
  • DB150 says the Báb travelled `free and unfettered', `before His escort'.
  • BBRSM16 implies the Báb returned to Shíráz by Himself in July and that He was placed under house arrest upon arrival.
  • Dalaki; Fars; Shiraz; Iran Bab, Life of; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1845. 30 Dec The Báb's birthday fell on the first day of the mourning observance for the Imám Husayn. Táhirih, who was in Karbalá with the widow of Siyyid Kázim-i-Rashtí, instructed her relatives and the Bábís to dress in bright clothing and joyously celebrate the Báb's birth. This caused a considerable disturbance, even among the Bábís. Táhirih was arrested and expelled from the city. [RR305, SA217] Karbala; Iraq Tahirih; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1846. 23 Jun Quddús met Mullá Sádiq-i-Muqaddas in Shíráz to whom he entrusted a copy of Khasá'il-i-Sab`ih (`the Seven Qualifications'). Following instructions received in a Tablet from the Báb, Mullá Sádiq sounded the call to prayer using the additional words provided by the Báb. This, along with their teaching of the Cause, provoked a public commotion. [Bab78; DB144-145; BBRSM16]
  • The governor of Fárs, Husayn Khán Nizámu'd-Dawlih, had Quddús, Mullá Sádiq-i-Khurásání, Mullá `Alí-Akbar-i-Ardistání and Mullá Abú-Tálib arrested, tortured and expelled from Shíráz. [Bab78; BBR69; BW18:380; DB145–148; GPB11, BBR1pxxviii]
  • The governor's punishment was particularly cruel. He commanded that the beards of both Quddús and Mullá Sádiq be burned, their noses pierced and that a cord should be passed which and used to led them through the city. The men were then beaten. Mullá Sádiq was a frail man of about 50 years but in spite of this took some 900 strokes and still remained calm and serene. When questioned later he said the first seven lashes were severely painful but then he became indifferent to the rest. It was as though the strokes were not being applied to his own body. [DB146-148]
  • The London Times of November 1st and November 19, 1845 reported that this took place on the 23rd of June. [Bab76, BBR1p69, 82]
  • Note: Bab78 says that Mullá Abú-Tálib was not among the group. DB145 says that only Mulla Husayn and Mulla Sádiq were arrested.
  • Note: DB146 note2 says "According to A. L. M. Nicolas’ “Siyyid ‘Alí-Muhammad dit le Báb” (footnote 175, p. 225), this meeting took place on August 6, 1845 A.D."
  • Upon departing Shíráz Quddús made his way to Kirmán to interview Hájí Mírzá Karím Khán. The ambitious and seditious Karím Khán remained unconvinced buy Quddús had earned an ally in his host during his stay in Kirmán, Hájí Siyyid Javád, someone he had known from his day in Karbilá. From Kirmán Quddús travelled to Yazd and then to Ardikán, Náyin, Ardistán, Isfáhán, Káshán, Qum and to Tihrán. There he met with Bahá'u'lláh and after which proceeded to Mázindarán and to his native town of Bárfurúsh where he lived in the home of his father for two years. [DB180-183]
  • Mullá Sádiq travelled to Yazd with the intention of spreading news of the Cause among the 'ulamás of that province. There they encountered opposition from Hájí Mírzá Karím Khán. [DB180, 183-187]
  • Mullá Sádiq and Mullá Yúsuf-i-Ardibílí moved on to Kirmán where they received the same treatment then they travelled to Khurásán {DB187-188]
  • Fars; Shiraz; Iran Governors; Husayn Khan; Quddus; Ismullahul-Asdaq (Mulla Sadiq Khurasani); Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Ardistani; Mulla Abu-Talib; Husayn Khan; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1846 (Summer) The Chief Constable, 'Abdu'l-Hamíd Khán, was instructed by order of the governor, Hasayn Khán, to break into the house of Hájí Mírzá Siyyid 'Alí where the Báb had been confined and to arrest Him. He and a follower were taken away along with His books and Writings. It was widely rumoured that He would be executed. He was allowed to return some time later. [LTDT14] Shiraz; Iran Bab, Life of; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1846. Dec Mullá `Alíy-i-Bastámí died in Istanbul naval dockyards. He was the first martyr of the Bábí Dispensation. [Bahá’í Encyclopedia] Istanbul; Turkey Mulla Ali Bastami; Persecution, Turkey; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Firsts, Other; Letters of the Living
    1847. Sep or Oct The murder of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí, the powerful uncle of Táhirih, by Mullá `Abdu'lláh of Shíráz. [B166; BBRSM216; DB276–8]

  • BBRSM22 says the murder took place towards the end of October.
  • Mullá `Abdu'lláh indicated that he was `never a convinced Bábí'. [DB276]
  • Iran Assassinations; Mulla Abdullah; Haji Mulla Muhammad Taqi; Tahirih; Persecution, Iran; Persecution
    1847. Oct - Nov Táhirih was accused of instigating the assassination of her uncle, Muhammad Taqí Baraghání, and was confined to her father's house while about 30 Bábís were arrested. Four, including the assassin, were taken to Tihrán and held in the house of Khusraw Khán. [BKG41; BW18:380; DB276–8] Tihran; Iran Assassinations; Mulla Abdullah; Haji Mulla Muhammad Taqi; Tahirih; Khusraw Khan; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1847. Nov - Dec Bahá'u'lláh, who was living in Tihrán, visited the detainees and gave them money. [BKG41; DB278–9; GPB68]
  • Mullá `Abdu'lláh confessed to the murder of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí and was helped to escape. [BKG41–2; DB278]
  • See BKG42 for why Bahá'u'lláh was thought to have engineered his escape. Bahá'u'lláh was imprisoned for a few days for having assisted in Mullá `Abdu'lláh's escape.
  • This was Bahá'u'lláh's first imprisonment. [BKG41; BW18:380; DB585]
  • Shaykh Salib-i-Karímí, one of the imprisoned Bábís, was publicly executed in Tihrán.
  • He was the first to suffer martyrdom on Persian soil. His remains were interred in the courtyard of the shrine of the Imám-Zádih Zayd in Tihrán. [B166; BW18:380; DB280]
  • The remaining captives were returned to Qazvín. Hájí Asadu'lláh-i-Farhádí was secretly put to death in prison. Mullá Táhir-i-Shírází and Mullá Ibrahím-i-Maballátí were also put to death. [B166; BW18:380; DB280–3]
  • DB280–3 says `the rest of' the detainees were put to death by the relatives of Hájí Mullá Muhammad Taqí.
  • Tihran; Qazvin; Iran Bahaullah, Life of; Assassinations; Mulla Abdullah; Tahirih; Haji Mulla Muhammad Taqi; Cemeteries and graves; Firsts, Other; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1848. c. 17 Jul The Bábís left Badasht for Mázindarán. They were attacked by a mob of more than 500 outside the village of Níyálá. [B170–1; BKG46–7; BW18:380; DB298; GPB68]
  • Bahá'u'lláh travelled to Núr with Táhirih. He entrusted her into the care of Shaykh Abú-Turáb-i-Ishtahárdí, to be taken to a place of safety. [BKG48; DB299]
  • Bahá'u'lláh travelled to Núr `in easy stages'. By September He was in Bandar-Jaz. [BKG48]
  • Badasht; Mazandaran; Niyala; Nur; Bandar-Jaz; Iran Conference of Badasht; Bahaullah, Life of; Tahirih; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution
    1848. 4 Sep The death of the chronically Muhammad Sháh whom Shoghi Effendi described as bigoted, sickly and vacillating. [BBR153–4; GPB4; Encyclopædia Iranica]
  • This precipitated the downfall of the Grand Vizier, Hájí Mírzá Áqásí because many of Tehran's elite arose against him. [Bab147; BBD19; BBR156]
  • For details of his life, fall and death in Karbila on the 1st of August, 1849, see BBR154–6 and BKG52–5.
  • The edict for Bahá'u'lláh's arrest was rendered null. [BKG50; BW18:381]
  • Iran Muhammad Shah; Grand Viziers; Prime Ministers of Iran; Prime Ministers; Haji Mirza Aqasi; Antichrist; Bahaullah, Life of; Iran, General history; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1848. 19 Dec The siege of the Shrine of Shaykh Tabarsí began in earnest with the arrival of `Abdu'lláh Khán's forces. [BW18:381]
  • DB361 says this was 1 December.
  • There were about 12,000 troops. [MH245]
  • The supply of bread and water to the fort was cut. A rainfall replenished the water supply and ruined the munitions of the government forces. Snow further hampered the army's movement. [DB361, MH243]
  • Iran Shaykh Tabarsi; Abdullah Khan; Armies; Persecution, Iran; Persecution
    1849. 2 Feb Soon after midnight, Mullá Husayn led a charge of 313 men that again routed the king's army. He was struck in the chest by a bullet and died. His body was carried back to the fort and buried. Ninety other Bábís were also wounded, about 40 of whom died. [B174; BW18:381; DB379–82; MH266–70]
  • Mullá Husayn was 36 years old at the time of his death. [DB383; MH272]
  • See DB382–3 for an account of his life.
  • See DB415–16 for an account of the heroics of Mullá Husayn.
  • See DB381–2 and MH265–70 for an account of the death and burial of Mullá Husayn.
  • See SDH13–14 for an account of his death by Mihdí-Qulí Mírzá.
  • Seventy–two of the original 313 inhabitants of the fort had been martyred by this time. [DB382]
  • It took the army 45 days to re-assemble its forces. [DB384; MH277]
  • Iran Mulla Husayn; Mihdi-Quli Mirza; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Shaykh Tabarsi; Letters of the Living
    1849. 10 May The end of the siege of the fort at Shaykh Tabarsí. Two hundred and two Bábís were tricked into leaving the shrine. [BW18:381]
  • DB400 says they accompanied Quddús.
  • They were not conducted to their homes as promised but were set upon by the Prince's soldiers. Some are killed, others sold into slavery. The fortifications around the shrine were razed to the ground. [DB403–4; MH283]
  • See DB414–29 for a list of the martyrs of Tabarsí.
  • Among those who gave their lives at Fort Tabarsi was Mullá Ja'far, the sifter of wheat and the first to embrace the Faith in Isfahan. [AY58]
  • Iran Shaykh Tabarsi; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Martyrs; Quddus; Mulla Jafar (sifter of wheat); - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1849. 16 May Quddús was tortured and, in the public square, he was struck down with an axe, dismembered and burnt. [B176; BBD191; BW18:381; DB409–13; MH283–4]
  • As he died he begged God's forgiveness for his foes. [DB411; MH284]
  • His remains were gathered and buried by a friend. [B176; DB413]
  • See GPB49–50 for the rank and titles of Quddús.
  • See Quddus, Companion of the Bab by Harriet Pettibone.
  • Barfurush; Iran Quddus; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Letters of the Living
    1849. c. Jun - Jul The Báb, in prison in the castle of Chihríq, learned of the massacre at Shaykh Tabarsí and the martyrdom of Quddús. He was so overcome with grief that He was unable to write or dictate for a period of five or six months. [DB411, 430]
  • See the Tablet of Visitation for Mulla Muhammad 'Ali-i-Barfurushi (Quddús) revealed by the Báb.
  • Chihriq; Iran Bab, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Prison; Shaykh Tabarsi; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Quddus; Tablets of Visitation; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1850 19 - 20 Feb The Bábi group in Tehran had been infiltrated by an informer who betrayed about fifty of its members to the authorities. Fearing a plot the government had seven of the leading members of the group executed including the Báb's uncle and guardian. These men were of high social status, three merchants, two prominent ulama, a Sufi spiritual guide and a government official. [BBRSM28] Tehran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1850. 19 or 20 Feb Martyrdom of the Seven Martyrs of Tihrán. Seven of the Bábís were executed in Tihrán on the false charge of having plotted to kill the Grand Vizier. [B182–5; BBD225; BBR100–5; BBRSM28, 216; BKG71; BW18:381; DB462; GPB47–8]

  • See BBD225, BBR100 and BW18:381 for a list of their names.
  • Three of the victims were so eager to be martyrs that they asked the executioner if they could be the first to die. [B183; BBD225; GPB47]
  • Their bodies were left in the public square for three days. [BBD225; GPB47]
  • See GPB478 for the chief features of the episode.
  • The martyrs are the ‘Seven Goats' referred to in Islamic traditions that were to ‘walk in front' of the promised Qá'im. [GPB47–8]
  • See B206–7 and BBR100–5 for the accounts of the event and responses of Prince Dolgorukov and Lt-Col Sheil.
  • Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Seven martyrs; Grand Viziers; Prince Dolgorukov; Sheil
    1850 (Spring) The house of Vahíd in Yazd was attacked by crowds and pillaged. The crowd was dispersed by Mullá Muhammad-Ridá. Vahíd left Yazd. [BW18:381; DB466–75] Yazd; Iran Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Mulla Muhammad-Rida; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution
    1850. 13 May 1850 - 2 Jan 1851 c. The start of the Zanján upheaval. Hujjat had converted a sizeable proportion of the town and tension mounted between the Bábís and the ‘ulamá. [DB540–1, 527–81; B185–8, 209–13; BBD111, 245; BBR114–26; BBRSM28, 216; GPB44–5; TN245]
  • See BW18:381 for a chronicle of events.
  • Zanjan; Iran Hujjat; Zanjan upheaval; Upheavals; Ulama; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution Newspaper coverage of the Zanjan Upheaval
    1850. 16 May Martyrdom of Shaykh Muhammad-i-Túb-Chí in Zanján, the first of the martyrs. [BBR115; DB542–3] Zanjan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Firsts, Other
    1850. 19 May The Governor sent a mob against Hujjat, which was dispersed by Mír Saláh. The Governor sent to Tihrán for reinforcements and the town Zanján was split into two camps. [BW18:381]

  • See BBD245 and GPB45 for the story of Zaynab, the Bábí woman who dressed as a man and defended the barricades.
  • Tihran; Zanjan; Iran Governors; Hujjat; Mir Salah; Zaynab; Gender; Women; Equality; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution
    1850. 27 May-
    21 Jun
    First Nayríz upheaval.

    Vahíd traveled from Yazd towards Shíráz, eventually coming to Nayríz. He went to the Mosque of Jum‘ih where he ascended the pulpit and proclaimed the Cause of God. The Governor moved against him and Vahíd ordered his companions to occupy the fort of Khájih. The siege that followed lasted a month. [B178, 204–5; BBR109–13; BW18:381]

  • See BW18:381 for a chronicle of events.
  • See RB1:325–31 for the story of Vahíd. See also GPB50, KI223.
  • See also B178–82; BBD171; BBR109–13; BBRSM28, 216; DB485–99; GPB42–4; RB1:264; TN245.
  • Nayriz; Yazd; Shiraz; Iran Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Mosques; Jumih; Governors; Fort Khajih; Nayriz upheaval; Upheavals; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1850. 17 Jun At Nayríz, Vahíd received a message from the Governor offering a truce and a promise of safety written on the Qur'án. He, together with five attendants, leave the fortress and were received into the camp of his enemies where he was entertained with great ceremony for three days. [B180–1; BW18:381] Nayriz; Iran Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Truces; Nayriz upheaval; Upheavals; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1850. 24 Jun The severed heads of 13 Bábís arrived in Shíráz from Nayríz. They were raised on lances and paraded through the town. [B182; BW18:381] Shiraz; Nayriz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Nayriz upheaval; Upheavals
    1850 29 Jun Vahíd was martyred in Nayríz. [B182; BW18:381; DB495, 499; GPB42; RB1:265]
  • See DB494 for details of his martyrdom.
  • His body was dragged through the streets to the accompaniment of drums and cymbals. [RB1:265]
  • See SDH13 for a respectful opinion of Vahíd expressed by an enemy of the Cause, one of the army chiefs who had fought against Vahíd.
  • See PG109-110 for the story of Jenabeh Vahid's show of reverence towards the Báb.
  • Nayriz; Tabriz; Iran Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1850. 8 Jul The Báb, divested of His turban and sash, was taken on foot to the barracks in Tabríz. Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alíy-i-Zunúzí, Anís, threw himself at the feet of the Báb and asked to go with Him. [B153; DB507]
  • That night the Báb asked that one of His companions kill Him, rather than let Him die at the hands of His enemies. Anís offered to do this but was restrained by the others. The Báb promised that Anís will be martyred with Him. [B154–5; DB507–8]
  • Tabriz; Iran Bab, Life of; Bab, Martyrdom of; Turbans; Barracks; Anis (Mirza Muhammad-Aliy-i-Zunuzi); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1850. 9 Jul Martyrdom of the Báb

    In the morning the Báb was taken to the homes of the leading clerics to obtain the death-warrants. [B155; DB508]

  • The warrants were already prepared. [B155–6; DB510]
  • Anís's stepfather tried to persuade him to change his mind. Anís's young son was also brought to ‘soften his heart' but Anís's resolve remained unshaken. [B156–7; DB509–10]
  • At noon the Báb and Mirza Muhammad-Ali Zunuzi, known as Anis were suspended on a wall in the square in front of the citadel of Tabríz in Sarbazkhaneh Square. They were shot by 750 soldiers in three ranks of 250 men in succession. [B157; DB512]
  • When the smoke cleared the Báb was gone and Anís was standing, unharmed, under the nail from which they were suspended. The Báb, also unhurt, was found back in his cell completing His dictation to His secretary. [B157–8; DB512–13]
  • See BBD200–1 and DB510–12, 514 for the story of Sám Khán, the Christian colonel of the Armenian regiment which was ordered to execute the Báb.
  • The Báb and Anís were suspended a second time. A new regiment, the Násirí, was found to undertake the execution. After the volleys, the bodies of the Báb and Anís were shattered and melded together. [B158; DB514]
  • See BBR77–82 for Western accounts of the event.
  • The face of the Báb was untouched. [B158]
  • At the moment the shots were fired, a gale sweeps the city, stirring up so much dust that the city remained in darkness from noon until night. [B158; DB515]
  • See CH239 and DH197 for the story of the phenomenon of the two sunsets.
  • During the night, the bodies were thrown onto the edge of the moat surrounding the city. Soldiers were posted to stand guard over them and, nearby; two Bábís, feigning madness, keep vigil. The bodies were removed and hidden under cover of darkness. [B159; TN27]
  • Tabriz; Iran Bab, Martyrdom of; Bab, Life of; Bab, Remains of; Holy days; Anis (Mirza Muhammad-Aliy-i-Zunuzi); Sam Khan; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bab, Basic timeline; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1850. 25 Aug The arrival of ‘Azíz Khán-i-Mukrí, commander-in-chief of Iran's army, in Zanján where the fighting began in May continues. He took charge of the operation. [BBR119; BW18:382; DB556]
  • For the story of Ashraf and his mother see DB562–3.
  • Zanjan; Iran Aziz Khan-i-Mukri; Commander-in-chief; Zanjan upheaval; Upheavals; Ashraf; Mothers; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1850. 3 Oct Two of Vahíd's companions were executed in Shíráz. Shiraz; Iran Vahid (Siyyid Yahyay-i-Darabi); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1851. 2 Mar Four Bábís brought from Zanján were executed in Tihrán. [BW18:382] Tihran; Zanjan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1851. 30 Apr Mullá Hasan-i-Fadíl was executed in Yazd when he refused to recant. [BW18:382] Yazd; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1851. 1 May Áqá Husayn was blown from a canon in Yazd. [BW18:382] Yazd; Iran Canons; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1851. 23 Jul Áqá Muhammad-Sádiq-i-Yúzdárání was beaten to death in Yazd after refusing to recant. [BW18:382] Yazd; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1851. 4 Aug Áqá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Hakkák was blown from a canon after refusing to recant. [BW18:382] Canons; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1851 Nov c. Siyyid Basír-Hindí, a blind Indian, was put to death by Ildirím Mírzá. [BW18:382]
  • For details of his life see DB588–90.
  • Iran Siyyid Basir-Hindi; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1852 -1853 "In the hecatomb of 1852-1853 the ranks of the Bábís were drastically thinned. Most of the leading disciples were killed, only a few surviving in distant exile. The next ten years were hopelessly dark. Within the Bábí community there was much confusion and fear. It seemed at times that all the heroism, all the sacrifices, had been in vain. Enemies gloated over the virtual extermination of what they saw as a pernicious heretical sect. Sympathetic outsiders concluded that the movement that had shown so much promise cracked under persecution and collapsed, leaving behind only a glorious memory." [Varqá and Rúhu'lláh: Deathless in Martyrdom by Kazem Kazemzadeh, World Order, Winter 1974-75 p.29] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Babi history
    1852 16 – 27 Aug The martyrdom of Táhirih in Tihrán. [BBR172–3; BBRSM:30; BW18:382; BKG87; MF203]
  • She was martyred in the Ílkhání garden, strangled with her own silk handkerchief which she had provided for the purpose. Her body was lowered into a well which was then filled with stones. [BBD220; DB622–8; GPB75]
  • See GPB73–5 for a history of her life.
  • Tihran; Iran Tahirih; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Women; Gender; Equality; Letters of the Living; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1852 16 – 22 Aug A large number of Bábís were arrested in Tihrán and its environs following the attempt on the life of the Sháh. A number were executed. [BBR134–5; BW18:382]
  • Eighty–one, of whom 38 were leading members of the Bábí community, were thrown into the Síyáh-Chál. [BKG77]
  • Tihran; Iran Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1852 22 Aug – 27 Aug After the initial executions, about 20 or more Bábís were distributed among the various courtiers and government departments to be tortured and put to death. [BBR135–6 BW18:382] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1852. 26 Aug An account of the punishment meted out to those who participated in the attempt on the life of the Sháh and those who happened to be followers of the Báb, was published in the Vaqayi-yi Ittifáqíyyih, a Tihran newspaper. In addition, the newspaper reported that Mírzá Husayn 'Ali-i Nuri (Bahá'u'lláh) and five others who did not participated were sentenced to life imprisonment by the Sháh.
  • See Bahá'u'lláh's Prison Sentence: The Official Account translated by Kazem Kazemzadeh and Firuz Kazemzadeh with an introduction by Firuz Kazemzadeh published in World Order Vol 13 Issue 2 Winter 1978-1979 page 11.
  • Tihran; Iran Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on; Persecution; Persecution, Iran; Newspaper articles; Bahaullah, Life of
    1852. Aug In Mílán, Iran, 15 Bábís were arrested and imprisoned. [BW18:382]

    Many Bábís were tortured and killed in the weeks following the attempt on the life of the Sháh. [BKG84]

  • See BBR171 for the story of Mahmud Khán, the Kalántar of Tihrán, and his role in the arrest and execution of the Bábís.
  • See BKG84–93 for a description of the tortures and executions of Bábís. Thirty–eight Bábís were martyred.
  • See BKG86–7 and DB616–21 for the torture and martyrdom of Sulaymán Khán. Holes were gouged in his body and nine lighted candles were inserted. He joyfully danced to the place of his execution. His body was hacked in two, each half is then suspended on either side of the gate.
  • The persecutions were so severe that the community was nearly annihilated. The Bábí remnant virtually disappeared from view until the 1870s. [BBRSM:30; EB269]
  • Milan; Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Shah; Mahmud Khan; Kalantar; Sulayman Khan
    1852 Aug-Dec Bahá'u'lláh's imprisonment in the Síyáh-Chál
  • See AB10–11, BBD211–12, BKG79–83, CH41–2, DB631–3, GPB109 and RB1:9 for a description of the prison and the conditions suffered by the prisoners.
  • No food or drink was given to Bahá'u'lláh for three days and nights. [DB608]
  • Bahá'u'lláh remained in the prison for four months. [CH41; ESW20, 77; GPB104; TN31]
  • "Upon Our arrival We were first conducted along a pitch-black corridor, from whence We descended three steep flights of stairs to the place of confinement assigned to Us. The dungeon was wrapped in thick darkness, and Our fellow prisoners numbered nearly a hundred and fifty souls: thieves, assassins and highwaymen. Though crowded, it had no other outlet than the passage by which We entered. No pen can depict that place, nor any tongue describe its loathsome smell. Most of these men had neither clothes nor bedding to lie on. God alone knoweth what befell Us in that most foul-smelling and gloomy place!" [ESW20-21]
  • See CH42–3 for the effect of Bahá'u'lláh's imprisonment on His wife and children. Friends and and even family were afraid to be associated with His immediate family. During this period Mírzá Músá helped the family surreptitiously and Mírzá Yúsif, who was married to Bahá'u'lláh's cousin, a Russian citizen and a friend of the Russian Consul, was less afraid of repercussions for his support of them.
  • They were also assisted by Isfandíyár, the family's black servant that had been emancipated in 1839 on the order of Bahá'u'lláh. This man's life was in great danger. At one time they had 150 policemen looking for him but he managed to evade capture. They thought that if they questioned (tortured) Isfandíyár he would reveal Bahá'u'lláh's nefarious plots. [SoW Vol IX April 28, 1918 p38-39]
  • Another who helped the family was Mírzá Muhammad Tabrizi who rented a house for them in Sangelak. [PG122]
  • ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, as a child of eight, was attacked in the street of Tihrán. [DB616]
  • See AB11–12, RB1:9 for ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's account of His visit to His father.
  • Bahá'u'lláh's properties were plundered. [CH41; RB1:11]
  • See BBD4–5 and BKG94–8 for the story of ‘Abdu'l-Vahháb-i-Shírází who was martyred while being held in the Síyáh-Chál.
  • See BBD190, 200 and ESW77 about the two chains with which Bahá'u'lláh was burdened while in the Síyáh-Chál. Five other Bábís were chained to Him day and night. [CH41]
  • Bahá'u'lláh had some 30 or 40 companions. [BBIC:6, CH41]
  • An attempt was made to poison Him. The attempt failed but His health was impaired for years following. [BBIC:6; BKG99–100, GPB72] Bahá'u'lláh's half-brother Mírzá Yahyá fled to Tákur and went into hiding. He eventually went to Baghdád. [BKG90, 107, CH41]
  • Tihran; Takur; Iran; Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Attempts on; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Prison; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Vahhab-i-Shirazi; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Poison; Chains; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline
    1853. 26 Mar Five Bábís, acting on their own initiative, murdered the governor of Nayríz, providing the spark for the second Nayríz upheaval. [BBR147] Nayriz; Iran Nayriz upheaval; Upheavals; Governors; Persecution, Iran; Persecution; Assassinations
    1853. Oct Second Nayríz upheaval. [BBR147–51; BBRSM:217; BW18:382; DB642–5]
  • The new governor of Nayríz, Mírzá Na‘ím-i-Núrí, arrests a large number of Bábís and pillages their properties. The Bábís take to the hills. [BW18:382]
  • See BW18:382 for a chronicle of events.
  • See BBR147–51 for Western accounts.
  • Nayriz; Iran Nayriz upheaval; Upheavals; Mirza Naim-i-Nuri; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1853. 31 Oct Some 600 female and 80 to 180 male Bábís are taken prisoner at Nayríz and marched to Shíráz, along with the heads of' some 180 martyrs. This fulfils an Islamic prophecy concerning the appearance of the Qá'im indicating that the heads of the followers would be used as gifts. [BW18:382; KI245] Nayriz; Shiraz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Prophecies
    1853. 24 Nov The prisoners from Nayríz and the heads of the martyrs arrive in Shíráz. More Bábís are executed and their heads sent to Tihrán. The heads are later buried at Ábádih. [BW18:382] Shiraz; Nayriz; Tihran; Abadih; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1862 - 1863 Hájí Mírzá Haydar-`Alí and six other prominent Bahá'ís were arrested in Cairo for being Bahá'ís at the instigation of the corrupt Persian consul, Mírzá Husayn Khán. They were banished to Khartoum, where Haydar-`Alí spent the next 9 years in confinement. [BBR257; BKG250; GBP178, SDH32-66] Egypt Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali; Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1866. Dec About a hundred Bahá'ís were arrested in Tabríz following a disturbance in which a Bábí is killed. [BBR251–3; BW18:382] Tabriz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1867. 11 Jan Three Bahá'ís were executed in Tabríz. Their arrest was precipitated by conflict and rivalry between the Azalís and the Bahá'ís. [BBR252–3; BKG237–8; BW18:382–3; RB2:61]
  • BW18:382 says this was 8 January.
  • Tabriz; Iran Azali Babis; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1867. Jan or Feb Mírzá Muhammad-‘Alí, a Bahá'í physician, was executed in Zanján. [BBR253; BKG238; BW18:383]

    Áqá Najaf-‘Alíy-i-Zanjání, a disciple of Hujjat, was executed in Tihrán. [BBR254; BW18:383]

    Zanjan; Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1867. Apr The appeal by 53 Bahá'ís "in Baghdád" addressed to the United States Congress arrived at the American Consulate in Beirut. [BBR265, Petition from the Persian Reformers] Baghdad; Shushtar Petitions; United States government; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution 1867 Petition
    1867 Sep - Aug 1868 Persecutions began anew in Ádharbáyján, Zanján, Níshápúr and Tihrán. [GPB178] Adharbayjan; Zanjan; Nishapur; Tihran; Iran Persecution, Adharbayjan; Persecution, Iran; Persecution
    1868. Apr Seven Bahá'ís in Constantinople were arrested and interrogated by a commission of inquiry whose mandate it was to verify the claims of Bahá'u'lláh and Mírzá Yahyá. [BKG250–2; GPB179; MF99–100 RB2:3289]
  • See RB2:329–32 for the conduct of the interrogations.
  • Among those arrested was Mishkín-Qalam, the calligrapher. He was particularly distraught because he is not allowed pen or paper. Eventually these were given to him. [BKG252]
  • Istanbul; Turkey Mishkin-Qalam; Calligraphy; Persecution; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Turkey
    1868. c. Jul Principal Bahá'ís in Baghdád were arrested by the Turkish authorities and exiled to Mosul and other places. [BBR265; BKG247; CH129–30; RB2:333]
  • RB2:333 indicates this took place towards the end of Bahá'u'lláh's stay in Adrianople.
  • About 70 people were exiled. [GPB178; RB2:334] Estimate given by Hájí Mirzá Haydar-;Alí is 80. (DOH12]
  • See BKG184 for an illustration of Mosul.
  • See BKG183 for a description of the city.
  • See RB2:334 for the hardships suffered by the exiles.
  • They remained in Mosul for some 20 years until Bahá'u'lláh advised the community to disband (1885-1886). Their hardship was lessened by generous contributions from the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs. A charity fund was established, the first fund of that kind in any Bahá'í community. [RB2:334–6]
  • Baghdad; Mosul; Iraq Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Charity and relief work; Funds; Firsts, Other; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1868. c. 21 Jul Mírzá Abu'l-Qásim-i-Shírází was arrested in Egypt and money extorted from him. [BBR257–8; BKG243; GPB178] Egypt Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1868 Aug Mullá Muhammad-Ridá, Ridá'r-Rúh was poisoned in Yazd. [BW18:383] Yazd; Iran Mulla Muhammad-Rida (Ridar-Ruh); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1869 (In the year) The 17-year-old Áqá Buzurg-i-Níshápúrí, Badí`, arrived in `Akká having walked from Mosul. He was able to enter the city unsuspected. [BKG297; RB3:178]
  • He was still wearing the simple clothes of a water bearer. [BKG297]
  • For the story of his life, see BKG294–297 and RB3:176–179.
  • For his transformation see RB3:179–182. Badí` saw `Abdu'l-Bahá in a mosque and was able to write a note to Him. The same night Badí` entered the citadel and went into the presence of Bahá'u'lláh. He met Bahá'u'lláh twice. [BKG297; RW3:179]
    • Badí` asked Bahá'u'lláh for the honour of delivering the Tablet to the Sháh and Bahá'u'lláh bestowed it on him. [BKG297; RB3:182]
    • The journey to Tehran took four months; he traveled alone. [BKG298]
    • For the story of the journey see BKG297–300 and RB3:184.
    • For the Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to Badí` see BKG299 and RB3:175–176.
    • Regarding the tablet to the Sháh

      “Bahá’u’lláh’s lengthiest epistle to any single sovereign” -- Lawḥ-i-Sulṭán, (the Tablet to Náṣiri’d-Dín Sháh) Of the various writings that make up the Súriy-i-Haykal, one requires particular mention. The Lawḥ-i-Sulṭán, the Tablet to Náṣiri’d-Dín Sháh, Bahá’u’lláh’s lengthiest epistle to any single sovereign, was revealed in the weeks immediately preceding His final banishment to ‘Akká. It was eventually delivered to the monarch by Badí‘, a youth of seventeen, who had entreated Bahá’u’lláh for the honour of rendering some service. His efforts won him the crown of martyrdom and immortalized his name. The Tablet contains the celebrated passage describing the circumstances in which the divine call was communicated to Bahá’u’lláh and the effect it produced. Here, too, we find His unequivocal offer to meet with the Muslim clergy, in the presence of the Sháh, and to provide whatever proofs of the new Revelation they might consider to be definitive, a test of spiritual integrity significantly failed by those who claimed to be the authoritative trustees of the message of the Qur’án. [The Universal House of Justice (Introduction to ‘The Summons of the Lord of Hosts’)]

  • Akka; Mosul; Iraq; Tihran; Iran Badi (Mirza Aqa Buzurg-i-Nishapuri); Lawh-i-Sultan (Tablet to Nasirid-Din Shah); Suriy-i-Muluk (Surih to the Kings); Tablets to kings and rulers; Nasirid-Din Shah; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Apostles of Bahaullah
    1869. Jul Badí` delivered the Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to the Sháh. He was tortured and executed. [BBRXXXIX; BKG300; BW18:383; RB3:184–6]
  • For details of his torture and martyrdom see BKG300, 304–7 and RB3:186–91.
  • For the account of the French Minister in Tihrán see BBR254–5.
  • He is given the title Fakhru'sh-Shuhadá' (Pride of Martyrs). [BKG300]
  • Shoghi Effendi listed him among the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW3:80–1]
  • For the effect on Bahá'u'lláh of the martyrdom of Badí` see BKG300 and GPB199.
  • See also BKG293–314; GPB199, RB3:172–203; TN589
  • Iran Badi (Mirza Aqa Buzurg-i-Nishapuri); Apostles of Bahaullah; Shahs; Nasirid-Din Shah; Lawh-i-Sultan (Tablet to Nasirid-Din Shah); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1869. 25 Dec A mob attacked the Bahá'ís in Fárán, Khurásán, Iran, and two were severely beaten. [BW18:383] Faran; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution
    1870 (In the year) Násiri'd-Dín Sháh maded a pilgrimage to the shrines in Iraq. In preparation for his visit the Bahá'ís were rounded up, arrested and exiled. [BBR267; BBRSM90; BKG441]
  • See BKG441–3 for details of the exile.
  • Iraq; Iran Nasirid-Din Shah; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1870 (In the year) In Zanján, Áqá Siyyid Ashraf was arrested, condemned to death as a Bábí and executed. [BWG470]
  • He was the son of Mír Jalíl, one of the companions of Hujjat who was martyred in Tihrán at the end of the Zanján episode. [BKG470]
  • He was born during the siege at Zanján. [BKG470]
  • His mother was brought to prison to persuade him to recant his faith but she threatened to disown him if he did so. [BBD25; BKG470; ESW73–4; GPB199–200]
  • See G135–6 for Bahá'u'lláh's Tablet concerning Ashraf and his mother.
  • Zanjan; Iran Ashraf, Aqa Siyyid; Mir Jalil; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1875 (In the year) The `ulamá arouse the rabble against the Bahá'ís in Sidih, Isfahán. Several Bahá'ís were imprisoned, including Nayyir and Síná. [BW18:383] Sidih; Isfahan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1876 (In the year) Six Bahá'ís were arrested in Tihrán and imprisoned for three months and 17 days. [BW18:383] Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1877. Sep Hájí `Abdu'l-Majíd-i-Níshápúrí was executed in Mashhad. [BW18:383] Mashhad Haji Abdul-Majid-i-Nishapuri; Iran, persecution
    1880 In the year Martyrdom of seven Bahá'ís in Sultánábád. [BW18:383]
  • Three Bahá'ís were killed on the orders of Siyyid Muhammad-Báqir-i-Mujtahid and a large number of Bahá'ís were thrown into prison. [BW18:383]
  • Sayyidih Khánum Bíbí, an old lady, was sent to Tihrán and was strangled in prison. [BW18:383]
  • Sultanabad; Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1882 (In the year) Mírzá `Alí-Muhammad Varqá was arrested in Yazd. He is sent to Isfahán where he was imprisoned for a year. [BW18:383] Yazd; Isfahan; Iran Varqa, Mirza Ali-Muhammad; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Varqa
    1882 – 1883 The Tihrán Upheaval.
  • A number of leading members of the Tihrán Bahá'í community were arrested and subsequently condemned to death. Some were confined for a period of 19 months in severe circumstances but the death sentences were not carried out. [BBR292–5; BW18:383]
  • This was occasioned by the release of Bahá'u'lláh from strict confinement and the subsequent increase in the number of pilgrims from Iran causing an upsurge of Bahá'í activities, particularly in Tihrán. [BBR292–5]
  • Tihran; Iran Tihran upheaval; Upheavals; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1883 (In the year) Six Bahá'ís were arrested in Yazd and sent to Isfahán in chains. BW18:383]

    Four Bahá'ís were arrested in Sarvistán, Fárs, and sent to Shíráz where they are bastinadoed. [BW18:383]

    Yazd; Isfahan; Sarvistan; Fars; Shiraz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1883. 19 Mar Sixteen Bahá'í traders of the bazaar were arrested in Rasht; three others are brought from Láhíján. [BW18:383] Rasht; Lahijan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1885. 27 Mar 1885 Martyrdom of Mullá `Alíy-i-Námiqí in Námiq, Turbat-i-Haydarí, Khurásán. [BW18:383] Namiq; Turbat-i-Haydari; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1887 (In the year) Karbalá'í Hasan Khán and Karbalá'í Sádiq were arrested in Sarvistán, Fárs, and imprisoned for two years before being killed in prison. [BW18:383] Sarvistan; Fars; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1888. c. Jul-Aug Two Bahá'ís were arrested in Sarvistán, Fárs, and were sent to Shíráz, where one was imprisoned. [BW18:383] Sarvistan; Fars; Shiraz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1888. 23 Oct The martyrdom of Mírzá Ashraf of Ábádih in Isfahán. He was hanged, his body burnt and left hanging in the market. Later his body was buried beneath a wall. [BBRXXIX, 277–80; BW18:383; GPB201] Isfahan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1889. 18 Jul The Bahá'ís were persuaded to leave the Telegraph Office in Isfahán after being assured that they would receive protection in their villages. [BW18:383] Isfahan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1889 Aug Bahá'ís of Sidih and Najafábád, after having received no help or protection, went to Tihrán to petition the Sháh. [BW18:383] Tihran; Sidih; Najafabad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Petitions
    1889. 8 Sep Hájí Muhammad Ridáy-i-Isfahání was martyred in `Ishqábád. [BBRXXIX, 296–7; GPB202]

    "In the city of 'Ishqábád the newly established Shí'ah community, envious of the rising prestige of the followers of Bahá'u'lláh who were living in their midst, instigated two ruffians to assault the seventy-year old Hájí Muhammad-Ridáy-i-Isfáhání, whom, in broad day and in the midst of the bazaar, they stabbed in no less than thirty-two places, exposing his liver, lacerating his stomach and tearing open his breast. A military court dispatched by the Czar to 'Ishqábád established, after prolonged investigation, the guilt of the Shí'ahs, sentencing two to death and banishing six others - a sentence which neither Násir'd-Dín Sháh, nor the 'ulamás of Tihrán, of Mashad and of Tabríz, who were appealed to, could mitigate, but which the representatives of the aggrieved community, through their magnanimous intercession which greatly surprised the Russian authorities, succeeded in having commuted to a lighter punishment." [GPB202-203]

  • Czar Alexander III sent a military commission from St Petersburg to conduct the trial of those accused of the murder. [AB109; GPB202]
  • Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl served as chief Bahá'í spokesman at the trial. [AB109]
  • Two were found guilty and sentenced to death, six others were ordered to be transported to Siberia. [AB109; BBR297; GPB203]
  • Bahá'u'lláh attached importance to the action as being the first time Shí'ís received judicial punishment for an attack on Bahá'ís. [BBRSM91]
  • The Bahá'í community interceded on behalf of the culprits and had the death sentences commuted to transportation to Siberia. [AB109; BBR297; GPB203]
  • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR296–300.
  • Ishqabad; Turkmenistan Haji Muhammad Riday-i-Isfahani; Czar Alexander III; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Firsts, Other; Persecution, Turkmenistan; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Court cases; Court cases; Persecution; Human rights
    1890 (In the year) Hájí Ákhúnd, Hájí Amín and Ibn-i-Abhar were arrested. Hájí Ákhúnd was imprisoned in Tihrán for two years; Hájí Amín was imprisoned in Qazvín for two years; and Ibn-i-Abhar was imprisoned in Tihrán for four years. [BW18:383–4]

    Mírzá Mahmúd-i-Furúghí was arrested in Furúghí and sent to Mashhad. From there he was sent to Kalát-i-Nadírí where he was imprisoned for two years. [BW18:384]

    In Mashhad a mob set out to kill Mírzá Husayn-i-Bajistání, but failing to find him they looted his shop. [BW18:384]

    Tihran; Qazvin; Kalat-i-Nadiri; Mashhad; Iran Haji Akhund (Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi); Haji Amin (Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani); Ibn-i-Abhar (Mulla Muhammad Taqi); Mirza Mahmud-i-Furughi; Mirza Husayn-i-Bajistani; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution
    1890. 25 Feb Seven Bahá'ís from Sidih who had gone to Tihrán to petition the Sháh for protection, secured a decree from him permitting them to return home. When they try to enter Sidih they were killed. [BBRXXIX, 285–9; BW18:383] Sidih; Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Petitions
    1890. Aug-Sep Mullá Hasan and his two brothers were arrested and beaten in Sarcháh, Bírjand. [BW18:383] Sarchah; Birjand; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1891 19 May The execution of the Seven Martyrs of Yazd. [BBRXXIX, BW18:384]

    Seven Bahá'ís were executed on the order of the governor of Yazd, Husain Mírzá, Jalálu'd-Dín-Dawlih (the grandson of the shah and the son of Zillu's-Sultán) and at the instigation of the mujtahid, Shaykh Hasan-i-Sabzivárí. [BW18:384]

  • For their names see BW18:384.
  • For details of the executions see GBP201–2.
  • For Western reports of the episode see BBR301–5.
  • Bahá'u'lláh stated that a representative of Zillu's-Sultán. Hájí Sayyáh, visited Him in 'Akká in the hope of persuading Him to support his plot to usurp the throne. He was promised freedom to practice the Faith should He support him. Hájí Sayyáh was arrested in Tehran in April of 1891 and Zillu's-Sultán, afraid that he would be implicated in the plot to overthrow the king, inaugurated vigorous persecution of the Bahá'ís in Yazd in order to draw attention from himself and prove his loyalty to the crown and to Islam. Had Bahá'u'lláh reported this incident to the Shah, Zillu's-Sultán would have paid dearly for his disloyalty. [BBR357-358]
  • See also RB3:194–6 and SBBH2:77.
  • “The tyrant of the land of Yá (Yazd) committed that which has caused the Concourse on High to shed tears of blood.” from the Lawḥ-i-Dunyá (Tablet of the World) Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh, p. 85
  • Yazd; Iran Jalalud-Din-Dawlih; Shaykh Hasan-i-Sabzivari; Seven martyrs of Yazd; Seven martyrs; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Zillus-Sultan; Haji Sayyah; Shah; Lawh-i-Dunya (Tablet of the World)
    1891 after 19 May Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawh-i-Times, Tablet to the Times in which He recounted the circumstances of the martyrdoms in Yazd. [RB4:348–50, BW18p976-7] Akka; London; United Kingdom; Yazd; Iran Bahji; Times (newspaper); Newspapers; Media; Lawh-i-Times (Tablet to the Times); Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Seven martyrs of Yazd; Seven martyrs; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1891. 3 Oct Mullá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Dihábádí was martyred, one of the Seven Martyrs of Yazd who were killed at the hands of Jalálu’d-Dawlih and Zillu’s-Sultan. [BW18:384] Yazd; Iran Mulla Muhammad-Aliy-i-Dihabadi; Jalalud-Dawlih; Zillus-Sultan; Seven Martyrs of Yazd; Seven martyrs; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1892. Summer Áqá Murtadá of Sarvistán, who had been in prison for five years, was executed in Shíráz. [BW18:384] Sarvistan; Shiraz; Iran Iran, persecutions; Aqa Murtada
    1893. 17 Jun Áqá Muhammad-Ridáy-i-Muhammadábádí was killed by three men on the orders of two of the `ulamá of Yazd. [BW18:384; GPB296]
  • He was the first to suffer martyrdom in the ministry of `Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • See GPB296 for details of his martyrdom.
  • Yazd; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Firsts, Other
    1894 (In the year) Green Acre was founded by Sarah J. Farmer in the aftermath of the World Parliament of Religions. [BBRSM:104; BFA2:142–7; BW5:29; GPB261; SBBH1:125] Eliot; Maine; United States; Nishapur; Hamadan; Dastjirdan; Khurasan; Faran; Khurasan Sarah Farmer; Green Acre; Haji Yari; Aqa Abdul-Vahhab Mukhtari; World Parliament of Religions; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution Green Acre Bahá'í School (Wikipedia)
    1894 (In the year) Two Bahá'ís were arrested and bastinadoed in Níshápúr. One died seven days later, the other two years later. [BW18:384]
  • Hájí Yárí, a Bahá'í of Jewish background, was arrested and imprisoned in Hamadán. [BW18:384]
  • A Bahá'í in Dastjirdán, Khurásán, Áqá `Abdu'l-Vahháb Mukhtárí, was beaten and expelled from the village. [BW18:384]
  • Bahá'ís in Fárán, Khurásán, were beaten and Bahá'í homes were looted. [BW18:384]
  • Nishapur; Hamadan; Dastjirdan; Faran Persecutions, Iran
    1896 (In the year) Bahá'ís in Hisár, Khurásán were persecuted and imprisoned. [BW18:384] Hisar; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1896 (In the year) Áqá Siyyid Mihdíy-i-Yazdí was martyred in Tabríz. [BW18:384] Tabriz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1896 (In the year) Mullá Hasan Khazá'í was arrested in Khúzistán. [BW18:384] Khuzistan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1896 1 May The martyrdom of Hand of the Cause of God Varqa (‘Dove’), Mírzá ‘Ali-Muhammad. (b.1856) He and his young son, Ruhu’lláh, were killed by, Hajib’ud-Dawleh, one of the Qajar courtiers, in fact the Chief Steward, in the aftermath of the assassination of Nasir'd-Din Shah. [GPB296, BBRXXIX]
  • For the story of their lives see MRHK405–22 and World Order: Winter 1974-1975, Vol. 9 No.2 p29-44.
  • For a Western account of the episode see BBR361–2.
  • ‘Abdu’l-Bahá named him posthumously as a Hand of the Cause and Shoghi Effendi designated him as one of the Apostles of Bahá-u-lláh. [EB75-97 LoF42-49, BBR361-362, SoBSNBp225-229]
  • See Varqá and Son: The Heavenly Doves by Darius Shahrokh.
  • See also Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • See SoW Vol 12 No 4 (17 May 1921 (Volume 7 pg93) for a photo of Varqá, Ruhu'lláh and their two companions.
  • Yazd; Tihran; Iran Varqa, Mirza Ali-Muhammad; Varqa, Ruhullah; In Memoriam; Apostles of Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause; Hands appointed by Abdul-Baha; Hands appointed by Abdul-Baha; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Varqa
    1896. Jun - Jul Several Bahá'ís were beaten and four were imprisoned in Turbat-i-Haydarí when two mujtahids stirred up the townspeople against them. [BW18:384] Turbat-i-Haydari; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1896. 21 Jul Hájí Muhammad Sádiq was stabbed to death in Turbat-i-Haydarí. [BW18:384] Turbat-i-Haydari; Iran Haji Muhammad Sadiq; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1896. 24 Jul Four Bahá'ís were executed in Turbat-i-Haydarí on the order of the mujtahid. [BW18:384; BBR405]
  • BBRXXIX says the four Bahá'ís were martyred in August.
  • These four together with Hájí Muhammad Sádiq are known as the Shuhadáy-i-Khamsih (Five Martyrs). [GPB296]
  • Their martyrdom was the result of the assassination of the Sháh, for which the Bahá'ís were erroneously blamed. [GPB296]
  • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR405–6.
  • Turbat-i-Haydari; Iran Haji Muhammad Sadiq; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Assassinations; Nasirid-Din Shah
    1897 (In the year) Fifteen Bahá'ís were arrested in Saysán, Ádharbáyján. They were taken to Tabríz, imprisoned and fined. [BW18:384]
  • Three Bahá'ís were arrested in Nayríz on the orders of Áqá Najafí, the `Son of the Wolf'. [BW18:384]
  • The homes of several Bahá'ís in Hamadán were looted and ransacked after complaints by Jews of the town against Bahá'ís of Jewish background. [BW18:384]
  • Saysan; Adharbayjan; Tabriz; Nayriz; Hamadan; Iran Aqa Najafi (Son of the Wolf); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1897. Feb Six Bahá'ís were arrested in Mamaqán, Ádharbáyján. Three were bastinadoed and three were imprisoned in Tabríz. [BW18:384] Mamaqan; Adharbayjan; Tabriz; Iran Persecution, Adharbayjan; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1898 (In the year) Several Bahá'ís were arrested and imprisoned in Qazvín. [BW18:384]

    Hájí Muhammad was set upon and killed in Hisár, Khurásán. BW18:384]

    Qazvin; Hisar; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1898. Apr Nine Bahá'ís attending a Ridván meeting were arrested, beaten and imprisoned in Hamadán. [BW18:384] Hamadan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1898. 1 Jun Áqá Ghulám-Husayn-i-Banádakí was killed by a mob in Yazd after refusing to deny his faith. [BW18:384] Yazd; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1901 (In the year) William Hoar, one of the first Bahá'ís in America, was asked by `Abdu'l-Bahá to meet with the Persian ambassador in Washington to request justice for the Bahá'ís of Iran, thus marking the beginning of the efforts of the American Bahá'í community to alleviate the persecution of their brethren. [BFA2:51] Washington DC; United States; Iran William Hoar; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Ambassadors; Human rights; Firsts, Other
    1901 May Ghulám-Ridá was killed in Najafábád. [BW18:385] Najafabad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1902 (In the year) In Shíráz, Hájí Abu'l-Hasan was beaten so severely on the order of the mujtahid that he died a few months later from the effects. [BW18:385] Shiraz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1902 18 Mar Áqá Muhammad-Zamá-i-Sabbágh and Siyyid Ja`far are executed in Isfandábád and Abarqú, Fárs. Several Bahá'ís are expelled from the town and another Bahá'í killed. [BW18:385] Isfandabad; Abarqu; Fars; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1902 (In the year) Since the assassination of the Sháh's father in 1986 the Bahá'í community in Iran had been scapegoated and the oppression was increasing. In 1902 Muzaffar al-Din Sháh and his prime minister were in Paris staying at the Elysèe Palace Hotel. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had a petition for him and Lua Getsinger was asked to deliver it. She and Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney requested an audience with the Sháh but they were refused by the prime minister. She was told that he was not receiving anyone as his son was gravely ill and likely to die. Lua asked if he would see her the following day should his son be healed and consent was granted. That night the Bahá'ís of Paris held a prayer vigil till dawn. As promised, Lua was granted access and put the petition directly in the Sháh's hand. She heard him say that he would do all that was within his power but in 1903 a savage rash of persecution broke out and, upon the advice of his prime minister, the Sháh did nothing believing that it was better to let the restless population vent rage on the Bahá'ís then on the rich and powerful foreigners who might have been victimized. The prime minister was replaced in mid-1903 and the persecutions eased. In 1907 the Sháh did intervene on behalf of the Bahá'ís. [Find a grave; LDNW18-19] Paris Iran, persecution; Lua Getsinger; Muzaffar al-Din Shah; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; petition; Z****
    1903 May Upheaval at Rasht. [BBRXXX, 373; BW18:385]
  • See BW18:385 for a chronicle of events. Upheaval at Isfahán. [BW18:385]
  • See BW18:385 for a chronicle of events.
  • The Bahá'ís take sanctuary at the Russian Consulate. [BBR376]
  • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR377–385]
  • Rasht; Isfahan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution; Rasht upheaval; Isfahan upheaval; Upheavals; Russian consulate
    1903 28 May A large mob gathered outside the Russian Consulate in Isfahán and beat the Bahá'ís as they leave. One Bahá'í died as a result of the injuries. [BW18:385] Isfahan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Russian consulate; Persecution, Mobs; Russian consulate
    1903 8 Jun Bahá'ís in Maláyir, Hamadán, are attacked, beaten and imprisoned. Two are killed. [BW18:385] Malayir; Hamadan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1903 Jun-Jul The Yazd Upheaval. [BBRXXX]
  • See BW18:385–6 for a chronicle of events.
  • This is said to be one of the bloodiest events to take place during the ministry of `Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • For Western responses see BBR385–98 and SBBH1:67.
  • For details of the martyrdom of Hájí Mírzáy-i-Halabí-Sáz during the upheaval see RB2:358–66.
  • For the effect on Bahá'ís of Zoroastrian background see SBBH2:80.
  • Yazd; Iran Yazd upheaval; Upheavals; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Zoroastrianism
    1903 Sep At the request of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, Hájí Mírzá Hadar-'Alí wrote Bahá'í Martyrdoms in Persia in the Year 1903 AD. Yazd; Isfahan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of
    1904 (In the year) The publication of Bahá'í Martyrdoms in Persia in the Year 1903 AD by Hájí Mírzá Haydar-Alí Isfaháni and translated by Youness Afroukhteh. A second edition was published in 1917. Yazd; Isfahan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Publications
    1905 c. 30 Mar Hájí Kalb-`Alí was shot and killed in Najafábád. [BW18:386] Najafabad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1906 summer Bahá'ís in Sangsar, Khurásán, were persecuted such that they took refuge in the hills. [BW18:386] Sangsar; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution
    1906 Oct-Nov Several Bahá'ís in Sangsar and Shahmírzád were killed or injured by bullets; six Bahá'ís were arrested. [BW18:386] Sangsar; Shahmirzad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1907 (In the year) Hájar, an elderly Bahá'í woman, was shot dead in Nayríz. [BW18:386] Nayriz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1907 19 Jan The accession of Muhammad-`Alí Sháh to the throne of Iran. He reigned until 1909. He attempted to rescind the constitution and abolish parliamentary government. After several disputes with the members of the Majlis in June, 1908 he bombed the Majlis building, arrested many of the deputies and closed down the assembly. In July 1909 constitutional forces deposed him and he went into exile in Russia from where he attempted to regain his throne. [BBR354, 482, AY218]
  • The Bahá'í community received some measure of protection under this regime. [BBRSM:97–8]
  • Iran Muhammad-Ali Shah; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; Qajar dynasty; History (general); Iran, General history; Persecution
    1907 25 Apr Karbalá'í Sádiq was martyred in Tabríz. [BW18:386] Tabriz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1908 (In the year) `Alí Ádharí was martyred in Kirmán. [BW18:386] Kirman; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1909 Mar The third upheaval in Nayriz. Eighteen or nineteen Bahá'ís were brutally assassinated in Nayríz when the Constitutionalists took control of the city. [BBR369; BW18:386; DH71, 138; GPB298; RB1:268] Nayriz; Iran Constitutionalists; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1909 Mar–Apr Bahá'ís of Námiq, Khurásán, were attacked and Kad-khudá Ismá'íl was killed. [BW18:386] Namiq; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1909 22 Apr Three Bahá'ís are killed in Hisár, Khurásán, and their wives seriously injured. [BW18:386] Hisar; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1909 28 Jul Bahá'ís in Námiq, Khurásán, were killed. [BW18:386] Namiq; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1909 8 Nov Hájí Haydar, a leading Bahá'í of Najafábád, was shot and killed at Isfahán. [BBR432]
  • BRXXX and BW18:387 says this occurred on 5 November.
  • For Western accounts of the incident see BRR432–4.
  • Isfahan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1910 20 Sep Muhammad-Ja`far-i-Sabbágh was martyred at Najafábád. [BW18:387] Najafabad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1911 23 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá went for a carriage ride in the nearby hills. ["With 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Switzerland" by Juliet Thompson, SoW Vol 2 no 14 (Nov 23, 1911) p9-13, ABF15]
  • Later that day, by chance, 'Abdu'l-Bahá encountered the Persian prince, Sultán-Mas'ud Mírzá Zillu's-Sultán (1850-1918), the eldest son of Násirid-/dín Sháh, (1850-1918) in the Parc Hotel. He was in voluntary exile in Europe accompanied by his four sons. At various times, he had been the governor or governor-general of various provinces in Iran from 1862 to 1907 and had persecuted the Bahá'ís zealously. He was responsible for ratifying the execution of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs in 1879. Upon meeting 'Abdu'l-Bahá he presented his excuses but 'Abdu'l-Bahá forgave him by saying "All those things are in the past. Never think of them again." [DJT172-3, ABF17; ABW411]
  • Annie Boylan arrived in Thonon-les-Bains from America by way of Lausanne. 'Abdu'l-Bahá is reported to have told her that the building of the Shrine of the Báb was the fulfillment of the prophecy that "the Lord would come and rebuild the temple that had been torn down". He added that the Tomb of the Báb and that of Bahá'u'lláh were considered the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkar. [SoW vol 11. no. 1 (March 21, 1920) p1-15, ABF18]
  • Thonon-les-Bains; France; Isfahan; Iran Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Zillus-Sultan; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Annie Boylan; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1911 22 Aug - 3 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá took up residence at Thonon-les-Bains on Lake Leman (Lake Geneva). [AB140; GPB280; SBR219]
  • While there He encountered Zillu's-Sultán, the eldest son of the Sháh of the time, Násirid-Dín Sháh. It was he who had ratified the execution of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs and at least 100 others. The whole family was in exile in Geneva at this time. 'Abdu'l-Bahá was very courteous to this man who had been such an inveterate enemy of the Cause. [DJT172, AY19, GPB201] .
  • The Master sent for Juliet Thompson who had been waiting in London for His permission to join Him.
  • During His stay he had a visit from Annie Boylan, a member of the New York community that was experiencing disharmony. Unaware of Bahá'í election procedures, a group that was unhappy with the disunity and ineffectiveness of the Council had organized a vote to be rid of several of its Council members. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had written to the community a short time before recommending that the Council be expanded from 9 to 27 members so that all factions could be represented. He also recommended that women be included on the Council and that the name be changed to "the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of New York". This apparently addressed the problem of disunity because the New York community went on to contribute significantly to the progress of the Faith on a national level. [DJT181, BFA2p338]
  • Horace Holley, who lived at Quattro Torri, Siena, Italy at the time, along with his wife Bertha Herbert and baby daughter Hertha, visited 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the 29th and 30th of August. Please see his Religion for Mankind p 232-237 for a pen portrait of 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • He met with Elizabeth Stewart and Lillian Kappes who were on their way to Tehran. [find reference]
  • It would appear that He returned to Marseilles and travelled to London by sea. [SCU22-23]
  • Thonon-les-Bains; Lake Leman; Marseille; France; Switzerland; Italy; London; United Kingdom; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; Unity; Zillus-Sultan; Persecution; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Juliet Thompson; Horace Holley; Elizabeth Stewart; Lillian Kappes; Ships
    1911 28 Aug In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá's visitor was Sultán-Husayn Mírzá, the eldest son of Zillu's-Sultán. Between 1879 and 1906 he had served as either governor or deputy governor of Khuzestán, Lorestán, Yazd, Fárs, Burujerd and Kurdistan. He was responsible for the martyrdoms in Yazd in 1891 and again in 1903. He had been exiled with his father in 1908.
  • As a footnote, in his latter years he became a devoted Bahá'í. [DJT206]
  • Later He gave a talk in Arabic that was published in its entirety by the leading Egyptian newspaper, Al-Ahram. [ABF45-48, SoW vol 5 no 10, Far Stretching River (translation by Mohsen Enayat)]
  • Thonon-les-Bains; France; Yazd; Iran Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Sultan-Husayn Mirza; Mohsen Enayat; Seven martyrs of Yazd; Seven martyrs; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Yazd upheaval
    1912 (In the year) Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí and his wife were killed in Bárfurúsh, Mázandarán. [BW18:387] Barfurush; Mazandaran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1912 3 Jan In Sárí, Mázandarán, a mob attacked houses of Bahá'ís and four Bahá'ís were killed; a few days later another Bahá'í was killed. [BW18:387] Sari; Mazandaran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Persecution, Mobs
    1912 4 Feb Two Bahá'ís were killed in Máhfurúzak, Mázandarán. [BW18:387] Mahfuruzak; Mazandaran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1913 Dec Áqá Abu'l-Qásim-i-Isfandábádí was killed by two assailants in Qúzih-Kúh, Bavánát, Fárs. [BW18:387] Quzih-Kuh; Bavanat; Fars; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1914 27 Aug Áqá Mírzá Yúsif-i-Qá'iní was killed in Mashhad. [BW18:387] Mashhad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1915 (In the year) Mírzá Husayn-i-Hudá was martyred in Urúmíyyih. [BW18:387] Urumiyyih; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1915 14 Mar Shaykh ‘Alí Akbar-i-Qúchání was shot to death in Mashhad. Considerable anti-Bahá’í agitation follows and many Bahá’ís are forced to seek sanctuary. Three hundred people are arrested. [BBRXXX; BW18:387; GPB298–9] Mashhad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1916 22 Feb In Sultánábád, Mírzá `Alí-Akbar, his wife, his sister-in-law (aged 12) and their four children (aged from 46 days to 11 years) were killed by having their throats cut. [BW18:387; GPB299]
  • See DB610 for picture.
  • Sultanabad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1916 28 July Mullá Nasru'lláh-i-Shahmírzádí was martyred in his home in Shahmirzád, Khurásán. [BW18:387]

    Shahmirzad; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1917 17 Feb A mob in Najafábád disintered the bodies from two Bahá'í graves. A general agitation against Bahá'ís followed. The Bahá'ís were boycotted in the bazaar and public baths and 32 are arrested. [BW18:387] Najafabad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution; Persecution, Mobs
    1917 2 May The martyrdom of Mírzá Muhammad-i-Bulúr-Furúsh in Yazd. [BBRXXX, BBR443] Yazd; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1918 15 Mar Áqá Mírzá Javád, I`timádu't-Tujjár, was shot in Bandar Jaz and the houses of the Bahá'ís were looted, causing the death of Javád's 14-year-old nephew. [BW18:387] Bandar Jaz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1920 (in the year) Mírzá Ibráhím Khán, Ibtiháju'l-Mulk, was martyred in Rasht at the hands of the Jangalís. [BW18:387]
  • Momen reports the year of martyrdom as 1921. [Bahá'í History of Gílán by Moojan Momen]
  • Rasht; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1920 21 May The execution at Sultánábád of Hájí `Arab by hanging. [BBRXXX, 444-6; BW18:387] Sultanabad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1920 Sep The tombs of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs in Isfahán were demolished by a mob. [BBR437]
  • For Western responses see BBR437-9.
  • Isfahan; Iran Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Cemeteries and graves; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution; Persecution, Mobs
    1920 Oct Mírzá Mustafá was killed at Farúgh, Fárs, and other Bahá'ís were imprisoned. [BW18:387] Farugh; Fars; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1921 23 Jan Mírzá Ya`qúb-i-Muttahidih was assassinated in Kirmánsháh. [BBRXXX, 446-50; BW18:387; GPB299]
  • He was the last to lay down his life in the ministry of `Abdu'l-Bahá. GPB299]
  • Kirmanshah; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1921 Jul-Aug Bahá'ís of Zoroastrian background were harassed by the Zoroastrian agent in Qum. [BW18:388] Qum; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution
    1921 20 Oct Áqá Siyyid Mustafá Tabátabá'í was poisoned in Sangsar. Continual agitation prevented the burial of the body for several days. [BW18:388] Sangsar; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1924 9 Mar Two Bahá'ís were imprisoned for several months in Marághih, Iran, after two mullás stirred up trouble against the Bahá'ís. [BW18:388] Maraghih; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1924 2 Apr Bahá'ís in Turbat-i-Haydarí, Iran, were attacked; some were arrested and imprisoned and others were forced to leave the town permanently. [BW18:388] Turbat-i-Haydari; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1924 5 Apr Shaykh `Abdu'l-Majíd was beaten to death in Turshíz, Khurásán, Iran. [BW18:388] Turshiz; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1924 22 Jun Aqá Husayn-`Alí was martyred in Firúzábád, Fárs, Iran. [BW18:388] Firuzabad; Fars; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1924 18 Jul American Vice-Consul Major Robert Imbrie was murdered in Tihrán for being a Bahá'í, which he was not, straining relations between the Persian and American governments. When Washington threatened to sever diplomatic relations, Persia arrested some two hundred mullás, formally apologized to the United States and accepted Washington’s terms for full reparations. [BBR462-5; BW18:388, [AY277-279]
  • For a picture of the floral tribute sent to his funeral by the Bahá'ís of Persia and America see BW1:100.
  • Tihran; Iran; United States Major Robert Imbrie; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1924 Nov The Supreme Court of Iraq decided against the Bahá'ís in the dispute over the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád. [UD37-8] Iraq Court cases; House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution
    1925 10 May A Muslim Court in Egypt pronounced the Faith to be an independent religion. [BBRSM173; BW2:31;BW3:49]
  • For text of the judgement see BW3:48–50.
  • This was ‘the first charter of liberty emancipating the Bahá’í Faith from the fetters of orthodox Islam’. [BA100-1, 120-123; BW3:110–11; GPBXII, 302, 365; CB306; PP319–20; UD65 WOB99, LoF57, SETPE1p102-104]

    "an attack which, viewed in the perspective of history, will be acclaimed by future generations as a landmark not only in the Formative Period of the Faith but in the history of the first Bahá'í century. Indeed, the sequel to this assault may be said to have opened a new chapter in the evolution of the Faith itself, an evolution which, carrying it through the successive stages of repression, of emancipation, of recognition as an independent Revelation, and as a state religion, must lead to the establishment of the Bahá'í state and culminate in the emergence of the Bahá'í World Commonwealth. [GPB364]

  • Subsequent to the court's decision...

    "the presentation of a petition addressed by the national elected representatives of that community to the Egyptian Prime Minister, the Minister of the Interior and the Minister of Justice (supported by a similar communication addressed by the American National Spiritual Assembly to the Egyptian Government, see BW4p166), enclosing a copy of the judgment of the Court, and of their national Bahá'í constitution and by-laws, requesting them to recognize their Assembly as a body qualified to exercise the functions of an independent court and empowered to apply, in all matters affecting their personal status, the laws and ordinances revealed by the Author of their Faith--these stand out as the initial consequences of a historic pronouncement that must eventually lead to the establishment of that Faith on a basis of absolute equality with its sister religions in that land." [GPB367]

    "it became a lever which the Egyptian Bahá'í community, followed later by its sister-communities, readily utilized for the purpose of asserting the independence of its Faith and of seeking for it the recognition of its government. Translated into several languages, circulated among Bahá'í communities in East and West, it gradually paved the way for the initiation of negotiations between the elected representatives of these communities and the civil authorities in Egypt, in the Holy Land, in Persia and even in the United States of America, for the purpose of securing the official recognition by these authorities of the Faith as an independent religion. " [GPB366]

    Background Information

    "It was in the village of Kawmu's-Sa`áyidih, in the district of Beba, of the province of Beni Suef in Upper Egypt, that, as a result of the religious fanaticism which the formation of a Bahá'í assembly had kindled in the breast of the headman of that village, and of the grave accusations made by him to both the District Police Officer and the Governor of the province--accusations which aroused the Muhammadans to such a pitch of excitement as to cause them to perpetrate shameful acts against their victims--that action was initiated by the notary of the village, in his capacity as a religious plaintiff authorized by the Ministry of Justice, against three Bahá'í residents of that village, demanding that their Muslim wives be divorced from them on the grounds that their husbands had abandoned Islám after their legal marriage as Muslims." [GPB364-365]

  • See message from the Universal House of Justice to the Bahá'ís of Egypt dated 21 December 2006.
  • Kawmus-Saayidih; Beba; Beni Suef; Egypt Recognition; Islam; Interfaith dialogue; Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1926 (In the year) Opposition to the Faith began in Russia. [BW3:35; BBR473]
  • For details see BW3:34–43.
  • Russia; Soviet Union Persecution, Russia; Persecution
    1926 (In the year) For most of the year severe restrictions were placed on the Bahá’ís of Marághih in Ádharbáyján, the governor of the district effectively suspended all constitutional and civil rights of the Bahá’í community. [BBR472; BW18:388]
  • For a list of deprivations see BBR473.
  • Maraghih; Adharbayjan Persecution, Adharbayjan; Persecution; Human rights
    1926 7 Apr Eight or perhaps as many as twelve Bahá’ís were beaten to death in Jahrum, Fárs, Iran. [BW18:388, SETPE1p128, GBF36, UD49-53]
  • It was first reported that 12 Bahá’ís were killed. [PP98]
  • For the response of Shoghi Effendi see BA104–6, 106–8; GBF36–7; PP98–9; and UD48–53.
  • For Western accounts and responses see BBR465–72.
  • "The attacks were apparently instigated by a majlis representative who sought to gain favour with anti-Bahá'í religious leaders in order to secure reelection. The Bahá'ís complained to the local and national authorities to obtain redress but were denied. This was the last incident of mass killing of Bahá'ís during Reza Shah’s reign." [Religious Contentions in Modern Iran,1881-1941 pg 229-230 by Mina Yazdani]
  • Jahrum; Fars; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1926 29 Jun Three Bahá’ís were martyred in Zavárih, near Isfahán. [BW18:388] Zavarih; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1926 16 Jul The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada mades representations to the Iranian government concerning the martyrdoms in Jahrum and asking the Sháh to intervene on behalf of the oppressed Bahá’ís. [BBR469; BW2:287]
  • For text of the petition see BW2:287–300.
  • United States; Jahrum; Iran NSA; Petitions; Persecution, Iran; Persecution; Human rights
    1927 25 Mar Áqá ‘Abdu’l-‘A‘zím, Amínu’l-‘Ulamá’ was martyred in Ardibíl, Iran, by the order of the mujtahid. [BW18:388] Ardibil; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1927 19 Jun Karbalá’í Asadu’lláh-i-Saqat-furúsh was martyred in Kirmán, Iran. [BW18:388] Kirman; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1928 Apr The Soviet authorities abrogated the constitution of the Spiritual Assembly of ‘Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) and the assembly was dissolved. [BW3:37, BW8p88, SETPE1p154]
  • Bahá’í schools and libraries were closed. [BBRSM173]
  • Not long after, the government ordered that all religious buildings in the Soviet Union were the property of the government and the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár was expropriated and leased back to the Bahá’ís. [BBD122; BBR473; BBRSM161; BW3:37]
  • For the history of the persecution of the Bahá’ís in the Soviet Union see BBR473 and BW3:34–43.
  • PP364–5 says it was 1929.
  • Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Soviet Union; Russia Persecution, Russia; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad
    1928 Oct A newspaper campaign of opposition to the Bahá’ís began in Turkey. [BBR474]
  • Several Bahá’ís were arrested as a result and a close investigation of Bahá’í affairs in Turkey was made by the judiciary and the police. [BBR474]
  • Turkey Persecution, Turkey; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1928 13 Dec The case arising out of the newspaper persecution of the Bahá’ís of Turkey was brought before a criminal tribunal. [PP316]
  • The Bahá’ís were able to make known the history and tenets of the Faith. [PP316–17; UD78–9]
  • Turkey Persecution, Turkey; Persecution; Court cases; Human rights
    1932 (In the year) The Iranian government introduced measures against the Bahá’ís throughout Iran. Restrictions were placed on the import of Bahá’í books and periodicals by post and on the publication of Bahá’í literature. Bahá’í marriages were not recognized. [BW18:388] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1932 10 Jun The American National Spiritual Assembly addresseed a petition to the Sháh of Iran requesting that the ban on Bahá’í literature be removed and asking that its representative, Mrs Keith Ransom-Kehler, be recognized to present in person the appeal. [BW5:390–1] United States; Iran NSA; Petitions; Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Keith Ransom-Kehler; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1932 15 Aug Keith Ransom-Kehler met the Iranian Court Minister Taymur Tash. [BW5:392]
  • She presented the American petition to him asking that the ban on Bahá’í literature in Iran be lifted and received assurances from him that this would be affected. [BW5:392]
  • She made seven successive petitions addressed to the Sháh of Persia. [GPB345]
  • For the history and unsuccessful outcome of this effort see BW5:391–8.
  • Iran; United States Keith Ransom-Kehler; NSA; Petitions; Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Keith Ransom-Kehler; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1932 Nov A number of Bahá’ís were arrested in Adana, Turkey. [BBR474] Adana; Turkey Persecution, Turkey; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1932 2 Dec By this time there were 15 Bahá’ís under arrest in Adana, Turkey. [BBR474] Adana; Turkey Persecution, Turkey; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1933 (In the year) Bahá’ís in Gulpáygán, Iran, were refused admission to the public baths. Shaykh Ja‘far Hidáyat was beaten and expelled from the town. [BW18:388] Gulpaygan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution
    1933 (In the year) The Tavakkul Bahá’í School in Qazvín, Iran, was closed. [BW18:388] Qazvin; Iran Bahai schools; Persecution, Iran; Persecution
    1933 6 Feb By this date there were about 50 Bahá’ís under arrest in Adana, Turkey. [BBR475; PP317] Adana; Turkey Persecution, Turkey; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1933 End Mar The 50 Bahá’ís imprisoned in Adana were released. [BBR475] Adana; Turkey Persecution, Turkey; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1934 (In the year) The government of Iran took several measures against the Bahá’ís throughout the country. [BW18:389]
  • Nineteen Bahá’í schools are closed in Káshán, Qazvín, Yazd, Najafábád, Ábádih and elsewhere. [ARG109]
  • Bahá’í meetings were forbidden in many towns, including Tihrán, Mashhad, Sabzivár, Qazvín and Arák.
  • Bahá’ís centres in Káshán, Hamadán and Záhidán were closed by the authorities.
  • Some Bahá’í government employees were dismissed.
  • Some Bahá’í military personnel were stripped of their rank and imprisoned.
  • Bahá’ís in many places were harassed over the filling-in of marriage certificates, census forms and other legal documents.
  • Iran; Kashan; Qazvin; Yazd; Najafabad; Abadih; Tihran; Mashhad; Sabzivar; Arak; Hamadan; Zahidan Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Tarbiyat School; Bahai schools; persecution, Persecution, Education
    1934 6 Dec The Tarbíyat Bahá’í Schools in Tihrán and all other Bahá'í schools across the country were closed by order of the Minister of Education (headed by 'Ali-Asghar-i-Hikmat, a well-known Azali) when they failed to open on a holy day. [BBD221–2; BW18:389; CB312; GPB363; PP308; RoB4p313]
  • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR475–9.
  • Tihran; Iran Tarbiyat school; Bahai schools; Holy days; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Azali Babis
    1935 (In the year) The persecution against the Bahá’ís in Iran continued. [BW18:389]
  • Meetings in the Bahá’í Centre in Tihrán were banned.
  • A number of Bahá’ís in Bandar Sháh were arrested and imprisoned.
  • The secretary of the Local Spiritual Assembly of Arák was arrested.
  • Bahá’ís in Qazvín were arrested and harassed.
  • A Bahá’í in Záhidán was arrested.
  • Iran; Tihran; Bandar Shah; Arak; Qazvin; Zahidan Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; LSA
    1936 Jun The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continued. [BW18:389]
  • All Bahá’í meetings were banned throughout Iran.
  • Several local Bahá’í centres were attacked or closed down.
  • Bahá’ís in Bandar Sháh were interrogated by the police for closing their shops on Bahá’í holy days.
  • Iran; Bandar Shah Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Holy days
    1937 (In the year) The persecution of the Bahá’ís in Iran continued throughout the country. [BW18:389]
  • Many Bahá’ís employed in the police force, army and government departments were dismissed.
  • Six members of the Local Spiritual Assembly of Ahváz were arrested.
  • Bahá’ís who closed their shops on Bahá’í holy days in Bandar Sháh were arrested.
  • All Bahá’í meetings in Kirmánsháh, Bírjand, Arák and other towns were prohibited by police order.
  • Five Bahá’í families were attacked in their homes in Cham-tang, near Hindíyán. They were severely beaten and forced to leave the village.
  • Iran; Ahvaz; Bandar Shah; Kirmanshah; Birjand; Arak; Cham-tang Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; LSA; Holy days
    1937 May Several prominent Bahá’ís were arrested in Yazd. [BW18:389]
  • They were imprisoned in Tihrán for four years; one died in prison. [BW18:389]
  • Yazd; Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1937 21 May All Bahá’í activities and institutions were banned in Germany by a special order of the Reichsführer SS and the Gestapo Chief of Staff Heinrich Himmler when he banned the Bahá'í Faith in Germany. He blamed it on the religion’s “international and pacifist tendencies.” The Nazi government increasingly targeted the Bahá'ís after Himmler’s edict, first by tearing down the public memorial to 'Abdu’l-Bahá in Bad Mergntheim and then, in 1939, making mass arrests of the former members of the National Spiritual Assembly. Bahá'ís went to jail, some for very long periods, without charges. In 1942, more mass arrests occurred. Many of the Bahá'ís from Germany and the surrounding countries disappeared in the Nazi concentration camp system. [BBRSM185; Bahá'í Teachings; German Bahá'í website archives] Germany Persecution, Germany; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Bans; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Court cases; World War II; Z****
    1937 Jul Nine Bahá’ís were imprisoned in Sangsar, Khurásán, Iran, for closing their shops on Bahá’í holy days. [BW18:389]
  • They were imprisoned for two months. [BW18:389]
  • Sangsar; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Holy days
    1938 (In the year) Persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continued throughout the country. [BW18:389]
  • Bahá’ís marrying without a Muslim ceremony were investigated, including several hundred in Tihrán alone. Most were imprisoned pending trial and were imprisoned for six to eight months afterwards and fined.
  • Bahá’í meetings in Kirmánsháh, Záhidán, Mashhad and other towns were harassed by the police.
  • Iran; Tihran; Kirmanshah; Zahidan; Mashhad Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1938 5 Feb Bahá'ís in the Soviet Union were persecuted by the authorities. [BBR473, BW8p87-90, 179-81, BW14p479-481, SETPE1p155]
  • Five hundred Bahá'í men were imprisoned in Turkistán. [Bw8p89]
  • Many Persian Bahá'ís living in various cities of the Soviet Union were arrested, some are sent to Siberia, others to Pavladar in northern Kazakhstan and yet others to Iran. [BW8p87, 179, 184]
  • Six hundred Bahá'í refugees-women, girls, children and a few old men, went to Iran, most to Mashhad. [BW8p89]
  • The Bahá'í Temple in Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) was confiscated and turned into an art gallery. [BDD122, BW8p89]
  • The Bahá'í schools were ordered closed. [BW8p89]
  • Spiritual Assemblies and all other administrative institutions in the Caucasus were ordered dissolved. [BW8p89]
  • Soviet Union; Russia; Caucasus; Turkistan; Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Kazakhstan; Iran; Mashhad Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Persecution, Russia; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Bahai schools; LSA
    1939 Ridván The first Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Budapest was elected. There were about 14 believers in the community, mostly of Jewish ancestry. This caused difficulty for the community in the Nazi persecutions that followed. [Rebirth: Memoirs of Renée Szanto-Felbermann p108]

          According to the description of Renée Szántó-Felbermann, they could not even meet in Budapest: „It was at their (the Sugárs) house in Alag (today part of Budakeszi) that we elected the first Spiritual Assembly in the history of Hungary, Ridvan 1939. When we boarded the train for Alag, in order to avoid suspicion, we Bahá’ís did not remain together, but went by twos and threes. The same procedure was repeated on our arrival to Alag. It was a memorable, unforgettable evening, that Feast of Ridván in the small house at Alag fragrant with spring flowers. We were all deeply moved. And our dear Bertha Matthiesen was radiant. … Jenő Sugár was elected chairman, Mária Kleinberger became treasurer and I continued as secretary.” [www.bahai.hu]

  • See www.bahai.hu for a list of community members.
  • Ms Bertha Matthiesen spent a lot of time in Hungary between 1937 and 1939 when most declarations took place and the first spiritual assembly was formed. [www.bahai.hu]
  • Mr Emeric Sala (Imre Szalavetz) a Canadian Bahá'í who was born in Hungary visited Budapest in 1933 and in 1937. [www.bahai.hu]
  • Canadian travel teacher Ms Lorol Schopflocher visited Budapest in March-April 1937. [www.bahai.hu]
  • Budapest; Hungary First Local Spiritual Assemblies; World War II; War (general); Persecution, Hungary; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Jews
    1940 (in the decade) Bahá’ís in Argentina faced opposition throughout the decade with both the police and nationalists intimidating them. Argentina Persecution, Argentina; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1941 (In the year) Shaykh Kázim was martyred in Bunáb, Ádharbáyján. [BW18:389] Bunab; Adharbayjan Persecution, Adharbayjan; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1941 Jan Nine Bahá’ís were arrested in Sangsar, Khurásán, Iran, and banished to other towns for closing their shops on Bahá’í holy days. BW18:389] Sangsar; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Holy days
    1941 16 Sep In Iran, Ridá Sháh abdicated and Muhammad-Ridá Sháh ascended to the throne. His rule was to last until 1979. [BBR482]
  • Ridá Sháh was overthrown by the British and Russians. [BBRSM173]
  • His reign can be described in three phases:
            The first phase, from 1941 through 1955, was a period characterized by physical danger, during which Bahá'ís were scapegoated in the interactions among the government, the clerics and the people, and experienced several bloody incidents, the culmination of which was the 1955 anti-Bahá'í campaign and its aftermaths.

            The second phase, from the late 1950s to around 1977, marked almost two decades of relative respite from physical attacks, during which Bahá'ís enjoyed more security than before, without ever being officially recognized as a religious community and while their existence as Bahá'ís was essentially ignored or denied.

            The last two years of the reign of the Shah comprised the third phase, the revival of a bloody period. [Towards a History of Iran’s Bahá'í Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani]

  • Iran Mohammed Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; History (general); Iran, General history; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1941 18 Oct Four members of a Bahá’í family were killed and several other family members were severely beaten in an attack on their home by an armed mob in Panbih-Chúlih, near Sárí, Iran. [BW18:389] Panbih-Chulih; Sari; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Persecution, Mobs
    1942 (In the year) The House of the Báb in Shíráz was attacked and damaged by fire. [BBD108; BW18:389] Shiraz; Iran Bab, House of (Shiraz); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution
    1942 – early The publication in Iran of The Political Confessions or Memoirs of Prince Dolgoruki (or, simply, Dolgorukov's Memoirs). The book contends that the Bábí Faith was simply an element in a plot to destabilize Iran and Islam. [22 February, 2009 Iran Press Watch]
  • See Religious Contentions in Modern Iran, 1881-1941 by Dr Mina Yazdani where she posits that "The process of Othering the Bahá'ís had at least three components; 1) religious, carried on by the traditionalist theologians; 2) institutional and formal, sanctioned by the state; and 3) political, the result of a joint and gradual process in which Azalīs, former Bahá'ís and reformist theologians all played a role. This process reached its culmination with the widespread publication of The Confessions of Dolgoruki which resulted in a fundamental paradigm shift in the anti-Bahá'í discourse. With the widespread impression of Bahá'ís as spies of foreign powers, what up to that point constituted a sporadic theme in some anti-Bahá'í polemics now became the dominant narrative of them all, including those authored by traditionalist clerics. Consequently, as Iran entered the 1940s, the process that would transform Islamic piety to political ideology was well under way."
  • In its preface, Dolgorukov's Memoirs purported to be a translation of the memoirs of Prince Dimitri Ivanovich Dolgorukov (Russian Minister in Iran from 1845-54), first published in the official organ of the Soviet Communist Party. According to the book, whose Russian “original” has never been found, Prince Dolgorukov had travelled to Iran during the 1830s, entered the ranks of the ‘ulama, and instigated the Bábí-Bahá’í uprising. The book totally contradicted the well-documented life of Prince Dolgorukov, and made obvious chronological and historical mistakes in its allegations about the lives of the Báb and Bahá’u’lláh. Nevertheless, it was reprinted many times, and created a master narrative that others subsequently deployed. With its political tone, the book, on the one hand, heralded the ascendancy of politics over religion in the mindset of Iran’s Shi’a clergy, and on the other, demonstrated the vast popularity that conspiracy theories enjoyed in Iran. [Iran Press Watch 1407] iiiii
  • Iran Conspiracy theories; Criticism and apologetics; Memoirs; Prince Dolgorukov; Persecution, Iran; Persecution
    1942 (In the year) In the village of Daidanaw eleven Bahá'ís were slain. Records, books and documents that had been transferred to Daidanaw from the headquarters in Mandalay and Rangoon were lost when the headquarters building was destroyed by fire. [BW11]p33] Daidanaw; Mandalay; Rangoon; Myanmar (Burma) Persecution, Myanmar (Burma); Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution
    1942 13 Feb Ustád Habíbu’lláh Mu‘ammarí was martyred in Nayríz, Iran. [BW18:389] Nayriz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1944 2 May The German government held a public trial of some of the jailed Bahá'í leaders in Darmstadt. Dr. Hermann Grossmann was allowed to testify as a witness for the defense about the non-political nature of the Bahá'í Faith and the attitude of the trial had been pre-ordained. The government found the Bahá'ís guilty, levied large fines and banned all Bahá'í institutions ordering that they be immediately disbanded. [Bahá'í Teachings; German Bahá'í website archives] Darmstadt; Germany Persecution, Germany; Hermann Grossmann; Z****
    1944 12 May Bahá’ís were persecuted at Ábádih, Iran. The Bahá’í centre was attacked by a mob of four thousand, the building was looted and destroyed and several Bahá’ís badly beaten. [BW18:389]
  • For Western accounts see BBR479.
  • Abadih; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution; Persecution, Mobs; Haziratul-Quds
    1944 8 Aug Three Bahá’ís were murdered in Sháhrúd, Iran, after three weeks of anti-Bahá’í agitation. Many Bahá’í houses were attacked and looted. [BW18:389]
  • The murderers confessed, were put on trial and were acquitted. [BW18:389, Towards a History of Iran’s Baha’i Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.]
  • Shahrud; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Human rights; Court cases
    1944 after Aug Following the murder of Bahá’ís at Sháhrúd, Iran, and the widespread publicity on the outcome of the trial, there was an upsurge in persecution of Bahá’ís throughout Iran. [BW18:389]
  • At Ábádih Bahá’ís were beaten and their houses were sacked. [BW18:389]
  • The Bahá’í centre at Bandar Jaz was attacked. [BW18:389]
  • Two Bahá’ís were knifed at Bandar Sháh. The attackers were set free and attacked a further three Bahá’ís, leaving one an invalid. [BW18:390]
  • Bahá’ís, including women and children, were attacked and beaten at Bushrúyih, their homes and shops looted and burned and the Bahá’í cemetery desecrated. [BW18:390]
  • Bahá’í houses were attacked and looted at Fárán, Káshán and Ná’in. [BW13:390]
  • Bahá’í houses were set on fire in Gulpáygán and Zábul. [BW18:390]
  • Bahá’ís were driven from town in Bujnúrd, Gunábád and Tabas. [BW18:390]
  • The Bahá’í cemetery at Mahmúdábád was desecrated.
  • Bahá’ís were beaten at Miyán-du-áb, Rafsanján, Sangsar and Sírján. [BW18:390]
  • Bahá’ís were stoned at Qasr-i-Shírín. [BW18:390]
  • Iran; Abadih; Bandar Jaz; Bandar Shah; Bushruyih; Faran; Kashan; Nain; Gulpaygan; Zabul; Bujnurd; Gunabad; Tabas; Mahmudabad; Miyan-du-ab; Rafsanjan; Sangsar; Sirjan; Qasr-i-Shirin Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1945 (In the year) Bahá’ís throughout Iran were dismissed from National Teacher Training Colleges by the National Board of Education. [BW18:390] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Education; Persecution
    1945 14 Aug The German Bahá’ís, 80 per cent of whom lived in the American sector of occupied Germany, obtained permission to re-organize. [BBRSM185]
  • A US soldier stationed in occupied post-war Germany, John Eichenauer, helped during the first days of the reconvening of the community. The American Bahá'ís sent money, food and literature, and aided them in rebuilding the administrative structures. [BWNS390]
  • Brief mention of this event is made in this film on Vimeo.
  • Germany Persecution, Germany; Persecution, Other; Persecution; World War II; BWNS; John Eichenauer; Z****
    1947 4 Jul ‘Abbás Sháhídzádih was martyred in Sháhí, Mázandarán, Iran and a fellow Bahá'í, Habib Allah Hushmand, was murdered in Sarvistan. [BW18:390, Towards a History of Iran’s Bahá'í Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.] Shahi; Mazandaran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1948 (In the year) In the German Democratic Republic all Bahá'í activities were banned. In 1991, for the first time in 53 years, the Bahá'ís in eastern Germany elected delegates to the National Assembly. After 55 years, the Spiritual Assembly was re-formed in Leipzig. [German Bahá'í website] German Democratic Republic Persecution, Germany; Z****
    1948 - 1951 The Bahá’í centre in Yazd, Iran, was attacked by a mob incited by Shaykh Khalisízádih. He was a man consumed with hatred toward religious minorities, most ferociously against the Bahá'ís in and around Yazd. He had some twenty hooligans on salary to harass, intimate and assault the local Bahá'ís. He had the tacit support of some local government officials who had been ordered by Prime Minister Haj 'Alí Razmara to ignore any complaints from Bahá'ís. [BW18:390; SCF105] Yazd; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution; Persecution, Mobs; Haziratul-Quds
    1948 (In the year) The Bahá’í centre in Tihrán was attacked by a mob incited by Áyatu’lláh Káshání. [BW18:390] Tihran; Iran Ayatullah Kashani; Ayatollahs; Haziratul-Quds; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution; Persecution, Mobs
    1948 (In the year) A Bahá’í was killed after an attack on his home at Chálih-Zamín, Iran. [BW18:390] Chalih-Zamin; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1948 11 Jan Habíbu’lláh Húshmand was martyred in Sarvistán, Iran. [BW18:390] Sarvistan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1949 (In the year) A Bahá’í in Kamshatti, near Calcutta, was martyred by a religious fanatic. [BW11:34] Kolkata (Calcutta); India Persecution, India; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1949 (In the year) Dr. Sulayman Birjis was brutally murdered in Kashan, Iran. His killers, who had collectively confessed to his murder, were all exonerated due to "the lack of evidence." [Towards a History of Iran’s Baha’i Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.] Kashan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1949 4 Feb There was an attempt on the life of the Shah during a ceremony commemorating the founding of Tehran University. The enemies of the Faith took advantage of the instability to launch attacks against the Bahá'ís throughout Iran. [SCF107] Tihran; Iran Shah of Iran; persecution, Iran; Z****
    1950 (In the decade) In Iran, the Hujjatiyya Society was started by Shaykh Mahmúd Halabí to persecute and harass the Bahá’ís. [S1296]
  • During the Pahlaví era it confined itself to this end and was called the Anti-Bahá’í Society. [SI296]
  • Iran Hojjatieh Society; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1950 (In the year) Ghulam Reza Akhzari and his son Nur Allah were killed near Yazd and Bahram Rawhani was murdered in Taft. [Towards a History of Iran’s Bahá'í Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.] Yazd; Taft; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1950 3 Feb Dr Sulaymán Birgís was martyred in Káshán, Iran. [BW18:390]
  • For his obituary see BW12:684–5.
  • Kashan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1950 Sep - Oct Four Bahá’ís in Iran were arrested on trumped-up charges. The trial lasted until 1954, when the accused were given prison sentences. [BW18:390] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases
    1951 (In the year) Muhammad Kayvani was murdered in Najafabad. [Towards a History of Iran’s Bahá'í Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.] Najafabad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1951 (In the year) Throughout Iran, the government introduced repressive measures against Bahá’ís. [BW18:390]
  • Bahá’ís were dismissed from government positions. [BW18:390]
  • Fifty Bahá’í employees of the public hospital in Mashhad were dismissed. [BW18:390]
  • Mashhad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1951 (In the year) Bahá’ís in Árán, Káshán, Iran, were attacked, and one died. [BW18:390] Aran; Kashan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1951 12 Mar Bahá’ís in Taft, Iran, werre attacked and one died. [BW18:390] Taft; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1951 Jun Bahá’ís in Fárán, Iran, were attacked and several houses burned. [BW18:390] Faran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution
    1952 (In the year) Bahá’ís and their homes were attacked in Najafábád, Iran, and several houses were set on fire. [BW18:390] Najafabad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution
    1952 26 Aug The martyrdom of Nuri'd-Dín Fath-'Azam near Tehran. [BW12p690-692] Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1953 (In the year) Bahá’ís and their houses were attacked in Bushrúyih and Fárán, Iran. [BW18:390] Bushruyih; Faran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution
    1953 (In the year) Áqá Rahmán Kulayní-Mamaqání was martyred in Durúd, Iran. [BW18:390] Durud; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1953 (In the year) Anjoman-e Hojjatieh ("Society of Allah's Proof Over Creation"), also called the Hojjatieh Society was founded specifically as an anti-Bahá'í organization by a charismatic Shiite Muslim cleric, Shaikh Mahmoud Halabi in the aftermath of the coup d'état of 1953. Between the early 1950s and the early 1970s a great number of the future elite of the Islamic revolution were trained by Hujjatieh. During the 1979 Iranian revolution, the Society was to play an important role in stirring animosity against Bahá'ís. However, in part because of differences in theology—among other things the Hojjatieh believe a truly Islamic state cannot be established until the return of the 12th Imam—the Society fell into disfavour and was banned by the regime in 1984. [Hojjatieh Society, Wiki] Iran Hojjatieh Society; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1953 25 Mar Enayat Sohaili, an Iranian, arrived in Mozambique from India, the first Bahá’í pioneer to the country. [BW13:290]
  • He was imprisoned and deported in June 1953. [BW13:290]
  • Mozambique Enayat Sohaili; Pioneers; Persecution, Mozambique; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; First travel teachers and pioneers
    1953 26 Sep The martyrdom of Rahmán Kulayní Mamaqání. He was stabbed by a ruffian in a mob. [BW12p710-711] Durud; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Mobs
    1954 8 Dec Bahá’ís in Ádharbáyján were dismissed from their employment in the Ministries of Health and Public Highways. [BW18:390] Adharbayjan Persecution, Adharbayjan; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1955 (In the year) Twenty–two African Bahá’ís were expelled from the Belgian Congo. Belgian Congo Persecution, Belgian Congo; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1955 18–22 Jan Five Bahá’ís were arrested and beaten in Hisár, Khurásán, Iran; four of these are dragged around the town; Bahá’í houses were attacked, looted and set on fire. [BW18:390] Hisar; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution
    1955 4 Feb Bahá’í women in Hisár, Khurásán, Iran, were assaulted. [BW18:390] Hisar; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1955 23 Apr Ramadán began. Shaykh Muhammad-Taqí known as "Falsafí" made an inflammatory speech against the Bahá’ís from a mosque in Tihrán. [BW18:390]
  • This is broadcast on national radio and stirred up the people against the Bahá’ís. [BW18:390]
  • Beatings, killings, looting and raping go on for several weeks, usually incited by the local ‘ulamá. [BW18:390–1; MC16–17; ZK215–6]<
  • The House of the Báb in Shíráz was attacked and damaged by a mob led by Siyyid Núru’d-Dín, a mujtahid.
  • Tihran; Shiraz; Iran Bab, House of (Shiraz); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution
    1955 May-Jul Persecutions against the Bahá’ís continued throughout Iran. BW18:391]
  • Many Bahá’ís were beaten, including women and children.
  • Bahá’í houses and shops were looted and burned.
  • Bahá’ís employed in government service were dismissed.
  • Bodies of dead Bahá’ís were disinterred and mutilated.
  • Young Bahá’í women were abducted and forced to marry Muslims.
  • Several Bahá’í women were publicly stripped and/or raped.
  • Crops and orchards belonging to Bahá’ís were looted and destroyed.
  • Bahá’í children were expelled from schools.
  • The House of the Báb in Shíráz was damaged.
  • Shiraz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution; Bab, House of (Shiraz)
    1955 2 May The police locked the doors of the National Bahá’í Centre in Tihrán thus preventing the holding of the final day of the National Bahá’í Convention. [BW18:390] Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Conventions, National; Haziratul-Quds
    1955 7 May The Iranian army occupied the National Bahá’í Centre in Tihrán. [BW18:390] Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Haziratul-Quds
    1955 8 May Bahá’ís were beaten at Dámghán, Khurásán, Iran. [BW18:390] Damghan; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1955 8 May The Bahá’í centre at Rasht, Iran, was attacked and taken over. [BW18:390] Rasht; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Haziratul-Quds
    1955 9 May Bahá’í houses were attacked and looted at Shíráz, Iran. [BW18:390] Shiraz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1955 9 May The Bahá’í centre at Ahváz, Iran, was taken over. [BW18:390] Ahvaz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Haziratul-Quds
    1955 16 May The Bahá’í centre at Isfahán, Iran, was taken over. [BW18:390] Isfahan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Haziratul-Quds
    1955 17 May The Iranian Minister of the Interior announced in parliament that the Government had issued orders for the suppression of the ‘Bahá’í sect’ and the liquidation of the Bahá’í centres. [BBRSM174; BW18:391] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Haziratul-Quds
    1955 22 May The dome of the National Bahá’í Centre in Tihrán was demolished with the personal participation of several high-ranking army officers. The publication of the pictures of this episode encouraged a widespread outburst of persecution of Bahá’ís throughout Iran. [BW18:391]
  • After the coup in 1953 the Shah was indebted to the clergy for their support and so they were given a greater latitude to persecute the Bahá'ís. In an attempt to show his gratitude the Shah sent a high ranking officer to ask if they had any special requests and they called for the Bahá'í Centre in Tehran to be destroyed. The army occupied the Centre and high-ranking officers and clerics jointly demolished the dome. [Towards a History of Iran’s Bahá'í Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.]
  • For pictures see BW13:293–4.
  • Photo.
  • Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Haziratul-Quds
    1955 24 May The Bahá’í centre at Karaj, Iran, was taken over. [BW18:391] Karaj; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Haziratul-Quds
    1955 27 May The Bahá’í centre at Máhfurúzak, Iran, was demolished. [BW18:391] Mahfuruzak; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution; Haziratul-Quds
    1955 30 May Bahá’ís were attacked and wounded and their houses attacked at Ábádih, Iran. [BW18:391] Abadih; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1955 1 Jun The House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tákur, Mázandarán, Iran, was taken over. [BW18:391] Takur; Mazandaran; Iran House of Bahaullah (Takur); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1955 28 Jul Seven Bahá’ís were stabbed and beaten to death by a mob in Hurmuzak, Iran. [BW18:391, Towards a History of Iran’s Baha’i Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.]
  • Several other Bahá’ís, including women, were beaten and injured; Bahá’í houses and property were damaged. [BW18:391]
  • See also M. Labíb, The Seven Martyrs of Hurmuzak.
  • See entry for 26 September, 2016.
  • Hurmuzak; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution; Seven martyrs of Hurmuzak; Seven martyrs
    1955 Aug Appeals were made by National Spiritual Assemblies around the world through the Bahá’í International Community to the UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld to ask the Iranian government to halt the attacks on the Bahá’ís. [BW13:789–91; BW16:329; MBW88–9; PP304, 311]
  • The intervention of the Secretary-General of the UN, along with the efforts of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States, brought an end to the physical persecution of the Bahá’ís, although their human rights are still denied. [BW13:790; BW16:329]
  • This marked the first time the Faith was able to defend itself with its newly born administrative agencies. An “Aid the Persecuted Fund” was established.
  • Historian Mohamad Tavakoli-Targhi noted that the 1955 anti-Bahá'í campaign was both the apogee and the point of separation of the state-clergy co-operation. The Shah succumbing to international pressure to provide human rights, withdrew support. The result was that the period from the late fifties until 1977-1978 was a period of relative safety. [Towards a History of Iran’s Bahá'í Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.]
  • New York; United States; Iran Bahai International Community; Dag Hammarskjöld; United Nations, Secretary-Generals; United Nations; NSA; Human rights; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1955 Sep-Oct Bahá’ís in Iran continued to be dismissed from their employment. Bahá’í students were expelled from Shíráz University. [BW18:391] Shiraz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Education; Persecution; Haziratul-Quds
    1956 (In the year) A Roman Catholic priest lodged a complaint against the Bahá’ís of Morocco with the Moroccan Security Service. Morocco Persecution, Morocco
    1957 (In the year) Bahá’í activity in Czechoslovakia was banned by the authorities, several members of the Prague community were arrested and Vuk Echtner was imprisoned for two years. Prague; Czechoslovakia Persecution, Czechoslovakia; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1958 14 Sep A week before the fifth Intercontinental conference is due to convene in Djakarta, Indonesia, the government withdrew the permit to hold the conference. [BW13:331]
  • For the story of why the permit was revoked see DM83–5.
  • The cancellation of the conference in Djakarta began a period of severe repression of the Faith in Indonesia which eventually led to the Faith being banned in 1962. [DM85, 88]
  • Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade
    1959 Mar A number of Bahá’ís, members of the local spiritual assembly, were arrested in Ankara, Turkey. [MC306]
  • The incident received wide coverage in the press and the Bahá’ís were eventually released from prison. [MC306]
  • A court case was subsequently brought against the Bahá’ís by the public prosecutor, who claimed that the Faith is a ‘Tarighat’, a sect forbidden by the law of the land, and lengthy litigation followed. [MC306–7]
  • Ankara; Turkey Persecution, Turkey; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; LSA; Court cases
    1960 (In the year) Bahá’ís in Angola were detained and questioned by officials.
  • Joaquim Sampaio was carried off in the middle of the night and was never seen again. It was presumed that he was executed or died in a prison camp.
  • One family was forced to leave the country.
  • Angola Persecution, Angola; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1960 Aug All Bahá’í activity in Egypt was prohibited by Presidential Decree No 263 issued by President Nasser of the United Arab Republic (Egypt and Syria).
  • Bahá’ís were interrogated, arrested, fined and imprisoned and their property confiscated. [BBRSM174; MC228]
  • See message from the Universal House of Justice to the Bahá'ís of Egypt dated 21 December 2006.
  • Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1961 (In the year) The military government in Indonesia issued instructions to local authorities to ban all Bahá’í activities and to confiscate all Bahá’í property. [MoC329] Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1961 17 Jan Following the arrest of Bahá’ís in Turkey in March 1959 and the subsequent court case, the Turkish court received the findings of three outstanding religious scholars that the Bahá’í Faith was an independent religion. [MoC308]
  • For details of the history of the case see MoC306–8.
  • Turkey Persecution, Turkey; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Human rights
    1961 15 Jul The Turkish court declared the Bahá’í Faith to be a ‘Tarighat’, a sect forbidden by the law of the land.<
  • The Bahá’ís were ‘forgiven’, released and the case against them dropped. [MoC308]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly decided to appeal the decision to a higher court and national spiritual assemblies were asked to make representations to the Turkish ambassadors in their respective countries. [MoC308]
  • Turkey Persecution, Turkey; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Human rights; NSA
    1961 7 Dec An article appeared in the nationally prominent Moroccan newspaper Al Alam lamenting the decline of Islám and attacking the Bahá’í Faith. [MoC17]
  • This gave rise to persecution of the Bahá’ís in ensuing months.
  • Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1962 (In the year) Bahá’í homes in Morocco were searched by the police and Bahá’í literature seized. [MoC17] Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1962 (In the year) The administrative institutions of the Faith were banned in Indonesia by President Sukarno. [BW19:41]
  • BW15:174 says this was in 1964, other indications are that it was around the time of the International Convention. [Servants of the Glory page 30]
  • Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Z****
    1962 Jan A Bahá’í Professor of Fine Arts at the University of Tetuan, Morocco, was dismissed from his post and warned to have no association with other Bahá’ís. [MoC17] Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1962 12 Apr Four Bahá’ís were arrested in Nador, Morocco. [BW13:289; BW14:97]
  • Eventually 14 Bahá’ís in total were arrested: 7 in Nador, 2 in Fez and 5 in Tetuan. [MoC17]
  • For an outline of the situation as it developed over 20 months see MC16–19.
  • Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1962 22 Aug The Custodians ask the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States to make representations to the diplomatic missions of Morocco in Washington and at the United Nations concerning the 14 Bahá’ís imprisoned in Morocco. [MoC368–9] United States; Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; NSA; Custodians
    1962 23 Sep The Custodians ask the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States to obtain an interview with the personal representative of the King of Morocco who heads that country’s delegation to the United Nations General Assembly in New York in connection with the Bahá’ís imprisoned in Morocco. [MoC373–4] United States; Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; NSA; United Nations
    1962 31 Oct The 14 Bahá’ís imprisoned in Morocco were arraigned before the Regional Court of Nador. [BW13:289; MC18]
  • They were charged with rebellion and disorder, attacks on public security, constituting an association of criminals and attacks on religious faith. [BW13:289; BW14:97; MoC18]
  • Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Human rights
    1962 10 Dec The trial of the 14 Bahá’ís imprisoned in Morocco on charges of sedition opened. [BW13:289; BW14:97]
  • The prosecution made no attempt to prove the charges against the accused. [BW13:289; BW14:97]
  • Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Human rights
    1962 14 Dec The Regional Court of Nador gave its verdict in the case of the 14 Bahá’ís imprisoned in Morocco on charges of sedition: four were acquitted on the grounds that they claim to be Muslims; one was acquitted apparently through family connections; one was released on 15 years’ probation owing to his diabetes; five were committed to life imprisonment; and three were condemned to death. [BBRSM174; MoC18–19]
  • The sentences were appealed to the Supreme Court. [BW13:289; BW14:97; MoC19]
  • Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Human rights
    1962 17 Dec The Custodians asked the Bahá’í International Community to issue press releases deploring Morocco’s persecution of religious minorities and pointing out its failure to adhere to the UN charter condemning religious intolerance. [MoC397] Morocco Custodians; Bahai International Community; Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights
    1962 21 Dec Telegrams were sent to 35 United Nations delegations appealing for help under the Genocide Convention for the Bahá’ís sentenced to death and imprisoned for life in Morocco. [BW13:794] Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; United Nations
    1962 23 Dec The Custodians asked national spiritual assemblies to cable Secretary General of the United Nations U Thant requesting his intervention on behalf of the Bahá’ís under sentence of death and imprisoned for life in Morocco. [BW13:794; MoC397–8] Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Custodians; NSA; United Nations
    1962 27 Dec The Custodians asked national and local spiritual assemblies to write to the Moroccan ambassador in their respective countries pleading for justice and religious freedom. [MoC398–9] Morocco; Worldwide Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Custodians; NSA; LSA
    1963 (In the year) 15 years after the establishment of Israel and during the course of the unrest that swept through Iran in response to a set of far-reaching reforms launched by Muhammad-Ridá Sháh, Ayatollah Khomeini and the Association of Iranian Clerics, in two separate declarations, denounced Bahá'ís as agents and representatives of Israel, and demanded their severe repression.
          During the 1960s and 70s almost everything that troubled Iranian clerics was seen as evidence of a Bahá'í-Israeli plot against Islam. The Shah, who was harshly rebuked by the ‘ulama for his regime’s strong ties with Israel, was accused of being a Bahá'í because of some of the reforms he had introduced, notably his giving voting rights to women, and providing blue-collar industrial workers with a share of the profits earned by their companies. Various cultural events launched by the administration, some of which had clear Western tones, were seen as Bahá'í plots to undermine the Islamic identity of Iranians. Iranian ministers and courtiers were almost collectively accused of being Bahá'ís. Even Iran’s notorious intelligence agency, SAVAK, whose strong anti-leftist agenda had naturally led to its inclination to recruit people with Islamic ties, and which had obvious connections with the Hujjatieh society – the self-professed arch-enemies of the Bahá'ís – was seen as nothing more than a Bahá'í puppet. Consequently, the 1979 Islamic Revolution came about not just as an uprising against the Shah, but supposedly as a reaction to an Israeli-Bahá'í threat. [Iran Press Watch 1407]
    Iran; Israel Conspiracy Theories; Ayatollah Khomeini; Shahs; Mohammed Reza Shah Pahlavi; Reform; History (general); Iran, General history; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1963 (In the year) In Angola, Antonio Francesco Ebo and seven other Bahá’ís were arrested and imprisoned in a penal colony off the coast of southern Angola.
  • They remained in confinement for eight years.
  • Angola Persecution, Angola; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1963 1 Jan The Custodians ask all national and local spiritual assemblies to cable the King of Morocco appealing for justice for the Bahá’ís under sentence of death and imprisoned for life in his country. [BW14:97; MoC19] Morocco; Worldwide Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Custodians; NSA; LSA
    1963 31 Jan Roger Baldwin, Chairman of the International League for the Rights of Man, appeared before the UN sub-commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities and stated that, as far they know; the Bahá’í prisoners in Morocco were the only example in recent history where members of a religion had been condemned to death solely for holding and expressing religious views regarded as heretical. [MoC415–16] Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; United Nations
    1963 31 Mar King Hassan II of Morocco stateed in a televised interview in the United States that the Bahá’í Faith was not a religion and is ‘against good order and also morals’. [MoC415] Morocco King Hassan II; Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1963 2 Apr King Hassan II of Morocco made a public statement promising that if the Supreme Court upheld the decision condemning three Bahá’í prisoners to death, he would grant them a royal pardon. [MoC416] Morocco King Hassan II; Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Human rights
    1963 4 Apr The Custodians issued a statement of information to the national spiritual assemblies of the United States and Europe regarding the Bahá’ís imprisoned in Morocco and under threat of death, reminding them that clemency or a pardon are not sufficient, as the condemned Bahá’ís cannot be pardoned for a crime they did not commit. [MoC414]
  • For text of statement see MC414–20.
  • Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Custodians; NSA
    1963 5 Jun onwards Throughout Iran, advantage is taken of the general anti-government disorder to launch attacks on Bahá’ís in several localities under the cover of these disturbances. [BW18:391]
  • The Bahá’í cemetery in Tihrán was attacked, its buildings burnt and graves desecrated. [BW18:391]
  • Bahá’í houses were attacked and burned at Árán and the local Bahá’í centre was attacked. [BW18:391]
  • The Bahá’í centre at Isfahán was attacked. [BW18:391]
  • Several Bahá’í homes and businesses were attacked in Shíráz. BW18:391]
  • An attack on the House of the Báb in Shíráz was attempted. BW18:391]
  • Bahá’ís were dismissed from government employment. [BW18:391]
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1963 23 Nov At the request of the Universal House of Justice, Bahá’ís around the world prayed at the Feast of Qawl for favourable action to be taken in the case of the Bahá’ís under threat of death and imprisoned in Morocco. [BW14:98]
  • Shortly after the Feast the Moroccan Supreme Court heard the appeals, reversed the decision of the trial court and ordered the release of the prisoners. [BW14:98]
  • Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Court cases; Human rights; Custodians; UHJ
    1963 13 Dec The Bahá’í prisoners in Morocco were released on order of the Supreme Court. [BW14:98; MoC19]
  • For a picture of the release of the Moroccan Bahá’í prisoners see BW14:97.
  • Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Court cases; Human rights
    1964 (In the year) Four new believers in Cambodia were arrested and imprisoned as the Bahá’í Faith was not formally recognized and the Bahá’ís did not have permission to teach.
  • See Servants of the Glory page 26.
  • Cambodia Persecution, Cambodia; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution: Z****
    1966 (In the year) In Iraq the national and one local Ḥaẓíratu’l-Quds were seized and the activities of the friends were severely restricted. [Ridván Message, 1966] Persecution, Iraq; Z****
    1966 11 Mar Eduardo Duarte Vieira was arrested in Portuguese Guinea on a charge of subversive political activity following a period of increasing pressure and harassment instigated by the clergy. He had been detained, maltreated and brutally beaten on several occasions since becoming a Bahá’í. [BW14:390] Portuguese Guinea (Guinea Bissau); Guinea Bissau Eduardo Duarte Vieira; Persecution, Guinea Bissau; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1966 31 Mar While in the custody of the Portuguese authorities Eduardo Duarte Vieira died in prison in Portuguese Guinea (now Guinea Bissau) after twenty days of torture. He was named the first African martyr. [BW14:390, BW16:568]
  • For his obituary see BW14:389–90.
  • For the messages to his wife and children he scratched on a biscuit box. See BW14:390–1.
  • Portuguese Guinea (Guinea Bissau); Guinea Bissau Eduardo Duarte Vieira; Persecution, Guinea Bissau; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Firsts, Other
    1966 Dec A campaign was launched against the Bahá’ís of Saysán, Ádharbáyján, by Mullá Mihdí Sultánpúr. [BW18:391] Saysan; Adharbayjan Persecution, Adharbayjan; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1967 1 Jan A Bahá’í was beaten to death by a mob in Saysán, Ádharbáyján, and other Bahá’ís were attacked and beaten. [BW18:391] Saysan; Adharbayjan Persecution, Adharbayjan; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution
    1968 – 1969 Throughout Iran, pressure on Bahá’ís intensified. [BW18:391]
  • Applications for government employment were refused. [BW18:391]
  • Bahá’ís were refused admission to colleges and universities. [BW18:391]
  • Bahá’í centres were closed. [BW18:391]<
  • Individual Bahá’ís were attacked. [BW18:391]
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Education; Persecution
    1968 26 Jan A Moroccan Bahá’í was arrested, tried and convicted on the charges of having abused the sacredness of Islám and using deceptive methods to convert people to another religion; he was sentenced to three years’ imprisonment. [BW15:172] Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases
    1968 9 Oct The widowed mother of seven children was sentenced to six months’ imprisonment in Morocco for refusing to deny her faith. [BW15:172]
  • Despite the efforts of national spiritual assemblies to secure justice for her through their embassies and cables to the King of Morocco, she was made to serve the entire sentence. [BW15:172]
  • Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Human rights
    1968 24 Oct The Moroccan Bahá’í sentenced to three years’ imprisonment in January 1968 appelled and his sentence was extended to four years. [BW15:172]
  • Despite the efforts of national spiritual assemblies to secure justice for him through their embassies and cables to the King of Morocco, he was made to serve the entire sentence. [BW15:172]
  • Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Human rights
    1968 4 Nov Following the participation of Algerian Bahá’ís in the first Oceanic Conference in Palermo, Sicily, and subsequent international news coverage, foreign Bahá’ís in Algeria were summoned by the police and interrogated. [BW15:172] Algeria Persecution, Algeria; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1968 7 Nov Sixteen Persian Bahá’ís in Algeria were expelled from the country and their properties confiscated; native Algerian Bahá’ís were put under restrictions and five were exiled to the Sahara and the eastern mountain regions. [BW15:172]
  • Following appeals, the confiscated properties were returned and the order of banishment for the local believers was gradually relaxed. [BW15:172]
  • Algeria Persecution, Algeria; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Human rights
    1969 Apr The Bahá’í Faith was banned in Algeria by official decree, all Bahá’í institutions were disbanded and the National Spiritual Assembly dissolved. [BW15:189; BW19:41] Algeria Persecution, Algeria; Persecution, Other; Persecution; NSA; Persecution, Bans
    1970 May In Iraq the Baathist Revolutionary Command Council issued Decree No. 105 to ban Bahá’í activities and disbanding all Bahá’í institutions. [BBRSM174; BW15:173; BW16:137] Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1970 12 Nov Bahá’ís in the Central African Republic were arrested at a meeting to commemorate the anniversary of the birth of Bahá’u’lláh and Bahá’í activities were banned when a disaffected Bahá’í denounced the Faith as a political movement to the authorities. [BW15:207] Central African Republic Persecution, Central African Republic; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1971 (In the year) Following the prohibition of Bahá’í activity in Egypt in 1960, Egyptian Bahá’ís put forward a petition to the Supreme Constitutional Court seeking to overturn the presidential decree as unconstitutional. Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; Petitions
    1971 13 Feb Following the ban imposed by the government of the Central African Republic on Bahá’í activities in November 1970 and subsequent representations made by the international Bahá’í lawyer Dr Aziz Navidi, the ban was lifted and the Bahá’í Faith officially recognized.
  • This was broadcast in every news bulletin on government radio for the next 24 hours, the first public proclamation of the Bahá’í Faith in the country.
  • Central African Republic Persecution, Central African Republic; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; Firsts, Other; Recognition
    1971 13 Oct Following the banning of Bahá’í activities in Egypt in 1960, Egyptian Bahá’ís submitted a petition to the Supreme Constitutional Court asking for redress and for justice to be upheld. [BW15:173]
  • The opinion of one Mandatory of the government is that the 1960 decree was unconstitutional. [BW15:173]
  • Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; Court cases
    1972 (In the year) In Indonesia the Attorney-General confirmed the 1962 ban on Bahá’í administrative institutions and added a further prohibition against organized Bahá’í teaching activities. [BW19:41] Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1972 19 Jun The government of Indonesia re-affirmed the ban on the Bahá’í Faith.
  • Following this a number of Bahá’ís lost their jobs.
  • Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1972 30 Jul Parvíz Sádiqí, Farámarz Vujdání and Parvíz Furúghí, Iranian youth pioneers, were murdered near Mindanao, Philippines, by Muslims. [BW15:257; DM316–17]
  • The three were found in a shallow grave. All had been shot, grievously mutilated and two had been decapitated. The bodies were removed and given a Bahá'í burial in a beautiful plot donated for the purpose. [CBN261September1972p1]
  • For their obituaries see BW15:514–16.
  • Mindanao; Philippines Persecution, Philippines; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Cemeteries and graves
    1973 Dec A teenaged Muslim student defended the Bahá’í Faith in a school in Baghdád, causing her arrest and the arrest of three Bahá’í girl students. [BW16:138]
  • Over the next months nearly 50 Bahá’ís were arrested. [BW16:138]
  • Baghdad; Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1974 (In the year) As a result of an intervention by the Egyptian chargé d’affaires, Bahá’í activities in Burundi were banned. [BW16:137] Burundi Persecution, Burundi; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1974 (In the year) Owing to the failure of the Indonesian Bahá’ís to obtain religious liberty, the Universal House of Justice instructed that the national convention not be held. Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; Conventions, National
    1974 4 Mar Following the arrest of more than 50 Bahá’ís in Iraq, their trial opened and the Bahá’ís were exonerated. [BW16:138]
  • The Revolutionary Council was dissatisfied with this result and the case was ordered to be reopened in a military court with the death sentence requested for all the detainees. [BW16:138]
  • Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution
    1974 23 Apr At the trial of nearly 50 Bahá’ís in Baghdád, the Iraqi military court sentenced 13 men and one girl to life imprisonment, one man and two girls to 15 years’ imprisonment, and two men and seven women to ten years’ imprisonment; 13 Bahá’ís were fined and released. [BW16:138] Baghdad; Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution
    1974 20 May The Iraqi military court tried nearly 50 Bahá’ís and handed down in absentia sentences of life imprisonment on ten Bahá’ís, two of whom were deceased and a number of whom were of other nationalities or Iraqis not resident in Iraq. [BW16:138]
  • In the weeks following, 24 Bahá’ís had their property confiscated, one Bahá’í was sentenced to ten years’ imprisonment and another to 20 years. [BW16:138]
  • Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution
    1975 (In the year) Owing to the continuing ban on Bahá’í activities and institutions, the national spiritual assembly and all local spiritual assemblies were disbanded in Indonesia. Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1975 (In the year) The ban imposed on the Bahá’í Faith in Burundi in 1974 was lifted. [BW16:137]
  • Bahá’í activities continue to be restricted, particularly in provincial areas. [BW16:137]
  • Burundi Persecution, Burundi; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1975 (In the year) The Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt decided that the 1960 decree of President Nasser banning all Bahá’í activities was constitutional and the application of the Bahá’ís for annulment of the decree was dismissed. [BW16:137]
  • Though nominally they have been guaranteed equal rights and religious freedoms under the 1971 Constitution, Bahá'ís, in practice, have retained a secondary legal status due to ongoing religious discrimination. Issues pertaining to personal status in Egypt were informed by religious rather than civil law and recognition pertained only to Islam, Christianity and Judaism. Aspects of religious life such as marriage, divorce and family relationships were not recognized by the state.
  • Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; Human rights
    1975 (In the year) Following the creation of the Rastákhíz political party by the Sháh of Iran and the refusal of the Bahá’ís to join it, although membership in it is compulsory, Bahá’ís throughout Iran are put under pressure. [BW18:391]
  • Many Bahá’ís lost their jobs. [BW18:391]
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1975 (In the year) In Indonesia several Bahá’ís were arrested, given light sentences and released for violating the 1962 and 1972 bans on Bahá’í activity. [BW19:41]
  • A few months later four Bahá’ís were sentenced to five years’ imprisonment; they remained in prison for the full five years. [BW19:41]
  • Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1975 Jan A Bahá’í was arrested in Iraq and sentenced to ten years’ imprisonment. [BW16:138] Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution
    1975 Feb The Arab Boycott Office, at its meeting in Cairo, announced that the Bahá’í Faith had been placed on its blacklist. [BW16:136; BW17:78] Cairo; Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1975 25 Apr A revolution in Portugal removed the ban on Bahá’í meetings and teaching activities. Portugal Persecution, Portugal; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1975 Jul In Iraq, a partial amnesty reducing the terms of the Bahá’ís imprisoned by 15 per cent was granted. [BW16:138] Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution
    1975 Sep c. In Iraq, a young Bahá’í was detained, interrogated, beaten and asked to recant his faith when he specified his religion on a form. [BW16:138]
  • When he refused to recant his faith he was tried by a revolutionary court and sentenced to ten years’ imprisonment. [BW16.138]
  • Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution
    1975 Nov In Iran, the house of the maternal uncle of the Báb and the adjacent house in which the Báb was born were destroyed on the pretext that the sites needed to be cleared. [BW17:79] Shiraz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution; Bab, House of (Shiraz); Bab, Family of
    1976 (In the year) Following the conquest of South Vietnam by North Vietnam, an anti-religion policy was implemented and the Bahá’í Faith, along with all other religions, were banned. Vietnam Persecution, Vietnam; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1976 (In the year) The government of Equatorial Guinea outlawed all religions and the national spiritual assembly was dissolved.
  • It was re-formed in 1984.
  • Equatorial Guinea Persecution, Equatorial Guinea; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1976 May Bahá’í activities in Mali were restricted by order of the government and the decree of recognition of the Faith suspended. [BW17:81] Mali Persecution, Mali; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1977 (In the year) The Bahá'í Faith, along with many other religious groups, were banned in Uganda. [BWNS135] Uganda Persecution, Uganda; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; BWNS
    1977 14 May The house of a Bahá’í in Fádilábád, Iran, was attacked; the Bahá’í was killed and his sister severely injured. [BW18:391]
  • BW17:79 says this was June.
  • Fadilabad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1977 16 Sep In Uganda, 27 religious organizations were banned, including the Bahá’í Faith, and the Bahá’í House of Worship was closed. [BW17:81]
  • The national spiritual assembly and all 1,550 local assemblies were dissolved. [BW17:141]
  • Uganda Persecution, Uganda; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; NSA; LSA; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Kampala
    1977. 21 Sep The government of Idi Amin in Uganda banned all religion groups but for four. President Amin, who was a Moslem convert, granted the freedom of worship only to Islam and the Anglican, Roman Catholic and Orthodox Christian churches. The vast majority of Christians belonged to the Anglican and Catholic churches. Some of those organizations banned had been included in previous bans imposed by President Amin in 1973 and 1975. [CG113]
  • The ban remained in place until the overthrow of the Amin government by the ousted former President Obote on the 11th of April, 1979. The Bahá'ís of Kampala formed an administrative committee until elections could be held. [CG124]
  • Uganda Uganda, persecution
    1977 Dec Properties confiscated by the Iraqi government belonging to individual Bahá’ís were returned; properties and funds belonging to the Faith were turned over to the Ministry of the Interior for disposal. [BW17:80] Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1978 (In the year) Ten Bahá’ís were killed in Iran, seven by mobs. [BW18:291]
  • For the response of Bahá’í institutions to the persecution of the Bahá’ís in Iran see BW18:337.
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution; Human rights
    1978 (In the year) In Iran, many local Bahá’í centres were seized by armed men of the revolutionary committees, along with files and membership lists. [BW17:79–80] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Haziratul-Quds
    1978 (In the year) The Bahá’ís of Vietnam were prohibited by the government from meeting and practising their religion. [BW17:81; BW19:50]
  • Bahá’í centres throughout the country were closed or confiscated;
  • The national Hazíratu’l-Quds in Ho Chi Minh City was seized and made into an orphanage;
  • Two members of the national spiritual assembly were arrested and sent to ‘re-education’ camps.
  • One was released in 1982, owing to ill health.
  • Vietnam Persecution, Vietnam; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; NSA; Haziratul-Quds
    1978 Feb The government of the Congo banned the majority of smaller religious groups, including the Bahá’í Faith. [BW17:141]
  • The national Hazíratu’l-Quds was confiscated and the assemblies dissolved.
  • Congo Persecution, Congo; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; Haziratul-Quds
    1978 Jul In Niger, an announcement was made on the national radio banning ‘the Baha’ist sect and the Nineteen Day Feast’ throughout the country; immediately, all Bahá’í administrative activities were suspended and the national spiritual assembly was dissolved. [BW17:147]
  • Mr Djoneidi was called into police-headquarters in Niger for questioning and was held for three days; then released unharmed. Other Bahá’ís were also called in.
  • Niger Persecution, Niger; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; NSA; Mr Djoneidi
    1978 Oct Three hundred Bahá’í homes near Shíráz were burned or destroyed and in another 200 homes the Bahá’ís were driven from them, property was stolen and many Bahá’ís were beaten. [BW17:79; BW19:42]
  • At one point 700 Bahá’ís were homeless and their means of livelihood destroyed. [BW17:79; BN136 April 1979 p2-3]
  • Shiraz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution
    1978 Oct - Nov Mobs destroyed the Hazíratu'l-Quds in Mihán-du-´Ab followed by the burning or looting of 80 homes and the murder of two believers, a father and son who bodies were dragged through the streets, cut into pieces and consigned to the flames. Throughout the country the hostility towards the Bahá'ís resulted in 4 deaths, the loss of millions in property and the displacement of some 700 people.
  • The National Spiritual Assembly of Iran instituted a special fund for relief of the needy and suffering. [BN 136 April 1979 p2-3]
  • Mihan-du-Ab; Adhirgayjan; Iran persecution; relief fund; fund; Z****
    1978 7 Nov The murder of Major-General Ali Mohammad Khademi (b. 16 December, 1913 in Jahrom, Fars.) After a brilliant career in the military he became head of Iran's national airline. In 16 years he transformed it into a world-class airline with international connections.
    General Khademi was killed in his home. Despite witness accounts by his wife and the soldiers assigned to his home, the government controlled media called his murder a “suicide”, although several international media outlets, such as the New York Times, reported on his murder. Among Iranian Bahá'ís, General Khademi held the highest ranking leadership post in a public institution. His religious affiliation, which was not a secret, was the cause of fierce opposition by a number of Muslim clergy.
    An investigation into his murder named three members of “the joint anti-terror committee”, one of whom was identified at the Military Command by Bahiyyih Moayyed as the shooter of her husband. Despite these individuals’ identification and arrest by the Military Command, none was tried or punished. Later on, The National Security and Intelligence Agency (SAVAK) detained Bahiyyih Moayyed for about one month to force her to declare that her husband had committed suicide. She refused. [Wikipedia; Iran Press Watch 19724; Iran News]
    Tihran; Iran Ali Mohammad Khademi; Bahiyyih Moayyed; Persecution; In Memoriam; Z****
    1978 Dec Bahá’í homes in Andarún, Iran, were besieged; one Bahá’í was badly beaten. [BW18:275–6] Andarun; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1978 15 Dec A cabled message was sent to 93 national spiritual assemblies stating that the Bahá’ís in Iran and the Holy Places in Tihrán and Shíráz were in peril. [BW17:79] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; NSA
    1979 (In the year) The House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tihrán was confiscated by the revolutionary government of Iran. [BW17:79] Tihran; Iran House of Bahaullah (Tihran); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1979 (In the year) Bahá’í cemeteries across Iran were confiscated, including the cemetery in Tihrán, which contains the graves of several Hands of the Cause and other distinguished Bahá’ís as well as several thousand other graves of Bahá’ís.
  • Many graves were desecrated and the gravestones smashed.
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Cemeteries and graves
    1979 (In the year) The Síyáh-Chál in Tihrán and the houses of Quddús and Hujjat were seized and occupied by members of the revolutionary committees. [BW17:79–80] Iran; Tihran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Quddus; Hujjat
    1979 (In the year) The National Spiritual Assembly of Afghanistan was disbanded owing to persecution of the Bahá’ís and the political instability of the country. Afghanistan Persecution, Afghanistan; Persecution, Other; Persecution; NSA
    1979 (In the year) Five Bahá’ís were killed in Iran, two by execution. [BW18:291]
  • For the response of Bahá’í institutions to the persecution of the Bahá’ís in Iran see BW18:337–9.
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1979 12 Jan Bahá’í members of the Sádát-Mahmúdí clan of the Buyr-Ahmad tribe of central Iran were driven from their homes by other clan members. [BW18:271]
  • For the report of this incident and its aftermath see BW18:271–4.
  • For a picture see BW18:272.
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1979 Feb In Iran, Bahá’í representatives met with high-ranking clergy in Shíráz, Qum and Mashhad to combat the widespread accusation that the Bahá’ís of Iran had supported the regime of the Sháh. [BW18:252] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1979 Feb A mob of some 5,000 armed with hatchets, spades and pickaxes converged on Hisár, Iran, intent on harming the Bahá’ís; the mob was prevented from doing so. [BW18:275]
  • Shortly afterwards the home of Mr. Ma’naví was looted and he was carried off; it appeared he was beaten to death. [BW18:275]
  • Hisar; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution
    1979 Feb Revolutionary Guards raided the offices of Nawnahálán, a Bahá’í investment company, and the Umaná’ Corporation, a foundation for the purchase and maintenance of Bahá’í properties, and impoundeded the keys. [BW18:252]
  • In the weeks following, the offices were occupied by the Revolutionary Guards and the staff were dismissed. [BW18:252]
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1979 15 Feb The National Hazíratu’l-Quds of Iran was seized by the Revolutionary Guards. [BW18:250]
  • All the records of the National Spiritual Assembly, including a membership list of all the Bahá’ís in Iran, were confiscated by the government. [BW19:43]
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Haziratul-Quds; NSA
    1979 Mar Yúsif Subhání, a well-known Bahá’í businessman, was imprisoned in Tihrán. [BW18:278] Iran; Tihran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1979 (Spring) The House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tákur, Iran, was confiscated by the Revolutionary Government. [BW18:289] Takur; Iran House of Bahaullah (Takur); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1979 Apr The ban against the Bahá’í Faith in Uganda was lifted and the House of Worship in Kampala was re-opened for worship. [BW17:141] Kampala; Uganda Mashriqul-Adhkar, Kampala; Persecution, Uganda; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1979 Apr Revolutionary Guards in Iran occupied the House of the Báb in Shíráz and neighbouring Bahá’í properties, explaining that it was a temporary measure intended to protect the building. [BW17:79] Shiraz; Iran Bab, House of (Shiraz); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1979 24 May Shaykh Muhammad Muvahhid, a well-known Bahá’í, was kidnapped in Tihrán. [BW18:254, 294] Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1979 (Summer) In Iran, the offices of Nawnahálán and the Umaná’ Corporation were taken over by Revolutionary Guards. [BW18:252] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1979 Sep Bahár Vujdání was executed in Mahábád, Iran. [BW18:255] Mahabad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1979 Sep Revolutionary committees in Shahsavár, ‘Ábádán and Tabríz, Iran, ordered the arrest of Bahá’ís. [BW18:255]
  • Among those arrested were members of local spiritual assemblies. [BW18:255]
  • Bahá’í homes in Tabríz were raided and literature seized. [BW18:255]
  • Shahsavar; Abadan; Tabriz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1979 8 – 10 Sep The House of the Báb in Shíráz was attacked and substantially demolished by a crowd accompanied by 25 Revolutionary Guards apparently under the clergyman in charge of the local religious endowments department. [BBD108; BI11; BW18:253]
  • See BW18p253p253 for an idea of the size of the house.
  • A photo of the destruction.
  • Shiraz; Iran Bab, House of (Shiraz); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution
    1979 16 Sep Enoch Olinga—Hand of the Cause of God and Knight of Bahá’u’lláh—his wife and three of his children were murdered in Kampala, Uganda. (b.24 June, 1926) [BBD 172; BW18:633]
  • He was buried near the grave of Hand of the Cause Mr Banání with the graves of his wife and children nearby. [CG132]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
  • For his obituary see BW18:618–35.
  • See Bahá'í Blog for a tribute to his life.
  • Early in May soldiers had invaded his home and thoroughly sacked it. The president of Uganda was a Nilotic and a native of northern Uganda as were a majority of his army. After taking control of the country they began to take reprisals from rival tribes and those who they thought had supported Idi Amin. [CG127]
  • On the morning of the murders Mr. Olinga and his family had participated in a work detail at the Temple grounds. After the evening meal a group of soldiers entered their compound and murdered him as well as his wife Elizabeth the children Táhirih and Lennie. [CG130-132]
  • Claire Gung, the "Mother of Africa", had had an extraordinarily accurate dream and had warned Mr. Olinga of his danger. [CG163]
  • Kampala; Uganda Enoch Olinga; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Knights of Bahaullah; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Third Contingent; Persecution, Uganda; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; dream
    1979 Oct In Iran, Bahá’ís in the ministries of education, health and social administration were dismissed from their jobs. [BW18:255] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; persecution, Persecution, Education
    1979 Nov Bahá’í meetings were prohibited in Shasavár, Iran. [BW18:255] Shasavar; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1979 11 Nov Dr ‘Alímurád Dávúdí, a member of the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran, was kidnapped in Tihrán and presumed to be dead. [BW18:254, 294] Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; NSA
    1979 Dec Work on the demolition of the House of the Báb in Shíráz was resumed and the building almost razed to the ground. [BW18:255] Shiraz; Iran Bab, House of (Shiraz); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution
    1979 Dec ‘Azamatu’lláh Fahandizh was executed in Tihrán. [BW18:255] Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1979 Dec The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, from which all civil rights stem and which did not give recognition to the Bahá’í Faith, was adopted by referendum. [BI11]
  • See Mess63-68p462.
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Constitutions; Human rights
    1979 (End of the year) In Iran, Nawnahálán and the Umaná’ Corporation were stripped of their assets and non-Bahá’í directors, inimical to the aims of the companies, were appointed. [BW18:252] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1980 (In the year) The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continued throughout the year. [BW18:92]
  • Twenty–four Bahá’ís were executed or otherwise killed. [BW18:229–30]
  • BW18:291–2 shows a slightly different, incorrect list.
  • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:293–305 and BW19:236–46.
  • For accounts of some of the martyrdoms see BW18:275–81.
  • Twelve Bahá’ís disappeared and were presumed dead. [BW19:235]
  • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments, and other actions taken, see BW18:92–6.
  • For a list of the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community, Bahá’í institutions and others see BW18:339–41, 415–17.
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; United Nations; Bahai International Community; Human rights
    1980 Feb The persecution of the Bahá’ís in Iran entered a new, more dangerous phase. [BW18:255]
  • Prominent Bahá’ís were abducted. [BW18:256]
  • The homes of members of the National Spiritual Assembly were raided. [BW18:256]
  • Iran NSA; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1980-10 Feb Message from the Universal House of Justice addressed to the Bahá'ís of Iran and Iranian believers resident in other countries. [Mess63-68p433-441]
  • Note: The message was written in Farsi and the English translation was prepared by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United Kingdom. In a letter dated 29 July 1980 in which it forwarded the English translation to all National Spiritual Assemblies, the Universal House of Justice wrote: "The message includes several quotations from the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh, Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi hitherto untranslated into English. The English texts of these passages, as they appear in the attached translated message, have been checked and approved at the World Center, and may be regarded by the friends as authorized texts."
  • The message dealt with such issues as: reasons for the current turmoil, the calamities ahead, the vision of the future, the responsibility to provide an example, the responsibility to serve God, the responsibility of moderation, the responsibility of resettling such that the Iranian population of any community does not exceed 50%, the responsibility of avoiding political involvement, and the strengths of the Iranian believers.
  • BWC; Iran Persecutions, Iran; calamity
    1980 Apr Eight Bahá’ís were arrested in Tabríz; five were released after signing an agreement not to take part in Bahá’í administrative activities. [BW18:256]
  • Two of the others, members of the local assembly, were put on trial and executed on 14 July 1982. [BW18:256]
  • Tabriz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1980 14 Jul Two of the Bahá’ís arrested in Tabríz in April were executed. [BW18:256] Tabriz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1980 21 Aug The members of the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran were arrested. They disappeared without trace and were presumed dead. [BW19:43, 235]
  • See photo.
  • Iran NSA Iran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths
    1980 Sep The European Parliament, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe and the United Nations Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities adopted resolutions on the plight of the Bahá’ís in Iran. [BW19:38] Iran European Union; United Nations; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights
    1981 (In the year) The site of the House of the Báb, destroyed by a mob in 1979, was made into a road and public square. [BBD108] Shiraz; Iran Bab, House of (Shiraz); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Mobs; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution
    1981 (In the year) The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continued throughout the year. [BW18:92]
  • Forty–six Bahá’ís were executed and two assassinated. [BW18:292–3; BW19:230–1]
  • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
  • For accounts of some of the martyrdoms see BW18:277–8, 281–4.
  • For excerpts from the wills of some of the martyrs see BW18:284–9.
  • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments, and other actions taken, see BW18:92–6 and BW19:44–6.
  • For a list of the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community, Bahá’í institutions and others see BW18:341–5, 417–20.
  • See Archives of Bahá'í Persecution in Iran for an edited video recording of the secret trial of the members of the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran at Evin Prison in Tehran. (In Farsi)
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; United Nations; Bahai International Community; Human rights; NSA; Z****
    1981 14 Jun Seven members of the Local Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Hamadan were executed by firing squad. These members were: Mr. Muhammad (Suhrab) Habibi, Mr. Muhammad-Baqir (Suhayl) Habibi, Mr. Husayn Khandil, Mr. Tarazu’llah Khuzayn, Mr. Husayn Mutlaq, Dr. Firuz Na‘imi, and Dr. Nasir Vafa’i. The ribs of Tarazu’llah Khuzayn were crushed, and his hands were slashed. His legs and thighs had been pierced with a bayonet, and the injuries had turned his skin black and the tissues were swollen. [He was sixty-four when he died.] Suhrab Habibi’s back had been branded with a hot ring – his own – and he had severe burns. The fingers of Husayn Khandil were slashed and his abdomen had been cut open. Dr. Na‘imi’s back had been broken and Dr. Vafa’i’s thighs had been cut open; Suhayl Habibi’s shoulders had been broken and smashed. Hossein Mutlaq had not been tortured but his body showed the greatest number of bullet wounds. [Iran Press Watch] Hamadan; Iran Persecution; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths
    1981 5 Dec The Bahá'í cemetery in Tehran was seized "by order of the Revolutionary Court". Five caretakers and eight temporary workers were arrested and the cemetery was closed. [Mess63-86p510]

    The Baha’i cemetery, known as “Golestan-i-Javid” – the Eternal Garden – was confiscated. Ten years later, the City of Tehran demolished the cemetery in order to build the Khavaran Cultural Complex. In accordance with Shi’a jurisprudence, the conversion for the purpose of so-called “improvement” of a cemetery is only permissible after 30 years, but in this case only ten years had passed. The construction of the Khavaran Cultural Centre required deep excavation and the disinterment of more than 1,000 bodies. The design for the sunken yard and the vast basement of this complex was in reality a modern solution to the doctrinal problem of cleansing the soil of the “contamination” of the “unclean” remains of Bahá'ís. During the excavation and recycling of the soil, the remains of the “non-believer” Bahá'ís were apparently used in the foundation for the road and a new overpass. [Iran Press Watch 11 June 2018]

  • For the historical background of the mistreatment of the dead in Iran see Iran Press Watch 19288.iiiii
  • Since the Bahá'ís have always been prohibited from burying their dead in Muslim cemeteries, the acquisition of burial grounds has been a major goal of the Bahá'í communities. From the earliest days, Bahá'í dead have been buried in their own private properties, in plots of land donated by individual Bahá'ís to the community as local endowments, or, where possible, in the community-owned cemeteries obtained by collective financial contributions of individual Bahais. A systematic process of acquiring separate Bahá'í cemeteries, however, was inaugurated in most Bahá'í communities in the 1920s and continued in later decades. Prior to the 1979 revolution, most of the principal Bahá'í centers had their own cemeteries run under the supervision of the local Spiritual Assembly. After the revolution most of them have been destroyed and desecrated. [BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati]
  • Tihran; Iran Cemeteries and graves; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Golestan-i-Javid; Eternal Garden; Khavaran Cultural Complex; Persecution, denial of burial; Z****
    1981 10 Dec The Universal House of Justice announced that the House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tákur, Núr, Iran, had been confiscated by the Revolutionary Government in the spring of 1979, had been totally demolished and the site offered for sale by auction. [BW18:289; BW19:42] Takur; Nur; Iran House of Bahaullah (Takur); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution
    1981 27 Dec Eight of the nine members of the replacement National Spiritual Assembly of Iran were executed. They replaced the members who and been arrested and who "disappeared" the previous August. i[BI13; BW19:43] Iran NSA Iran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1982 (In the year) One of the members of the National Spiritual Assembly of Vietnam sent to a ‘re-education’ camp was released owing to ill health; the other remained in detention. [BW18:96] Vietnam Persecution, Vietnam; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1982 (In the year) The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continued throughout the year. [BW18:92]
  • Thirty–two Bahá’ís were executed or otherwise killed. [BW19:232]
  • BW18:293–4 shows a slightly different, incorrect list.
  • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
  • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments, and other actions taken, see BW18:92–6 and BW19:44–6.
  • For a list of the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community, Bahá’í institutions and others see BW18:345–52, 420–4.
  • See the Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 26 January 1982 for a summation of the steps taken by the coordinated Bahá'í community to expose the crimes of the Iranian regime and to bring pressure to have the persecutions stop.
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; United Nations; Bahai International Community; Human rights
    1982 25 May The Subcommittee on Human Rights and International Organizations of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the United States House of Representatives heard the testimony of six witnesses concerning the persecution of the Bahá’ís in Iran. [BW18:172] Washington; United States; Iran Human Rights; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; United States government
    1982 23 Oct Authorities arrested 45 Bahá'ís in Shiraz on the order of the prosecutor. On October 30th another 40 Baha’is were arrested. In all cases, they were arrested simply because of their religious beliefs. Some were later released but many of those arrested were subjected to interrogation and excruciating torture. The interrogations and torture were carried out to extract information about Bahá'í organizations and to force prisoners to renounce their faith and convert to Islam.
  • The Revolutionary Court of Shiraz sent 22 of those arrested to the gallows. The executions began on January 1, 1983, with the killing of Hedayatollah Siavoshi.
  • The last of the group to die was Soheil Houshmand on June 28, 1983.
  • The oldest among the executed Bahá'ís was Abdolhossein Azadi, 66, and the youngest was Mona Mahmoudinejad, a high school student of 17.
  • The entire Eshraghi family — father, mother and daughter — were executed. Also executed were a mother and son, Nosrat and Bahram Yaldaie, and a young couple, Jamshid and Tahereh Siavoshi. Yadollah, the father of 17-year-old Mona Mahmoudinejad, was also killed.
  • Ahmad Sabet Sarvestani was the only one among them who died in prison as a result of torture before he could be hanged. [Iran Press Watch 19466]
  • Shiraz; Iran Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Deaths; Persecution, Iran; Persecution; Mona Mahmudnizhad; Youth
    1983 (In the year) The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continued throughout the year. [BW18:92; BW19:177–226]
  • Twenty–nine Bahá’ís were executed or otherwise killed. [BW19:232–3]
  • All Bahá'í elected and appointed institutions were banned by the government in this year; most of the members of the previous three national governing councils having successively been executed. In the absence of a national governing council (known as a “National Spiritual Assembly”), the ad hoc leadership group, called the “Friends in Iran,” (Yaran) was formed with the full knowledge of the government. The various governments in power in Iran since 1983 had always been aware of this group. In fact, over the years government officials have routinely had dealings with the members of the Yaran, albeit often informally. [BWNS694]
  • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
  • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments, and other actions taken, see BW18:92–6 and BW19:44–6.
  • For a list of the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community, Bahá’í institutions and others see BW18:352–6, 424–5.
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Human rights; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; United Nations; Bahai International Community; Human rights; Yaran; BWNS
    1983 (In the decade) During its first decade in power, the Islamic regime openly persecuted and killed Bahá'ís. These persecutions, however, caused reaction in the international community. In response to the international calls for the persecutions to be stopped, Siyyid Husayn Musawi, then the attorney general of Iran, declared that the Bahá'ís were not being harassed for their religious beliefs but because they were Israel spies. This was despite the fact that by that time it had become plainly obvious that the attorney general’s so-called “spies” could avoid maltreatment and persecution by openly denouncing their faith. The Bahá'í community forcefully denied the charges and challenged the attorney general to produce evidence to back his allegations. [Iran Press Watch 1407] Iran Conspiracy Theories; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1983 Mar Five local and two pioneer Bahá’ís were arrested, interrogated and held briefly in prison in Mauritania. [BW19:49]
  • The National Assembly was dissolved. [BW19:49]
  • Mauritania NSA; Persecution, Mauritania; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1983 Apr The Government of Morocco prohibited all Bahá’í meetings. [BW19:49] Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1983 18 Jun In Shiraz, ten Bahá'í women ranging in age from 17 to 57, were hanged. All of the women had been tortured and interrogated in the months prior to their execution. The youngest of these martyrs was Mona Mahmudnizhad, a 17-year-old schoolgirl who had been beaten on the soles of her feet, kissed the hands of her executioner and placed the hangman's rope around her own throat. The names of the others executed were Zarrin Muqimi-Abyanih, 28, Ruya Ishraqi, a 23-year-old veterinary student, Shahin Dalvand, 25, a sociologist; Izzat Janami Ishraqi, 57, a homemaker; Mahshid Nirumand, 28, who had qualified for a degree in physics but had it denied her because she was a Bahá'í, Simin Sabiri, 25; Tahirih Arjumandi Siyavushi, 30, a nurse; Akhtar Thabit, 25, also a nurse; Nusrat Ghufrani Yalda'i, 47, a mother and member of the local Bahá'í Spiritual Assembly. [Hanged for teaching “Sunday school”]
  • For the story of the martyrs see BW19:180–7 and VV56.
  • For their obituaries see BW19:596–607.
  • For pictures of the martyred women see BW19:240–1.
  • Shiraz; Iran Mona Mahmudnizhad; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Youth; persecution, Persecution, Education
    1983 23 Aug Seyyed Hussein Musavi Tabrizi, the Attorney General of Iran, declared all Bahá'í administrative activities illegal, thus requiring the dissolution of the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran, along with some 400 Local Assemblies which operated under its jurisdiction. [Iran Press Watch] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1983 29 Aug The Bahá’í Faith was banned in Iran and membership of Bahá’í institutions made a criminal offence. [BW19:43]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly was dissolved as well all Bahá’í institutions throughout the country. [BW19:43]
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; NSA
    1983 3 Sep In response to the Iranian authorities banning all Bahá'í administrative and community activities and the making of membership in a Bahá'í assembly a criminal offence, as their last act the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran sent an open letter to the Prosecutor General of the Islamic Revolution refuting the false charges made against the Bahá’ís and informing him of their willingness to obey the government and disband the Bahá'í administration. [BW19:43]
  • In a gesture of good will and in accordance with their law of obedience to the government the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Iran and all local assemblies were dissolved. In its place, they formed groups of three persons in cities and villages called Khadimeen (“Servants”), and on the national level named the Yaran-e Iran to address the immediate needs of the community such as births, marriages, divorces, burial ceremonies and other services. [BW19:62]

    Since the 1920s when the Bahá'í administration was introduced in Iran they had made considerable progress.

    1950     Local Spiritual Assemblies: 280        Localities: 712
    1968     Local Spiritual Assemblies: 560        Localities: 1,541
    1979     Local Spiritual Assemblies: 679        Localities: 1,699 
    [BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati]
  • Iran NSA Iran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution; Yaran; Khadimeen; Statistics
    1983 Sep All property and endowments owed by the Bahá'í administration in Iran was seized.

    The acquisition, preservation, and maintenance of the places directly associated with the history of the Bahá'í faith had been among the goals of the community since its early years. These places consisted of houses and sites associated with the principal figures of the Faith, burial places of Bahá'í saints, places where the martyrdoms of believers took place, prisons, fortresses, and defense centres of heroes and renowned Bahá'ís. The fact that these places were located throughout the country made their care a major undertaking for various committees at local and national levels. The work included the registration, description, and photographing of the sites in addition to their regular maintenance and restoration. In the late 1960s more than 124 holy places belonged to the faith in various localities throughout the country. There were more than 200 national and 452 local endowments consisting of Bahá'í centres, cemeteries, hostels, and public baths. [Department of Statistics, Baháʾí World Centre, Haifa, “Persia - Nine Year Plan File,” 14 January 1969]

    In addition the Bahá'is had acquired 3.58 square kilometers of land on the slopes of Mount Alborz, named Ḥadīqa, in northeast Tehran, for the eventual construction of a National Mašreq al-Aḏkār. Although the temple had not yet been built a complex of buildings had been erected on the site to serve as the seat of Bahá'í summer schools and other social and administrative activities. [BW10p48; BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati]

    Iran Iran, persecution; Mashriqul-Adhkar; statistics; Z****
    1983 Dec Bahá’ís were arrested in Mohammadieh and Casablanca, Morocco. [BW19:49]
  • The Bahá’ís in Mohammadieh were convicted of violating the ban on Bahá’í meetings, were sentenced to two years’ imprisonment but were released. [BW19:49]
  • Mohammadieh; Casablanca; Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1984 (In the year) Four Bahá’ís, one of whom had already spent five years in prison, were imprisoned in Indonesia, convicted of membership in a banned religious organization, with teaching the Bahá’í Faith and with insulting Islám. [BW19:42]
  • The prison terms ranged from one to five years. [BW19:42]
  • Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Court cases; Persecution
    1984 (In the year) The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continued throughout the year. [BW19:177–226]
  • Thirty Bahá’ís were executed or otherwise killed. [BW19:233-4]
  • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
  • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments and other actions taken, see BW19:44–6.
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; United Nations; Human rights
    1984 Jun A Bahá’í in Tetuan, Morocco, was arrested and sentenced to three years imprisonment for violating the 1983 ban on Bahá’í meetings. [BW19:49]
  • An appeal to the Supreme Court was unsuccessful. [BW19:49]
  • Tetuan; Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1984 Oct In Tunisia, the activities of the Faith were curtailed and Bahá’ís were interrogated. [BW19:50] Tunisia Persecution, Tunisia; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1985 (In the year) The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continued throughout the year. [BW19:177–226]
  • Seven Bahá’ís were executed or otherwise killed. [BW19:234]
  • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
  • For the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community see BW19:39.
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Bahai International Community; Human rights
    1985 23 Feb Forty–one Bahá’ís from various parts of Egypt were arrested, charged with offences against laws introduced in 1960 banning activities of Bahá’í institutions. [BW19:41, 283]
  • For an account of the event, its aftermath and the press campaign surrounding it see BW19:283–7.
  • Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1985 7 May The court hearings open on the cases of the Bahá’ís arrested in Egypt in February on charges of disregarding the 1960 ban on Bahá’í activity. [BW,9:285]
  • The cases were adjourned until 7 October to allow time for the defence lawyer to study the files numbering about a thousand pages. [BW19:285]
  • Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Bans; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases
    1985 Jul Three Bahá’í youths in Mentawai were imprisoned for having married according to Bahá’í law. [BW19:42] Mentawai; Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights
    1985. 28 or 31 Aug Mr Rahmatu'lláh Vujdani, a 57 year old teacher, was executed by firing squad in Bandar 'Abbas. He was an elected member of the Local Spiritual Assembly. [Iranian.com] Bandar Abbas; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1985 7 Oct The court cases against the Bahá’ís arrested in Egypt for contravening the 1960 ban on Bahá’í activities, due to be heard this, were adjourned until 3 February 1986 owing to adverse and unfair reports appearing in the newspapers. [BW19:286] Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases
    1985. 22 - 23 Oct The 14th Muzakarah (Conference) of the Fatwa Committee of the National Council for Islamic Religious Affairs Malaysia discussed the Bahá'í doctrine and decided that the Bahá'í doctrine was not part of Islam. Muslims involved in this teaching were deemed as apostates. Therefore, Muslims are prohibited from following this teaching and anyone involved in it must denounce it at once and repent. [Fatwa] Malaysia Fatwa; Persecution, Malaysia; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1985 13 Dec For the first time, the United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution on the human rights situation in Iran which contained specific references to the Bahá’ís. [BW19:38; VV55] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; United Nations; Human rights
    1986 (In the year) The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continued throughout the year. [BW19:177–226]
  • One Bahá’í, 15-year-old Paymán Subhání, was killed. [BW19:225–6, 234]
  • For his picture see BW19:246.
  • For the actions taken by the Bahá’í international Community see BW19:38.
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Bahai International Community; Human rights
    1986 (In the year) Iran’s hugely unsuccessful attempt to convince the international community that Bahá'ís were indeed spies was probably one of the reasons that convinced Iranian officials to review Iran’s contemporary history. The aim of this review was in no way to reconsider age-old beliefs and assumptions, but to generate so-called “objective” facts and data which would ultimately serve to justify those assumptions. It was in light of this conviction that, the Institute for Cultural Research and Studies was founded "with a mandate to maintain, organize and catalogue valuable historical documents acquired during and after the Islamic Revolution in Iran. In 1996, it was replaced by the Institute for Iranian Contemporary Historical Studies (IICHS), a professional research centre devoted to the study of contemporary Iranian history. Its objective is to undertake various research projects regarding social, political, economic and cultural aspects of post-eighteenth-century Iran, using its collection of primary sources."
    Another such organization, the Political Studies and Research Institute, was founded in 1988. [Iran Press Watch 1407; the institute's website]
    Iran Conspiracy Theories; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1986 21 Jan The Islamic Research Academy at the Azhar University in Cairo published in a number of newspapers a lengthy opinion about the Bahá’í Faith in advance of the court cases of Bahá’ís due to be heard in February. [BW19:286]
  • For a refutation of this statement by the Bahá’í International Community, see BW19:288–96 and "Far Stretching River".
  • Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Bahai International Community; Criticism and apologetics
    1987 (In the year) Faced with unrelenting religious persecution involving a wide range of human rights violations, the Bahá'í Institute for Higher Education (BIHE) was founded in response to the Iranian government's continuing campaign to deny Iranian Bahá'ís access to higher education.
  • BIHE developed several unique features which have become its defining strengths. Courses were delivered at the outset by correspondence, soon complemented by in-person classes and tutoring. Later on, leading-edge communication and education technologies were included. In addition, an affiliated global faculty (AGF) was established that comprised of hundreds of accredited professors from universities outside Iran who assisted BIHE as researchers, teachers and consultants.
  • The BIHE was to evolve such that it could offer 38 university-level programs across 5 faculties and continued to develop and deliver academic programs in Sciences, Engineering, Business and Management, Humanities, and Social Sciences. It provided and continues to provide its students with the necessary knowledge and skills to not only persevere and succeed in their academic and professional pursuits, but to be active agents of change for the betterment of the world.
  • The BIHE's commitment to high academic standards, international collaboration and its innovative teaching-learning environment has been increasingly recognized as graduates excelled in post graduate studies internationally. [See list] These unique strengths of BIHE, together with the top-ranking marks of its students, have helped secure its graduates places at over 87 prestigious universities and colleges in North America, Europe, Australia and Asia (India). [Closed Doors, Chapter IV; BIHE]
  • See the statement The Bahá'í Institute Of Higher Education: A Creative And Peaceful Response To Religious Persecution In Iran presented by the Bahá'í International Community to the 55th Session of the UN Commission on Human Rights under Agenda item 10 of the provisional agenda: "The Right to Education" in Geneva, 22 March - 30 April 1999.
  • Iran Bahai Institute for Higher Education (BIHE); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human Rights; Education; persecution, Persecution, Education; Z****
    1987 23 Sep Three members of the Yaran-e Iran, Mr. Jamaluddin Khanjani, Mr. Hasan Mahboobi and Mr. Changeez Fanaeyan, along with two other Bahá'í citizens, were arrested. After spending 59 days in jail, they were released on November 11th. One of the two Bahá'ís arrested with the members of the Yaran, Mr. Bahman Samandari, was jailed and later executed in March of 1991. Authorities announced that his incarceration and execution was in connection to the 1987 case. Mr. Hasan Mahboobi was killed in a hit-and-run accident as he was heading to a meeting of the Yaran in August 1992. After the release of the Yaran-e Iran until their next arrest in May 2008, the Iranian government was in close contact with them and had complete and detailed knowledge of all Bahá'í activities. On that basisBahá'ís were able to refute the charges of “illegal activities” or “illegal organization” against the security of the nation. [Iran Press Watch 10561] Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1988 8 Dec The plenary session of the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted a resolution concerning human rights in Iran which specifically mentions the suffering of the Bahá’ís. [BINS189:2] Iran United Nations; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights
    1989 9 Mar The Commission on Human Rights adopted a resolution expressing grave concern at human rights violations in Iran, mentioning the Bahá’ís three times. [BINS195:1] Iran United Nations; Human rights; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1989 Apr The Universal House of Justice announced a vast majority of prisoners that had been held by authorities in Irán had been released. [AWH62] Iran UHJ; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1990 May The US Senate unanimously adopted a concurrent resolution condemning Irán's continued repression of the Bahá'ís calling for their complete emancipation. This was the fourth congressional appeal. [VV60] United States; Iran United States Senate; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1991 25 Feb In Iran, a secret government memorandum (known as the Golpaygani Memorandum) was drawn up by Iran's Supreme Revolutionary Cultural Council and signed by Iran's supreme leader, Ayatollah Khamenei, which provided a blueprint of the policies and actions to which the Bahá'í community of Iran was to be subjugated. The memorandum demanded a shift in Iran's stance towards Bahá'ís from overt persecution to a more covert policy aimed at depleting the Iranian Bahá'í community's economic and cultural resources. This was a change in the policy for the Islamic regime which had openly persecuted and killed Bahá'ís during its first decade in power and had accused them of being spies for various foreign powers. The document also called for “countering and destroying their [Bahá'ís] cultural roots abroad.” [Iran Press Watch 1407]
    Signed by Iranian Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei, the memorandum established a subtle government policy aimed at essentially grinding the community into nonexistence by:
  • forcing Bahá'í children to have a strong Islamic education,
  • pushing Bahá'í adults into the economic periphery and forcing them from all positions of power or influence, and
  • requiring that Bahá'í youth "be expelled from universities, either in the admission process or during the course of their studies, once it becomes known that they are Bahá'ís." [One Country; Iran Press Watch 1578]
  • The memorandum can be found here, here and here.
  • This document might have remained secret had it not been divulged to Reynaldo Galindo Pohl, the Salvadoran diplomat who served as the United Nations (UN) Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Iran between 1986 and 1995. Professor Pohl disclosed the document in 1993 during a session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights (now replaced by the Human Rights Council). [BWNS575]
  • Iran; United States Golpaygani Memorandum; Ayatollah Khamenei; Ayatollahs; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; United Nations; Persecution, education; BWNS; Z****
    1992 18 Mar The martyrdom of Mr. Bahman Samandari in the Evin prison in Tehran. Mr. Samandari was executed with no advance notice and in the absence of due process. A 52 year-old businessman from a distinguished Bahá'í family, he was buried secretly on 20 March 1992 and his family was not notified until 5 April 1992. This was the first execution in three and one-half years. It belied the public position taken by the Iránian government that the Bahá'ís were not being persecuted for their religious beliefs. [AWH118-9, VV126] Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Evin Prison
    1993 Jan Reynaldo Galindo Pohl, the United Nations' special representative in charge of monitoring the human rights situation in Iran, revealed a secret document written by Iran's Supreme Revolutionary Cultural Council providing evidence that the Iranian Government had formulated a plan to oppress and persecute the Bahá'í community both in Iran and abroad. [BW92–3:139; BW93–4:154] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Human rights; Persecution; Human rights; United Nations
    1993 22 Feb At the 49th session of the UN Commission on Human Rights, the United Nations in Geneva released a report providing evidence that the Iránian Government had established a secret plan approved by Irán's highest ranking officials including both President Hashemi Rafsanjani and Ayatollah Khomeini's successor, Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei, to oppress and persecute the Bahá'í community both in Irán and abroad. Galindo Pohl, special representative in charge of monitoring the human rights situation in Iran, highlights the contents of the secret document written by Iran's Supreme Revolutionary Cultural Council. [BW92–3:139; BW94–5:134] [from Bahá'í Community of Canada Department of Public Affairs press release dated 25 February, 1993] Iran; Geneva; Switzerland Persecution; Hashemi Rafsanjani; Ali Khamenei; Galindo Pohl; Human rights; United Nations; Iran Memorandum
    1993 Jun The bodies of Bahá'ís buried in the Bahá'í section of a Tihrán cemetery were exhumed and taken by lorry to unknown destinations. [BW93–4:153] Tihran; Iran Cemeteries and graves; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1993 Jul A section of the Bahá'í cemetery in Tihrán was bulldozed to make way for the construction of an Islamic cultural centre. [BW93–4:140]
  • It was first thought that about two thousand Bahá'í graves were desecrated but later revealed that 15,000 graves were destroyed. [BW93–4:140; BW94–5:133]
  • Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution
    1995 Sep The arrest and imprisonment of Mr. Zabihullah Mahrami in Yazd because of his adherence to the Bahá'í. He was given a life sentence. [Planet Bahá'í] Yazd; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    1997 4 Jul Masha'llah Enayati, a 63-year-old man, died in custody while in prison in Isfahan after being severely beaten. [One Country Jul-Sep 1998 Vol 10 Issue 2] Isfahan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1997 6 Jul Shahram Reza'i, a conscript in the army, was shot in the head by his superior officer at a military base near Rasht, Iran. The officer, who said the bullets were fired in error, was released a few days after a court excused him from paying the blood money normally required in such cases because the dead soldier was a Bahá'í. [One Country Jul-Sep 1998 Vol 10 Issue 2] Rasht; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Court cases
    1998 Feb The Bahá’í Open University resumed activities after the seizure of much of their assets four months earlier by the Iranian government. Iran Bahai Institute for Higher Education (BIHE); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Education; Persecution
    1998 21 Jul Mr. Ruhu'llah Rawhani, a 52-year-old medical supplies salesman was hanged in Mashhad solely for religious reasons. Later that morning, Mr. Rawhani's family was summoned to collect his body and required, despite their protests, to complete the burial within one hour, under the supervision of Government intelligence agents.
  • In 1984, Mr. Rawhani was arrested and imprisoned for more than a year. According to an account given by Mr. Rawhani's relatives in the Australian Bahá'í News, Mr. Rawhani was tortured during his first imprisonment. He was arrested a second time about four years previous. The charge was apparently related to his work in the conduct of purely religious activities, such as prayer meetings and children's classes. He was released after 24 hours.
  • Mr. Rawhani was arrested for a third time in September 1997 and placed in solitary confinement in Mashhad. He had been accused of "converting" a woman from Islam to the Bahá'í Faith. The woman, however, denied that she had converted; she explained that her mother was a Bahá'í and that she herself had been raised as a Bahá'í. She was not arrested.
  • The killing of Mr. Rawhani was the first government execution of a Bahá'í in Iran in six years, and was coupled with the widespread arrest of some 32 Bahá'í educators in fourteen different cities throughout Iran in late September and early October. From the Daily Telegraph, August 2nd 1998. [One Country Jul-Sep 1998 Vol 10 Issue 2, One Country Oct-Dec 1998 Vol 10 Issue 3, Archives of Bahá'í Persecution in Iran]
  • See the message from the Universal House of Justice dated 29 September, 1998.
  • Mashhad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; persecution, Persecution, Education
    1998 29 Sep Starting this date until October 2nd, in Iran, government raids on 500 private homes and the arrest of some 30 faculty members in efforts to close the Bahá’í Institute for Higher Education, a decentralized university that aimed to give Bahá’í students access to the education they have been otherwise denied.
  • The Institute offered Bachelor's degrees in ten subject areas: applied chemistry, biology, dental science, pharmacological science, civil engineering, computer science, psychology, law, literature and accounting. Within these subject areas, which were administered by five "departments," the Institute was able to offer more than 200 distinct courses each term.
  • In the beginning, courses were based on correspondence lessons developed by Indiana University, which was one of the first institutions in the West to recognize the Bahá'í Institute for Higher Education. Later on, course offerings were developed internally.
  • Teaching was done principally via correspondence, or, for specialized scientific and technical courses and in other special cases, in small-group classes that were usually held in private homes. Over time, however, the Institute was able to establish a few laboratories, operated in privately owned commercial buildings in and around Teheran, for computer science, physics, dental science, pharmacology, applied chemistry and language study. The operations of these laboratories were kept prudently quiet, with students cautioned not to come and go in large groups that might give the authorities a reason to object.
  • Among other significant human rights conventions, Iran is a party to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, which was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 16 December 1966. Parties to this Covenant "recognize the right of everyone to education" and more specifically that "higher education shall be made equally accessible to all, on the basis of capacity, by every appropriate means." [“The New York Times” article dated 29 October, 1998, One Country Oct-Dec 1998 Vol 10 Issue 3]
  • Iran Bahai Institute for Higher Education (BIHE); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Education; Persecution; Human Rights; Education; Persecution, Education
    1999 19 Apr The Islamic Revolutionary Court in Isfahan sentenced Sina Hakiman (10 yrs), Farzad Khajeh Sharifabadi (7 yrs), Havivullhh Ferdosian Najafabadi (7 yrs) and Ziaullah Mirzapanah (3yrs) for crimes against national security. All four were among the thirty-six who were arrested in late September and in early October, 1998 in a concerted government crackdown against Bahá’í education in fourteen cities in Iran.
  • It was reported that over 500 homes were raided in an attempt to crack down on the Bahá’í Open University. Files, equipment and other property used by the University were seized. From report by Human Rights Watch Academic Freedom Committee.
  • Isfahan; Iran Bahai Institute for Higher Education (BIHE); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Education; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Human Rights; Education; persecution, Find ref
    1999 Sep The murder of Abdullah Mogharrabi in Dushanbe, Tajikistan. It was determined that he was killed for his religious beliefs. [One Country Jan-Mar 2002 Vol13 Issue 4] Dushanbe; Tajikistan Persecution, Tajikistan; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    2000 17 Feb Iran’s Supreme Court rejected death sentences imposed upon Sirus Zabihi-Moghadam, Hadayet Kashefi-Majafabadi and Manucher Khulsi.
  • They had been arrested in 1997 in Khorasan province accused of unspecified anti-security acts. (Chapter one, Article 498 of the Islamic Penal Code.)
  • A flood of protest followed from Western leaders. [HRW]
  • See message from the Universal House of Justice dated 29 September, 1998.
  • Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Human rights
    2000. 13 Jul A fatwa issued by the Johor State Fatwa Committee stated that the Bahá'í teachings are not the teachings of Islam, that Muslims who are involved in its teaching are apostates and therefore Muslims are forbidden to engage in teaching. [Fatwa] Johor State; Malaysia Fatwa; Persecution, Malaysia; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    2001 14 Jan Sixteen Bahá'ís were arrested in the southern Egyptian city of Sohag. The charges brought against them concerned their membership in the Bahá’í Faith. [Message from the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Canada dated the 19th of January, 2001] Sohag; Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    2001 23 Oct The murder of Rashid Gulov in Dushanbe, Tajikistan. It was determined that he was killed for his religious beliefs. [One Country Vol.13 Issue 4, BW01-02p304] Dushanbe; Tajikistan Persecution, Tajikistan; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    2001 3 Dec The murder of Mosadegh Afshin Shokoufeh in Dushanbe, Tajikistan. It was determined that he was killed for his religious beliefs. [One Country Vol.13 Issue 4] Dushanbe; Tajikistan Persecution, Tajikistan; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    2002 (In the year) The Indonesian Ulema Council (MUI) issued a fatwa (edict) that banned Bahá'ís from burying their dead relatives in public cemeteries. Religious violence targeting the Indonesian Bahá'í community began during the Suharto regime that restricted the official religions to only five. Bans on the Faith had been issued earlier in the 1960s and the 1970s. [The Jakarta Post August 8, 2014] Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    2002 5 Mar The announcement by the Bahá'í International Community of the murder of three Bahá'ís in Dushanbe, Tajikistan. Rashid Gulov was shot and killed on 23 October 2001 while returning home from work. A second man, Mosadegh Afshin Shokoufeh, was shot outside his home on 3 December 2001 and died from his wounds on the way to the hospital. These deaths follow the assassination of 88 year old Abdullah Mogharrabi, a leader in the community, in September 1999. [BWNS153] Dushanbe; Tajikistan Persecution, Tajikistan; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; BWNS
    2003 (In the year) A fatwa was issued against the Bahá'í Faith in Egypt by Al-Azhar, the prominent religious institution supporting the continued ban as apostates. Cairo; Egypt Fatwa; Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    2003. 1 Jun A fatwa was issued by the Mufti of Sabah State Government that declared that the Bahá'í teachings were deviant teachings and that Muslims were forbidden all involvement including the practice of the Faith and the holding of any literature or other material. [Fatwa] Sabah State; Malaysia Fatwa; Persecution, Malaysia; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    2004 (In the year) The 2004 Circular 49/2004 issued by the Ministry of the Interior specifically instructed officials to refrain from providing cards to anyone other than Muslims, Christians and Jews. In particular, it effectively forced practicing Bahá’ís into a limbo when registering for personal documents. As Egyptian citizens are required to include their religious affiliation and the Bahá’í faith was not officially recognized, unlike Islam, Christianity and Judaism, practicing Bahá’ís were not able to secure official status. [Minority Right website] Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights
    2004 Feb In Babul, Iran, the destruction of the gravesite of Quddús, a house-like structure that marked the resting place of Mullá Muhammad-'Ali Barfurushi, was began and halted temporarily after local Bahá'ís demanded to see a legal permit for the demolition work. Later it was discovered that the dismantling of the gravesite had continued surreptitiously over a period of days until the structure was entirely demolished despite protests from Bahá'ís at the local, national, and international levels.
  • This measure came soon after the international community failed to offer a resolution on the human rights situation in Iran at the United Nations. [One Country Vol.15 Issue 4]
  • Babul; Iran Quddus; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution
    2004 7 Feb The release of Mr. Bihnám Mitháqí and Mr. Kayván Khalajábádí who had been imprisoned on April 29, 1989, for "association with Bahá'í institutions."
  • They were both originally sentenced to eight years' imprisonment, but upon appeal, their sentences were commuted to three years' imprisonment plus 50 lashes. Both prisoners appealed this decision, and on April 30, 1991, the Islamic Revolutionary Court sentenced them to death. On February 18, 1996, the Supreme Court of Iran rejected numerous appeals and confirmed the death sentences. In February 2001, after further judicial reviews, the chief of the judicial branch reduced their sentences to 15 years in prison and set February 2004 for their release. [Human Rights Watch (some dates differ from this source)]
  • See message from the Universal House of Justice dated 3 September, 1992, 7 September, 1992 and 10 September, 1992.
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Bihnam Mithaqi; Kayvan Khalajabadi
    2004 Apr The completion of the destruction of the gravesite of Mulla Muhammad-'Ali Barfurushi, known as Quddus (The Most Holy). Quddus was the foremost disciple of the Báb, the Prophet-Herald of the Bahá'í Faith. [BWNS293] Iran Quddus; Cemeteries and graves; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution; BWNS
    2005 (In the year) The official campaign to malign the name of the Faith in Iran through the mass media, newspaper articles and web sites, through radio and television programs and through films, as per the provision implemented in 1991, escalated in 2005. [Open Letter dated 4 March, 2009] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution
    2005 15 Oct The Constitution of Iraq was approved by referendum to replace the Law of Administration for the State of Iraq for the Transitional Period (TAL), previously adopted by a Governing Council appointed by the Coalition Provisional Authority after the Iraq War. The Constitution guaranteed the Islamic identity of the majority of the Iraqi people and guaranteed the full religious rights of all individuals to freedom of religious belief and practice such as Christians, Yazedis, and Mandi Sabeans. It made no mention of the Bahá'ís as an acknowledged religious minority.
    The Law No.105 of 1970 which prohibited all Bahá'í activities was not rescinded therefore it entered into force despite its being unconstitutional under the new constitution. Also problematic for the Bahá'í community was Regulation 358 of 1975 by the Department of Civil Status that prohibited the issuance of new identity cards to followers of the Bahá'í faith and altered their civil status so that they were registered as Muslims. [Al-Monitor 11 December, 2018; Washington Post 12 October, 2005] .
    Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Z****
    2005 29 Oct Letter from the Iranian military headquarters to various Revolutionary Guard and police forces and security agencies instructing them to identify and monitor Bahá'ís around the country. [BWNS473]
  • A copy of the letter can be obtained from the BIC website.
  • This document was authored by Major General Seyyed Hassan Firuzabadi in his capacity as Chief of the Headquarters of the Armed Forces of Iran. His letter was addressed to a range of military and security agencies, including the Commander of the Revolutionary Guard, the Commander of Basij militia, the Commander of Law Enforcement and the Commander of the Armed Forces inter alia. The letter instructed these agencies to ‘acquire a comprehensive and complete report of all the activities of these sects (including political, economic, social and cultural) for the purpose of identifying all the individuals of these misguided sects. Therefore, we request that you convey to relevant authorities to, in a highly confidential manner, collect any and all information about the above mentioned activities of these individuals and report it to this Headquarters.’ This extended to children and students, and individual children and young people are identified by their religious beliefs and targeted for ideological harassment, exclusion from education, abuse and even physical assault on some occasions. [See: Faith and a Future]
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Human rights; Persecution, Education; Persecution, Education; Persecution; Human rights; Faith and a Future (CSW)
    2005 15 Dec The death of Mr. Dhabihu'llah Mahrami, 59, who had been held in a government prison in Yazd under harsh physical conditions at the time of his death.
  • First arrested in 1995, Mr. Mahrami served in the civil service but at the time of his arrest was making a living installing venetian blinds, having been summarily fired from his job like thousands of other Bahá'is in the years following the 1979 Iranian revolution. Although Iranian officials have asserted that Mr. Mahrami was guilty of spying for Israel, court records clearly indicate that he was tried and sentenced solely on charge of being an "apostate," a crime which is punishable by death under traditional Islamic law. While Mr. Mahrami had been a lifelong Baha'i, the apostasy charge apparently came about because a civil service colleague, in an effort to prevent Mr. Mahrami from losing his job, submitted an article to a newspaper stating that he had converted to Islam. When it later became clear to Iranian authorities that Mr. Mahrami remained a member of the Bahá'í community, they arrested him and charged him with apostasy for allegedly converting from Islam to the Bahá'í Faith. On 2 January 1996, he was sentenced to death by the Revolutionary Court, a conviction that was later upheld by the Iranian Supreme Court.
  • The death sentence against Mr. Mahrami stirred an international outcry. The European Parliament, for example, passed a resolution on human rights abuses in Iran, making reference to Mr. Mahrami's case. The governments of Australia, Brazil, Canada, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States also registered objections. [BWNS415]
  • Yazd; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Human rights; Court cases; BWNS
    2005 (end of the year) In Romania a law was passed that imposed restrictive requirements on religious communities that wished to be recognized by the government, which Bahá'ís and adherents of other minority religions could not meet. [Form 18 News Service] Romania Persecution, Romania; Persecution
    2006 - 2007 (academic year) For more than two decades young Bahá’ís had been barred from entering university through an application process that required them to deny their faith. Though a modification in the process, achieved through worldwide public pressure, enabled a few hundred to register at the start of the 2006–2007 academic year, their hopes of pursuing higher education were soon dashed because that same year a confidential letter sent from Iran's Ministry of Science, Research and Technology instructed Iranian universities to expel any student who was discovered to be a Bahá'í. The letter refuted previous statements by Iranian officials who had said Bahá'í students in Iran faced no discrimination. [BWNS575]
  • The English translation of the letter.
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Education; Higher education; Human rights; Bahai International Community
    2006 4 Apr In late 2004 or early 2005 the government of Egypt introduced a computerized identity card system that locked out all religious classifications except Islam, Christianity, and Judaism. Bahá's were unable to get ID cards and other documents essential to day-to-day life. Thus began an epic struggle for Bahá'í appellants to win the right to have their religious affiliation properly identified on government documents.
  • The issuance of birth certificates was at the heart of the first case, which concerned 14-year-old twins Imad and Nancy Rauf Hindi. Their father, Rauf Hindi, obtained birth certificates that recognized their Bahá'í affiliation when they were born but new policies required computer generated certificates and the computer system locked out any religious affiliation but the three officially recognized religions. Without birth certificates, the children were unable to enroll in school in Egypt.
  • A lower administrative court ruled that the couple should be identified as Bahá'ís on official documents, a decision that, if upheld, would essentially overturn the government's policy of forcing citizen to choose from only the three officially recognized religions on state documents. The lower court's ruling provoked an outcry among the fundamentalist elements in Egyptian society, particularly Al Azhar University and the Muslim Brotherhood who objected to any kind of recognition of the Bahá'í Faith as a religious belief. The case gained international attention in the news media and from human rights groups and sparked a wholesale debate in newspapers and blogs throughout the Arab world over the right to freedom of religion and belief. [BWNS454, Minority Right website]
  • Cairo; Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Human rights; BWNS
    2006 2 May Letter, from the Trades, Production, and Technical Services Society of Kermanshah to the Iranian Union of Battery Manufacturers, asked the Union to provide a list of members of the Bahá'í sect in their membership. [BWNS488]
  • English translation of the letter.
  • Kermanshah; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; BWNS
    2006 15 May In Egypt the government appealed the lower court's ruling to the Supreme Administrative Court and the hearing focused on procedural issues concerning the case. The emotions stirred by the case were evident at the initial hearing. Lawyers and other individuals seated in the courthouse interrupted and heckled the defense counsel each time they tried to address the court. They yelled insults at them, calling them 'infidels' and threatening them with physical violence during the hearing. Because the Court was unable to impose order in the courtroom, the Court briefly adjourned the hearing before resuming the proceedings in camera. When the hearing was adjourned the courthouse security officers refused to protect the defense lawyers who were surrounded by members of the crowd, verbally threatening, pushing, shoving and not allowing them to walk away from the area.
  • After the government's appeal of the lower court's ruling a court hearing was set for 19 June, however, the Court commissioner's advisory report was not submitted in time and the hearing was further postponed until the 16th of September. [BWNS454, BWNS456]
  • Cairo; Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Human rights; BWNS
    2006 19 May Iranian security officials arrested 54 Bahá'ís in the city of Shiraz who were involved in a community service project, many of them in their teens and early 20's. They were not charged and all but three were released within six days. It was the largest mass arrest of Bahá'ís since the 1980's. [New York Times 1 June, 2006] Shiraz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Youth
    2006 19 Aug Iran's Ministry of Interior ordered officials throughout the country to step up the surveillance of Iranian Bahá'ís focusing in particular on their community activities. In a letter the Ministry requested provincial officials to complete a detailed questionnaire about the circumstances and activities of local Bahá'ís, including their "financial status," "social interactions," and "association with foreign assemblies," among other things. [BWNS488]
  • English translation of the letter.
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    2006 16 Sep In Egypt the Supreme Administrative Court again postponed its hearing on the government appeal of a lower court's ruling upholding the right of a Bahá'í couple to have their religion properly identified on government documents. In a brief hearing the Court postponed the case until 20 November in order to await the completion of an advisory report from the State Commissioner's Authority on the case. [BWNS480] Cairo; Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Human rights; BWNS
    2006 20 Nov In Egypt lawyers representing a Bahá'í couple seeking to have their religious affiliation properly identified on state documents, presented arguments at a full hearing before the Supreme Administrative Court. The hearing was short and the court adjourned until 16 December when a judgment in the case was expected. [BWNS492] Cairo; Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Human rights; BWNS
    2006 Dec The publication of A Faith Denied: The Persecution of the Bahá'ís of Iran by the Iran Human Rights Documentation Center (IHRDC).
  • The document reported that the Bahá’í community of Iran were not free to practice their religion, they suffered from economic and social exclusion, and they had been subjected to executions, arbitrary arrests and the destruction of their property - all carried out with the support of national judicial, administrative and law enforcement structures. It also stated that since the election of President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad in June 2005, there was evidence to suggest a new cycle of repression may have been beginning. [A Faith Denied]
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Human Rights, Iran; Z****
    2006 16 Dec Egypt's Supreme Administrative Court ruled against the right of Bahá'ís to be properly identified on government documents. There were now two cases related to this issue; the first involved a lawsuit by the father of twin children, who was seeking to obtain proper birth certificates for them and the second concerned a college student who needed a national identity card to re-enroll in university.
  • The decision upheld government policy in place at the time,, a policy which forced the Bahá'ís either to lie about their religious beliefs or give up their state identification cards. The policy effectively deprived Egyptian Bahá'ís and others of access to most rights of citizenship, including education, financial services, and even medical care. [BWNS492]
  • Cairo; Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Human rights; BWNS
    2006 21 Dec A message was sent from the Universal House of Justice to the Bahá'ís of Egypt regarding the recent Supreme Administrative Court decision with respect to their right to hold identification cards. [BWNS499]
  • For a the full text of the message from the Universal House of Justice 21 December, 2006 in English.
  • Cairo; Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Human rights; BWNS
    2006 21 Dec The Education Department Management Security Office in Shiraz circulated a form to be completed by all students who belonged to religious minorities and the "perverse Bahaist sect". The form required not only detailed information about the student and his or her parents, but also detailed information on all the student's siblings. [Provisional Translation of the text of the letter] Shiraz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Education; Persecution
    2007 (In the year) This increase in the activities of the Yaran-e Iran mandated the addition of more members; as a result, the number of members reached seven. Behrooz Tavakoli, Afif Naimi, Jamaluddin Khanjani, Saeid Rezaie, Fariba Kamal Abadi, Vahid Tizfahm and Mahvash Sabet were the last leaders of the Bahá'í community of Iran. After their arrest, the responsibility of leading the community was put on the shoulders of all Bahá'ís as individuals. [Iran Press Watch 10561] Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    2007 17 Mar In a confidential letter from the Ministry of Science, Research and Technology to the Central Security Office of Payám-i-Núr University in the Province of Sístán and Balúchistán, they instructed that Bahá’í applicants for the Farágír (preparatory] courses be prevented from enrollment and that the names of those who do try to enrol to be forwarded to their office. [English translation] Iran Persecution, education
    2007 Apr In Iraq the Ministry of Interior's Nationality and Passport Section canceled regulation 358 of 1975 which prohibited the issuance of national identity cards to those claiming the Bahá'í Faith as their religion. In May 2007 a small number of Bahá'ís were issued identity cards. The Nationality and Passport Section's legal advisor stopped issuance of the cards thereafter, claiming Bahá'ís had been registered as Muslims since 1975 and citing a government regulation preventing the conversion of "Muslims" to another faith. Without this official identity card, Bahá'ís could not register their children for school or acquire passports. Despite the cancellation of the regulation, Bahá'ís whose identity records were changed to "Muslim" after regulation 358 was instituted in 1975 still could not change their identity cards to indicate their Bahá'í faith, and their children were not recognized as Bahá'ís. [US Department of State BUREAU OF DEMOCRACY, HUMAN RIGHTS, AND LABOR July-December, 2010 International Religious Freedom Report Report September 13, 2011] Iraq Persecution, Iraq; Z****
    2007 9 Apr In a memorandum from the office of Intelligence and National Security to the commanders of police forces of the regional provincial municipalities, instructions were given to monitor the business activities of Bahá'ís, to suppress the operations of business that would yield a high income, to prohibit businesses related to culture, advertising and commerce as well as any business related to cleanliness (tahárat) such as grocery shops and ice cream parlours and any others where the handling of food or personal care was involved. [Letter from the Public Inteligence and Security Force]
  • English translation of the letter.
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Human rights; Human rights; Persecution
    2007 18 May A letter marked "Confidential" was sent from the academic counseling and higher education office at Guilán University to the director of university academic affairs, asking for the immediate discharge of a Bahá'í student stating that she was legally banned from continuing her education.
  • English translation of the letter of the 18 May, 2007.
  • English translation of the reply dated the 27 May, 2007 stating that the said student had been been "disqualified" from studying at Guilan, as required by the 1991 Golpaygani memorandum.
  • Guilan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Education; Z****
    2007 9 – 10 Sep A Bahá'í cemetery near Najafabad, Iran was destroyed using heavy equipment. More than 100 graves were desecrated. [BWNS578] Najafabad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution; Cemeteries and graves; BWNS
    2007 2 Oct An event was organized by the Defenders of Human Rights Centre in Iran to publicize the plight of all those who are deprived of access to education. The Bahá'ís were only one of many groups whose situations the event highlighted. The Bahá'í representative made a 5-10 minute presentation describing the difficult circumstances faced by Bahá'í students, who have persistently been denied access to post-secondary education. Journalists from within the country and abroad covered the proceedings. [The reference website is no longer in existence.] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Education; Persecution
    2007 12 Nov Human Rights Watch and the Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights released a report that stated that Egypt should end discriminatory practices that prevented Bahá'ís and others from listing their true religion on government documents.
  • The 98-page report, titled Prohibited Identities: State Interference with Religious Freedom, focused on problems that have emerged from Egypt's practice of requiring citizens to state their religious identity on government documents but then restricting the choice to Islam, Christianity, or Judaism. "These policies and practices violate the right of many Egyptians to religious freedom," states the report. [BWNS587]
  • See HRW.org for the full text of the report.
  • Cairo; Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Human rights; BWNS
    2007 21 Nov The Universal House of Justice responded to a communications from the Bahá'ís attending event of the 2nd of October advising the Friends in Iran to explore contacts with other Iranian individuals and organizations sympathetic to the plight of the Bahá'ís and to continue the effort to secure legal representation for the Bahá'í students. It also encouraged them to convey the gratitude of the Iranian Bahá'ís to the Defenders of Human Rights Centre. [The referenced website is no longer in existence.] Iran Universal House of Justice; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Education; Persecution
    2007 25 Dec The two Egyptian Human Rights cases, the first by the father of twin children who was seeking to obtain proper birth certificates for them and the second by a college student who needed a national identity card to re-enroll in university, were set for "final judgment" by the Court of Administrative Justice in Cairo but the hearings were unexpectedly postponed until 22 January 2008. The court indicated it was still deliberating on the cases. On 22 January it was announced that the cases had been continued until 29 January. [BWNS597] Cairo; Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Human rights; BWNS
    2008 29 Jan In Egypt a victory for religious freedom, a lower administrative court ruled in favour of two lawsuits that sought to resolve the government's contradictory policy on religious affiliation and identification papers. The Court of Administrative Justice in Cairo upheld arguments made in two cases concerning Bahá'ís who had sought to restore their full citizenship rights by asking that they be allowed to leave the religious affiliation field blank on official documents. A lower court again ruled in their favour. Two Muslim lawyers filed an appeal. [BWNS600] Cairo; Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Human rights; BWNS
    2008 5 Mar Mahvash Sabet – a schoolteacher and mother of two and a member of the national-level administrative group for Iran, the Yaran – was arrested after having been summoned to Mashhad to discuss some matters regarding a Bahá'í burial. She subsequently spent 175 days in solitary confinement. On the 26th of May she was moved to Evin prison in Tehran. [BWNS Special Report]
  • This arrest marked a new wave of persecution of the Bahá'í Faith in Iran.
  • See Iran Press Watch 10561 for the background story to her arrest.
  • Mashhad; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Evin prison; BWNS; Mahvash Sabet
    2008 21 Mar The re-election of the National Spiritual Assembly of Vietnam after a lapse of some 33 years.
  • A major step towards official recognition of the Faith had been taken a year previous when authorities issued a certificate recognizing Bahá'í activities.
  • The Bahá'í Faith had been established in Vietnam in 1954. In 1957 Bahá'ís there joined with a number of other countries in southeast Asia to form a Regional Spiritual Assembly, and in 1964 the first National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Vietnam had been formed. [BWNS617]
  • Vietnam Persecution, Bans; BWNS
    2008 14 May The six men and a women, Mr. Jamaloddin Khanjani, Mr. Afif Naeimi, Mr. Saeid Rezaie, Mr. Behrouz Tavakkoli, Mr. Vahid Tizfahm. and Mrs. Fariba Kamalabadi, all members of the national-level group that helped see to the minimum needs of Bahá’ís in Iran, were arrested in their homes in Tehran. Mrs. Kamalabadi, Mr. Khanjani, and Mr. Tavakkoli had been arrested previously and then released after periods ranging from five days to four months. [BWNS632, Report] Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; BWNS
    2008 14 May Iranian Grand Ayatollah Hossein Ali Montazeri issued a fatwa stating that, since (Bahá'ís) were the citizens of Iran, they had the rights of a citizen and the right to live in the country. Furthermore, they must benefit from the Islamic compassion which is stressed in Quran and by the religious authorities. [The National (UAE)]
  • Statement: English Translation
  • Iran Fatwa; Human rights; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Ayatollah Hossein Ali Montazeri; Ayatollahs
    2008 The arrest of the Bahá'í leadership took place in the context of a severely and rapidly escalating systemic campaign of attacks against the Bahá'í community that included the creation and circulation of lists of Bahá'ís with instructions that the activities of the members of the community be secretly monitored; dawn raids on Bahá'í homes and the confiscation of personal property; a dramatic increase over the previous two months in the number of Bahá'ís arrested; daily incitement to hatred of the Bahá'ís in all forms of government-sponsored mass media; the holding of anti-Bahá'í symposia and seminars organized by clerics and followed by orchestrated attacks on Bahá'í homes and properties in the cities and towns where such events were held; destruction of Bahá'í cemeteries throughout the country and demolition of Bahá'í holy places and shrines; acts of arson against Bahá'í homes and properties; debarring of Bahá'ís from access to higher education and, increasingly, vilification of Bahá'í children in their classrooms by their teachers; the designation of numerous occupations and businesses from which Bahá'ís were debarred; refusal to extend bank loans to Bahá'ís; sealing Bahá'í shops; refusing to issue or renew business licenses to Bahá'ís; harassment of landlords of Bahá'í business premises to get them to evict their tenants; and threats against Muslims who associated with Bahá'ís. [Iran Press Watch 1109] Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Human rights; Persecution; Human rights
    2006 Jun In a show of solidarity for the imprisoned Yaran, an open letter was sent from a number of members of the judiciary, human rights organizations and other notables in India. [Iran Press Watch 1624] Iran; India Yaran; Persecution, Human rights; Persecution, Iran; Human rights
    2008 3 Jun Mrs. Mahvash Sabet and Mrs. Fariba Kamalabadi were permitted to make short phone calls to their families. Later it was confirmed that Mr. Jamaloddin Khanjani, Mr. Afif Naeimi, Mr. Saeid Rezaie, Mr. Behrouz Tavakkoli, and Mr. Vahid Tizfahm also have made brief phone calls to their families. [BIC Report] Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    2008 20 Jun Four Bahá'ís were arrested in Sana'a on the accusation of proselytizing. The three Bahá’is of Iranian origin who were arrested are Mr. Zia'u'llah Pourahmari, Mr. Keyvan Qadari, and Mr. Mr. Behrooz Rohani . A fourth Bahá’i, Mr. Sayfi Ibrahim Sayfi, was also arrested and faced the possibility of deportation to Iraq.
  • The Bahá’is had been persecuted on account of their faith prior to the armed conflict under the regime of President Ali Abdullah Saleh. [BWNS651]
  • Sanaa; Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; BWNS
    2008 27 Jul The results of the nationwide university entrance examination were made available on the National Organization for Educational Assessment in Iran. Most of the Bahá'í applicants found that they were rejected and received an "incomplete file" message. For the 2007-2008 academic year some 800 of 1000 Bahá'í students were rejected in the same manner. [Iranian, BWNS657] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Education; Persecution; BWNS
    2008 Sep After enduring 3.5 months of solitary confinement, the imprisoned members of the Yaran were transferred to a regular prison cell where they could interact with other prisoners, still at the notorious Evin Prison .
  • A month later, they were separated from other prisoners; the five men were kept in one cell and the two women in another, isolated from others. Their status was still noted as “temporary detention”. [Iran Press Watch 1505]
  • Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Evin prison
    2008 27 - 28 Sep The Bahá'í Cemetery of Isfahan, known as Gulestan-e Javid [Eternal Garden], was attacked by a certain group and some 2,500 trees and an irrigation system were destroyed. Windows of a hall at the end of the cemetery were broken and the walls were blackened by incendiary materials. [Iran Press Watch 35; Iran Press Watch 48]
  • See youtube video.
  • Isfahan; Iran Persecution, denial of burial; Z****
    2008 31 Oct The Universal House of Justice sent a message of encouragement to the besieged Bahá'í Community of Iran. In the message they noted that:
  • "a growing portion of the populace praises your courage, audacity, patience and steadfastness before the rising tide of tribulations."
  • They praised "the resolve shown by the vast majority of believers, preferring to live with hardship than to seek refuge in other countries," (something which has been)..."seen by many as a sign of their love for their homeland, has earned great respect."
  • They dispelled the notion of Bahá'ís being agents of the state of Israel.
  • They reiterated that the Bahá'ís have no feelings of malevolence against Islam. On the contrary, Bahá'u'lláh has shown reverence for both Muhammad and Imam Ali, even revealing a tablet of visitation for him.
  • They encouraged the continued unity of the community and faith in the constructive powers of the Faith and on an individual level, “a virtuous life and a goodly behaviour”. "...the light of truth will dispel the darkness of deceit".
  • BWC; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Interfaith dialogue; Ethics; Conspiracy theories
    2008 Nov Ameed Saadat sat Iran's 2008 national university entrance examination. He passed was accepted to study hotel management at Goldasht College in Kelardasht, Mazandaran, and began his studies. The college's registration form required students to identify their religion. Ameed, being honest had identified himself as a Bahá'í. The day before his first-term examinations were to begin the college director told Ameed that he was being expelled and would therefore not be allowed to sit the examinations. The following day, 26 students refused to take the end-of-term exam in protest against Ameed's expulsion. [Iran Press Watch] Kelardasht; Mazandaran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Education; Persecution; Human rights; Higher education
    2007 to 2009 Over 200 articles appeared in the Iranian newspaper Kayhan* in the years 2007-2009 that attacked every aspect of the history of the Bahá'í Faith, its personalities, beliefs and community life. Such messages were reinforced on television, in mass marches and in Friday sermons. Under government tutelage, the media served to endanger the Bahá'í's already highly curtailed existence.
  • *Kayhan was state-funded and had a role comparable to "Pravda" under Stalin." [Iran Press Watch 16 February, 2009]
  • Iran Iran, persecution; Kayhan; press; Z****
    2009 3 Feb The publication of "We are Ashamed," an open letter from a group of academics, writers, artists, journalists and Iranian activists throughout the world to the Bahá'í community. This letter had been signed by a large number of the most prominent Iranian intellectuals. [Iran Press Watch 998, Text of Letter in pdf] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Open letters; Human rights
    2009 11 Feb An Iranian ISNA news agency report quoting Tehran’s deputy public prosecutor, Hassan Haddad, reported that a case will be sent to the revolutionary courts in the coming week accusing the seven Bahá'ís of “espionage for Israel, insulting religious sanctities and propaganda against the Islamic republic.”
  • For the first time after two decades, the Islamic Republic of Iran officially accused the leaders of the Bahá'í community of Iran of espionage, thus reverting its position to that of the 1980s. [Iran Press Watch 1407]

  • Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Z****
    2009 15 Feb The US House of Representatives introduced a resolution condemning the government of Iran for its state-sponsored persecution of its Bahá'í minority and its continued violation of the International Covenants on Human Rights. [Iran Press Watch 1203] Washington,DC; Iran; Yaran, Persecution, Iran; Z****
    2009 16 Feb Iran’s Prosecutor General Qorban-Ali Dorri-Najafabadi made the claim that the members of the "banned Baha'i sect" have irrefutable links with Israel and that the seven will be tried on charges of “espionage for Israel, desecrating religious sanctities and propaganda against the Islamic Republic.” His statement was in reaction to the resolution by the U.S. State Department condemning recent events. [Iran Press Watch 1215] Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Z****
    2009 24 Feb The Canadian Parliamentary Sub-Committee on Human Rights adopted a strongly worded motion demanding the immediate release of the seven Bahá'í leaders held now for more than nine months without formal charges and no access to lawyers. Appearing before the committee were the Bahá'í Community of Canada’s Director of External Affairs, Susanne Tamas, and McGill Law Professor, Payam Akhavan. [Iran Press Watch 1597] Ottawa; Canada Susanne Tamas; Payam Akhavan; persecution, Iran; Yaran
    2009 25 Feb The seven imprisoned Bahá'í leaders were given permission to meet with their families. [Iran Press Watch 1468] Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Z****
    2009 17 Feb The European Union expressed their concerns that, after being held for so long without due process, the Yaran would not receive a fair trial. The EU therefore requested the Islamic Republic of Iran to allow independent observation of the judicial proceedings and to reconsider the charges brought against these individuals. [Declaration by the Presidency on behalf of the European Union on the trial with seven Bahá'í leaders in Iran ] Brussels European Union; Yaran; persecution, Iran; Z****
    2009 27 Feb Responding to the public outcry from western nations against Iran for the plight of seven imprisoned Bahá'í leaders, Qorban-Ali Dorri-Najafabadi, Iran’s Prosecutor-General, stated, “These individuals have accepted the charges brought against them.” This was later proved to be untrue. Meanwhile, the seven detained Bahá'ís continued to be deprived of due process and the opportunity to meet with their attorney. [Iran Press Watch 1547] Tihran; Iran Yaran, persecution, Iran; Z****
    2009 Mar The Yaran decided that, as a measure of goodwill, to disband all Bahá'í organizations in Iran. This decision was ratified by the Universal House of Justice. [Iran Press Watch 2709] Iran Yarn; persecution, Iran; Z****
    2009 4 Mar The Bahá'í International Community at the United Nations sent an open letter to Ayatollah Qorban-Ali Dorri-Najafabadi, the Prosecutor-General of Iran, regarding recent measures taken against the Yaran (at the national level) and the Khademin (at the local level). Since the disbanding of the Bahá'í administrative order in Iran in September of 1983, these groups had been functioning in close collaboration with the authorities.
  • The letter reiterated, in broad strokes, the history of the relationship between the authorities and the Bahá'í community since the revolution and addressed the accusations leveled against them as well as the deliberate misrepresentations of the community. The letter closed with numerous examples of the support for the community from the Iranian population.
  • Iran Ayatollah Qorban-Ali Dorri-Najafabadi; Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Z****
    2009 16 Mar In Egypt the Supreme Administrative Court removed any grounds for preventing Bahá'ís from receiving proper official identity documents by dismissing an appeal by two Muslim lawyers thus clearing the way for an end to years of deprivation for Egyptian Bahá'ís and opening the door to a new level of respect for religious privacy in Egypt. The appeal sought to prevent the implementation of a lower court ruling last year that said Bahá'ís could leave blank the religious classification field on official documents, including all-important identity cards and birth certificates. [BWNS703] Cairo; Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Human rights; BWNS
    2009 30 Mar The first meeting of the imprisoned Yaran with their families took place and was in person. It is customary in Iran to allow prisoners to meet with their families during the two-week Naw-Ruz festivities. A second visit with their families was also granted on April 6 but this time the families were only allowed to meet with their loved-ones from behind glass windows. [Iran Press Watch 2126] Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Z****
    2009 17 Apr With respect to the Supreme Administrative Court decision of 16 March 2009, the decree, dated 19 March, 2009 is signed by General Habib al-Adly, Egypt’s Interior Minister, and published on 14 April in the official gazette. According to the Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights (EIPR), which represented Bahá'ís in many of the recent court cases concerning religious affiliation on government documents, the decree amended the Implementing Statutes of Egypt’s Civil Status Law of 1994. It specifically instructed officials to place a dash (--) before the line reserved for religion in the official documents of citizens who could show that they, or their ancestors, were followers of a religious belief other than the three recognized by the state. [BWNS707] Cairo; Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Human rights; BWNS
    2009 11 May After a year in jail without formal charges the Bahá'í leaders faced an additional accusation, 'the spreading of corruption on earth,' which goes by the term 'Mofsede fel-Arz' in Persian and carries the threat of death under the penal code of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Prior to this new charge they had been accused of 'espionage for Israel, insulting religious sanctities and propaganda against the Islamic Republic.' [BIC Report;Iran Press Watch 2709]
  • The anticipated sham trial of the seven Baha’is leaders provoked a strong condemnation throughout the world press. In almost every language and in every country of the world, journalists, diplomats, prominent citizens and many others denounced the intentions of the Iranian government to try these innocent citizens on baseless charges of: “espionage for Israel”, “insulting religious sanctities” and “”propaganda against the Islamic Republic.” [World Press on the Trial of the Seven Bahá'í Leaders]
  • Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Human rights; Press Coverage, Yaran; Z****
    2009 10 Jul Iranian officials told the families of the seven Bahá'í leaders being held in Evin prison in Tehran that their trial had been delayed. No new trial date was given. [BWNS723] Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Evin prison; BWNS
    2009 8 Aug Two young Egyptian Bahá'ís, Imad and Nancy Rauf Hindi, received the new identity cards. They had been at the centre of a court case over religious identification on government documents. Their new computerized ID cards show a dash instead of their religion. They were the first such cards to be issued following a ruling by the Egyptian Supreme Administrative Court of 16 March, 2009 that cleared the way for the government to issue documents without reference to religious identity. For nearly five years, since the government began introducing a computerized identity card system that locked out all religious classifications except Islam, Christianity, and Judaism, Bahá'ís have been unable to get ID cards and other documents essential to day-to-day life in Egypt. [BWNS707, BWNS726, BWNS499, BWNS495, BWNS492, BWNS480]
  • The Bahá’ís secured the right to an identification card, however, legislation still refused to recognize the validity of the Bahá’í faith and maintained their secondary status within Egypt. Marriage and Bahá’í personal law were still not acknowledged by the state: married Bahá’ís who refused to be issued documentation that listed them incorrectly as ‘single’ still reportedly faced difficulties in setting up a bank account and other basic freedoms. This official ‘invisibility’ had also had a profound impact on their ability to participate in civil and political life. Bahá’ís were also the target of hostility towards the end of Mubarak’s regime and in the wake of his resignation, including the torching of several Bahá’í homes where the perpetrators remain unpunished. {Minority Rights website]
  • Cairo; Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Human rights; BWNS
    2009 17 Aug The trial of seven Bahá'í leaders imprisoned in Iran was further postponed until 18 October. [BWNS727] Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Human rights; BWNS
    2009 18 Oct Attorneys and families of the seven arrived at court in Tehran for the trial to be told that it would not take place. No new date was set. [BIC Report] Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Human rights
    2010 12 Jan – 14 Jun The trial of Iran's seven Bahá'í leaders, Fariba Kamalabadi, Jamaloddin Khanjani, Afif Naeimi, Saeid Rezaie, Mahvash Sabet, Behrouz Tavakkoli, and Vahid Tizfahm began in Tehran. The seven were charged with "espionage", "propaganda activities against the Islamic order", "the establishment of an illegal administration", "cooperation with Israel", "sending secret documents outside the country", "acting against the security of the country", and "corruption on earth". [BWNS748, BWNS778]

  • The profiles of the accused: Profiles.
  • The trial was closed to the public. A film crew and known interrogators were permitted entry. [Video "The Story of the Bahá'í Seven" 13 May 2016 BIC]
  • Tihran; Iran Yaran; Court cases; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Human rights; BWNS
    2010 7 Feb Seven imprisoned Bahá'í leaders appeared in court for a second session of their trial. The session was once again closed and family members were not permitted in the courtroom. The hearing lasted just over one hour but did not go beyond procedural issues. No date was given for any future sessions. [BWNS756] Tihran; Iran Yaran; Court cases; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Human rights; BWNS
    2010 12 Apr The seven imprisoned Iranian Bahá'í leaders arrived at the court for their third appearance and their families were not allowed to enter, signalling a closed hearing. Inside the courtroom, however, the prisoners saw numerous officials and interrogators from the Ministry of Intelligence – along with a film crew which had already set up cameras. Concerned over the presence of non-judicial personnel in a supposedly closed hearing, the Bahá'ís – with the agreement of their attorneys – declined to be party to the proceedings. The judge adjourned the session and did not announce a date for continuing the trial. [BWNS767] Tihran; Iran Yaran; Court cases; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Human rights; BWNS
    2010 10 May New information was obtained regarding the conditions in which the seven Bahá'í prisoners were being held-two small rancid-smelling cells. They had not been given beds or bedding. There was no natural light in their cells so when the light was turned off during the day they are held in darkness. [Video "The Story of the Bahá'í Seven" 13 May 2016 BIC] Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights
    2010 12 Jun The seven Bahá'í leaders imprisoned for more than two years in Iran made their fourth court appearance. [BIC Report] Tihran; Iran Yaran; Court cases; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Human rights
    2010 (during 1st week in Jul) Some fifty homes of Bahá'í citizens in Ivel village in Mazandaran were destroyed by trucks and loaders. Their complaint about the destruction of their homes was ignored and justice authorities gave them no response. It is believed that the Ministry of Information, the Security agencies and some religious authorities were behind the scheme. According to owners of the homes, they did not know from where the order was given but local residents of the village did the deed. {Iran Press Watch 6202] Ivel; Mazandaran; persecution, Iran; Z****
    2010 24 Jul The imprisonment of seven Bahá'í leaders in Iran was extended for a further two months after the lawyers made a request for bail. At this point they had been held for more than two years under a series of successive orders for their 'temporary' detention, which by law, must not exceed two months. The trial of the seven consisted of six brief court appearances and began on 12 January after they had been imprisoned without charge for 20 months. During this period they were allowed barely one hour's access to their legal counsel. The trial concluded on 14 June. [BIC Report] Tihran; Iran Yaran; Court cases; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Human rights
    2010 8 Aug The sentence of 20 years in prison was announced for members of the "Yaran-i-Iran" or "Friends of Iran" in Branch 28 of the Revolutionary Court presided over by Judge Moqayesseh (or Moghiseh)*. The charges were several: "espionage", "collaborating with enemy states", "insulting the sacred", "propaganda against the state" and "forming an illegal group". The prominent civil and human rights lawyer who defended them was Mr Abdolfattah Soltani. He would later serve a 13-year sentence in the Evin Prison for engaging in his profession. Another member of their legal defense team was the attorney Hadi Esmailzadeh who died in 2016 while serving a 4-year prison term for defending human rights cases. After the sentencing the seven Bahá'í leaders were sent to Raja’i prison in the city of Karaj (Gohardasht) , about 50 kilometers west of Tehran. [BWNS789]
  • Raja’i prison in Mashhad has frequently been criticized by human rights advocates for its unsanitary environment, lack of medical services, crowded prison cells and unfair treatment of inmates by guards. [Wikipedia; Iran Press Watch 6315].
  • Soon after their arrival four of the Yaran were transferred to room 17 in Section 6 of this notorious prison. Section 6 is infamous in human rights circles. It has often been the scene of bloody fighting among prisoners and it is considered extremely dangerous. It is where certain political prisoners have been sent to vanish. At first the Mafia-like gangs incarcerated in the same facility began to refer to the Yaran as “infidels”. The authorities also tried to pressure other prisoners to insult and belittle the newly-arrived Bahá'ís, but it appeared that most other prisoners refused to comply with this suggestion. In fact, it was reported that most other prisoners were showing considerable respect to the Bahá'ís and tried to be hospitable. [Iran Press Watch 667]
  • * For a profile of Judge Mohammad Moghiseh see Iran Press Watch 17764 .
  • Tihran; Mashhad; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Evin Prison; Gohardasht prison; Abdolfattah Soltani; Hadi Esmailzadeh; Moghiseh; Human rights; Prisons; BWNS; Z****
    2010 15 Sep In the face of the chorus of condemnation from governments and human rights organizations around the world for the 20-year sentence for the seven Bahá'í leaders, the Appeals court reduced the sentences from 20 to 10 years by removing charges such as “Espionage and Collaboration with Israel”. This information was verbally released to Ms. Sabet’s lawyer. [BWNS793, BIC Report]
  • See Violations of Legal Procedures details on how the treatment of the Yaran (and other Bahá'ís) has violated their legal and constitutional rights.
  • See Voices of Support for a sampling of expressions of support from international figures and institutions as well as BWNS810.
  • Amnesty International called for immediate support by asking for messages to be sent to the Head of the Judiciary, Ayatollah Mahmoud Hashemi Shahroudi. [Amnesty International appeal]
  • Tihran; Iran Yaran; Court cases; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; BWNS
    2010 Sep Following the reduction of his sentence, Vahid Tizfahm was transferred to Rajai-Shahr prison, where he remained until his release. Rajai-Shahr is located in the Alborz Province, and was at the time a maximum-security prison, a place for the “dangerous” individuals. According to Iran’s Department of Prisons, Security and Corrections’ Regulations, and based on the principle of Segregation of Crimes, Tizfahm’s transfer to Rajai-Shahr was not legal. [Iran Press Watch 29 March, 2018] Rajai-Shahr; Iran Yaran; Vahid Tizfahm; Rajai-Shahr prison; Prisons; Persecution, Iran; Z****
    2010 7 Dec In an open letter to Ayatollah Mohammad Sadeq Larijani, the Head of the Judiciary, the Bahá'í International Community today contrasted the country's persecution of Bahá'ís with Iran's own call for Muslim minorities to be treated fairly in other countries. [BWNS801]
  • In English: BIC Letter.
  • In Farsi: BIC Letter (Farsi).
  • Iran Ayatollah Mohammad Sadeq Larijani; Open letters; Bahai International Community; Persecution, Iran; Persecution; Human rights; BWNS
    2011. 25 Jan January 25th marked the beginning of the revolution in Egypt where millions of protesters from all socio-economic and religious backgrounds demanded the overthrow of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak. The security of the Bahá'ís during this period of unrest remained an issue. In February 2011, Bahá’í homes in Shouraneya were again set on fire, with some reports alleging the involvement of state security officers in the attack. Salafi leaders (an ultra-conservative reform branch within Sunni Islam) also continued to agitate against Bahá’ís as a threat to national stability. Shouraneya; Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    2011 30 Mar Six months after Iran's Appeal Court reduced their sentences from 20 to 10 years, the seven Bahá'í leaders were told that the Appeals Court sentence was recognized as being in contrast with the law and that their original 20-year sentences had been reinstated. [BWNS814] Tihran; Iran Yaran; Court cases; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; BWNS
    2011 May Some 39 homes of Bahá'ís associated with the Bahá'í Institute for Higher Education (BIHE) were raided in a coordinated attack. Educator Kamran Mortezaie served a five-year jail term. Mahmoud Badavam, Noushin Khadem, Farhad Sedghi, Riaz Sobhani and Ramin Zibaie were each sentenced to four year prison terms. The judgments against them cast their activities in support of BIHE as crimes and as “evidence” of their purported aim to subvert the state. Two psychology teachers, Faran Hesami and her husband Kamran Rahimian, were also sentenced to four years in prison. Another BIHE administrator Vahid Mahmoudi was released on 8 January 2012 after his five-year sentence was reportedly suspended. [BWNS910] Iran Persecution, Iran; Baha'i Institute for Higher Education; BIHE; Persecution, Education; Z****
    2011 20 May Fariba Kamalabadi and Mahvash Sabet were returned to Evin Prison in Tehran. They had spent a brief time in the appalling conditions at Qarchak prison, (from 3 May) some 45 kilometers from Tehran. [BIC Evin; BWNS826]
  • The five men were still being held under close scrutiny in a wing of Gohardasht prison, reserved for political prisoners. [BIC Report]
  • Tihran; Iran Yaran; Evin Prison; Gohardasht Prison; Qarchak prison; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Prisons; BWNS
    2011 Aug As of this time the Bahá'í community of Tabriz had been prohibited from burying their dead in that city and the bodies were being transferred by intelligence officers to the city of Miandoab, in West Azerbaijan province some 175km away. [Iran Press Watch 19720] Tabriz; Miandoab; Iran Persecution, denial of burial; Z****
    2011 24 Sep The arrest of Abdolfattah Soltani, a senior member of the legal team (4 lawyers) representing a number of Bahá'ís in Iran awaiting trial for providing higher education to youth barred from university. Soltani is a co-founder of the Defenders of Human Rights Center, along with Nobel Peace Prize Laureate Shirin Ebadi and others. The Tehran-based Centre was shut down in a police raid in December 2008. [BWNS849]
  • In 2008 when Shirin Ebadi took the defense of seven Bahá'ís she was accused of changing her religion and her law office was attacked and faced other problems. [Iran Press Watch]
  • U.S Bahá'í Office of Public Affairs Press Release.
  • See interview with Mr Soltani by Iran Press Watch.
  • Iran Abdolfattah Soltani; Lawyers; Bahai Institute for Higher Education (BIHE); Persecution; Human Rights; Education; BWNS; Yaran; Persecution, Education
    2011. 21 Oct The launch of Inciting Hatred: Iran's media campaign to demonize Bahá'ís. The Bahá'í International Community prepared and launched a report that documented and analysed more than 400 press and media items over a 16-month period that typified an insidious state-sponsored effort to demonize and vilify Bahá'ís, using false accusations.
  • The report was made available in English and in Persian.
  • New York; United States Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Bahai International Community
    2012 24 Feb The inaugural screening of Iranian Taboo by Dutch-Iranian filmmaker Reza Allamehzadeh in Los Angeles. [Iranian Taboo, BWNS890] Los Angeles; United States Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Documentaries; Iranian Taboo; Reza Allamehzadeh; BWNS
    2012 11 May The Universal House of Justice sent a message to the Bahá'ís of Iran near the four-year anniversary of the illegal arrest and imprisonment of the former members of the Yárán and the more recent injustice meted out against the co-workers of the Bahá’í Institute for Higher Education (BIHE). [BWNS823, Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 11 May, 2012, In Farsi] Iran Yaran; Bahai Institute for Higher Education (BIHE); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; UHJ; BWNS; persecution; Persecution, Education
    2012 Jun After the January 25th revolution against Mubarak and a period of rule by the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, the Muslim Brotherhood took power in Egypt through a series of popular elections with Egyptians electing Islamist Mohamed Morsi to the presidency in June 2012.

    On 3 July 2013, Morsi was deposed by a coup d'état led by the minister of defense General Abdel Fattah El-Sisi. The situation of Egypt’s Bahá’í community remained uncertain. The prescriptions of the 1960 Presidential Decree, despite the revolution, had yet to be annulled. This meant that despite the 2009 lifting of the restrictions on identification documents, the Bahá’í Faith still had not received actual recognition as a religion and Bahá'í were frequently subjected to public vilification. It was a period of extreme unrest. It is estimated that between Sisi's overthrow of Morsi and the 2014 presidential elections, an estimated 20,000 activists and dissidents were arrested by the police under the interim government. El-Sisi went on to become Egypt's president by popular election in 2014.

    Egypt Persecution, Egypt; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; History (general)
    2012. 29 Oct The Bahá'í International Community published a special report on The Baha'is of Semnan: A Case Study in Religious Hatred. This video report highlighted the effect on one community of the Iranian government’s methodical and organized campaign to incite hatred against the Bahá'ís and eliminate them as a viable social entity.
  • The Bahá'ís of Semnan had been the focus in recent years of an intensifying persecution, facing an array of economic, physical and psychological attacks. While these types of attacks on Baá'ís were not confined to Semnan, the situation there was noteworthy for its particular intensity and the mobilization and coordination of official and semi-official elements -- including the police, the courts, local officials, and the clergy.
  • Semnan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    2012 Dec (mid) Sangesar’s old Bahá'í cemetery was thoroughly covered in soil and rubble by bulldozers and trucks and all the graves were covered by dirt and rocks so that no more graves could be seen. [Iran Press Watch 19720] Sangesar; Iran Persecution, denial of burial; Z****
    2013 Mar The publication of the report entitled Violence with Impunity: Acts of Aggression Against Iran's Bahá'í Community published by the Bahá'í International Community. The report documents a rising tide of violence directed against the Iranian Bahá'í community - and the degree to which attackers enjoy complete impunity from prosecution or punishment.
  • From 2005 through 2012, for example, there were 52 cases where Bahá'ís have been held in solitary confinement, and another 52 incidents where Bahá'ís have been physically assaulted. Some 49 incidents of arson against Bahá'í homes and shops, more than 30 cases of vandalism, and at least 42 incidents of cemetery desecration were also documented. [BWNS972]
  • Report in English.
  • Report in Farsi.
  • Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Justice; Bahai International Community; BWNS
    2013 7 Apr Mr. Ataollah Rezvani, a well-known Bahá'í in the city of Bandar Abbas was shot and killed in his car. It is of note that a few years before his murder, the Friday prayer Imam had incited the local population against the Bahá'ís, referring to them as un-Islamic. He further called on the people of the city to rise up against the Bahá'í community. [BWNS987, BWNS1031; Iran Press Watch 9306]
  • Rezvani was shot in the back of the head and his body was found in his car near the railway station on the outskirts of the city. His assailants had forced him to drive to that location. His body was discovered following a search when he failed to return home. [http://publicaffairs.bahai.us/388]
  • Bandar Abbas; Iran Ataollah Rezvani; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; BWNS; Z****
    2013 14 May The Bahá'í International Community launched the Five Years Too Many campaign to protest the 20-year prison sentences given to the Bahá'í leaders in Iran, the longest sentence given to prisoners of conscience under the current regime. The harshness of the sentences reflected the Government’s resolve to completely oppress the Iranian Bahá'í community, which faced a systematic, “cradle-to-grave” persecution that was among the most serious examples of state-sponsored religious persecution in the world. [Five Years Too Many, BWNS954] Tihran; Iran; Worldwide Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Bahai International Community; BWNS
    2013 15 Jul Iranian filmmaker and blogger as well as a former Islamist hardliner who has become an outspoken critic of the government, Mohammad Nourizad, kissed the feet of 4 year old Artin whose parents had been arrested for participation in the Bahá'í Institute for Higher Education. [Wikipedia entry; Faith and a Future p38-39]
  • Some years later Mr Nourizad repeated this gesture, kissing the feet of a six year old boy named Bashir whose parents, Azita Rafizadeh and Peyman Kushak Baghi had been sentenced to four year prison terms for teaching at the BIHE.
  • Iran Bahai Institute for Higher Education (BIHE); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Education; Persecution; Human Rights; Education; Mohammad Nourizad;
    2013. 24 Aug Ataollah Rezvani disappeared while on his way home and the next day the Criminal Investigation Office of Bandar Abbas informed the family that his body had been found outside the city. The report of the forensic physician determined the cause of death to be “a hard trauma on the brain tissues, due to being hit with some penetrating object, such as (a bullet)” and ruled it as a suicide. Strong evidence exists to indicate that it was not. [Archives of Bahá'í Persecution in Iran]
  • The assassins were never identified. The murder was not reported in the Iranian newspapers and did not raise any protest except among prisoners of conscience at Rejaee prison who condemned the assassination in a statement and demanded justice. [175YP266-267]
  • Bandar Abbas; Iran persecution, Iran; Ataollah Rezvani; Z****
    2013 28 Oct The release of the video Violence with Impunity: Acts of Aggression Against Iran's Bahá'í Community based on the report of the same name. [BWNS972]
  • Engish
  • Farsi
  • Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Justice; Bahai International Community; BWNS; film; Violence with Impunity
    2013 Dec The imprisoned members of the Yaran sent a letter addressed to Iranian President, Dr. Hassan Rouhani in response to the invitation that President Rouhani extended to the citizens of Iran to comment on the draft Charter of Citizens’ Rights on the president’s website.
  • A copy of the letter in English can be found online at BWNS977.
  • Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Hassan Rouhani; Z****
    2013 3 Dec Mr. Hamed Kamal Muhammad bin Haydara (sometimes referred to in the media as "Hamed Merza Kamali Serostani ") was arrested in al-Mukalla, capital of Hadramout province in eastern Yemen. It was suggested that he was arrested on the orders of Mr. Khaled al-Mawari, the Chief Prosecutor who was involved in the unwarranted arrest and detention of another member of the Yemeni Bahá'í community.
  • The family of Hamed bin Haydara had lived in Socotra since 1945, when his father arrived on the Yemeni island from Iran as a doctor under British colonial rule and was granted Yemeni citizenship.
  • The National security Office raided his home and seized laptops and documents. Reports indicated that he has been tortured (beaten and electrocuted).
  • According to Bahá'í estimates, there were about 2,000 Bahá'ís in Yemen [BIC website, Reuters]
  • Sanaa; Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    2013 12 Dec After confirmation of a court order in Sanandaj and confiscation of the land belonging to the Bahá'ís which had been used as a cemetery, the site was demolished by a bulldozer. [Iran Press Watch 19720] Sanandaj; Iran Persecution, denial of burial; Z****
    2014 Mar The Bahá'í cemetery in Ahwaz was closed and the alley leading to it was blocked by heavy cement blocks. No organization has accepted responsibility for this action. [Iran Press Watch 19720] Ahwaz; Iran Persecution, denial of burial; Z****
    2014 Apr In Shiraz, the Revolutionary Guard began excavation of some 200 square meters of the Bahá'í cemetery. The site, which had been in use since the 1920s, had been confiscated by the government in 1983 and the Revolutionary Guard had taken ownership of the site some three years earlier with plans to build a cultural and sports centre. It is the site of the remains of the ten Bahá'í of Shiraz who were hanged in 1983 for the crimes of being Zionists and teaching children's classes. [BWNS993, BWNS994] Shiraz; Iran Cemeteries and graves; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution; BWNS
    2014 7 May The imprisoned Yaran addressed a letter to Mohammad Javad Larijani, the head of Human Rights Division of the Judiciary Branch of the Islamic Republic of Iran regarding his claim that “No one is in prison for being a Bahá'í and if Bahá'í s do not commit illegal acts their citizenship rights will be protected”. They reiterated some of the acts of oppression and discrimination, security force encounters and human rights violations imposed on the Bahá'í citizens and have asked the officials to change their view toward citizens and minorities.
    The full text of the letter can be viewed at Iran Press Watch 9946
    Iran Yaran, persecution, Iran; Mohammad Javad Larijani; Z****
    2014 8 May Despite a worldwide outcry, the Iranian Revolutionary Guards continued destroying an historic Bahá'í cemetery in Shiraz. Between 2005 and 2012 some 42 Bahá'í-owned cemeteries were desecrated in a similar fashion. [BWNS993, BWNS1016] Shiraz; Iran Cemeteries and graves; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution; BWNS
    2014 9 May Vahid Tizfahm, a former member of the imprisoned Yaran, wrote to his son, Samim, in which he recounted the imprisonment and martyrdom of his own father when he was yet a child. For the full text of the letter see Iran Press Watch10181. Gohardasht; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Vahid Tizfahm; Z****
    2014. 28 May In the presidential election in Egypt, former Egyptian defence minister Abdel Fattah el-Sisi was elected with 97% of the vote according to government sources. The subsequent 2014 Constitution of the Sisi government, while guaranteeing the ‘inviolable’ right of freedom of religion, extended this only to Islam, Christianity and Judaism – meaning that Bahá’i were still prohibited from many basic freedoms, such as practicing their religious laws and constructing places of worship. Though Bahá’í representatives lobbied during the constitutional drafting processes to expand religious freedoms to their community, this did not occur.
  • In December 2014, a public workshop was held by the Ministry of Religious Endowments to warn of the dangers of the spread of the Bahá’i faith in Egypt.
  • Egypt Opposition; Persecution, Egypt; Persecution; Human rights; History (general); Constitutions
    2014 8 Aug The official ban on the Bahá'í Faith in Indonesia was lifted. [The Jakarta Post August 8, 2014] Jakarta; Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    2014 Sep The exclusion of Shadan Shirazi, an exemplary student who placed exceptionally well in the college entrance exams administered to students throughout Iran. The Iranian government deployed new tactics in their treatment of Bahá'í students to deny them access to higher education without raising the concern of the international community. The new procedure entailed identifying Bahá'í university applicants and then calling them in so they could quietly be confirmed as ineligible under the government's unjust policies and then be sent away without any documentation or proof that it was done because they were Bahá'ís that they were prevented from enrolling. [BWNS1021] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Education; Persecution; BWNS
    2014 3 Oct Hamed bin Haydara had been held at an undisclosed location since his arrest by National Security Forces on the 3rd of December, 2013. During this time he was held in prolonged solitary confinement, severely tortured and electrocuted, and forced to sign documents while blindfolded. In September of 2014 NGOs discovered where he was being detained so the National Security was forced to relocate him to the Criminal Investigation Detention Centre in the Central Prison in Sana'a. [Defending Bahá'í Rights facebook page] Sanaa; Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Hamed bin Haydara
    2014 Nov Fariba Kamalabadi, after having her fourth request to join her daughter Taraneh for her wedding denied, wrote her a letter from Evin Prison. [Iran Press Watch]
  • See Iran Press Watch 11274 for Taraneh's story of how she grew up without her mother.
  • Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Evin Prison; Prisons; Human rights; Taraneh Kamalabadi; Fariba Kamalabadi; Z****
    2015 18 Jan The first trial hearing of Hamed bin Haydara was held. Legal and human rights NGOs witnessed tampering and interference on the part of the prosecution. The prosecutor, Rajeh Zayed, threatened to detain and execute Bahá'ís. More were arrested. [Defending Bahá'í Rights facebook page] Sanaa; Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Hamed bin Haydara
    2015 27 Feb The premiere of the film To Light a Candle by Iranian-Canadian filmmaker and journalist, Maziar Mahari. The gala in Los Angeles was part of a campaign called "Education is Not a Crime", started in 2014, to highlight the plight of Bahá'í students in Iran and their recourse to the denial of education, the Bahá'í Institute of Higher Education. The film was also screened in some 300 locations around the world. [BWNS1041, BWNS1025]
  • See also Not a Crime.
  • Los Angeles; United States Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Education; Persecution; Documentaries; Education is not a Crime; BWNS
    2015 22 Apr Pressures on Jamaleddin Khanjani’s family had increased since his arrest in 2008. Their country home in Semnan was demolished by Security Forces. The family had been given 48 hours to evacuate the house and even though they had succeeded in obtaining a ruling from the Supreme Court to stop the demolition, the home was destroyed. Authorities objected to a house that had been built with a City permit 18 years previously claiming that the owner of this property is unknown and the deed was not acceptable. The farmland, where the house was situated, had belonged to the family for more than 200 years.
  • Their farm had more than 40 thousand fruit trees, however, in recent years the authorities had blocked the road during harvest time to prevent more than 200-300 Tons of apples and peaches from reaching the market. A few years prior they had demolished a water storage facility that the family had legally constructed (the government permit and other documents were all available). More than 100 million Liters of water had been stored for agricultural purposes. The family had a thirty-year permit for a pasture for their cattle however they were forced to sell some and purchase forage for the remainder.
  • About two weeks prior the CEO of the family's farming company had been sentence to a one-year imprisonment. He had been in prison a few times before and was now back in prison again.
  • Although the Khanjani family included both Bahá’ís and Muslims, systematic confrontations and harassment of the family continued during his incarceration. The authorities erected a security station at the entrance to the property where they inspected the cars of family members and did bodily searches. Everyone had to be inspected to be able to go to his/her home. Even the 85-year old mother of Mr Kanjani had to obtain an access card to go to her residence.
  • Semnan’s Revolutionary Guard and Ministry of Information declared the farm to be a military area. They built a duty post next the site of the demolished family home. Authorities prohibited the transfer the animals to a warmer climate in a truck. As a result a number of the sheep died.
  • With respect to the condition of Jamaleddin Khanjani in prison; he was over 80 years old and on one occasion, had to be transferred to the hospital once for a heart surgery. He was immediately returned to prison although having a medical furlough would have been the usual procedure.
  • Mr. Khanjani's family members had been the objects of persecution as well. Foad, his grandson had been in prison for four years and his granddaughter, Leva, had just completed her sentence. His nephew, Navid, who had filed a complaint with the judicial system for having been deprived of education, was faced with fictitious charges and had been sentenced to 12 years imprisonment. He has had a number of medical issues for which he has not received adequate treatment.
  • The workplace of Mr. Khanjani’s son, who worked in the optical field, had been raided a few months prior. All his belongings and property were confiscated based on unfounded accusations of illicit transactions. He had spent some time in prison and had been recently been released.
  • Mr. Khanjani's brother had a factory in Semnan and had imported equipment for making prescription lenses from Germany. He had suspended work in his factory for the anniversary of passing of Bahá’u’lláh and the authorities closed his business based on different excuses. The Ministry of Information asked him why the factory had been closed and he said it was his religious holiday. They shuttered the factory permanently, confiscated all the equipment and auctioned it all without any compensation.
  • Although a large number of their family members were Muslim they lived together, the Muslims participating in the Bahá’í commemorations and the Bahá’ís participating in theirs. [Iran Press Watch 11853]
  • See the report from the Bahá'í International Community on the persecution of the Bahá'ís of Semnan.
  • Semnan; Iran Jamaleddin Khanjani; Persecution; Z****
    2015 14 May A global campaign called "Seven Days in Remembrance of Seven Years in Prison for the Seven Bahá'í Leaders" to call attention to the long and unjust imprisonment of seven Iranian Bahá'í leaders was launched on the seventh anniversary of their arrest. Each day of the week-long campaign, starting 14 May 2015, was dedicated to one member of the seven: Mahvash Sabet, Fariba Kamalabadi, Jamaloddin Khanjani, Afif Naeimi, Saeid Rezaie, Behrouz Tavakkoli, and Vahid Tizfahm. [7 Days] Tihran; Iran; New York; United States; Worldwide Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Bahai International Community
    2015 24 Jul The Qom Seminary* announced the planning of classes called “Understanding Baha’ism” and “Understanding Ahl-e Haqq”. These classes, which presented a one-sided view of religious minorities, had the sole purpose of destroying the Bahá'í Faith and the Ahl-e Haqq**.
  • Subsequently, the Qom Seminary started extensive propaganda on these subjects in most government centres and government sponsored news websites. In an advertisement on its site, Tasnim news agency announced that the Qom Seminary intended to hold online introductory courses on the Bahá'í Faith and the Ahl-e Haqq for all seminary students in the country. Similar to other classes held in previous years, these courses provided an entirely one-sided view and no Bahá'í or Ahl-e Haqq citizen had the right to defend his religion. [Iran Press Watch 12642]
    *The Qom Seminary is the largest seminary, or traditional Islamic school of higher learning, established in 1922 by Grand Ayatollah Abdul-Karim Ha’eri Yazdi in Qom. [Wikipedia]
    **Ahl-e Haq (Dervishes)– “The People of the Absolute Truth” ‒ People treading the Ahl-e Haqq Muslim ascetic path, known for their extreme poverty and austerity. Their focus is on the universal values of love and service deserting the illusions of ego to reach God. [Wikipedia]
  • Qom; Iran Qom Seminary; persecution, Iran
    2015 30 Oct The cemetery of the 20,000 strong Bahá'í community of Rajasthan, located in Jaipur, was violently attacked and vandalised by a vigilante group of 50 to 60 persons allegedly led by the local right wing political party. They damaged a building that was under construction and threatened the caretaker physical harm. [The Wire 01/11/2015] Jaipur; Rajasthan; India Persecution, India; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution; Cemeteries and graves
    2015. 15 Nov The arrest and disappearance of Navid Aqdasi, a cousin of 'Ata'ollah Rezvani who was murdered on the 24th of August, 2013. Mr Aqdasi had been demanding justice for his cousin. [175YP322n3] Bandar Abbas; Iran Ataollah Rezvani; Iran, persecution; Navid Aqdasi; Z****
    2015 21 Dec Ayatollah Abdol-Hamid Masoumi-Tehrani, a senior Muslim cleric in Iran, had courageously called on his nation's people to uphold a higher standard of justice and dignity for all of their countrymen and women. In an article on his website, he dedicated a new piece of calligraphy—a passage from the writings of Bahá'u'lláh—to the Bahá'ís who were arrested on baseless charges in November 2015. [BWNS1089, BWNS987] Iran Ayatollah Abdol-Hamid Masoumi-Tehrani; Ayatollahs; Calligraphy; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; BWNS
    2016 25 Apr Mr. Hamed Bin Haydara, who had been imprisoned without trial since December 2013, was again brought to court for a hearing but the trial was again postponed, this time to 1 August 2017. Reports indicate that he had been sent to solitary confinement in the National Security Prison on the orders of Mr. Rajeh Zayed, the prosecutor who had caused the delays which have kept him in jail for more than three years and who had been largely responsible for the arrest and persecution of Bahá'ís in Yemen. Mr. Rajeh Zayed had stated that he planned to delay Mr. Hamed Bin Haydara’s court hearings and treatment until he “dies in jail.” He was suffering from serious health conditions that required proper medical attention. He stood accused of ‘compromising the independence of the Republic of Yemen’, including spreading the Bahá’í faith in the Republic of Yemen as well as "apostasy" (He has been a Bahá'í from birth.) and “insulting Islam” . [BIC 30 Apr 2017; BWNS1285] Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Human rights
    2016 29 Apr In observance of the eighth anniversary of the arrest and incarceration of seven Iranian Bahá'í leaders, the Bahá'í International Community was launched a global campaign calling for their immediate release. Taking the theme “Enough! Release the Bahá'í Seven,” the campaign emphasized the fact that, under Iran’s own national penal code, the seven were now overdue for conditional release. [Enough!]
  • A special campaign page was established with information about their current legal situation and other resources. [Enough! Release the Bahá'í Seven].
  • The campaign included an account on FaceBook.
  • and a Twitter handle. The hashtag for the campaign was: #ReleaseBahai7Now.
  • Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights
    2016 12 May In commemoration of the incarceration of the Yaran in Iran in 2008 the International Bahá'í Community (BIC) released a video entitled Enough! Release the Baha’i Seven Now. Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Bahai International Community
    2016 13 May Fariba Kamalabadi, while on a five-day furlough from Evin Prison, met with former Tehran MP Faezeh Hashemi. It was the first temporary leave she had been granted during her eight years of imprisonment.
  • Faezeh Hashemi was the activist daughter of former President Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani and she previously shared a prison cell with Kamalabadi in Evin Prison. Hashemi was strongly condemned by politicians and religious leaders for meeting with Mrs Kamalabadi. A high-ranking member of the Iranian Judiciary vowed that action would be taken against her. Despite the widespread criticism she received from powerful quarters in Iran, Faezeh Hashemi publicly defended her decision to meet with Kamalabadi. [Iran Press Watch, from NY Times, BWNS1108]
  • Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Evin prison; BWNS
    2016 14 Jul The Ghorveh Bahá'í cemetery, in the province of Kurdistan, was destroyed by government agents. [Iran Press Watch 19720] Ghorveh; Kurdistan; Iran Persecution, denial of burial; Z****
    2016 10 Aug Armed officers, masked in balaclavas from Yemen’s National Security Bureau (NSB) intelligence agency, which worked hand in hand with the armed Houthi authorities, (also knowns as Ansar Allah) stormed a Bahá’í youth educational workshop in Sana’a. The event was part of a nine day, cross country moral and educational program for Bahá’í youth organized by the Bahá'í -run Nida Foundation for Development. Sixty-five people were arrested including 14 women and six people under 18 without an arrest warrant. Half were Bahá'ís and, at the time of this writing, it was believed some fourteen remained in prison, including young mothers. Further arrests were carried out later and within a week all but 10 of those who had been incarcerated had been released.
  • Among those detained are Nadim Tawfiq Al-Sakkaf, (British Council’s country manager in Yemen), his brother Nader Tawfiq Al-Sakkaf and Kaiwan Mohamed Ali Qadri. [UN Human Rights 4 Oct 2016, BWNS1118, publicaffairs.bahai.us, UN Human Rights, Defending Bahá'í Rights facebook page]
  • Sanaa; Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Youth; BWNS
    2016. 6 Sep In a letter the BIC called on Iranian President Rouhani to end systematic economic oppression. The letter signed by Bani Dugal, Principal Representative of the Bahá'í International Community to the United Nations, drew attention to the stark contradiction between statements espoused by the Iranian government regarding economic justice, equality for all and reducing unemployment on one hand, and the unrelenting efforts to impoverish a section of its own citizens on the other. New York; United States Bani Dugal Gujral; Bahai International Community; Persecution, Iran; Persecution
    2016 26 Sep The murder of Farhang Amiri in Yazd. [BWNS1133; Archives of Bahá'í Persecution in Iran]
  • See also Iran Wire4167.
  • In a message from the Universal House of Justice to the Bahá'ís in Iran dated the 19th of October, 2016, it stated

    And at the age of sixty-three, that pure soul, that radiant and magnanimous soul, offered up his life in absolute meekness, hoisted the ensign of martyrdom and attained his Beloved's presence in the realms above, and in the Abha Kingdom joined the company of the other martyrs of this Faith--among whom number his own noble father and six other relatives who, sixty-one years ago in Hurmuzak, near Yazd, sacrificed their lives in the path of the Blessed Beauty.

  • At the time of the murder of his father, Farhang was 13 months old. See entry for July 28th, 1955 for details of The Seven Martyrs of Hurmuzak.
  • See a paper by Kamyar Behrang entitled "Extrajudicial killings supported by law and Islamic jurisprudence" for an explanation of how a Bahá'í might be murdered with near impunity in Iran.
  • Hurmuzak; Yazd; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Farhang Amiri; BWNS
    2016 26 Oct The report from the offices of the Bahá'í International Community entitled The Bahá'í Question Revisited: Persecution and Resilience in Iran was formally released.
  • The full report can be read on-line here.
  • A list of resolutions by the United Nations and United Nations bodies that referenced the situation of Bahá'ís in Iran since 1980 can be found at this location.
  • An annex to The Bahá'í Question Revisited is the report called "Inciting Hatred". It is an analysis of approximately 400 anti-Bahá'í articles, broadcasts, and webpages from late December 2009 through May 2011 and can be found here.
  • A list of the 222 Bahá'ís who have been killed in Iran since 1978 can be read here.
  • Iran; New York; United States Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Bahai International Community; Human rights; United Nations
    2016 24 Nov From her cell in Evin prison, In a open letter to her six-month old granddaughter, Bajar, Fariba Kamalabadi one of the members of the imprisoned Yaran of Iran, wrote about the suffering of the Bahá'í citizens and of her dreams for humanity. [Iran Press Watch 16140] Tihran; Iran Yaran; Evin Prison; Prisons; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights
    2016. 27 Nov In Yemen, Nadim al-Sakkaf and his brother Nader, who were detained from August 10th, were unexpectedly released from prison in Sana'a. Their release, it was believed, was in no small part due to the relentless advocacy of their wives Ruhiyeh al-Sakkaf and Nafheh al-Sakkaf. Their friend Kaiwan Mohamed Ali Qadri, who was arrested in the same raid, remained in custody. [Religion News Service 20161129]
  • Photos of the four can be found on the same page.
  • Sanaa; Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
    2017 19 Apr Houthi-Saleh political security officers arrested Walid Ayyash, Mahmood Humaid, and Badi'u'llah Sanai, all members of the Bahá'í community, at a checkpoint near the city border of Hudiedah. Sanai was released one week later, but was re-arrested in May. All three remain detained, their whereabouts unknown. [UN News Centre 22 May 2017]
  • In total over 25 Bahá'ís, including many prominent members of the Bahá'í community who assisted with organization of community affairs at the national level were arrested around the time. In October it was reported that eight Bahá'ís were still detained but the place of detention was not known. [BWNS1215]
  • Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; BWNS
    2017 25 Apr The formation of the human rights organization, "The Yemeni Initiative for Defending Bahá'í Rights". [Facebook page] Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights
    2017 28 Apr Amnesty International sent a Joint Public Statement to the Huthi-Saleh authorities in Yemen calling for the immediate and unconditional release of Hamid Haydara. The document can be downloaded from the Amnesty International site. Yemen Yemen; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Amnesty International
    2017 5 May The film Changing the World, One Wall at a Time was premiered in Harlem on the 5th of May and in Los Angeles on the 5th of June. The film evolved from shorter videos that were posted from the "Education is not a Crime" campaign and was made by Iranian-Canadian filmmaker Maziar Baharie. [BWNS1173]
  • The film Changing the World, One Wall at a Time.
  • Harlem; New York; Los Angeles; California; United States Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Education; Persecution; Documentaries; Education is not a Crime; BWNS
    2017 12 May The Bahá'í International Community launched a global campaign calling for the immediate release of the seven Iranian Bahá'í leaders, unjustly imprisoned for nine years as of the 14th of May.
  • The theme of the campaign, “Not Another Year,” was intended to raise awareness about the seven women and men unjustly arrested in 2008 and sentenced to 20 years’ imprisonment for their religious beliefs. This sentence was reduced to 10 years in 2015 after the overdue application of a new Iranian Penal Code. [BWNS1167]
    • The official video of the Bahá'í International Community to commemorate the 9th anniversary of the arrest and imprisonment of seven Iranian Bahá'í leaders - Not Another Year.
  • Iran Yaran; Court cases; Human rights; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution, Other; Persecution; BWNS
    2017 15 May Hundreds of Yemenis gathered in front of the Criminal Prosecution building in the capital city of Sana'a. They were denouncing the arrest of Yemeni citizens of the Bahá'í faith and calling for their release. The demonstrations were not led by the usual human rights crew but by tribal leaders of some of the most influential tribes in the country, prominently that of the Bani Mattar.
  • What brought the tribes out was the arrest of Sheikh Walid Saleh Ayyash, who has the distinction of being both a prominent tribal figure and one of the 2,000 or so Yemenis who practice the Bahá'í faith. It was Ayyash’s faith that led to his arrest on April 19, as he was driving from the city of Ibb to the port of Hudaydah. Along with another Bahá'í who was in the car, Ayyash was arrested by Houthi forces and transferred to the Hudaydah prison. A statement by the tribal leaders called Ayash “a distinguished personality among the Arab tribes … well-known for his integrity and wisdom, for his love, loyalty and devotion to his country, for his tolerance and respect for the government and the law.”
  • The leaders had previously met with Khalid Al-Mawari, the Houthi government’s Chief of Special Criminal Prosecution. He had promised them that Ayyash would be transferred to Sana'a. When that failed to happen, they organized the demonstration. [TRACKPERSIA 25 Aug 2017]
  • Sana'a; Yemen Sheikh Walid Saleh Ayyash; Khalid Al-Mawari; Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights
    2017 Jul The men who admitted to stabbing and killing Farhang Amiri, a 63-year-old father of four children, in September 2016 in Yazd on the street outside his home in public view were sentenced by a court in Yazd.
  • The two brothers immediately admitted to have been motivated by religious hatred. The older brother was sentenced to just 11 years in prison and two years away from home. The court justified the sentence by stating that according to the Islamic penal code, the accused and the victim are not equal for the general purpose of retributive justice. This astonishing provision clearly and deliberately deprives non-Muslims of the legal right to seek justice on equal-footing with the country's Muslim majority.
  • The younger man was sentenced to half of his brother’s sentence for aiding in the murder. [BWNS1182]
  • Yazd; Iran Farhang Amiri; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Court cases; Court cases; Human rights; BWNS
    2017 1 Aug The release of the film The Cost of Discrimination by Arash Azizi and Maziar Bahari which compared the social costs of discrimination in present day Iran to South Africa under the apartheid regime where, like in Iran, the Dutch Reform Church used their Holy Texts to justify the suppressive measures taken against people of "non-European" origin. South Africa; Iran Film; Documentaries; Cost of Discrimination; Arash Azizi; Maziar Bahari; Discrimination; Christianity; Islam; Persecution, Iran; Persecution
    2017 19 Sep Mahvash Sabet, one of the seven members of the former leadership group of the Bahá'ís in Iran known as the Yaran, was released after 10 years of confinement in Iran's notorious Evin and Raja'i Shahr prisons.
  • She had been arrested in March 2008 and was now 64 years old. Mrs. Sabet distinguished herself by the loving care and kindness she extended to her fellow prisoners. As has occurred with prisoners of conscience, writers, thought-leaders, and poets who have been wrongly imprisoned throughout history, the power of Mrs. Sabet's ideas and beliefs was only amplified by her persecution. The plight of its author attracted attention to this deeply moving collection of poetry, inspiring PEN International to feature Mrs. Sabet in a campaign to defend persecuted writers. Her poems also inspired a musical composition by award-winning composer Lasse Thoresen, performed at an international music festival in Oslo earlier this year. [BWNS1198]
  • See Prison Poems.
  • See CNN article Writing to survive: Bahá'í woman's poetry was her best friend in Iranian jail.
  • Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Court cases; Human rights; Evin prison; Rajai Shahr prison; Prisons; Poetry; Music; Lasse Thoresen; BWNS
    2017 Sep Arrests of Bahá'ís in Yemen drew international censure which led to a United Nations resolution, titled “Human Rights, Technical Assistance and Capacity-building in Yemen”. It was introduced by Egypt on behalf of the Arab Group and supported by the entire UN Human Rights Council—calling for the immediate release of all Bahá'í detainees. The Council was the principal human rights body at the UN and was composed of 47 members who are elected by the General Assembly based on equitable geographic distribution.
  • At the time of the resolution there were seven Bahá'ís in prison in Yemen, most of whom are held in undisclosed locations and one of which has been detained for nearly four years due to repeatedly postponement court-hearings. Arrest warrants had been issued for over a dozen others, while a number of families had been forced to leave their homes. Developments in Yemen indicated that the authorities’ prosecution of individuals had broadened in scope to be against the Bahá'í community in general and that efforts were being made to turn public opinion against all of the Bahá'ís under the premise that they are secretly plotting to stir unrest in Yemen.
  • The resolution established a Group of Eminent International and Regional Experts tasked with monitoring and reporting on the situation on human rights in Yemen. It was also mandated to carry out a comprehensive examination of all alleged violations and abuses of international human rights in the country. [BIC News 3 October 2017, UN Human Rights Council – 36th Session, Agenda Item 10]
  • Geneva; Switzerland; Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; United Nations; Human Rights
    2017 18 - 22 Oct The Iranian Bahá'í community was targeted during the bicentenary period. Between 18 and 21 October, some 19 individuals were arrested in Kermanshah, Tehran, and Birjand, and the homes 25 Baha’is were raided. Twenty-six Bahá'í-owned shops around the country were sealed off by authorities because the owners observed the Holy Day on 21 October. These closures occurred in Shiraz, Marvdasht, Gorgan, and Gonbad. [BWNS1215] Iran; Kermanshah; Tihran; Birjand; Shiraz; Marvdasht; Gorgan; Gonbad Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Bahaullah, Birth of; BWNS
    2017 22 Oct Yemeni security forces raided a Bahá'í gathering in Sana’a opening fire on the small group of people assembled to commemorate the bicentenary of the birth of Bahá'u'lláh. The attack occurred in the family home of prominent tribal leader Walid Ayyash, who had been abducted in April and whose whereabouts were unknown. The attackers were reportedly in four cars and an armored vehicle which they used to break down the front door of the house. They arrested Mr. Ayyash’s brother, Akram Ayyash.
  • This event proved unequivocally the extent of Iran’s role in the persecution of the Bahá'ís in Yemen, especially in Sana’a, which was under the control of Iranian-backed militias. Similar attacks occurred in Iran during the period of celebration of the bicentennial of the birth of Bahá'úlláh. [BWNS1215]
  • Sanaa; Yemen; Iran Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Bahaullah, Birth of; BWNS; Walid Ayyash
    2017 near the end of Oct Fariba Kamalabadi, a member of the former leadership group of the Bahá'ís called the "Yaran", concluded her ten-year prison sentence. She was the second individual from among the former Yaran to be released. She, along with five others, were arrested on the 14th of May, 2008.
  • Mrs. Kamalabadi had graduated from high school with honours but was barred from attending university because of her Faith. In her mid-30s, she embarked on an eight-year period of informal study and ultimately received an advanced degree in developmental psychology from the Bahá’í Institute of Higher Education (BIHE), an alternative institution established by the Bahá’í community of Iran to provide higher education for its young people. She worked as a developmental psychologist before her arrest and imprisonment. She was married with three children. Along with the deprivations of imprisonment itself (she had spent 2 1/2 years of the 10-year sentence in solitary confinement), Mrs. Kamalabadi was also deprived of irreplaceable family moments, including the birth of her first grandchild and the weddings of her daughters. She was 55 years old upon her release. [BWNS1217]
  • See Huffington Post for an article entitled "Iran’s Bahá'í Problem" by Payam Akhavan about the visit of Ms. Faezeh Hashemi, the well-known daughter of former Iranian President Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, who made a visit to her home while she was on leave from prison.
  • Ms Hashemi, herself a former MP, was heavily criticized after she met with Ms Kamalabadi while the latter was on leave from prision. See the article in The Guardian for details.
  • Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, BIHE; Court cases; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Persecution, Education; Court cases; BWNS
    2017. 4 Nov Three young Iranians who complained to state officials after being denied university entrance for being followers of the Bahá'í Faith have each been sentenced to five years in prison. Rouhieh Safajoo (21), Sarmad Shadabi (22), and Tara Houshmand (21) were convicted of the charges of “membership in the anti-state Bahá'í cult” and “publishing falsehoods.” [IFMAT 14NOV17] Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Education; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution
    2017. 17 Nov A committee of the United Nations General Assembly condemned Iran by a vote of 83 to 30 with 68 abstentions for its continuing violations of human rights, the 30th such resolution since 1985.
  • The Third Committee of the General Assembly approved a five-page resolution expressing concern over illegal practices ranging from torture, poor prison conditions, arbitrary detention, and curbs on freedom of religion or belief, to state-endorsed discrimination against ethnic and religious minorities as well as women.
  • The resolution expressed specific concern over Iran’s treatment of members of the Bahá'í Faith and highlighted the economic and educational discrimination against them and called on Iran to release the more than 90 Bahá'ís who were unjustly held in Iranian prisons.
  • The resolution followed a strongly worded document from the UN Special Rapporteur on human rights in Iran, Asma Jahangir. Her 23-page report, released earlier this session, she catalogued a broad range of rights violations by Iran. [BWNS1221]
  • New York; United States United Nations; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; BWNS
    2017. 30 Nov Bahá'ís celebrated the bicentennial of the birth of Bahá'u'lláh in a ceremony in Baghdad attended by representatives from the Iraqi parliament, the Iraqi High Commission for Human Rights (IHCHR), the United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq, civil society as well as media activists.
  • This was considered the most prominent ceremony where Bahá'ís officially announced themselves for the first time in 47 years, as the Baathist Revolutionary Command Council issued Decree No. 105 in 1970 to ban Bahá'í activities. As a consequence, Bahá'í administrative institutions in Iraq were dissolved and any activity where Bahá'ís declared their religious identity was punishable by imprisonment.
  • During the proceedings they asked for support to rescind the law on prohibiting Bahá'í activity, which was still in effect despite the fact that the law contradicted the 2005 constitution, which guaranteed freedom of belief to all citizens.
  • Millions of Bahá'ís around the world celebrated the honorary bicentennial of the birth of Bahá'u'lláh on Oct. 21-22. Bahá'ís in Baghdad celebrated after one month of postponements given the security difficulties and challenges surrounding the ceremony. [Al-Monitor.com]
  • Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Birth of; Twin Holy days; Holy days; Centenaries; Websites; Persecution, Iraq; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    2017 5 Dec The release of Behrooz Tavakkoli, 66, from prison after serving a 10-year term. He was the third member of the Yaran to be released. [Iran Press Watch18533; Iran Press Watch18536; BWNS1225]
  • See Iran Press Watch February 1, 2009 for an interview with his son, Naeim.
  • See Iran Press Watch February 5th, 2009 for an article that appeared in McLean's Magazine two days earlier.
  • See Iran Press Watch 1387 for the text of a talk given by his son Naeim about his father's imprisonment on February 18, 2009 in Ottawa.
  • Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Court cases; BWNS
    2018 2 Jan The Specialized Criminal Court of the Houthi militia in Yemen sentenced 52 year-old detainee Hammed bin Haidara to death on the basis of his Bahá'í beliefs, allegedly for collaborating with Israel and forging official documents. His execution was to be a public event. He had been tortured and ill-treated in custody since being incarcerated in December of 2013. The judgment issued by the Houthi-controlled Criminal Court in Sana'a also confiscated the funds of Hammed bin Haidara and shut all Bahá'í centres in the country. The persecution of Bahá'ís in the area controlled by the Iranian-backed Houthi militia reflected the pattern of persecution in Iran.
  • The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) estimated that the number of Bahá'ís in Yemen was about 2,000 people in several Yemeni provinces. [Al Arabiya English 3 January, 2018, BIC 5 January, 2018, Amnesty International 28 April, 2017, Defending Bahá'í Rights facebook page]
  • "The Yemini Initiative for Defending Bahá'í Rights", a activist group launched in April of 2017, gained tens of thousands of followers. Prominent media groups in the Arab world have publicized the case. In addition to Mr bin Haidara there were six other Bahá'ís in prison in Sana'a. [BWNS1232]
  • Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Court cases; Court cases; Human rights; BWNS
    2018 18 Jan In response to growing interest in the persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran, a website was launched by the Bahá’í International Community providing a glimpse into several decades of discriminatory treatment against the Bahá’ís in that country. The website, named Archives of Bahá’í Persecution in Iran, made available, for the first time, thousands of official documents, reports, testimonials, and audio-visual material, revealing documentary evidence of years of relentless oppression. BWC; Iran Websites; Internet; Archives; Publications; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Bahai International Community
    2018 Feb Christian Solidarity Worldwide (CSW), an NGO working to promote the right to freedom of religion or belief of all and raising awareness about the persecution of Christians and other religious groups around the world, published a shocking report that revealed the influence of religious persecution on religious minority children. In its Faith and a Future report, CSW focused on the situation of religious minority children in educational settings in Burma, Iran, Mexico, Nigeria and Pakistan. The report scrutinized three common acts of persecution in the educational setting specifically bias, discrimination and abuse.
  • In Iran, bias can be seen across various educational materials in the country. School textbooks were focused on the Shi’a Muslim perspective and were silent on any other religions. This had an adverse effect on religious minorities. Children belonging to the Bahá'í religion were denied access to schools and often access to higher education. Bahá'í children that were lucky to be enrolled in schools were not free to learn or partake in their religious belief. According to the CSW report, a memorandum from the Iran government stated that Bahá'í children ‘should be enrolled in schools which have a strong and imposing religious [Shi’a] ideology.’ The situation for children partaking in higher education is no better. According to Article 3 of the Supreme Cultural Revolution Council’s student qualification regulations (1991), students were to be expelled if they were found to be Bahá'í. Only Muslim or students belonging to recognized religions were allowed to take the national enrolment exam. The report further alleged that some Bahá'í children had been subjected to physical abuse at schools. [Iran Press Watch 18838]
  • Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Human rights; Persecution, Education; Persecution, Education; Persecution; Human rights; Faith and a Future (CSW)
    2018 16 Feb The release of Saeid Rezaie, one of the seven members of the Yaran, the former leadership group of the Bahá'ís in Iran after completing his 10-year sentence. He was the fourth person from among the Yaran to be released. [BWNS1238] Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Court cases; BWNS
    2018 18 Feb In an open letter, twenty-five prominent international lawyers and human right activists appealed to Mohammad Javad Larijani, the Secretary-General of the High Council for Human Rights in Iran, to take steps to end the persecution of the Bahá'ís in Iran. In the letter they made reference to the new website, "Archives of the Bahá'í Persecution in Iran", stating that it “vividly demonstrates the depth and breadth of unjust, relentless, and systematic oppression against a religious minority”. [BICNews10Feb2018] Iran; Worldwide Human Rights; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Open letters; Websites; Publications
    2018 2 Feb Mr. Jamaloddin Khanjani, a former member of the Yaran, was transferred from Evin Prison to a hospital as per directions of the prison doctor after experiencing heart issues. He underwent surgery and, after spending a few days in the ICU, was transferred back to prison. Mr. Khanjani suffered from old age and multiple ailments. He had been in prison since May 18, 2008. Throughout his 10-year term he had not been allowed a single day of leave. Security and Judicial authorities did not even allow him to attend his wife’s funeral. His sentence was completed on March 22. [Iran Press Watch 18815] Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Court cases
    2018 15 Mar The Bahá'í cemetery in the city of Kerman was sealed by order of the Kerman judicial authorities and the burial of deceased Bahá'ís was prevented. [Iran Press Watch 19720] Kerman; Iran Persecution, denial of burial; Z****
    2018 16 Mar Mr. Jamaloddin Khanjani, at 85 the oldest member of the Yaran to be imprisoned, was released after serving his 10-year sentence. [BWNS1244] Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Court cases; BWNS
    2018 19 Mar The release of Mr. Vahid Tizfahm from the Rajaee Shahr Prison in Karaj after having completed his 10-year sentence. He was the sixth of the seven Bahá'í leaders to be released from prison.
  • At this time the 10 year term of the remaining prisoner, Mr Afif Naeimi, had two months yet to serve. Due to a serious illness he was released to the custody of his family while receiving medical treatment under the proviso that he would return to prison when deemed medically fit. [BWNS1245, Iran Press Watch, 29 March, 2018, Iran Press Watch 30 March, 2018]
  • For his personal history see Iran Watch 11557.
  • According to BIC, there were 97 Bahá'ís in prison as of 1 March. [Middle East Eye Tuesday 20 March 2018 12:39 UTC]
  • Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Human rights; Court cases; BWNS
    2018 23 Mar Sayyid Abdul-Malik Badreddin Al-Houthi, the Secretary-General of Yemen’s Shia political party Ansar Allah, accused the Bahá'ís of seeking to create disunity among Muslims. In a televised speech broadcast to a wide audience within and outside of Yemen, he vehemently vilified and denounced the Bahá'í Faith, further intensifying the ongoing persecution of theBahá'ís in that country. It was reported that the Houthis had also launched a social media campaign against Bahá'ís. "The Yemeni Initiative for Defending Bahá'í Rights", a human rights organization, said in a Facebook post that Al-Houthi’s incitement coincided with incitements against Ahmadis, Christians, intellectuals, scientists, and activists, as well as “a number of Islamic doctrines.” [Conatus News 28 March, 2018] Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Sayyid Abdul-Malik Badreddin Al-Houthi,
    2018 1 Apr The launch of a fierce campaign of hatred against members of the Bahá'í Faith, as well as other against peaceful religious minorities was proclaimed by Houthi activist Ahmad Ayed Ahmed in a public Tweet. The campaign coincided with the threats made by the leader of Ansaruallah, Abdul Malik al-Houthi, against the Bahá'ís, Ahmadis, Christians and a number of Islamic sects during his Friday speech on the occasion of Rajab Friday. This marked a clear call for a sectarian war against minorities and specifically the Bahá'í’s and parallelled the already ongoing systematic attack against Bahá'ís including arbitrary arrests, persecution, and torture. This indicated a new stage in Houthi persecution, until this time they had exercised a degree of “political dissimulation” to conceal their direct involvement, however, since al-Houthi’s public speech, Houthis were openly spearheading as well as escalating the systematic persecution of Bahá'ís. [Iran Press Watch 1 April, 2018] Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights
    2018 23 Apr Afif Naeimi, the seventh and last imprisoned member of the Yaran, returned to Rajaee Shahr Prison (also known as Gohardasht Prison) near Tehran at the end of his medical leave despite suffering from life-threatening ailments.
  • On May 1 the judiciary’s medical experts had ruled that the 57-year-old was too ill to be incarcerated.
  • Naeimi, who had completed his 10-year prison sentence, should have been released by that time but the judiciary extended his term by more than nine months—the period he was out of prison on furlough receiving medical treatment. He had hypertrophy, a condition where the heart muscle thickens and he was afflicted with Syncope disease, which causes temporary losses of consciousness. [Iran Press Watch 18975; Iran Press Watch 18975]
  • Tihran; Iran Yaran; Rajaei Shahr Prison; Prisons; Persecution, Iran
    2018 15 Sep Yemen’s Iran-backed Houthi authorities held a court hearing that targeted some 20 or 24 Bahá'ís, most in absentia, with a string of baseless charges which included espionage and apostasy. The charges were primarily made against individuals who held administrative roles in the Bahá'í community but extended to other Yemeni Bahá'ís including a teenage girl. In a subsequent hearing on September 29, the judge asked the prosecutor to publish the names of the accused in a newspaper and ordered their properties frozen. The judge in the case was Abdu Ismail Hassan Rajeh, the same judge who presided over Mr. Haydara's in January of 2018.
  • Subsequently the governments of Australia, Canada, and Germany issued a joint statement calling for the immediate release of all Bahá'í prisoners. [Global Affairs Canada Joint Statement on the Bahá'ís in Yemen; BWNS1285]
  • Sanaa; Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Court cases; Court cases; Human rights; BWNS
    2018 29 Sep In the second court hearing presided over by judge Abdu Ismail Hassan Rajeh, three additional Bahá'ís were sentenced to death. Five of the indicted Bahá'ís were in attendance at the court where the judge requested the prosecutor to publish the names of 19 others indicted in a newspaper, further endangering the lives of the Yemeni Bahá'í community. The judge also ordered that all of the properties belonging to the Bahá'ís indicted be frozen until the court verdict was issued. He furthermore objected to a request by the lawyer for the five to be released on bail and deferred any such decision to the next hearing to be held in a month and ten days.
  • The actions undertaken by the Houthis were condemned in two recent United Nations resolutions, one of which called for the immediate release of all Bahá'ís detained in Yemen due to their religious beliefs and to cease any harassment they are subjected to. [Iran Press Watch 4 October, 2018]
  • Sanaa; Yemen United Nations; Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights
    2018. 11 Oct Abdullah Al Olofi, member of the Bahá'í community in Yemen, was on his way to the market in Sana’a when suddenly he was surrounded by armed soldiers in a pick-up truck. He was blindfolded and taken away. [Counterpunch 9 November, 2018] Sana'a; Yemen Abdullah Al Olofi; Persecution, Yemen; Z****
    2018 24 Oct The body of a Bahá'í citizen, Shamsi Aghdasi Azamian, from Gilavand, a suburb of the city of Damavand was exhumed by unknown individuals several days after being buried in the Gilavand Bahá'í Cemetery and abandoned in the deserts of Jaban in the suburbs of that city. No individual or institution has accepted responsibility for this action, although security forces had told the Gilavand Bahá'ís earlier that they had no right to bury their deceased member in this place, and that they should perform burials only in Tehran. Her son refused to move the body but found that it had been taken to Tehran which is a distance of some two hours away. [Iran Press Watch 19720]
  • Subsequently, a group of progressive Muslims strongly condemned the “desecration and excavation of the grave of a Bahá'í compatriot.” In their statement the “systematic and deeply rooted denial of Bahá'í citizens’ rights” was denounced, and the violation of their citizenship rights was called a “hateful” act, “born of ignorant prejudice.” The signatories of the statement called for an open investigation and prosecution of perpetrators and facilitators. The message can be seen at Iran Press Watch19731.
  • Gilavand; Damavand; Iran Shamsi Aghdasi Azamian; Persecution, denial of burial; Z****
    2018 20 Dec The last imprisoned member of the former leadership body of the Bahá'í community in Iran was released from prison after serving a 10-year prison sentence. He was arrested on 14 May 2008 and charged with, among other false claims, espionage, propaganda against Iran, and the establishment of an illegal administration. Mr. Naeimi and the other six former members of the Yaran faced those charges more than a year after their arrest in a sham trial without any semblance of legal process. Authorities sentenced Mr. Naeimi and the other former members of the Yaran to 10 years in prison. While detained, Mr. Naeimi experienced severe health problems, often receiving inadequate treatment. Authorities made a cruel determination that the brief time Mr. Naeimi, a father of two from Tehran, spent in a hospital recovering would not be counted as part of his sentence. [BWNS1302] Tehran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Human rights; Persecution; Human rights
    2019. 08 Jan Imprisoned Bahá'í Hamed bin Haydara, 55, who had been sentenced to death, appeared in court in Sana'a for an unexpected hearing. Mr Haydara had been in Houthi detention in central Sana'a since December 2013. UN human rights representatives called for the rebels to overturn his death sentence.
  • In addition to Mr Haydara, five other Bahá'ís were held by the rebels in Sana'a, two of whom had been hidden since last April, They were Waleed Ayyash, 51, and Wael Al Al Ariki, 41, a human-rights activist, Sheikh Akram Ayyas, 37, had been in Houthi detention since October 2017, Badea Senai, 66, who was an urban planning adviser for the government, had been in prison since May 2017 and Qwan Mohammad Qadri, 45, who was arrested by the Houthis in August 2016. He is of Iranian descent and was an employee of the British Council in Yemen.
  • Under a prisoner exchange deal agreed at UN-led peace talks in Sweden in December, the government had repeatedly requested the release of all Bahá'í detainees held by the Houthi rebels. Each side submitted 8,000 names of Yemeni people they believe to be detained, dead or missing for the other side to locate and release as a confidence-building measure but the Iran-backed rebels have not responded to the government's request on the Bahá'í detainees. [The National 13JAN2019]
  • Yemen Hamed bin Haydara; Waleed Ayyash; Wael Al Al Ariki, 41; Sheikh Akram Ayyas; Badea Senai; Qwan Mohammad Qadri, Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Z****
    2019 7 Feb An estimated 5,760 members of the Bahá'í Faith had been charged (and some even executed) for 'membership of a sect' in Iran between 1979 and 2009 according to a report by press freedom organization Reporters Without Borders. The Paris-based watchdog based their report on leaked digital files. [i24NEWS 7 February, 2019] Iran Persecution, Iran
    2019. 2 Feb Hamed Bin Hayadara, who was facing a death sentence, appeared in a Sana’a court where he was charged with "foreign espionage" and "abandonment of religion". The judge adjourned the session until 12 March. He was among the six Bahá'ís detained in Sana'a. [SBSWorldNews] Sana'a; Yemen Hamed Bin Haydara; Persecution, Yemen; Z****

    from the main catalogue

    1. 1867 Petition from Bahá'ís in Shushtar, Iran, to the U.S. Congress, An, in World Order, 37:3 (2006). A petition sent by Bahá'ís in Persia in 1867 to the US Consulate general, seeking assistance in getting Baha'u'llah released from imposed exile. Includes introduction, prepared on behalf of the US NSA. [about]
    2. Activities in Iran in the 1960s: Documents from the US government, in Foreign Relations of the United States 1964-1968, Volume XXII: Iran (1964). State Dept., CIA, and Defense documents regarding activities in Iran in the 1960s. [about]
    3. Alavíyyih Khánum and 'Alí Ján, Mullá, by Mehraeen Mottahedin-Mavaddat and Moojan Momen, in The Bahá'í Encyclopedia (2009). On the couple, both distinguished Iranian teachers of the Bahá’í Faith; Mullá ‘Alí Ján was executed for his faith. [about]
    4. Alí Bastámí, Mullá, by Denis MacEoin, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 1 (1985). Very brief article, short enough to qualify as "fair use." [about]
    5. Ali Bastami, Mulla, by Moojan Momen (1995). [about]
    6. Alí Bastámí, Mullá, by Moojan Momen, in The Bahá'í Encyclopedia (2009). On the second disciple to recognize the Báb, and the first Bábí martyr. [about]
    7. American Dream, The: Stories from the Heart of Our Nation, by Dan Rather (2001). Commentary on Baha'i persecutions, by a famous TV news anchor. [about]
    8. Anti-Bahá'í Society, The, by Mehdi Abedi and Michael M.J. Fischer, in Debating Muslims: Cultural Dialogues in Postmodernity and Tradition (1990). Autobiographical stories of Abedi and his involvement in opposition to the Baha'i Faith in Iran with the "Anjoman-e Zedd-e Bahá'íyat." [about]
    9. Aqasi, Haji Mirza ('Abbas Iravani), by Sholeh A. Quinn, in The Bahá'í Encyclopedia (2009). On the prime minister of Iran under Muhammad Shah Qajar from 1835 to 1848, regarded by Bahá’ís as the Antichrist of the Bábí dispensation. [about]
    10. At Home in the Ghettos: Bahá'ís in Iran, by Leila Chamankhah, in MEI Occasional Paper, 5 (2010). Essay on the causes of distrust and estrangement between Shias and Baha'is. The term "ghetto" here refers to ideologically separated communities. (Offsite.) [about]
    11. August Forel Defends the Persecuted Persian Bahá'ís: 1925-1927, by John Paul Vader, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). History of Forel's involvement with the Faith. Includes correspondence from Shoghi Effendi. [about]
    12. Babi and Bahá'í community of Iran, The: A case of 'suspended genocide'?, by Moojan Momen, in Journal of Genocide Research, 7:2 (2005). A description of the four phases of the persecutions that the Babis and Baha’is in Iran have suffered (the Babis, the early Baha'is, during the Pahlavi dynasty, and following the 1979 Islamic revolution) and how they fit in with categories of genocide. [about]
    13. Babi Martyrs, Some, by John Walbridge, in Essays and Notes on Babi and Bahá'í History (2002). Includes bios of Shaykh Salih Karimi, Mulla Abd al-Karim Qazvini, the Farhadis of Qazvin, the Seven Martyrs of Tehran, and others. [about]
    14. Babi Uprising in Zanjan, The, by John Walbridge, in Iranian Studies, 29:3-4 (1996). [about]
    15. Babi-State Conflicts of 1848-1853, The, by Siyamak Zabihi-Moghaddam (2003). Overview of four conflicts between the Babis and the Qajar state: one at Shaykh Tabarsi in Mazandaran (1848), one in Zanjan (1850), and two in Nayriz (1850, 1853). [about]
    16. Badí` Khurasani, by Moojan Momen (1995). Short biography of Badi, a Baha'i renowned for his bravery and devotion. [about]
    17. Bahá'í Question, The: Cultural Cleansing in Iran, by Bahá'í International Community (2008). [about]
    18. Bahá'í Community of Iran, The: Patterns of Exile and Problems of Communication, by Moojan Momen, in Iranian Refugees and Exiles Since Khomeini, ed. Asghar Fathi (1991). [about]
    19. Bahá'í Faith in Iran, The, by John Walbridge, in Essays and Notes on Babi and Bahá'í History (2002). Includes essay "Three Clerics and a Prince of Isfahan: background to Bahá'u'lláh's Epistle to the Son of the Wolf" and bios of Ayatollah Khomeini and Zill al-Sultan. [about]
    20. Bahá'í Martyrdoms in Persia in the Year 1903 AD, by Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali (1917). A memoir by Abdu'l-Baha, erroneously credited to Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali, published in English as a 28-page book in 1904 and 1917, covering events from March-September 1903. [about]
    21. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 18 (1979-1983), in Bahá'í World (1986). [about]
    22. Bahá'í-Inspired Perspectives on Human Rights (2001). Articles by Kiser Barnes, Greg Duly, Cheshmak Farhoumand-Sims, Graham Hassall, Darren Hedley, Nazila Ghanea-Hercock, Chichi Layor, Michael Penn, Martha Schweitz, and Albert Lincoln. [about]
    23. Bahá'ís in Iran, The: Twenty Years of Repression, by Firuz Kazemzadeh, in Social Research, 67:2 (2000). Overview of the modern persecution of Baha'is in Iran. [about]
    24. Bahá'ís of the Caucasus, The, by Ayram Balci and Azer Jafarov, in Caucaz Europe News (2007). Three short articles: "Who are the Baha’is of the Caucasus?," "From Russian Tolerance to Soviet Repression," and "An Independent Azerbaijan." [about]
    25. Bahá'u'lláh and the Fourth Estate, by Roger White, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Baha'u'llah's response to the martyrdom of seven Baha'is in Yazd in May, 1891, and his relationship with the media. [about]
    26. Behind the Veil in Persia and Turkish Arabia: An Account of an Englishwoman's Eight Years' Residence Amongst the Women of the East, by M. E. Hume-Griffith (1909). Three-page history of the Bab and his execution, with reference to the persecutions in Yazd. [about]
    27. Brain Drain from Iran to the United States, The, by Akbar E. Torbat, in Middle East Journal, 56:2 (2002). Excerpt from article mentioning the exodus of Baha'i intelligentsia from Iran in 1979, and the Baha'is' attempt at underground education. [about]
    28. Brutal Slashing to Death of Dr Berjis, The, by Nasser Mohajer, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 17:1 (2011). English translation of an article in Persian about persecutions during the Pahlavi regime, and the death of a Baha'i doctor in 1950. [about]
    29. Bushires' British Residency Records (1837-50): The Appearance of Babism in Persia, by Syed Shakeel Ahmed, in Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society, 43:4 (1995). Records from Mirza 'Ali Akbar, a British agent in Shiraz, from 1837, 1839, and 1850, with possible early mentions of the Báb. [about]
    30. Christianity from a Bahá'í Perspective, by Robert Stockman (1998). Includes two topics: "A Baha'i approach to the Bible" and "Baha'i Writings on Jesus Christ." [about]
    31. Chronicle of `Abdu'l-Ahad Zanjani: Personal Reminiscences of the Insurrection at Zanjan, by Aqa Abdu'l-Ahad Zanjani, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 29 (1897). [about]
    32. Chronology of Persecutions of Babis and Baha'is (1998). [about]
    33. Cold Winter in North Africa, A: The Case of the Bahá'ís in Egypt, by Naseem Kourosh, in International Law News, 41:3 (2012). Contemporary history of the Egyptian government's refusal to issue identification cards to Baha'is. [about]
    34. Commentary on a Passage in the Epistle to the Son of the Wolf, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 14 (2013). Short biography of the Son of the Wolf, Aqa Najafi; summary of persecutions from 1874-1903; and the Epistle's references to Qayyumu’l-Asma and the Muslim dawn prayer for Ramadan. [about]
    35. Commentary on the Azhar's Statement regarding Bahá'ís and Bahá'ísm, by Mohsen Enayat, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 2:1 (1992). Response to an official 1986 pronouncement on the Faith by this prominent Egyptian university. [about]
    36. Conspiracies and Forgeries: The Attack upon the Bahá'í Community in Iran, by Moojan Momen, in Persian Heritage, 9:35 (2004). [about]
    37. Constructive Resilience: The Bahá'í Response to Oppression, by Michael Karlberg, in Peace and Change, 35:2 (2010). Example of the non-adversarial approach of the Baha'is in Iran toward social change, their collective response to oppression, and heuristic insights into the dynamics of peace. [about]
    38. Dawn over Mount Hira and Other Essays, by Marzieh Gail (1976). A collection of essays on various topics of interest to Baha'i studies and history. Most of these were first published in Star of the West and World Order between 1929 and 1971. [about]
    39. De la Córdoba Mora a los Bahá'ís de Irán, by Boris Handal Morales, in Revista Cultura y Religión, 4:1 (2010). Contrast between the contemporary Iranian Baha'i community and the treatment of religious minorities in Spain under the Moors. [about]
    40. Deaths of Two Iranian Bahá'ís, 1997, by Universal House of Justice and National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1997). Reports from the Universal House of Justice and the NSA of the United States on the deaths of Masha'llah Enayati and Shahram Reza'i. [about]
    41. Debunking the Myths: Conspiracy Theories on the Genesis and Mission of the Bahá'í Faith, by Adib Ma'sumian (2009). Response to Iranian conspiracy theories portraying the Baha'i Faith as a subversive political group, Zionist spies, affiliates of the secret police, British agents, etc. Available in English and Persian. Includes interview with author. [about]
    42. Dissimulation by Iranian Emmigrants, by Universal House of Justice and National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1985). Letters from the House and the US NSA concerning Baha'is who were able to escape Iran in 1997 by denying their Faith. [about]
    43. Document and Narrative Sources for the History of the Battle of Zanjan, by John Walbridge, in Occasional Papers in Shaykhi, Babi and Baha'i Studies, 2:4 (1998). Analysis of Muslim and Baha'i historical texts, including Dawnbreakers. [about]
    44. Dress for Mona, A: Abridged one-act version, by Mark Perry (2002). The story of Mona Mahmudnizhad. [about]
    45. Egypt, Bahá'í Community of, and Religious Identity, by Universal House of Justice (2006). Message to the Bahá'ís of Egypt in the wake of a Supreme Administrative Court decision in Cairo that upheld a discriminatory government policy regarding Bahá'ís and their identification cards. In both English and Arabic. [about]
    46. Empire for the Faithful, A Colony for the Dispossessed, An, by Robert D. Crews, in Cahiers d'Asie centrale, 17/18 (2009). History of the establishment of Tsarist power in Turkestan and the goal of earning support from their Muslim territories. Includes discussion of the Baha'i Faith in Ashkhabad and Russian/Baha'i mutual political interests in Persia and Turkey. (Offsite.) [about]
    47. Epistle to the Son of the Wolf (Lawh-i-Ibn-i-Dhib): Excerpts from Revelation of Baha'u'llah, by Adib Taherzadeh, in The Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh 1877-92, Vol. IV, Mazra'ih & Bahjí (1987). Excerpts from chapters 24-25, compiled for the Wilmette Institute. [about]
    48. European Bahá'í Youth Conference in Innsbruck, by Universal House of Justice (1983). Challenges facing European Baha'i Youth, followed by consolation to Baha'i youth in light of the 1983 martyrdoms of young Baha'is in Iran. [about]
    49. Events and Tragedies of Manshád, The, by Muhammad-Tahir Malmiri (2007). Events and martyrs from the uprisings in Manshad and Yazd, in 1903. A translation of Haji Málmírí's Tarikh Shuhaday Yazd, pp. 432-503. [about]
    50. Eyewitness Account of the Massacre of Bahá'ís in Nayriz, 1909, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Lights of Irfan, 14 (2013). Shaykh Dhakariyya's rebellion in Nayriz culminated in the martyrdom of nineteen Baha'is on Naw Ruz, 1909, the same day Abdu'l-Baha interred the remains of the Bab in the mausoleum on Mount Carmel. This is a history of both events. [about]
    51. Faith Denied, A: The Persecution of the Bahá'ís of Iran, by Iran Human Rights Documentation Center (2006). [about]
    52. Freedom of Religion on Trial in Morocco: The Nador Case, by Bahá'í International Community (1963). A formal response to a court case in Morocco from the previous month in which three Baha'is were convicted of conspiring to overthrow the government, subvert religion, and disrupt the public order. [about]
    53. From Moorish Cordova to the Bahá'ís of Iran: Islamic Tolerance and Intolerance, by Boris Handal Morales, in IDEA: A Journal of Social Issues, 12:1 (2007). Though Baha'is are persecuted in Iran, Muhammad taught understanding and respect towards religious minorities. Cordova, Spain is an example of historical tolerance where Muslims, Christians and Jews co-existed harmoniously under Islamic rule. [about]
    54. Hojjatieh (Hujjatiya), by Mahmoud Sadri, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 12 (2004). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
    55. Human Responses to Life Stress and Suffering, by Abdu'l-Missagh Ghadirian, in Bahá'í Studies Notebook, 3:1-2 (1983). Includes the experiences of Bahá'í martyrs. [about]
    56. Human Rights and Religious Faith, by Amnesty International, in dialogue magazine, 1:1 (1986). A statement from Amnesty International/USA, published by request. [about]
    57. Human Rights Watch on Persecution of Baha'is in Iran, by Reuters (1997). Two articles covering a report by Human Rights Watch on the treatment of the Baha'is and other minorities in Iran. [about]
    58. Iran: Suppression of religious freedom and persecution of religious minorities: case studies, by Thomas Schirrmacher, in International Journal of Religious Freedom, 2:1 (2009). The legal status of non-Shiite Muslims, Bahá'ís, and various Christian confessions in Iran. [about]
    59. Islam and Minorities: The Case of the Baha'is, by Christopher Buck, in Studies in Contemporary Islam, 5.1–2 (2003). Includes a Persian translation of the original article. [about]
    60. Islam: The Straight Path, by John L. Esposito (1988). Passing mention of political persecutions. [about]
    61. Kirk, Durbin Introduce Resolution Condemning Iran's Continued Persecution of Bahá'í Minority, by Mark Kirk and Dick Durbin (2013). In recognition of the five-year anniversary of imprisonment of Bahá'í leaders in Iran, senators meet with their family members and friends and introduce a joint resolution calling attention to this persecution. [about]
    62. Last Great Revolution, The: Turmoil and Transformation in Iran, by Robin Wright (2000). Mentions of the Baha'is not having political representation in Iran; brief summary of Baha'i persecutions (in footnote). [about]
    63. Martyrdom of Hájí Muhammad-Ridá: 19 Historical Accounts, by Ahang Rabbani, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 5 (2007). [about]
    64. Martyrdom of Haji Muhammad-Rida, The, by Mirza Abu'l-Fadl Gulpaygani (1890). Gulpaygani's firsthand account of the events leading up to and following the murder of Muhammad-Rida and the trial of his killers. [about]
    65. Martyrs of Manshad, by Siyyid Muhammad Tabíb Manshádi, in World Order, 28:1 (1996). Detailed eyewitness account of martyrdoms in Iran in 1903. [about]
    66. Massacres de Babis en Perse, by A.L.M. Nicolas (1936). On events in 1903 in Rasht, Isfahan, Yazd, and Tehran, written by a French consul in Iran. [about]
    67. Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
    68. Muhammad Musaddiq and the Bahá'ís, by Bahram Choubine (2010). Two essays: "Dr. Mohammad Mosaddegh and the Baha’is" (2009) and "Suppression of the Baha’is of Iran in 1955" (2008). [about]
    69. Mystery of Martyrdom, The, by Darius Shahrokh and Grace Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1992). Life stories of many early martyrs, and some explanations of what inspires self-sacrifice. [about]
    70. Nabil's Narrative: What History has Forgotten, by Soheila Vahdati (2008). An outsider's view of how Iranian media and society have glossed over or intentionally obscured Iran's treatment of 19th-century dissidents. [about]
    71. Nature of the Persecution against the Bahá'ís in Iran, by Bahá'í International Community (2010). [about]
    72. Nonpartisan Engagement in Public Affairs: A Critical Analysis of the Bahá'í Approach to Dialogue, Democracy, and Diplomatic Relations, by Bui Tyril (2009). How to address the dilemma of protesting human rights abuses in Iran while remaining non-partisan. Link to thesis (offsite). [about]
    73. Notes on the Babi and Bahá'í Religions in Russia and its territories, by Graham Hassall, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:3 (1993). Overview of the history of Babi and Baha'i communities in Russia and Russian territories. [about]
    74. Paranoid Style in Iranian Politics, The, by Ervand Abrahamian, in Khomeinism: Essays on the Islamic Republic (1993). A seminal essay which mentions contemporary Iranian attitudes toward the Baha'is. Includes three other mentions of the Baha'i Faith elsewhere in the book in which this essay was first published. [about]
    75. Persecution of the Bahá'í Community of Iran Under the Islamic Republic: Twenty Years of Intolerance, by Tahirih Tahririha-Danesh, in Converging Realities, 1:1 (2000). Description of some of the persecutions of the Baha'i community in Iran over the past twenty years. [about]
    76. Persecution of the Bahá'ís of Iran 1844-1984, by Douglas Martin, in Bahá'í Studies, 12/13 (1984). [about]
    77. Persecution of the Bahá'í Community of Iran: 1983-1986, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 19 (1983-1986) (1994). Lengthy survey of events, and life stories of participants. [about]
    78. Persecution of the Baha'is in Iran: 1979-1986: A 7-year campaign to eliminate a religious minority, by Bahá'í International Community (1986). Overview of activities and propaganda against Baha'is in Iran, and the responses of the United Nations. [about]
    79. Persecutions of Babis in 1888-1891 at Isfahan and Yazd, by Various, in Materials for the Study of the Babi Religion (1918). [about]
    80. Persian Bahá'í Women in the United States – Do They Feel Freer?, by Deborah Clark Vance (2003). [about]
    81. Personal Reminiscences of the Babi Insurrection at Zanjan in 1850, by E. G. Browne, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 29 (1897). [about]
    82. Petition from the Persian Reformers (1867). A petition sent by Baha'is in Baghdad and Shushtar, Iran, in 1867 to the US Consulate general, seeking assistance in getting Baha'u'llah released from imposed exile. [about]
    83. Political Economy of Modern Iran, The: Despotism and Pseudo-Modernism 1926-1979, by Homa Katouzian (1981). Mention of Sheikh Fazlollah Noori denouncing opponents as Babis; 1-page discussion (in footnotes) of the Bab as Mahdi and the Baha'i/Azali split; anti-Baha'i demonstrations following the murder of vice-consul Imbrie; Falsafi's attacks in 1953. [about]
    84. Preliminary Survey of the Bahá'í Community of Iran during the Nineteenth Century, A, by Moojan Momen, in Iran im 19. Jahrhundert und die Enstehung der Baha'i Religion, ed. Christoph Burgel and Isabel Schayani (1998). [about]
    85. Protocols of the Followers of Baha'u'llah: Anti-Bahá'í propaganda in Iran, by Abdu'l-Bab as-Sahyuni (1998). A sympathetic overview by "Freethought Mecca" of persecution of Baha'is, and activities of the Iranian government. [about]
    86. Psychological and Spiritual Dimensions of Persecution and Suffering, by Abdu'l-Missagh Ghadirian, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 6:3 (1994). [about]
    87. Quiet Exodus, A, by Geoffrey Cameron, in Literary Review of Canada (2013). Recent history of immigration law and practice in Canada, and the Baha'i community's involvement in governmental change. Includes addendum from Baha'i News Canada. [about]
    88. Recognition of the Next Manifestation of God, by Universal House of Justice (1997). On concerns that a future Universal House of Justice might not recognize the next Manifestation of God. [about]
    89. Releasing the Captive from His Chains, by Steven Scholl, in dialogue magazine, 1:1 (1986). Baha'i activism for human rights, and involvement with Amnesty International. Includes response by Drew Remignanti. [about]
    90. Religious Background of the 1979 Revolution in Iran, by Moojan Momen (1995). [about]
    91. Religious Minority Rights, by Christopher Buck, in Islamic World, ed. Andrew Rippin (2008). Discussion of three minority religions within Islamic states that have experienced persecution and hardships which attracted the attention of the international community: the Alevis, the Ahmadiyya, and Baha'is. [about]
    92. Resistance, Resilience and the Role of Narrative: Lessons from the Experiences of Iranian Bahá'í Women Prisoners, by Donna Hakimian, in Enquire (Electronic Nottinghom Quarterly for Ideas, Research, and Evaluation), 3 (2009). A study of Iranian Bahá’í women who were imprisoned in Iran following the 1979 revolution. Aspects of individual resistance and resilience are explored through life history interviews. Link to article (offsite). [about]
    93. Reunion with the Beloved: Poetry and Martyrdom (2004). Poetry by or in honor of early Babi and Baha'i martyrs. Includes foreword by Hushmand Fatheazam, and discussion of the concept of martyrdom, cultural issues, and history of persecutions. [about]
    94. Review of secondary literature in English on recent persecutions of Bahá'ís in Iran, by Nazila Ghanea-Hercock, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 7 (1997). Issues of misinformation, perceived favoritism under the Shah's regime, charges of espionage, and theological conflicts with Islam as motives for the persecution of Baha'is. [about]
    95. Right to Education, The: The Case of the Bahá'ís in Iran, by Tahirih Tahririha-Danesh, in Bahá'í-Inspired Perspectives on Human Rights (2001). [about]
    96. Sacrificing the Innocent: Suppression of Bahá'ís of Iran in 1955, by Bahram Choubine, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 15:1 (2008). Activities of Reza Shah, Ayatollah Borujirdi, Muhammad-Taqi Falsafi, Shaykh Hossein-Ali Montazeri, and SAVAK in the mid-20th century. [about]
    97. Searching for Bahá'í Identity, by Alexandra Leavy, in Journal of Cultural Studies of the Middle East and North Africa (2009). How do religious minorities adapt to the new nationalist identity of Iran post-1979? [about]
    98. Seizure of the Ishqabad Temple: Horace Holley Interview with State Department Officials (1939). Brief report of an interview with the secretary of the US National Spiritual Assembly on whether and why the Soviet government had appropriated the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar in Ashkhabad. [about]
    99. Service, Joy and Sacrifice: An Essay on Commentaries by 'Abdu'l-Bahá, by James B. Thomas, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 5 (2004). [about]
    100. Shah Abdu'llah and the Bahá'ís of Abadeh: An account of the persecution of Bahá'ís by followers of an imaginary Imam, by Aqa Mirza Qabil Abadeh'i (2001). Account of persecutions in Abadeh, Fars province, in 1901. [about]
    101. Shirin Ebadi: A collection of newspaper articles (2003). Articles about the winner of the 2003 Nobel Peace Prize who has championed the rights of the Baha'i community. [about]
    102. Significance of some Sites Mentioned in Memorials of the Faithful, by Foad Seddigh, in Lights of Irfan, 17 (2016). Abdu'l-Baha cited many villages and cities: the Most Great House in Baghdád; the ruins of Madaen which Baha'u'llah visited many times; Sheikh Tabarsi's tomb; the city of Mosul which is built on the ruins of the ancient city of Nineveh. [about]
    103. Situation of the Bahá'ís in Egypt, by Bahá'í International Community (2007). Oral Statement of the Bahá’í International Community to the Human Rights Council (6th Session of the Human Rights Council), Geneva, Switzerland. [about]
    104. Social Basis of the Bábí Upheavals in Iran (1848-1953): A Preliminary Analysis, by Moojan Momen, in International Journal of Middle East Studies, 15 (1983). In the mid-19th century, Iran was shaken by unrest caused by the Babi movement, which set off a chain of events that led on the one hand, to the constitutional movement in Iran, and on the other, to the establishment of the now world-wide Baha'i Faith. [about]
    105. Specter of Ideological Genocide, The: The Bahá'ís of Iran, by Friedrich W. Affolter, in War Crimes, Genocide & Crimes against Humanity, volume 1 (2005). History of the persecution and suppression of the Baha'is in Iran, through the lens of genocide studies. (Link to document, off-site.) [about]
    106. Stories from The Delight of Hearts: The Memoirs of Hájí Mírzá Haydar-'Alí, by Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali (1980). Anecdotes and history, a personal glimpse of the Middle East in the 19th century, as told by a follower of Baha'u'llah and companion of Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
    107. Tablet on the Debasement of Persia, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1923). Short comment by Abdu'l-Baha on the present debasement of Persia and its future glory, date unknown, shared by the Guardian in a letter to the US NSA in 1923. [about]
    108. Tablet to Sháh-Muhammad-Amín (Amínu'l-Bayán): Excerpt, by Bahá'u'lláh and Universal House of Justice (2003). Excerpt of a tablet revealed in honour of the first Trustee of Huquq’u’lláh, surnamed the “Trusted of the Bayán," with introductory letter from the House of Justice. [about]
    109. Tablet to Shaykh Kazim-i-Samandar II, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Eminent Bahá'ís in the Time of Bahá'u'lláh (1985). [about]
    110. Tablet to The Times of London, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh, by Adib Taherzadeh, Vol. 4 (1987). Short tablet calling newspapers to investigate the Truth. [about]
    111. Tablet to Varqá Regarding the Prince and King of Martyrs, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Eminent Bahá'ís in the Time of Bahá'u'lláh with some Historical Background (1985). Short tablet of tribute to the King and Beloved of the Martyrs, from H. M. Balyuzi's Eminent Bahá’ís. [about]
    112. Tablets of Pilgrimage (Suriy-i-Hajj): Wilmette Institute faculty notes, by Iraj Ayman (1999). [about]
    113. Taqiya Among Bábís and Bahá'ís, by Kamran Ekbal, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2012). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
    114. Taqiyyah (Dissimulation) in the Babi and Bahá'í Religions, by Sepehr Manuchehri, in Australian Bahá'í Studies, 2 (2000). The historical application of taqiyyah and instances where Bábís cooperated with the authorities in suppression of their peers, and the attitude of government officials towards these individuals. [about]
    115. Television Address of Iranian President Khatami, by Universal House of Justice and Bahá'í International Community (1998). Questions and answers about a historically unique television interview of Iranian President Khatami, given on CNN Wednesday, Jan 7, 1998. [about]
    116. Translation list. Index to talks, letters, and other items translated from Persian and Arabic to English by Ma'sumian; listed here for the sake of search engines and tagging. [about]
    117. Treatise on Persecution of Bahá'ís in 1903, by Abdu'l-Bahá, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 14 (2007). Events in Isfahán and Yazd from March-September 1903. [about]
    118. Trial of Mullá 'Alí Bastámí, The: A Combined Sunní-Shí'í Fatwá against The Báb, by Moojan Momen, in Iran: Journal of the British Institute for Persian Studies, 20 (1982). [about]
    119. Trial of The Yaran ("Friends in Iran"): Six Essays, by Christopher Buck, in Iran Press Watch (2009). Six essays by Buck from a legal perspective about the extended imprisonment of seven Baha'i leaders in Tehran. [about]
    120. Varqa and Son: The Heavenly Doves, by Darius Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1992). History of the family of Varqa, the only family with the distinction of having a grandfather, a father, and a son all named Hand of the Cause. [about]
    121. Varqá, Ali-Mohammad, by Iraj Ayman, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2017). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
    122. Violence with Impunity: Acts of aggression against Iran's Bahá'í community, by Bahá'í International Community (2013). Book-length report on the rising tide of violence directed against the Iranian Baha'i community 2005-20012, and the degree to which attackers enjoy impunity from prosecution or punishment. [about]
    123. Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, by Ahang Rabbani (1996). Multiple volumes of historical materials, translations, and original research. [about]
     
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