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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1845. 23 Jun The governor of Fárs, Husayn Khán, has Quddús, Mullá Sádiq-i-Khurásání, Mullá `Alí-Akbar-i-Ardistání and Mullá Abú-Tálib arrested, tortured and expelled from Shíráz. [B78; BBR69; BW18:380; DB145–8; GPB11, BBR1pxxviii]
  • Note: B78 says that Mullá Abú-Tálib was not among the group.
  • Note: DB146 note2 says "According to A. L. M. Nicolas’ “Siyyid ‘Alí-Muhammad dit le Báb” (footnote 175, p. 225), this meeting took place on August 6, 1845 A.D."
  • The London Times of November 1st and November 19, 1945 reports that this took place on the 23rd of June. [B76, BBR1p69,82]
  • The governor of Fárs, Hasayn Khán orders that the Báb be arrested and brought to Shíráz. [B84; BW18:380; DB148–50; GPB11]
  • Búshihr,
  • The Báb leaves Búshihr for Shíráz on an unknown date. [B 105]
Fars; Iran; Shiraz; Iran; Bushihr Governors; Husayn Khan; Quddus; Ismullahul-Asdaq (Mulla Sadiq Khurasani); Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Ardistani; Mulla Abu-Talib; Persecution; Husayn Khan
1848. 19 Dec The siege of the Shrine of Shaykh Tabarsí begins in earnest with the arrival of `Abdu'lláh Khán's forces. [BW18:381]
  • DB361 says this was 1 December.
  • There are about 12,000 troops. [MH245]
  • The supply of bread and water to the fort is cut. A rainfall replenishes the water supply and ruins the munitions of the government forces. Snow further hampers the army's movement. [DB361, MH243]
Iran Shaykh Tabarsi; Abdullah Khan; Armies; Persecution
1848. 21 Dec The Bábís, led by Quddús, make a mounted attack on the army. All of the officers are killed including `Abdu'lláh Khán. A number of soldiers are drowned as they retreat into the Tálár River. About 430 soldiers are killed but no Bábís; one Bábí is wounded. [BW18:381; DB361–3; MH243–6]
  • For the next 19 days the defenders dig a moat. [DB363]
Iran Shaykh Tabarsi; Quddus; Persecution; Abdullah Khan; Armies
1852 16 – 22 Aug A large number of Bábís are arrested in Tihrán and its environs following the attempt on the life of the Sháh. A number are executed. [BBR134–5; BW18:382]

Eighty–one, of whom 38 are leading members of the Bábí community, are thrown into the Síyáh-Chál. [BKG77]

Tihran; Iran Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Martyrs; Persecution; Imprisonments; Nasirid-Din Shah, Attempt on
1867. 11 Jan Three Bahá'ís are executed in Tabríz. Their arrest is precipitated by conflict and rivalry between the Azalís and the Bahá'ís. [BBR252–3; BKG237–8; BW18:382–3; RB2:61]
  • BW18:382 says this was 8 January.
Tabriz; Iran Executions; Azali Babis; Persecution
1867 Sep - Aug 1868 Persecutions begin anew in Ádharbáyján, Zanján, Níshápúr and Tihrán. [GPB178] Ádharbayjan; Zanjan; Nishapur; Tihran; Iran Persecution
1868. c. Jul Principal Bahá'ís in Baghdád are arrested by the Turkish authorities and exiled to Mosul and other places. RB2:333 indicates this took place towards the end of Bahá'u'lláh's stay in Adrianople.[BBR265; BKG247; CH129–30; RB2:333]
  • About 70 people are exiled. [GPB178; RB2:334] Estimate given by Hájí Mirzá Haydar-;Alí is 80. (DOH12]
  • See BKG184 for an illustration of Mosul.
  • See BKG183 for a description of the city.
  • See RB2:334 for the hardships suffered by the exiles.
  • They remained in Mosul for some 20 years until Bahá'u'lláh advised the community to disband (1885-1886). Their hardship was lessened by generous contributions from the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs. A charity fund was established, the first fund of that kind in any Bahá'í community. [RB2:334–6]
Baghdad; Mosul; Iraq Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Persecution; Charity; Funds
1869. Jul Badí` delivers the Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to the Sháh. He is tortured and executed. [BBRXXXIX; BKG300; BW18:383; RB3:184–6]
  • For details of his torture and martyrdom see BKG300, 304–7 and RB3:186–91.
  • For the account of the French Minister in Tihrán see BBR254–5.
  • He is given the title Fakhru'sh-Shuhadá' (Pride of Martyrs). [BKG300]
  • Shoghi Effendi listed him among the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW3:80–1]
  • For the effect on Bahá'u'lláh of the martyrdom of Badí` see BKG300 and GPB199.
  • See also BKG293–314; GPB199, RB3:172–203; TN589
Iran Badi (Mirza Buzurg-i-Khurasani); Apostles of Bahallah; Shahs; Martyrs; Persecution; Nasirid-Din Shah; Lawh-i-Sultan (Tablet to Nasirid-Din Shah)
1870 Násiri'd-Dín Sháh makes a pilgrimage to the shrines in Iraq. In preparation for his visit the Bahá'ís are rounded up, arrested and exiled. [BBR267; BBRSM90; BKG441]
  • See BKG441–3 for details of the exile.
Iraq; Iran Nasirid-Din Shah; Persecution
1876 Six Bahá'ís are arrested in Tihrán and imprisoned for three months and 17 days. [BW18:383] Tehran persecution
1883 Six Bahá'ís are arrested in Yazd and sent to Isfahán in chains. BW18:383]

Four Bahá'ís are arrested in Sarvistán, Fárs, and sent to Shíráz where they are bastinadoed. [BW18:383]

Yazd; Isfahan; Sarvistan; Fars; Shiraz persecution
1890 In the year Hájí Ákhúnd, Hájí Amín and Ibn-i-Abhar are arrested. Hájí Ákhúnd is imprisoned in Tihrán for two years; Hájí Amín is imprisoned in Qazvín for two years; and Ibn-i-Abhar is imprisoned in Tihrán for four years. [BW18:383–4]

Mírzá Mahmúd-i-Furúghí is arrested in Furúghí and sent to Mashhad. From there he is sent to Kalát-i-Nadírí where he is imprisoned for two years. [BW18:384]

In Mashhad a mob sets out to kill Mírzá Husayn-i-Bajistání but failing to find him they loot his shop. [BW18:384]

Akka; Haifa; Tihran; Qazvin; Kalat-i-Nadiri; Mashhad; Iran Haji Akhund; Haji Amin (Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani); Ibn-i-Abhar; Mahmud-i-Furughi, Mirza; Husayn-i-Bajistani, Mirza; Persecution; Persecution, Imprisonments
1891 after 19 May Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Lawh-i-Times, Tablet to the Times in which He recounts the circumstances of the martyrdoms in Yazd. [RB4:348–50, BW18p976-7, Essay by Mehdi Wolf] Bahji; London; United Kingdom The Times; Times of London; Newspapers; Media; Persecution
1891. 3 Oct Mullá Muhammad-`Alíy-i-Dihábádí is martyred, one of the Seven Martyrs of Yazd who were killed at the hands of Jalálu’d-Dawlih and Zillu’s-Sultan. [BW18:384] Yazd; Iran Mulla Muhammad-Aliy-i-Dihabadi; Jalalud-Dawlih; Zillus-Sultan; Seven Martyrs of Yazd; Martyrs; Persecution
1893. 17 Jun Áqá Muhammad-Ridáy-i-Muhammadábádí is killed by three men on the orders of two of the `ulamá of Yazd. [BW18:384; GPB296]
  • He is the first to suffer martyrdom in the ministry of `Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • See GPB296 for details of his martyrdom.
Yazd; Iran Aqa Muhammad-Riday-i-Muhammadabadi; Martyrs; Persecution
1894 In the year Green Acre is founded by Sarah J. Farmer in the aftermath of the World Parliament of Religions. [BBRSM:104; BFA2:142–7; BW5:29; GPB261; SBBH1:125]

Two Bahá'ís are arrested and bastinadoed in Níshápúr. One dies seven days later, the other two years later. [BW18:384]

Hájí Yárí, a Bahá'í of Jewish background, is arrested and imprisoned in Hamadán. [BW18:384]

A Bahá'í in Dastjirdán, Khurásán, Áqá `Abdu'l-Vahháb Mukhtárí, is beaten and expelled from the village. [BW18:384]

Bahá'ís in Fárán, Khurásán, are beaten and Bahá'í homes are looted. [BW18:384]

Green Acre; Eliot; Maine; United States; Nishapur; Hamadan; Dastjirdan; Khurasan; Faran; Khurasan Sarah Farmer; Haji Yari; Aqa Abdul-Vahhab Mukhtari; World Parliament of Religions; Persecution Green Acre Bahá'í School (Wikipedia)
1896 In the year Bahá'ís in Hisár, Khurásán are persecuted and imprisoned. [BW18:384] Hisár; ; Kh; urásán persecution
1896 In the year Áqá Siyyid Mihdíy-i-Yazdí is martyred in Tabríz. [BW18:384] Tabríz Áqa Siyyid Mihdiy-i-Yazdi; persecution
1896 In the year Mullá Hasan Khazá'í is arrested in Khúzistán. [BW18:384] Khúzistán persecution; Mulla Hasan Khaza'i
1896. Jun - Jul Several Bahá'ís are beaten and four are imprisoned in Turbat-i-Haydarí when two mujtahids stir up the townspeople against them. [BW18:384] Turbat-i-Haydari persecution
1897 In the year Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí, the first Bahá'í to have settled China, dies in Bombay on his way back to Shíráz. [PH24]

The Hands of the Cause appointed by Bahá'u'lláh are instructed by `Abdu'l-Bahá to gather to begin the consultations regarding the future organization of the Bahá'í community in Tihrán.

  • This gathering leads to the formation of the Central Spiritual Assembly of Tihrán in 1899. [BBD98, 114, 115; EB268]
Fifteen Bahá'ís are arrested in Saysán, Ádharbáyján. They are taken to Tabríz, imprisoned and fined. [BW18:384]

Three Bahá'ís are arrested in Nayríz on the orders of Áqá Najafí, the `Son of the Wolf'. [BW18:384]

The homes of several Bahá'ís in Hamadán are looted and ransacked after complaints by Jews of the town against Bahá'ís of Jewish background. [BW18:384]

China; Bombay; Tihran; Saysan; Ádharbayjan; Tabriz; Nayriz; Hamadan Haji Mirza Muhammad-Ali; Spiritual Assemblies; Aqa Najafi; Persecution; First Bahais by country or area
1898 Several Bahá'ís are arrested and imprisoned in Qazvín. [BW18:384]

Hájí Muhammad is set upon and killed in Hisár, Khurásán. BW18:384]

Qazvin; Hisar; Khurasan; Iran Persecution
1901 The Junaynih Garden northwest of Mazra`ih, owned by several Bahá'ís, is registered under the name of `Abdu'l-Bahá and a brother. [BBD 124]

William Hoar, one of the first Bahá'ís in America, is asked by `Abdu'l-Bahá to meet with the Persian ambassador in Washington to request justice for the Bahá'ís of Iran, thus marking the beginning of the efforts of the American Bahá'í community to alleviate the persecution of their brethren. [BFA2:51]

Junaynih Garden Junaynih Garden; William Hoar; Iranian persecution
1901 May Ghulám-Ridá is killed in Najafábád. [BW18:385] Najafábád Ghulam-Ri?a; Iranian persecution
1902 18 Mar Áqá Muhammad-Zamá-i-Sabbágh and Siyyid Ja`far are executed in Isfandábád and Abarqú, Fárs. Several Bahá'ís are expelled from the town and another Bahá'í killed. [BW18:385] Isfandabad and Abarqu; Fars; Aqa Muhammad-Zama-i-Sabbagh; Siyyid Ja`far; Iranian persecution
1903 May Upheaval at Rasht. [BBRXXX, 373; BW18:385]
  • See BW18:385 for a chronicle of events.
Upheaval at Isfahán. [BW18:385]
  • See BW18:385 for a chronicle of events.
  • The Bahá'ís take sanctuary at the Russian Consulate. [BBR376]
  • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR377–85.
Rasht; Isfahan Iranian persecution
1903 28 May A large mob gather outside the Russian Consulate in Isfahán and beat the Bahá'ís as they leave. One Bahá'í dies. [BW18:385] Isfahan Iranian persecution
1903 8 Jun Bahá'ís in Maláyir, Hamadán, are attacked, beaten and imprisoned. Two are killed. [BW18:385] Malayir; Hamadan Iranian persecution
1903 Jun-Jul The Yazd Upheaval. [BBRXXX]
  • See BW18:385–6 for a chronicle of events.
  • This is said to be one of the bloodiest events to take place during the ministry of `Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • For Western responses see BBR385–98 and SBBH1:67.
  • For details of the martyrdom of Hájí Mírzáy-i-Halabí-Sáz during the upheaval see RB2:358–66.
  • For the effect on Bahá'ís of Zoroastrian background see SBBH2:80.
Yazd Iranian persecution; Haji Mirzay-i-Halabi-Saz
1903 Sep At the request of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, Hájí Mírzá Hadar-'Alí writes Bahá'í Martyrdoms in Persia in the year 1903 AD. It can be found in the Bahá'í-Library. Yazd; Isfahan; Iran Persecution; Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali
1904 The publication of Bahá'í Martyrdoms in Persia in the Year 1903 AD by Hájí Mírzá Haydar-Alí Isfaháni and translated by Youness Afroukhteh. A second edition was published in 1917. Iran Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali; Persecution; Martyrs
1905 c. 30 Mar Hájí Kalb-`Alí is shot and killed in Najafábád. [BW18:386] Najafabad Haji Kalb-`Ali; Iranian persecution
1906 summer Bahá'ís in Sangsar, Khurásán, are persecuted such that they take to the hills. [BW18:386] Sangsar; Khurásán Iranian persecution
1906 Oct-Nov Several Bahá'ís in Sangsar and Shahmírzád are killed or injured by bullets; six Bahá'ís are arrested. [BW18:386] Sangsar and Shahmírzád Iranian persecution
1907 Hájar, an elderly Bahá'í woman, is shot dead in Nayríz. [BW18:386] Nayríz; Iran persecution
1907 19 Jan The accession of Muhammad-`Alí Sháh to the throne of Iran. [BBR354, 482]
  • The Bahá'í community received some measure of protection under this regime. [BBRSM:97–8]
Iran Muhammad-Ali Shah; Shahs; Shahs, Throne changes; Qajar dynasty; History (general); Persecution
1907 25 Apr Karbalá'í Sádiq is martyred in Tabríz. [BW18:386] Tabriz Karbalai Sadiq; Persecution
1908 `Alí Ádharí is martyred in Kirmán. [BW18:386]

Kirman; Iran Persecution; Martyrs
1909 Mar Eighteen or nineteen Bahá'ís are brutally assassinated in Nayríz when the Constitutionalists take control of the city. [BBR369; BW18:386; DH71, 138; GPB298; RB1:268] Nayriz; Iran Constitutionalists; Persecution; Murders
1909 Mar–Apr Bahá'ís of Námiq, Khurásán, are attacked and Kad-khudá Ismá'íl is killed. [BW18:386] Námiq; Khurásán; Kad-khudá Kad-khuda Isma'il; Iranian persecution
1909 22 Apr Three Bahá'ís are killed in Hisár, Khurásán, and their wives seriously injured. [BW18:386] Hisar; Khurasan Iranian persecution
1909 28 Jul Bahá'ís in Námiq, Khurásán, are killed. [BW18:386] Namiq; Khurasan Iranian persecution
1909 8 Nov Hájí Haydar, a leading Bahá'í of Najafábád, is shot and killed at Isfahán. [BBR432]
  • BRXXX and BW18:387 say this occurred on 5 November.
  • For Western accounts of the incident see BRR432–4.
Isfahan; Iran Persecution
1910 20 Sep Muhammad-Ja`far-i-Sabbágh is martyred at Najafábád. [BW18:387] Najafabad Muhammad-Ja`far-i-Sabbagh; Iranian persecution
1911 Mírzá Ibráhím Khán, Ibtiháju'l-Mulk is killed near Rasht. [BW18:387] Rasht; Mirza Ibrahim Khan; Ibtihaju'l-Mulk; persecution
1911 22 Aug - 3 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá took up residence at Thonon-les-Bains on Lake Leman (Lake Geneva). [AB140; GPB280; SBR219]
  • While there He encountered Zillu's-Sultán, the eldest son of the Sháh of the time, Násirid-Dín Sháh. It was he who had ratified the execution of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs and at least 100 others. The whole family was in exile in Geneva at this time. 'Abdu'l-Bahá was very courteous to this man who had been such an inveterate enemy of the Cause. [DJT172] .
  • The Master sent for Juliet Thompson who had been waiting in London for His permission to join Him.
  • During His stay he had a visit from Annie Boylan, a member of the New York community that was experiencing disharmony. Unaware of Bahá'í election procedures, a group that was unhappy with the disunity and ineffectiveness of the Council had organized a vote to be rid of several of its Council members. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had written to the community a short time before recommending that the Council be expanded from 9 to 27 members so that all factions could be represented. He also recommended that women be included on the Council and that the name be changed to "the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of New York". This apparently addressed the problem of disunity because the New York community went on to contribute significantly to the progress of the Faith on a national level. [DJT181, BFA2p338]
  • Horace Holley, who lived at Quattro Torri, Siena, Italy at the time, along with his wife Bertha Herbert and baby daughter Hertha, visited 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the 29th and 30th of August. Please see his Religion for Mankind p 232-237 for a pen portrait of 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • He met with Elizabeth Stewart and Lilian Kappes who were on their way to Tehran. [find reference]
  • It would appear that He returned to Marseilles and travelled to London by sea. [SCU22-23]
Thonon-les-Bains; Lake Leman; Marseilles; France; Switzerland; Italy; London; United Kingdom; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; Unity; Zillus-Sultan; Persecution; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Juliet Thompson; Horace Holley; Elizabeth Stewart; Lilian Kappes
1912 Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí, , and his wife are killed in Bárfurúsh, Mázandarán. [BW18:387] Bárfurúsh; Mázandarán persecution
1912 3 Jan In Sárí, Mázandarán, a mob attacks houses of Bahá'ís and four Bahá'ís are killed; a few days later another Bahá'í is killed. [BW18:387] Sari; Mazandaran Iranian persecution
1912 4 Feb Two Bahá'ís are killed in Máhfurúzak, Mázandarán. [BW18:387] Mahfuruzak; Mazandaran Iranian persecution
1914 27 Aug Áqá Mírzá Yúsif-i-Qá'iní is killed in Mashhad. [BW18:387] Mashhad Aqa Mirza Yusif-i-Qa'ini; Iranian persecution
1915 14 Mar Shaykh ‘Alí Akbar-i-Qúchání is shot to death in Mashhad. Considerable anti-Bahá’í agitation follows and many Bahá’ís are forced to seek sanctuary. Three hundred people are arrested. [BBRXXX; BW18:387; GPB298–9] Mashhad Shaykh ‘Alí Akbar-i-Qúchání; Iranian persecution
1916 22 Feb In Sultánábád Mírzá `Alí-Akbar, his wife, his sister-in-law (aged 12) and their four children (aged from 46 days to 11 years) are killed by having their throats cut. [BW18:387; GPB299]
  • See DB610 for picture.
Sultanabad Mirza `Ali-Akbar; Iranian persecution
1916 28 Jul Mullá Nasru'lláh-i-Shahmírzádí is martyred at Sangsar, Khurásán. [BW18:387] Sangsar; Khurasan Mulla Nasru'llah-i-Shahmirzadi; Iranian persecution
1917 17 Feb A mob in Najafábád disinters the bodies from two Bahá'í graves. A general agitation against Bahá'ís follows. The Bahá'ís are boycotted in the bazaar and public baths and 32 are arrested. [BW18:387] Najafabad Iranian persecution
1917 2 May The martyrdom of Mírzá Muhammad-i-Bulúr-Furúsh in Yazd. [BBRXXX, BBR443] Yazd Mirza Muhammad-i-Bulur-Furush; Iranian persecution
1918 15 Mar Áqá Mírzá Javád, I`timádu't-Tujjár, is shot in Bandar Jaz and the houses of the Bahá'ís are looted, causing the death of Javád's 14-year-old nephew. [BW18:387] Bandar Jaz; Iran; Áqa Mirza Javad; I`timadu't-Tujjar; Iranian persecution
1920 21 May The execution at Sultánábád of Hájí `Arab by hanging. [BBRXXX, 444-6; BW18:387] Sultanabad Haji `Arab; Iranian persecution
1920 Sep The tombs of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs in Isfahán are demolished by a mob. [BBR437]
  • For Western responses see BBR437-9.
Isfahan; Iran Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Persecution; Cemeteries and graves
1921 23 Jan Mírzá Ya`qúb-i-Muttahidih is assassinated in Kirmánsháh. [BBRXXX, 446-50; BW18:387; GPB299]
  • He is the last to lay down his life in the ministry of `Abdu'l-Bahá. GPB299]
Kirmánsháh Mirza Ya`qub-i-Muttahidih; Iranian persecution; `Abdu'l-Baha
1921 Jul-Aug Bahá'ís of Zoroastrian background are harassed by the Zoroastrian agent in Qum. [BW18:388] Qum Iranian persecution
1921 20 Oct Áqá Siyyid Mustafá Tabátabá'í is poisoned in Sangsar. Continual agitation prevents the burial of the body for several days. [BW18:388] Sangsar; Iran; Áqa Siyyid Mustafa Tabataba'i; Iranian persecution
1924 9 Mar Two Bahá'ís are imprisoned for several months in Marághih, Iran, after two mullás stir up trouble against the Bahá'ís. [BW18:388] Maraghih; Iran Iranian persecution
1924 21-28 Mar Daily attacks on Bahá'ís and their shops in Mashhad culminate in the expulsion from the town of áqá Gulkání and other Bahá'ís. [BW13:388] Mashhad aqa Gulkani; Iranian persecution
1924 2 Apr Bahá'ís in Turbat-i-Haydarí, Iran, are attacked; some are arrested and imprisoned and others are forced to leave the town permanently. [BW18:388] Turbat-i-Haydari; Iran Iranian persecution
1924 5 Apr Shaykh `Abdu'l-Majíd is beaten to death in Turshíz, Khurásán, Iran. [BW18:388] Turshiz; Khurasan; Iran Shaykh `Abdu'l-Majid; Iranian persecution
1924 22 Jun áqá Husayn-`Alí is martyred in Firúzábád, Fárs, Iran. [BW18:388] Firuzabad; Fars; Iran aqa Husayn-`Ali; Iranian persecution
1926 Opposition to the Faith begins in Russia. [BW3:35; BBR473]
  • For details see BW3:34–43.
Russia religious persecution
1926 For most of the year severe restrictions are placed on the Bahá’ís of Marághih in Ádharbáyján, the governor of the district effectively suspending all constitutional and civil rights of the Bahá’í community. [BBR472; BW18:388]
  • For a list of deprivations see BBR473.
Marághih; Ádharbáyján religious persecution
1926 7 Apr Eight or perhaps as many as twelve Bahá’ís are beaten to death in Jahrum, Fárs, Iran. [BW18:388, SETPE1p128, GBF36, UD49-53]
  • It is first reported that 12 Bahá’ís are killed. [PP98]
  • For the response of Shoghi Effendi see BA104–6, 106–8; GBF36–7; PP98–9; and UD48–53.
  • For Western accounts and responses see BBR465–72.
  • "The attacks were apparently instigated by a majlis representative who sought to gain favour with anti-Baha’i religious leaders in order to secure reelection. The Baha’is complained to the local and national authorities to obtain redress but were denied. This was the last incident of mass killing of Baha’is during Reza Shah’s reign." [Religious Contentions in Modern Iran,1881-1941 pg 229-230 by Mina Yazdani]
Jahrum; Fárs; Iran religious persecution
1926 29 Jun Three Bahá’ís are martyred in Zavárih, near Isfahán. [BW18:388] Zavárih; Iran religious persecution
1927 25 Mar Áqá ‘Abdu’l-‘A‘zím, Amínu’l-‘Ulamá’ is martyred in Ardibíl, Iran, by the order of the mujtahid. [BW18:388] Ardibil; Iran Martyrs; Persecution
1927 19 Jun Karbalá’í Asadu’lláh-i-Saqat-furúsh is martyred in Kirmán, Iran. [BW18:388] Kirman; Iran Martyrs; Persecution
1928 Apr The Soviet authorities abrogate the constitution of the Spiritual Assembly of ‘Ishqábád (now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan) and the assembly is dissolved. [BW3:37, BW8p88, SETPE1p154]
  • Bahá’í schools and libraries are closed. [BBRSM173]
  • Not long after, the government orders that all religious buildings in the Soviet Union are the property of the government and the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár is expropriated and leased back to the Bahá’ís. [BBD122; BBR473; BBRSM161; BW3:37]
  • For the history of the persecution of the Bahá’ís in the Soviet Union see BBR473 and BW3:34–43.
  • PP364–5 says it was 1929.
‘Ishqábád religious persecution; Mashriqu’l-Adhkar; Ishqabad
1928 Oct A newspaper campaign of opposition to the Bahá’ís begins in Turkey. [BBR474]
  • Several Bahá’ís are arrested as a result and a close investigation of Bahá’í affairs in Turkey is made by the judiciary and the police. [BBR474]
Turkey religious persecution
1928 13 Dec The case arising out of the newspaper persecution of the Bahá’ís of Turkey is brought before a criminal tribunal. [PP316]
  • The Bahá’ís are able to make known the history and tenets of the Faith. [PP316–17; UD78–9]
Turkey religious persecution
1932 The Iranian government introduces measures against the Bahá’ís throughout Iran. Restrictions are placed on the import of Bahá’í books and periodicals by post and on the publication of Bahá’í literature. Bahá’í marriages are not recognized. [BW18:388] Iran religious persecution
1932 Nov A number of Bahá’ís are arrested in Adana, Turkey. [BBR474] Adana; Turkey religious persecution
1932 2 Dec By now there are 15 Bahá’ís under arrest in Adana, Turkey. [BBR474] Adana; Turkey religious persecution
1933 Bahá’ís in Gulpáygán, Iran, are refused admission to the public baths. Shaykh Ja‘far Hidáyat is beaten and expelled from the town. [BW18:388] Gulpáygán; Iran Shaykh Ja‘far Hidayat; religious persecution
1933 The Tavakkul Bahá’í School in Qazvín, Iran, is closed. [BW18:388] Qazvín; Iran Tavakkul Baha’i School; religious persecution
1933 6 Feb By this date there are about 50 Bahá’ís under arrest in Adana, Turkey. [BBR475; PP317] Adana; Turkey religious persecution
1933 End Mar The 50 Bahá’ís imprisoned in Adana are released. [BBR475] Adana; Turkey religious persecution
1934 The government of Iran takes several measures against the Bahá’ís throughout the country. [BW18:389]
  • Nineteen Bahá’í schools are closed in Káshán, Qazvín, Yazd, Najafábád, Ábádih and elsewhere. [ARG109]
  • Bahá’í meetings are forbidden in many towns, including Tihrán, Mashhad, Sabzivár, Qazvín and Arák.
  • Bahá’ís centres in Káshán, Hamadán and Záhidán are closed by the authorities.
  • Some Bahá’í government employees are dismissed.
  • Some Bahá’í military personnel are stripped of their rank and imprisoned.
  • Bahá’ís in many places are harassed over the filling-in of marriage certificates, census forms and other legal documents.
Iran; Káshán; Qazvín; Yazd; Najafábád; Ábádih; Tihrán; Mashhad; Sabzivár; Arák; Hamadán; Záhidán religious persecution; Tarbiyat School
1934 6 Dec The Tarbíyat Bahá’í Schools in Tihrán and all other Bahá'í schools across the country are closed by order of the Minister of Education (headed by 'Ali-Asghar-i-Hikmat, a well-known Azali) when they fail to open on a holy day. [BBD221–2; BW18:389; CB312; GPB363; PP308; RoB4p313]
  • For Western accounts of the episode see BBR475–9.
Tihran Tarbiyat Bahai Schools; Bahai schools; Holy days; Persecution
1935 The persecution against the Bahá’ís in Iran continues. [BW18:389]
  • Meetings in the Bahá’í Centre in Tihrán are banned.
  • A number of Bahá’ís in Bandar Sháh are arrested and imprisoned.
  • The secretary of the Local Spiritual Assembly of Arák is arrested.
  • Bahá’ís in Qazvín are arrested and harassed.
  • A Bahá’í in Záhidán is arrested.
Iran; Tihrán; Bandar Sháh; Arák; Qazví; Záhidán; religious persecution; LSA
1936 Jun The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues. [BW18:389]
  • All Bahá’í meetings are banned throughout Iran.
  • Several local Bahá’í centres are attacked or closed down.
  • Bahá’ís in Bandar Sháh are interrogated by the police for closing their shops on Bahá’í holy days.
Iran; Bandar Shah Persecution; Holy days
1937 The persecution of the Bahá’ís in Iran continues throughout the country. [BW18:389]
  • Many Bahá’ís employed in the police force, army and government departments are dismissed.
  • Six members of the Local Spiritual Assembly of Ahváz are arrested.
  • Bahá’ís closing their shops on Bahá’í holy days in Bandar Sháh are arrested.
  • All Bahá’í meetings in Kirmánsháh, Bírjand, Arák and other towns are prohibited by police order.
  • Five Bahá’í families are attacked in their homes in Cham-tang, near Hindíyán. They are severely beaten and forced to leave the village.
Iran; Ahváz; Bandar Sháh; Kirmánsháh; Bírjand; Arák; Cham-tang religious persecution; LSA; holy days
1937 May Several prominent Bahá’ís are arrested in Yazd. [BW18:389]
  • They are imprisoned in Tihrán for four years; one dies in prison. [BW18:389]
Yazd; Tihrán; Iran; religious persecution
1937 May All Bahá’í activities and institutions are banned in Germany by order of the Gestapo owing to the Faith’s ‘international and pacifist teachings’. [BBRSM185]
  • PP305 says this was June.
  • Bahá’í books, archives and records are confiscated and a number of Bahá’ís are later tried and imprisoned. [BBRSM185]
Germany religious persecution
1937 Jul Nine Bahá’ís are imprisoned in Sangsar, Khurásán, Iran, for closing their shops on Bahá’í holy days. [BW18:389]
  • They are imprisoned for two months. [BW18:389]
Sangsar; Khurásán; Iran religious persecution; holy days
1938 Persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the country. [BW18:389]
  • Bahá’ís marrying without a Muslim ceremony are investigated, including several hundred in Tihrán alone. Most are imprisoned pending trial and are imprisoned for six to eight months afterwards and fined.
  • Bahá’í meetings in Kirmánsháh, Záhidán, Mashhad and other towns are harassed by the police.
Iran; Tihrán; Kirmánsháh; Záhidán; Mashhad religious persecution
1940 (in the decade) Bahá’ís in Argentina face opposition throughout the decade with both the police and nationalists intimidating them. Argentina religious persecution
1941 Shaykh Kázim is martyred in Bunáb, Ádharbáyján. [BW18:389] Bunáb; Ádharbáyján Shaykh Kazim; martyr; religious persecution
1941 Jan Nine Bahá’ís are arrested in Sangsar, Khurásán, Iran, and banished to other towns for closing their shops on Bahá’í holy days. BW18:389] Sangsar; Khurásán; Iran religious persecution; holy days
1941 18 Oct Four members of a Bahá’í family are killed and several other family members severely beaten in an attack on their home by an armed mob in Panbih-Chúlih, near Sárí, Iran. [BW18:389] Panbih-Chúlih; Iran religious persecution
1942 The House of the Báb in Shíráz is attacked and damaged by fire. [BBD108; BW18:389] Shiraz; Iran House of the Bab (Shiraz); Persecution
1942 In the village of Daidanaw eleven Bahá'ís were slain. Records, books and documents that had been transferred to Daidanaw from the headquarters in Mandalay and Rangoon were lost when the headquarters building was destroyed by file. [BW11]p33] Daidanaw; Mandalay; Rangoon; Burma persecution
1942 13 Feb Ustád Habíbu’lláh Mu‘ammarí is martyred in Nayríz, Iran. [BW18:389] Nayriz; Iran Martyr; Persecution
1944 12 May Bahá’ís are persecuted at Ábádih, Iran. The Bahá’í centre is attacked by a mob of four thousand, the building is looted and destroyed and several Bahá’ís badly beaten. [BW18:389]
  • For Western accounts see BBR479.
Ábádih; Iran religious persecution
1944 8 Aug Three Bahá’ís are murdered in Sháhrúd, Iran, after three weeks of anti-Bahá’í agitation. Many Bahá’í houses are attacked and looted. [BW18:389] Sháhrúd; Iran religious persecution
1944 after Aug Following the murder of Bahá’ís at Sháhrúd, Iran, and the widespread publicity on the outcome of the trial, there is an upsurge in persecution of Bahá’ís throughout Iran. [BW18:389]
  • At Ábádih Bahá’ís are beaten and their houses sacked. [BW18:389]
  • The Bahá’í centre at Bandar Jaz is attacked. [BW18:389]
  • Two Bahá’ís are knifed at Bandar Sháh. The attackers are set free and attack a further three Bahá’ís, leaving one an invalid. [BW18:390]
  • Bahá’ís, including women and children, are attacked and beaten at Bushrúyih, their homes and shops looted and burned and the Bahá’í cemetery desecrated. [BW18:390]
  • Bahá’í houses are attacked and looted at Fárán, Káshán and Ná’in. [BW13:390]
  • Bahá’í houses are set on fire in Gulpáygán and Zábul. [BW18:390]
  • Bahá’ís are driven from town in Bujnúrd, Gunábád and Tabas. [BW18:390]
  • The Bahá’í cemetery at Mahmúdábád is desecrated.
  • Bahá’ís are beaten at Miyán-du-áb, Rafsanján, Sangsar and Sírján. [BW18:390]
  • Bahá’ís are stoned at Qasr-i-Shírín. [BW18:390]
Ábádih; Bandar Jaz; Bandar Sháh; Bushrúyih; Fárán; Káshán; Ná’in; Gulpáygán; Zábul; Bujnúrd; Gunábád; Tabas; Mahmúdábád; Miyán-du-áb; Rafsanján; Sangsar; Sírján; Qasr-i-Shírín religious persecution
1945 Bahá’ís throughout Iran are dismissed from National Teacher Training Colleges by the National Board of Education. [BW18:390] Iran religious persecution
1947 4 Jul ‘Abbás Sháhídzádih is martyred in Sháhí, Mázandarán, Iran and a fellow Baha’i, Habib Allah Hushmand, is murdered in Sarvistan. [BW18:390, Towards a History of Iran’s Baha’i Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.] Shahi; Mazandaran; Iran Martyrs; Persecution
1948 The Bahá’í centre in Tihrán is attacked by a mob incited by Áyatu’lláh Káshání. [BW18:390] Tihran; Iran Ayatullah Kashani; Persecution; Haziratul-Quds; Destruction
1948 The Bahá’í centre in Yazd, Iran, is attacked by a mob incited by Shaykh Khalisízádih. [BW18:390] Yazd; Iran Shaykh Khalisizadih; religious persecution
1948 A Bahá’í is killed after an attack on his home at Chálih-Zamín, Iran. [BW18:390] Chálih-Zamín; Iran religious persecution
1948 11 Jan Habíbu’lláh Húshmand is martyred in Sarvistán, Iran. [BW18:390] Sarvistán; Iran Habíbu’lláh Húshmand; martyr; religious persecution
1949 A Bahá’í in Kamshatti, near Calcutta, is martyred by a religious fanatic. [BW11:34] Calcutta martyr; religious persecution
1950 (in the decade) In Iran, the Hujjatiyya Society is started by Shaykh Mahmúd Halabí to persecute and harass the Bahá’ís. [s1296]
  • During the Pahlaví era it confined itself to this end and was called the Anti-Bahá’í Society. [SI296]
Iran Hujjatiyya Society; Shaykh Mahmud Halabi; Anti-Baha’i Society; religious persecution
1950 Ghulam Reza Akhzari and his son Nur Allah are killed near Yazd and Bahram Rawhani is murdered in Taft. [Towards a History of Iran’s Baha’i Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.] Yazd; Taft; persecution
1950 3 Feb Dr Sulaymán Birgís is martyred in Káshán, Iran. [BW18:390]
  • For his obituary see BW12:684–5.
Káshán; Iran Sulaymán Birgís; martyr; religious persecution
1950 Sep - Oct Four Bahá’ís in Iran are arrested on trumped-up charges. The trial lasts until 1954, when the accused are given prison sentences. [BW18:390] Iran religious persecution
1951 Muhammad Kayvani is murdered in Najafabad. [Towards a History of Iran’s Baha’i Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.] Najafabad persecution; martyrdom
1951 Throughout Iran, the government introduces repressive measures against Bahá’ís. [BW18:390]
  • Bahá’ís are dismissed from government positions. [BW18:390]
  • Fifty Bahá’í employees of the public hospital in Mashhad are dismissed. [BW18:390]
Iran; Mashhad religious persecution
1951 Bahá’ís in Árán, Káshán, Iran, are attacked, and one dies. [BW18:390] Árán; Káshán; Iran religious persecution
1951 12 Mar Bahá’ís in Taft, Iran, are attacked and one dies. [BW18:390] Taft; Iran religious persecution
1951 Jun Bahá’ís in Fárán, Iran, are attacked and several houses burned. [BW18:390] Fárán; Iran religious persecution
1952 Bahá’ís and their homes are attacked in Najafábád, Iran, and several houses are set on fire. [BW18:390] Najafábád; Iran religious persecution
1953 Bahá’ís and their houses are attacked in Bushrúyih and Fárán, Iran. [BW18:390] Bushrúyih and Fárán; Iran religious persecution
1953 Anjoman-e Hojjatieh ("Society of Allah's Proof Over Creation"), also called the Hojjatieh Society founded specifically as an anti-Bahá'í organization by a charismatic Shiite Muslim cleric, Shaikh Mahmoud Halabi in the aftermath of the coup d'état of 1953. Between the early 1950s and the early 1970s a great number of the future elite of the Islamic revolution were trained by Hujjatieh. During the 1979 Iranian revolution, the Society was to play an important role in stirring animosity against Bahá'ís. However, in part because of differences in theology—among other things the Hojjatieh believe a truly Islamic state cannot be established until the return of the 12th Imam—the Society fell into disfavour and was banned by the regime in 1984. [Hojjatieh Society, Wiki] Iran Hojjatieh Society; Persecution
1953 25 Mar Enayat Sohaili, an Iranian, arrives in Mozambique from India, the first Bahá’í pioneer to the country. [BW13:290]
  • He is imprisoned and deported in June 1953. [BW13:290]
Mozambique Enayat Sohaili; pioneer; religious persecution
1954 8 Dec Bahá’ís in Ádharbáyján are dismissed from their employment in the Ministries of Health and Public Highways. [BW18:390] Ádharbáyján; Iran religious persecution
1955 Twenty–two African Bahá’ís are expelled from the Belgian Congo. Belgian Congo religious persecution
1955 18–22 Jan Five Bahá’ís are arrested and beaten in Hisár, Khurásán, Iran; four of these are dragged around the town; Bahá’í houses arc attacked, looted and set on fire. [BW18:390] Hisár; Khurásán; Iran religious persecution
1955 4 Feb Bahá’í women in Hisár, Khurásán, Iran, are assaulted. [BW18:390] Hisár; Khurásán; Iran religious persecution
1955 23 Apr Ramadán begins. Shaykh Muhammad-Taqí Falsafí makes an inflammatory speech against the Bahá’ís from a mosque in Tihrán. [BW18:390]
  • This is broadcast on national radio and stirs up the people against the Bahá’ís. [BW18:390]
  • Beatings, killings, looting and raping go on for several weeks, usually incited by the local ‘ulamá. [BW18:390–1; MC16–17; ZK215–6]
  • The House of the Báb in Shíráz is attacked and damaged by a mob led by Siyyid Núru’d-Dín, a mujtahid.
Tihran; Shiraz; Iran Shaykh Muhammad-Taqi Falsafi; House of the Bab (Shiraz); Siyyid Nurud-Din; Persecution
1955 May-Jul Persecutions against the Bahá’ís continue throughout Iran. BW18:391]
  • Many Bahá’ís are beaten, including women and children.
  • Bahá’í houses and shops are looted and burned.
  • Bahá’ís employed in government service are dismissed.
  • Bodies of dead Bahá’ís are disinterred and mutilated.
  • Young Bahá’í women are abducted and forced to marry Muslims.
  • Several Bahá’í women are publicly stripped and/or raped.
  • Crops and orchards belonging to Bahá’ís are looted and destroyed.
  • Bahá’í children are expelled from schools.
  • The House of the Báb in Shíráz is damaged.
Shiraz; Iran Persecution; House of the Bab (Shiraz)
1955 2 May The police lock the doors of the National Bahá’í Centre in Tihrán thus preventing the holding of the final day of the National Bahá’í Convention. [BW18:390] Tihrán religious persecution; National Bahá’í Convention
1955 7 May The Iranian army occupies the National Bahá’í Centre in Tihrán. [BW18:390] Tihrán religious persecution
1955 8 May Bahá’ís are beaten at Dámghán, Khurásán, Iran. [BW18:390] Dámghán; Khurásán; Iran religious persecution
1955 8 May The Bahá’í centre at Rasht, Iran, is attacked and taken over. [BW18:390] Rasht; Iran religious persecution
1955 9 May Bahá’í houses are attacked and looted at Shíráz, Iran. [BW18:390] Shíráz; Iran religious persecution
1955 9 May The Bahá’í centre at Ahváz, Iran, is taken over. [BW18:390] Ahváz; Iran religious persecution
1955 16 May The Bahá’í centre at Isfahán, Iran, is taken over. [BW18:390] Isfahán; Iran religious persecution
1955 17 May The Iranian Minister of the Interior announces in parliament that the Government has issued orders for the suppression of the ‘Bahá’í sect’ and the liquidation of the Bahá’í centres. [BBRSM174; BW18:391] Iran religious persecution
1955 22 May The dome of the National Bahá’í Centre in Tihrán is demolished with the personal participation of several high-ranking army officers. The publication of the pictures of this episode encourages a widespread outburst of persecution of Bahá’ís throughout Iran. [BW18:391]
  • After the coup in 1953 the Shah was indebted to the clergy for their support and so they were given a greater latitude to persecute the Bahá'ís. In an attempt to show his gratitude the Shah sent a high ranking officer to ask if they had any special requests and they called for the Bahá'í Centre in Tehran to be destroyed. The army occupied the Centre and high-ranking officers and clerics jointly demolished the dome. [Towards a History of Iran’s Baha’i Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.]
  • For pictures see BW13:293–4.
Tihrán religious persecution
1955 24 May The Bahá’í centre at Karaj, Iran, is taken over. [BW18:391] Karaj; Iran religious persecution
1955 27 May The Bahá’í centre at Máhfurúzak, Iran, is demolished. [BW18:391] Máhfurúzak; Iran religious persecution
1955 30 May Bahá’ís are attacked and wounded and their houses attacked at Ábádih, Iran. [BW18:391] Ábádih; Iran religious persecution
1955 1 Jun The House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tákur, Mázandarán, Iran, is taken over. [BW18:391] Tákur; Mázandarán; Ira House of Bahá’u’lláh; religious persecution
1955 28 Jul Seven Bahá’ís are stabbed and beaten to death by a mob in Hurmuzak, Iran. [BW18:391, Towards a History of Iran’s Baha’i Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.]
  • Several other Bahá’ís, including women, are beaten and injured; Bahá’í houses and property are damaged. [BW18:391]
  • See also M. Labíb, The Seven Martyrs of Hurmuzak.
  • See entry for 26 September, 2016.
Hurmuzak; Iran religious persecution; Martydom
1955 Aug Appeals are made by National Spiritual Assemblies around the world through the Bahá’í International Community to the UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld to ask the Iranian government to halt the attacks on the Bahá’ís. [BW13:789–91; BW16:329; MBW88–9; PP304, 311]
  • The intervention of the Secretary-General of the UN, along with the efforts of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States, bring an end to the physical persecution of the Bahá’ís, although their human rights are still denied. [BW13:790; BW16:329]
  • This marks the first time the Faith is able to defend itself with its newly born administrative agencies. An “Aid the Persecuted Fund” was established.
  • Historian Mohamad Tavakoli-Targhi noted that the 1955 anti-Bahá'í campaign was both the apogee and the point of separation of the state-clergy co-operation. The Shah succumbing to international pressure to provide human rights, withdrew support. The result was that the period from the late fifties until 1977-1978 was a period of relative safety. [Towards a History of Iran’s Baha’i Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.]
New York; US Baha’i International Community; Dag Hammarskjöld; NSA; religious persecution
1955 Sep-Oct Bahá’ís in Iran continue to be dismissed from their employment. Bahá’í students are expelled from Shíráz University. [BW18:391] Iran religious persecution
1956 A Roman Catholic priest lodges a complaint against the Bahá’ís of Morocco with the Moroccan Security Service. Morocco religious persecution
1957 Bahá’í activity in Czechoslovakia is banned by the authorities, several members of the Prague community are arrested and Vuk Echtner is imprisoned for two years. Prague; Czechoslovakia Persecution
1958 14 Sep c. A week before the fifth Intercontinental conference is due to convene in Djakarta, Indonesia, the government withdraws the permit to hold the conference. [BW13:331]
  • For the story of why the permit was revoked see DM83–5.
  • The cancellation of the conference in Djakarta begins a period of severe repression of the Faith in Indonesia which eventually leads to the Faith being banned in 1962. [DM85, 88]
Indonesia religious persecution
1958 21 Sep Hand of the Cause Leroy Ioas arrives in Indonesia and is plunged into negotiations regarding the holding of the conference. He meets with local Bahá’ís and anoints them with attar of roses as they pass to the room to view the portrait of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:331–2] Indonesia religious persecution; Hand of the Cause; Leroy Ioas
1959 Mar A number of Bahá’ís, members of the local spiritual assembly, are arrested in Ankara, Turkey. [MC306]
  • The incident receives wide coverage in the press and the Bahá’ís are eventually released from prison. [MC306]
  • A court case is subsequently brought against the Bahá’ís by the public prosecutor, who claims that the Faith is a ‘Tarighat’, a sect forbidden by the law of the land, and lengthy litigation follows. [MC306–7]
Ankara; Turkey religious persecution; LSA
1960 Bahá’ís in Angola are detained and questioned by officials.
  • Joaquim Sampaio is carried off in the middle of the night and is never seen again. It is presumed that he was executed or died in a prison camp.
  • One family is forced to leave the country.
Angola religious persecution; Joaquim Sampaio
1960 Aug All Bahá’í activity in Egypt is prohibited by Presidential Decree No 263 issued by President Nasser of the United Arab Republic (Egypt and Syria). Bahá’ís are interrogated, arrested, fined and imprisoned and their property confiscated. [BBRSM174; MC228]
  • See message from the Universal House of Justice to the Bahá'ís of Egypt dated 21 December 2006.
Egypt religious persecution
1961 The military government in Indonesia issues instructions to local authorities to ban all Bahá’í activities and to confiscate all Bahá’í property. [MC329] Indonesia religious persecution
1961 17 Jan Following the arrest of Bahá’ís in Turkey in March 1959 and the subsequent court case, the Turkish court receives the findings of three outstanding religious scholars that the Bahá’í Faith is an independent religion. [MC308]
  • For details of the history of the case see MC306–8..
Turkey religious persecution
1961 15 Jul The Turkish court declares the Bahá’í Faith to be a ‘Tarighat’, a sect forbidden by the law of the land.
  • The Bahá’ís are ‘forgiven’, released and the case against them dropped. [MC308]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly decides to appeal the decision to a higher court and national spiritual assemblies are asked to make representations to the Turkish ambassadors in their respective countries. [MC308]
turkey religious persecution; NSA
1961 7 Dec An article appears in the nationally prominent Moroccan newspaper Al Alam lamenting the decline of Islám and attacking the Bahá’í Faith. [MC17]
  • This gives rise to persecution of the Bahá’ís in ensuing months.
Morocco religious persecution
1962 Bahá’í homes in Morocco are searched by the police and Bahá’í literature seized. [MC17] Morocco religious persecution
1962 The administrative institutions of the Faith are banned in Indonesia by President Sukarno. [BW19:41]
  • BW15:174 says this was in 1964.
Indonesia religious persecution
1962 Jan A Bahá’í Professor of Fine Arts at the University of Tetuan, Morocco, is dismissed from his post and warned to have no association with other Bahá’ís. [MC17] Morocco religious persecution
1962 12 Apr Four Bahá’ís are arrested in Nador, Morocco. [BW13:289; BW14:97]
  • Eventually 14 Bahá’ís in total are arrested: 7 in Nador, 2 in Fez and 5 in Tetuan. [MC17]
  • For an outline of the situation as it developed over 20 months see MC16–19.
Morocco religious persecution
1962 22 Aug The Custodians ask the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States to make representations to the diplomatic missions of Morocco in Washington and at the United Nations concerning the 14 Bahá’ís imprisoned in Morocco. [MC368–9] US religious persecution; NSA
1962 23 Sep The Custodians ask the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States to obtain an interview with the personal representative of the King of Morocco who heads that country’s delegation to the United Nations General Assembly in New York in connection with the Bahá’ís imprisoned in Morocco. [MC373–4] US religious persecution; NSA
1962 31 Oct The 14 Bahá’ís imprisoned in Morocco are arraigned before the Regional Court of Nador. [BW13:289; MC18]
  • They are charged with rebellion and disorder, attacks on public security, constituting an association of criminals and attacks on religious faith. [BW13:289; BW14:97; MC18]
Morocco religious persecution
1962 10 Dec The trial of the 14 Bahá’ís imprisoned in Morocco on charges of sedition opens. [BW13:289; BW14:97]
  • The prosecution makes no attempt to prove the charges against the accused. [BW13:289; BW14:97]
Morocco religious persecution
1962 14 Dec The Regional Court of Nador gives its verdict in the case of the 14 Bahá’ís imprisoned in Morocco on charges of sedition: four are acquitted on the grounds that they claim to be Muslims; one is acquitted apparently through family connections; one is released on 15 years’ probation owing to his diabetes; five are committed to life imprisonment; and three are condemned to death. [BBRSM174; MC18–19]
  • The sentences are appealed to the Supreme Court. [BW13:289; BW14:97; MC19]
Morocco religious persecution
1962 17 Dec The Custodians ask the Bahá’í International Community to issue press releases deploring Morocco’s persecution of religious minorities and pointing out its failure to adhere to the UN charter condemning religious intolerance. [MC397] Custodians; BIC; religious persecution
1962 21 Dec Telegrams are sent to 35 United Nations delegations appealing for help under the Genocide Convention for the Bahá’ís sentenced to death and imprisoned for life in Morocco. [BW13:794] religious persecution
1962 23 Dec The Custodians ask national spiritual assemblies to cable Secretary General of the United Nations U Thant requesting his intervention on behalf of the Bahá’ís under sentence of death and imprisoned for life in Morocco. [BW13:794; MC397–8] religious persecution
1962 27 Dec The Custodians ask national and local spiritual assemblies to write to the Moroccan ambassador in their respective countries pleading for justice and religious freedom. [MC398–9] religious persecution
1963 In Angola, Antonio Francesco Ebo and seven other Bahá’ís are arrested and imprisoned in a penal colony off the coast of southern Angola.
  • They remain in confinement for eight years.
Angola Antonio Francesco Ebo; religious persecution
1963 1 Jan The Custodians ask all national and local spiritual assemblies to cable the King of Morocco appealing for justice for the Bahá’ís under sentence of death and imprisoned for life in his country. [BW14:97; MC19] Morocco religious persecution
1963 31 Jan Roger Baldwin, Chairman of the International League for the Rights of Man, appears before the UN sub-commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities and states that, as far they know; the Bahá’í prisoners in Morocco are the only example in recent history where members of a religion have been condemned to death solely for holding and expressing religious views regarded as heretical. [MC415–16] Morocco Roger Baldwin; religious persecution
1963 31 Mar King Hassan II of Morocco states in a televised interview in the United States that the Bahá’í Faith is not a religion and is ‘against good order and also morals’. [MC415] Morocco King Hassan II; religious persecution
1963 2 Apr King Hassan II of Morocco makes a public statement promising that if the Supreme Court upholds the decision condemning three Bahá’í prisoners to death, he will grant them a royal pardon. [MC416] Morocco King Hassan II; religious persecution
1963 4 Apr The Custodians issue a statement of information to the national spiritual assemblies of the United States and Europe regarding the Bahá’ís imprisoned in Morocco and under threat of death, reminding them that clemency or a pardon are not sufficient, as the condemned Bahá’ís cannot be pardoned for a crime they did not commit. [MC414]
  • For text of statement see MC414–20.
Morocco religious persecution
1963 5 Jun onwards Throughout Iran, advantage is taken of the general anti-government disorder to launch attacks on Bahá’ís in several localities under the cover of these disturbances. [BW18:391]
  • The Bahá’í cemetery in Tihrán is attacked, its buildings burnt and graves desecrated. [BW18:391]
  • Bahá’í houses are attacked and burned at Árán and the local Bahá’í centre attacked. [BW18:391]
  • The Bahá’í centre at Isfahán is attacked. [BW18:391]
  • Several Bahá’í homes and businesses are attacked in Shíráz. BW18:391]
  • An attack on the House of the Báb in Shíráz is attempted. BW18:391]
  • Bahá’ís are dismissed from government employment. [BW18:391]
Iran religious persecution
1963 23 Nov At the request of the Universal House of Justice, Bahá’ís around the world pray at the Feast of Qawl for favourable action to be taken in the case of the Bahá’ís under threat of death and imprisoned in Morocco. [BW14:98]
  • Shortly after the Feast the Moroccan Supreme Court heard the appeals, reversed the decision of the trial court and ordered the release of the prisoners. [BW14:98]
Morocco religious persecution
1963 13 Dec The Bahá’í prisoners in Morocco are released on order of the Supreme Court. [BW14:98; MC19]
  • For a picture of the release of the Moroccan Bahá’í prisoners see BW14:97.
Morocco religious persecution
1964 Four new believers in Cambodia are arrested and imprisoned as the Bahá’í Faith is not formally recognized and the Bahá’ís do not have permission to teach it. Cambodia religious persecution
1966 11 Mar Eduardo Duarte Vieira is arrested in Portuguese Guinea on a charge of subversive political activity following a period of increasing pressure and harassment instigated by the clergy. He had been detained, maltreated and brutally beaten on several occasions since becoming a Bahá’í. [BW14:390] Portuguese Guinea; Guinea Bissau; Eduardo Duarte Vieira; religious persecution
1966 31 Mar While in the custody of the Portuguese authorities Eduardo Duarte Vieira dies in prison in Portuguese Guinea (now Guinea Bissau) after twenty days of torture. He is named the first African martyr. [BW14:390, BW16:568]
  • For his obituary see BW14:389–90.
  • For the messages to his wife and children he scratched on a biscuit box see BW14:390–1.
Portuguese Guinea Eduardo Duarte Vieira; religious persecution; martyr
1966 Dec A campaign is launched against the Bahá’ís of Saysán, Ádharbáyján, by Mullá Mihdí Sultánpúr. [BW18:391] Saysán; Ádharbáyján religious persecution; Mulla Mihdi Sultanpur
1967 1 Jan A Bahá’í is beaten to death by a mob in Saysán, Ádharbáyján, and other Bahá’ís are attacked and beaten. [BW18:391] Saysán; Ádharbáyján religious persecution
1968 – 1969 Throughout Iran, pressure on Bahá’ís intensifies. [BW18:391]
  • Applications for government employment are refused. [BW18:391]
  • Bahá’ís are refused admission to colleges and universities. [BW18:391]
  • Bahá’í centres are closed. [BW18:391]
  • Individual Bahá’ís are attacked. [BW18:391]
Iran religious persecution
1968 26 Jan A Moroccan Bahá’í is arrested, tried and convicted on the charges of having abused the sacredness of Islám and using deceptive methods to convert people to another religion; he is sentenced to three years’ imprisonment. [BW15:172] Morocco religious persecution
1968 9 Oct The widowed mother of seven children is sentenced to six months’ imprisonment in Morocco for refusing to deny her faith. [BW15:172]
  • Despite the efforts of national spiritual assemblies to secure justice for her through their embassies and cables to the King of Morocco, she is made to serve the entire sentence. [BW15:172]
Morocco religious persecution
1968 24 Oct The Moroccan Bahá’í sentenced to three years’ imprisonment in January 1968 appeals and his sentence is extended to four years. [BW15:172]
  • Despite the efforts of national spiritual assemblies to secure justice for him through their embassies and cables to the King of Morocco, he is made to serve the entire sentence. [BW15:172]
Morocco religious persecution
1968 4 Nov Following the participation of Algerian Bahá’ís in the first Oceanic Conference in Palermo, Sicily, and subsequent international news coverage, foreign Bahá’ís in Algeria are summoned by the police and interrogated. [BW15:172] Algeria religious persecution
1968 7 Nov Sixteen Persian Bahá’ís in Algeria are expelled from the country and their properties confiscated; native Algerian Bahá’ís are put under restrictions and five are exiled to the Sahara and the eastern mountain regions. [BW15:172]
  • Following appeals, the confiscated properties are returned and the order of banishment for the local believers is gradually relaxed. [BW15:172]
Algeria religious persecution
1969 Apr The Bahá’í Faith is banned in Algeria by official decree, all Bahá’í institutions are disbanded and the National Spiritual Assembly dissolved. [BW15:189; BW19:41] Algeria religious persecution; NSA
1970 May In Iraq the Baathist Revolutionary Command Council issued Decree No. 105 to ban Bahá’í activities and disbanding all Bahá’í institutions. [BBRSM174; BW15:173; BW16:137] Iraq religious persecution; Faith disbanded
1970 12 Nov Bahá’ís in the Central African Republic are arrested at a meeting to commemorate the anniversary of the birth of Bahá’u’lláh and Bahá’í activities are banned when a disaffected Bahá’í denounces the Faith as a political movement to the authorities. [BW15:207] Central African Republic religious persecution
1971 13 Oct Following the banning of Bahá’í activities in Egypt in 1960, Egyptian Bahá’ís submit a petition to the Supreme Constitutional Court asking for redress and for justice to be upheld. [BW15:173]
  • The opinion of one Mandatory of the government is that the 1960 decree is unconstitutional. [BW15:173]
Egypt religious persecution
1972 In Indonesia the Attorney-General confirms the 1962 ban on Bahá’í administrative institutions and adds a further prohibition against organized Bahá’í teaching activities. [BW19:41] Indonesia religious persecution
1972 19 Jun The government of Indonesia re-affirms the ban on the Bahá’í Faith.
  • Following this a number of Bahá’ís lose their jobs.
Indonesia religious persecution
1972 30 Jul Parvíz Sádiqí, Farámarz Vujdání and Parvíz Furúghí, Iranian youth pioneers, are murdered near Mindanao, Philippines, by Muslims. [BW15:257; DM316–17]
  • The three are found in a shallow grave. All had been shot, grievously mutilated and two had been decapitated. The bodies are removed and given a Bahá'í burial in a beautiful plot donated for the purpose. [CBN261September1972p1]
  • For their obituaries see BW15:514–16.
Mindanao; Philippines religious persecution; Parviz Sadiqi; Faramarz Vujdani; Parviz Furughi; pioneer; murder
1973 Dec A teenaged Muslim student defends the Bahá’í Faith in a school in Baghdád, causing her arrest and the arrest of three Bahá’í girl students. [BW16:138]
  • Over the next months nearly 50 Bahá’ís are arrested. [BW16:138]
Baghdád religious persecution
1974 As a result of an intervention by the Egyptian chargé d’affaires, Bahá’í activities in Burundi are banned. [BW16:137] Burundi religious persecution
1974 Owing to the failure of the Indonesian Bahá’ís to obtain religious liberty, the Universal House of Justice instructs that the national convention not be held. Indonesia religious persecution
1974 4 Mar Following the arrest of more than 50 Bahá’ís in Iraq, their trial opens and the Bahá’ís are exonerated. [BW16:138]
  • The Revolutionary Council is dissatisfied with this result and the case is ordered to be reopened in a military court, with the death sentence requested for all the detainees. [BW16:138]
Iraq religious persecution
1974 23 Apr At the trial of nearly 50 Bahá’ís in Baghdád, the Iraqi military court sentences 13 men and one girl to life imprisonment, one man and two girls to 15 years’ imprisonment, and two men and seven women to ten years’ imprisonment; 13 Bahá’ís are fined and released. [BW16:138] Baghdád; Iraq religious persecution
1974 20 May The Iraqi military court trying nearly 50 Bahá’ís hands down in absentia sentences of life imprisonment on ten Bahá’ís, two of whom are deceased and a number of whom are of other nationalities or Iraqis not resident in Iraq. [BW16:138]
  • In the weeks following, 24 Bahá’ís have their property confiscated, one Bahá’í is sentenced to ten years’ imprisonment and another to 20 years. [BW16:138]
Iraq religious persecution
1975 Owing to the continuing ban on Bahá’í activities and institutions, the national spiritual assembly and all local spiritual assemblies are disbanded in Indonesia. Indonesia religious persecution
1975 The ban imposed on the Bahá’í Faith in Burundi in 1974 is lifted. [BW16:137]
  • Bahá’í activities continue to be restricted, particularly in provincial areas. [BW16:137]
Burundi religious persecution
1975 The Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt decides that the 1960 decree of President Nasser banning all Bahá’í activities is constitutional and the application of the Bahá’ís for annulment of the decree is dismissed. [BW16:137]
  • Though nominally they have been guaranteed equal rights and religious freedoms under the 1971 Constitution, Bahá'ís, in practice, have retained a secondary legal status due to ongoing religious discrimination. Issues pertaining to personal status in Egypt are informed by religious rather than civil law and recognition pertains only to Islam, Christianity and Judaism. Aspects of religious life such as marriage, divorce and family relationships are not recognized by the state.
Egypt religious persecution
1975 Following the creation of the Rastákhíz political party by the Sháh of Iran and the refusal of the Bahá’ís to join it, although membership in it is compulsory, Bahá’ís throughout Iran are put under pressure. [BW18:391]
  • Many Bahá’ís lose their jobs. [BW18:391]
Iran religious persecution
1975 In Indonesia several Bahá’ís are arrested, given light sentences and released for violating the 1962 and 1972 bans on Bahá’í activity. [BW19:41]
  • A few months later four Bahá’ís are sentenced to five years’ imprisonment; they remain in prison for the full five years. [BW19:41]
Indonesia religious persecution
1975 Jan A Bahá’í is arrested in Iraq and sentenced to ten years’ imprisonment. [BW16:138] Iraq religious persecution
1975 Feb The Arab Boycott Office, at its meeting in Cairo, announces that the Bahá’í Faith has been placed on its blacklist. [BW16:136; BW17:78] Cairo; Egypt religious persecution
1975 25 Apr A revolution in Portugal removes the ban on Bahá’í meetings and teaching activities. Portugal religious persecution
1975 Jul In Iraq, a partial amnesty reducing the terms of the Bahá’ís imprisoned by 15 per cent is granted. [BW16:138] Iraq religious persecution
1975 Sep c. In Iraq, a young Bahá’í is detained, interrogated, beaten and asked to recant his faith when he specifies his religion on a form. [BW16:138]
  • When he refuses to recant his faith he is tried by a revolutionary court and sentenced to ten years’ imprisonment. [BW16.138]
Iraq religious persecution
1975 Nov In Iran, the house of the maternal uncle of the Báb and the adjacent house in which the Báb was born are destroyed on the pretext that the sites need to be cleared. [BW17:79] Shíráz; Iran religious persecution
1976 Following the conquest of South Vietnam by North Vietnam, an anti-religion policy is implemented and the Bahá’í Faith, along with all other religions, is banned. Vietnam religious persecution
1976 The government of Equatorial Guinea outlaws all religions and the national spiritual assembly is dissolved.
  • It is re-formed in 1984.
Equatorial Guinea religious persecution; NSA
1976 May Bahá’í activities in Mali are restricted by order of the government and the decree of recognition of the Faith suspended. [BW17:81] Mali religious persecution
1977 14 May The house of a Bahá’í in Fádilábád, Iran, is attacked; the Bahá’í is killed and his sister severely injured. [BW18:391]
  • BW17:79 says this was June.
Fádilábád; Iran religious persecution
1977 16 Sep In Uganda, 27 religious organizations are banned, including the Bahá’í Faith, and the Bahá’í House of Worship is closed. [BW17:81]
  • The national spiritual assembly and all 1,550 local assemblies are dissolved. [BW17:141]
Uganda religious persecution; House of Worship; NSA; LSA; Mashriqu'l-Adhkar
1977 Dec Properties confiscated by the Iraqi government belonging to individual Bahá’ís are returned; properties and funds belonging to the Faith are turned over to the Ministry of the Interior for disposal. [BW17:80] Iraq religious persecution
1978 In Iran, many local Bahá’í centres are seized by armed men of the revolutionary committees, along with files and membership lists. [BW17:79–80] Iran religious persecution
1978 Ten Bahá’ís are killed in Iran, seven by mobs. [BW18:291]
  • For the response of Bahá’í institutions to the persecution of the Bahá’ís in Iran see BW18:337.
Iran religious persecution; murder
1978 The Bahá’ís of Vietnam are prohibited by the government from meeting and practising their religion. [BW17:81; BW19:50]
  • Bahá’í centres throughout the country are closed or confiscated;
  • The national Hazíratu’l-Quds in Ho Chi Minh City is seized and made into an orphanage;
  • Two members of the national spiritual assembly are arrested and sent to ‘re-education’ camps.
  • One is released in 1982, owing to ill health.
Vietnam religious persecution; NSA; haziratu’l-quds
1978 Feb The government of the Congo bans the majority of smaller religious groups, including the Bahá’í Faith. [BW17:141]
  • The national hazíratu’l-quds is confiscated and the assemblies dissolved.
Congo religious persecution; haziratu’l-quds
1978 Jul In Niger, an announcement is made on the national radio banning ‘the Baha’ist sect and the Nineteen Day Feast’ throughout the country; immediately, all Bahá’í administrative activities are stopped and the national spiritual assembly is dissolved. [BW17:147]
  • Mr Djoneidi is called into police-headquarters in Niger for questioning and is held for three clays; upon his release, unharmed, other Bahá’ís are also called in.
Niger religious persecution; NSA
1978 Dec Two hundred Bahá’í homes near Shíráz are burned and the Bahá’ís driven from them, property is stolen and many Bahá’ís are beaten. [BW17:79; BW19:42]
  • At one point 700 Bahá’ís are homeless and their means of livelihood destroyed. [BW17:79]
Shíráz; Iran religious persecution
1978 Dec Bahá’í homes in Andarún, Iran, are besieged; one Bahá’í is badly beaten. [BW18:275–6] Andarún; Iran religious persecution
1978 15 Dec A cabled message is sent to 93 national spiritual assemblies stating that the Bahá’ís in Iran and the Holy Places in Tihrán and Shíráz are in peril. [BW17:79] Iran religious persecution
1979 The House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tihrán is confiscated by the revolutionary government of Iran. [BW17:79] Tihrán House of Baha’u’llah; religious persecution
1979 Bahá’í cemeteries across Iran are confiscated, including the cemetery in Tihrán, which contains the graves of several Hands of the Cause and other distinguished Bahá’ís and several thousand other graves of Bahá’ís.
  • Many graves are desecrated and the gravestones smashed.
Iran religious persecution
1979 The Síyáh-Chál in Tihrán and the houses of Quddús and Hujjat are seized and occupied by members of the revolutionary committees. [BW17:79–80] Iran religious persecution
1979 The National Spiritual Assembly of Afghanistan is disbanded owing to persecution of the Bahá’ís and the political instability of the country. Afghanistan religious persecution; NSA
1979 Five Bahá’ís are killed in Iran, two by execution. [BW18:291]
  • For the response of Bahá’í institutions to the persecution of the Bahá’ís in Iran see BW18:337–9.
Iran religious persecution
1979 12 Jan Bahá’í members of the Sádát-Mahmúdí clan of the Buyr-Ahmad tribe of central Iran are driven from their homes by other clan members. [BW18:271]
  • For the report of this incident and its aftermath see BW18:271–4.
  • For a picture see BW18:272.
Iran religious persecution
1979 Feb In Iran, Bahá’í representatives meet with high-ranking clergy in Shíráz, Qum and Mashhad to combat the widespread accusation that the Bahá’ís of Iran had supported the regime of the Sháh. [BW18:252] Iran religious persecution
1979 Feb A mob of some 5,000 armed with hatchets, spades and pickaxes converge on Hisár, Iran, intent on harming the Bahá’ís; the mob is prevented from doing so. [BW18:275]
  • Shortly afterwards the home of Mr Ma’naví is looted and he is carried off; it appears he was beaten to death. [BW18:275]
Hisar; Iran Persecution
1979 Feb Revolutionary Guards raid the offices of Nawnahálán, a Bahá’í investment company, and the Umaná’ Corporation, a foundation for the purchase and maintenance of Bahá’í properties, and impound the keys. [BW18:252]
  • In the weeks following, the offices are occupied by the Revolutionary Guards and the staff are dismissed. [BW18:252]
Iran religious persecution
1979 15 Feb The National Hazíratu’l-Quds of Iran is seized by the Revolutionary Guards. [BW18:250]
  • All the records of the National Spiritual Assembly, including a membership list of all the Bahá’ís in Iran, are confiscated by the government. [BW19:43]
Iran religious persecution; Hazíratu’l-Quds; NSA
1979 Mar Yúsif Subhání, a well-known Bahá’í businessman, is imprisoned in Tihrán. [BW18:278] Iran; Tihran Persecution
1979 spring The House of Bahá’u’lláh in Tákur, Iran, is confiscated by the Revolutionary Government. [BW18:289] Tákur; Iran House of Bahá’u’lláh; religious persecution
1979 Apr Revolutionary Guards in Iran occupy the House of the Báb in Shíráz and neighbouring Bahá’í properties, explaining that it is a temporary measure intended to protect the building. [BW17:79] Shiraz; Iran House of the Bab (Shiraz); Persecution
1979 24 May Shaykh Muhammad Muvahhid, a well-known Bahá’í, is kidnapped in Tihrán. [BW18:254, 294] Tihrán Shaykh Muhammad Muvahhi; religious persecution
1979 summer In Iran, the offices of Nawnahálán and the Umaná’ Corporation are taken over by Revolutionary Guards. [BW18:252] Iran religious persecution
1979 Sep Bahár Vujdání is executed in Mahábád, Iran. [BW18:255] Mahábád; Iran Bahar Vujdani; religious persecution
1979 Sep Revolutionary committees in Shahsavár, ‘Ábádán and Tabríz, Iran, order the arrest of Bahá’ís. [BW18:255]
  • Among those arrested are members of local spiritual assemblies.
  • [BW18:255]
  • Bahá’í homes in Tabríz are raided and literature seized. [BW18:255]
Iran religious persecution
1979 8 – 10 Sep The House of the Báb in Shíráz is attacked and substantially demolished by a crowd accompanied by 25 Revolutionary Guards apparently under the clergyman in charge of the local religious endowments department. [BBD108; BI11; BW18:253] Shiraz; Iran House of the Bab (Shiraz); Persecution
1979 Oct In Iran, Bahá’ís in the ministries of education, health and social administration are dismissed from their jobs. [BW18:255] Iran religious persecution
1979 Nov Bahá’í meetings are prohibited in Shasavár, Iran. [BW18:255] Shasavár; Iran religious persecution
1979 11 Nov Dr ‘Alímurád Dávúdí, a member of the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran, is kidnapped in Tihrán and presumed dead. [BW18:254, 294] Tihran; Iran Persecution; NSA
1979 Dec Work on the demolition of the House of the Báb in Shíráz is resumed and the building almost razed to the ground. [BW18:255] Shiraz; Iran House of the Bab (Shiraz); Persecution
1979 Dec ‘Azamatu’lláh Fahandizh is executed in Tihrán. [BW18:255] Tihran; Iran Azamatullah Fahandizh; Persecution
1979 Dec The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, from which all civil rights stem and which does not give recognition to the Bahá’í Faith, is adopted by referendum. [BI11] Iran religious persecution
1979 End of the year In Iran, Nawnahálán and the Umaná’ Corporation are stripped of their assets and non-Bahá’í directors, inimical to the aims of the companies, are appointed. [BW18:252] Iran religious persecution
1980 The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the year. [BW18:92]
  • Twenty–four Bahá’ís are executed or otherwise killed. [BW18:229–30]
  • BW18:291–2 shows a slightly different, incorrect list.
  • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:293–305 and BW19:236–46.
  • For accounts of some of the martyrdoms see BW18:275–81.
  • Twelve Bahá’ís disappear and are presumed dead. [BW19:235]
  • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments, and other actions taken, see BW18:92–6.
  • For a list of the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community, Bahá’í institutions and others see BW18:339–41, 415–17.
Iran martyr; religious persecution; United Nations; BIC
1980 Feb The persecution of the Bahá’ís in Iran enters a new, more dangerous phase. [BW18:255]
  • Prominent Bahá’ís are abducted. [BW18:256]
  • The homes of members of the National Spiritual Assembly are raided. [BW18:256]
Iran NSA; religious persecution
1980 Apr Eight Bahá’ís are arrested in Tabríz; five are released after signing an agreement not to take part in Bahá’í administrative activities. [BW18:256]
  • Two of the others, members of the local assembly, are put on trial and executed on 14 July 1982. [BW18:256]
Tabríz religious persecution
1980 14 Jul Two of the Bahá’ís arrested in Tabríz in April are executed. [BW18:256] Tabríz religious persecution
1980 Sep The European Parliament, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe and the United Nations Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities adopt resolutions on the plight of the Bahá’ís in Iran. [BW19:38] Iran European Parliament; Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe; United Nations Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities’ religious persecution
1981 The site of the House of the Báb, destroyed by a mob in 1979, is made into a road and public square. [BBD108] Shiraz; Iran House of the Bab (Shiraz); Persecution
1981 The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the year. [BW18:92]
  • Forty–six Bahá’ís are executed and two assassinated. [BW18:292–3; BW19:230–1]
  • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
  • For accounts of some of the martyrdoms see BW18:277–8, 281–4.
  • For excerpts from the wills of some of the martyrs see BW18:284–9.
  • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments, and other actions taken, see BW18:92–6 and BW19:44–6.
  • For a list of the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community, Bahá’í institutions and others see BW18:341–5, 417–20.
Iran martyr; religious persecution; United Nations; BIC
1981 5 Dec The Bahá'í cemetery in Tehran was seized "by order of the Revolutionary Court. Five caretakers and eight temporary workers were arrested and the cemetery was closed. [Mess63-86p510] Tihran; Iran Cemeteries and graves; Bahai cemeteries; Persecution
1981 27 Dec Eight of the nine members of the National Spiritual Assembly of Iran are executed. [BI13; BW19:43] Iran martyr; NSA; religious persecution
1982 One of the members of the National Spiritual Assembly of Vietnam sent to a ‘re-education’ camp is released owing to ill health; the other remains in detention. [BW18:96] Vietnam NSA; religious persecution
1982 The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the year. [BW18:92]
  • Thirty–two Bahá’ís are executed or otherwise killed. [BW19:232]
  • BW18:293–4 shows a slightly different, incorrect list.
  • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
  • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments, and other actions taken, see BW18:92–6 and BW19:44–6.
  • For a list of the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community, Bahá’í institutions and others see BW18:345–52, 420–4.
  • See the Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 26 January 1982 for a summation of the steps taken by the coordinated Bahá'í community to expose the crimes of the Iranian regime and to bring pressure to have the persecutions stop.
Iran religious persecution; martyr; United Nations BIC
1982 25 May The Subcommittee on Human Rights and International Organizations of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the United States House of Representatives hears the testimony of six witnesses concerning the persecution of the Bahá’ís in Iran. [BW18:172] Washington; DC Subcommittee on Human Rights and International Organizations of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the United States House of Representatives; religious persecution
1983 The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the year. [BW18:92; BW19:177–226]
  • Twenty–nine Bahá’ís are executed or otherwise killed. [BW19:232–3]
  • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
  • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments, and other actions taken, see BW18:92–6 and BW19:44–6.
  • For a list of the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community, Bahá’í institutions and others see BW18:352–6, 424–5.
Iran religious persecution; martyr; United Nations; BIC
1983 Mar Five local and two pioneer Bahá’ís are arrested, interrogated and held briefly in prison in Mauritania. [BW19:49]
  • The National Assembly is dissolved. [BW19:49]
Mauritania NSA; religious persecution
1983 Apr The Government of Morocco prohibits all Bahá’í meetings. [BW19:49] Morocco religious persecution
1983 18 Jun In Shiraz, ten Bahá'í women ranging in age from 17 to 57, were hanged. All of the women had been tortured and interrogated in the months prior to their execution. The youngest of these martyrs was Mona Mahmudnizhad, a 17-year-old schoolgirl who had been beaten on the soles of her feet, kissed the hands of her executioner and placed the hangman's rope around her own throat. The names of the others executed were Zarrin Muqimi-Abyanih, 28, Ruya Ishraqi, a 23-year-old veterinary student, Shahin Dalvand, 25, a sociologist; Izzat Janami Ishraqi, 57, a homemaker; Mahshid Nirumand, 28, who had qualified for a degree in physics but had it denied her because she was a Bahá'í, Simin Sabiri, 25; Tahirih Arjumandi Siyavushi, 30, a nurse; Akhtar Thabit, 25, also a nurse; Nusrat Ghufrani Yalda'i, 47, a mother and member of the local Bahá'í Spiritual Assembly. [Hanged for teaching “Sunday school”]
  • For the story of the martyrs see BW19:180–7 and VV56.
  • For their obituaries see BW19:596–607.
  • For pictures of the martyred women see BW19:240–1.
Shiraz; Iran Martyrs; Mona Mahmudnizhad; Persecution
1983 29 Aug The Bahá’í Faith is banned in Iran and membership of Bahá’í institutions made a criminal offence. [BW19:43]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly dissolves all Bahá’í institutions throughout the country. [BW19:43]
Iran religious persecution
1983 3 Sep The National Spiritual Assembly of Iran sends an open letter to the Prosecutor General of the Islamic Revolution refuting the false charges made against the Bahá’ís and informing him of their willingness to obey the government. [BW19:43]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Iran is dissolved. [BW19:62]
Iran NSA religious persecution
1983 Dec Bahá’ís are arrested in Mohammadieh and Casablanca, Morocco. [BW19:49]
  • The Bahá’ís in Mohammadieh are convicted of violating the ban on Bahá’í meetings, are sentenced to two years’ imprisonment but are released. [BW19:49]
Mohammadieh and Casablanca; Morocco religious persecution
1984 Four Bahá’ís, one of whom had already spent five years in prison, are imprisoned in Indonesia, convicted of membership in a banned religious organization, with teaching the Bahá’í Faith and with insulting Islám. [BW19:42]
  • The prison terms range from one to five years. [BW19:42]
Indonesia religious persecution
1984 The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the year. [BW19:177–226]
  • Thirty Bahá’ís are executed or otherwise killed. [BW19:233-4]
  • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
  • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments and other actions taken, see BW19:44–6.
Iran religious persecution; martyr; United Nations
1984 Jun A Bahá’í in Tetuan, Morocco, is arrested and sentenced to three years imprisonment for violating the 1983 ban on Bahá’í meetings. [BW19:49]
  • An appeal to the Supreme Court is unsuccessful. [BW19:49]
Tetuan; Morocco religious persecution
1984 Oct In Tunisia, the activities of the Faith are curtailed and Bahá’ís are interrogated. [BW19:50] Tunisia religious persecution
1985 The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the year. [BW19:177–226]
  • Seven Bahá’ís are executed or otherwise killed. [BW19:234]
  • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
  • For the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community see BW19:39.
Iran religious persecution; martyr
1985 23 Feb Forty–one Bahá’ís from various parts of Egypt are arrested, charged with offences against laws introduced in 1960 banning activities of Bahá’í institutions. [BW19:41, 283]
  • For an account of the event, its aftermath and the press campaign surrounding it see BW19:283–7.
Egypt religious persecution
1985 7 May The court hearings open on the cases of the Bahá’ís arrested in Egypt in February on charges of disregarding the 1960 ban on Bahá’í activity. [BW,9:285]
  • The cases are adjourned until 7 October to allow time for the defence lawyer to study the files numbering about a thousand pages. [BW19:285]
Egypt religious persecution
1985 Jul Three Bahá’í youths in Mentawai are imprisoned for having married according to Bahá’í law. [BW19:42] Mentawai religious persecution
1985. 28 or 31 Aug Mr Rahmatu'lláh Vujdani, a 57 year old teacher, is executed by firing squad in Bandar 'Abbas. He was an elected member of the Local Spiritual Assembly. [Iranian.com] Bandar 'Abbas; Iran persecution
1985 7 Oct The court cases against the Bahá’ís arrested in Egypt for contravening the 1960 ban on Bahá’í activities, due to be heard today, are adjourned until 3 February 1986 owing to adverse and unfair reports appearing in today’s newspapers. [BW19:286] Egypt religious persecution
1985 13 Dec For the first time, the United Nations General Assembly adopts a resolution on the human rights situation in Iran which contains specific references to the Bahá’ís. [BW19:38; VV55] United Nations; religious persecution
1986 The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the year. [BW19:177–226]
  • One Bahá’í, 15-year-old Paymán Subhání, is killed. [BW19:225–6, 234]
  • For his picture see BW19:246.
  • For the actions taken by the Bahá’í international Community see BW19:38.
Iran religious persecution; martyr; BIC
1986 21 Jan The Islamic Research Academy at the Azhar University in Cairo publishes in a number of newspapers a lengthy opinion about the Bahá’í Faith in advance of the court cases of Bahá’ís due to be heard in February. [BW19:286]
  • For a refutation of this statement by the Bahá’í International Community, see BW19:288–96.
Egypt religious persecution; BIC
1987 The establishment of the Bahá'í Institute for Higher Education (BIHE) to meet the educational needs of young people who had been systematically denied access to higher education by the Iranian government. [Closed Doors, Chapter IV] Iran Bahai Institute for Higher Education (BIHE); Persecution; Human Rights; Education
1988 8 Dec The plenary session of the General Assembly of the United Nations adopts a resolution concerning human rights in Iran which specifically mentions the suffering of the Bahá’ís. [BINS189:2] Iran United Nations; religious persecution
1989 9 Mar The Commission on Human Rights adopts a resolution expressing grave concern at human rights violations in Iran, mentioning the Bahá’ís three times. [BINS195:1] Iran Commission on Human Rights; religious persecution
1989 Ridván The Universal House of Justice announces the release of the vast majority of the Bahá’í prisoners held in Iran. [AWH62] Iran religious persecution
1991 25 Feb In Irán, a secret Government memorandum, drawn up by the Supreme Revolutionary Cultural Council which was obtained and made public in 1993 by United Nations' Special Representative Reynaldo Galindo Pohl, who was then charged with investigating the human rights situation in Iran. Signed by Iranian Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei, the memorandum established a subtle government policy aimed at essentially grinding the community into nonexistence by
  • forcing Bahá'í children to have a strong Islamic education,
  • pushing Bahá'í adults into the economic periphery and forcing them from all positions of power or influence, and
  • requiring that Bahá'í youth "be expelled from universities, either in the admission process or during the course of their studies, once it becomes known that they are Bahá'ís."
[One Country, Iran Press Watch]
Iran Persecution; Hashemi Rafsanjani; Ali Khamenei; Galindo Pohl; Human rights; United Nations; United Nations Commission on Human Rights; Memorandum Iran
1992 18 Mar The martyrdom of Mr. Bahman Samandari in the Evin prison in Tehran. Mr. Samandari was executed with no advance notice and in the absence of due process. A 52 year-old businessman from a distinguished Bahá'í family, he was buried secretly on 20 March 1992 and his family was not notified until 5 April 1992. This was the first execution in three and one-half years. It belied the public position taken by the Iránian government that the Bahá'ís were not being persecuted for their religious beliefs. [AWH118-9, VV126] Tihran; Iran Persecution; Martyrs; Evin Prison
1993 22 Feb At the 49th session of the UN Commission on Human Rights, the United Nations in Geneva released a report providing evidence that the Iránian Government has established a secret plan approved by Irán's highest ranking officials including both President Hashemi Rafsanjani and Ayatollah Khomeini's successor, Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei, to oppress and persecute the Bahá'í community both in Irán and abroad. Galindo Pohl, special representative in charge of monitoring the human rights situation in Iran, highlights the contents of the secret document written by Iran's Supreme Revolutionary Cultural Council. [BW92–3:139; BW94–5:134] [from Bahá'í Community of Canada Department of Public Affairs press release dated 25 February, 1993] Iran; Geneva; Switzerland Persecution; Hashemi Rafsanjani; Ali Khamenei; Galindo Pohl; Human rights; United Nations; United Nations Commission on Human Rights; Memorandum Iran
1993 Jun The bodies of Bahá'ís buried in the Bahá'í section of a Tihrán cemetery are exhumed and taken by lorry to unknown destinations. [BW93–4:153] Tihran; Iran Cemeteries and graves; Bahai cemeteries; Persecution
1995 Sep The arrest and imprisonment of Mr. Zabihullah Mahrami in Yazd because of his adherence to the Baha'i. He was given a life sentence. [http://planetbahai.org/resources/news/news0304/renews031604z.html] Yazd Persecution
1997 4 Jul Masha'llah Enayati, a 63-year-old man, died in custody while in prison in Isfahan after being severely beaten. [One Country Jul-Sep 1998 Vol 10 Issue 2] Isfahan Masha'llah Enayati; Iranian persecution
1997 6 Jul Shahram Reza'i, a conscript in the army, was shot in the head by his superior officer at a military base near Rasht, Iran. The officer, who said the bullets were fired in error, was released a few days after a court excused him from paying the blood money normally required in such cases because the dead soldier was a Bahá'í. [One Country Jul-Sep 1998 Vol 10 Issue 2] Rasht Shahram Reza'I; Iranian persecution
1998 Feb The Bahá’í Open University resumed activities after the seizure of much of their assets four months earlier by the Iranian government. Irán Baha’i Open University; Iranian persecution
1998 21 Jul Mr. Ruhu'llah Rawhani, a 52-year-old medical supplies salesman was hanged in Mashhad solely for religious reasons. Later that morning, Mr. Rawhani's family was summoned to collect his body and required, despite their protests, to complete the burial within one hour, under the supervision of Government intelligence agents.
  • In 1984, Mr. Rawhani was arrested and imprisoned for more than a year. According to an account given by Mr. Rawhani's relatives in the Australian Bahá'í News, Mr. Rawhani was tortured during his first imprisonment. He was arrested a second time about four years ago. The charge was apparently related to his work in the conduct of purely religious activities, such as prayer meetings and children's classes. He was released after 24 hours.
  • Mr. Rawhani was arrested for a third time in September 1997 and placed in solitary confinement in Mashhad. He had been accused of "converting" a woman from Islam to the Bahá'í Faith. The woman, however, denied that she had converted; she explained that her mother was a Bahá'í and that she herself had been raised as a Bahá'í. She was not arrested.
  • The killing of Mr. Rawhani was the first government execution of a Bahá'í in Iran in six years, and, coupled with the widespread arrest of some 32 Bahá'í educators in fourteen different cities throughout Iran in late September and early October. From the Daily Telegraph, August 2nd 1998. [One Country Jul-Sep 1998 Vol 10 Issue 2, One Country Oct-Dec 1998 Vol 10 Issue 3]
Mashhad Ruhu'llah Rawhani; Iranian persecution
1998 29 Sep Starting this date until October 2nd, in Iran, government raids on 500 private homes and the arrest of some 30 faculty members in efforts to close the Bahá’í Institute for Higher Education, a decentralized university that aimed to give Bahá’í students access to the education they have been otherwise denied.
  • The Institute offered Bachelor's degrees in ten subject areas: applied chemistry, biology, dental science, pharmacological science, civil engineering, computer science, psychology, law, literature and accounting. Within these subject areas, which were administered by five "departments," the Institute was able to offer more than 200 distinct courses each term.
  • In the beginning, courses were based on correspondence lessons developed by Indiana University, which was one of the first institutions in the West to recognize the Bahá'í Institute for Higher Education. Later on, course offerings were developed internally.
  • Teaching was done principally via correspondence, or, for specialized scientific and technical courses and in other special cases, in small-group classes that were usually held in private homes. Over time, however, the Institute was able to establish a few laboratories, operated in privately owned commercial buildings in and around Teheran, for computer science, physics, dental science, pharmacology, applied chemistry and language study. The operations of these laboratories were kept prudently quiet, with students cautioned not to come and go in large groups that might give the authorities a reason to object.
  • Among other significant human rights conventions, Iran is a party to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, which was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 16 December 1966. Parties to this Covenant "recognize the right of everyone to education" and more specifically that "higher education shall be made equally accessible to all, on the basis of capacity, by every appropriate means." [“The New York Times” article dated 29 October, 1998, One Country Oct-Dec 1998 Vol 10 Issue 3]
Iran Bahai Institute for Higher Education (BIHE); Persecution; Human Rights; Education
1999 19 Apr The Islamic Revolutionary Court in Isfahan sentenced Sina Hakiman (10 yrs), Farzad Khajeh Sharifabadi (7 yrs), Havivullhh Ferdosian Najafabadi (7 yrs) and Ziaullah Mirzapanah (3yrs) for crimes against national security. All four were among the thirty-six who were arrested in late September and in early October, 1998 in a concerted government crackdown against Bahá’í education in fourteen cities in Iran.
  • It is reported that over 500 homes were raided in an attempt to crack down on the Bahá’í Open University. Files, equipment and other property used by the University were seized. From report by Human Rights Watch Academic Freedom Committee.
Isfahan; Iran Islamic Revolutionary Court; Persecution Find ref
1999 Sep The murder of Abdullah Mogharrabi in Dushanbe, Tajikistan. It was determined that he was killed for his religious beliefs. [One Country Jan-Mar 2002 Vol13 Issue 4] Dushanbe; Tajikistan Murders; Persecution; Opposition
2001 14 Jan Sixteen Baha'is were arrested in the southern Egyptian city of Sohag. The charges brought against them concerned their membership in the Bahá’í Faith. [Message from the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of Canada dated the 19th of January, 2001] Sohag; Egypt religious persecution
2001 23 Oct The murder of Rashid Gulov in Dushanbe, Tajikistan. It was determined that he was killed for his religious beliefs. [One Country Vol.13 Issue 4, BW01-02p304] Dushanbe; Tajikistan Rashid Gulov; religious persecution
2001 3 Dec The murder of Mosadegh Afshin Shokoufeh in Dushanbe, Tajikistan. It was determined that he was killed for his religious beliefs. [One Country Vol.13 Issue 4] Dushanbe; Tajikistan Mosadegh Afshin; religious persecution
2002 5 Mar The announcement by the Bahá'í International Community of the murder of three Bahá'ís in Dushanbe, Tajikistan. Rashid Gulov was shot and killed on 23 October 2001 while returning home from work. A second man, Mosadegh Afshin Shokoufeh, was shot outside his home on 3 December 2001 and died from his wounds on the way to the hospital. These deaths follow the assassination of 88 year old Abdullah Mogharrabi, a leader in the community, in September 1999. [BWNS153] Dushanbe; Tajikistan Murders; Persecution; Opposition
2004 in the year The 2004 Circular 49/2004 issued by the Ministry of the Interior specifically instructed officials to refrain from providing cards to anyone other than Muslims, Christians and Jews. In particular, it effectively forced practicing Bahá’í into a limbo when registering for personal documents. As Egyptian citizens are required to include their religious affiliation and the Bahá’í faith is not officially recognized, unlike Islam, Christianity and Judaism, practicing Bahá’í were not able to secure official status. [Minority Right website] Egypt persecution
2004 Feb In Babul, Iran, the destruction of the gravesite of Quddús, a house-like structure that marked the resting place of Mullá Muhammad-'Ali Barfurushi, was began and halted temporarily after local Bahá'ís demanded to see a legal permit for the demolition work. Later it was discovered that the dismantling of the gravesite had continued surreptitiously over a period of days until the structure was entirely demolished despite protests from Bahá'ís at the local, national, and international levels.
  • This measure came soon after the international community failed to offer a resolution on the human rights situation in Iran at the United Nations. [One Country Vol.15 Issue 4]
Babul; Iran Quddus; Iranian persecution
2004 7 Feb The release of Mr. Bihnam Mithaqi and Mr. Kayvan Khalajabadi who had been imprisoned on April 29, 1989, for "association with Baha'i institutions."
  • They were both originally sentenced to eight years' imprisonment, but upon appeal, their sentences were commuted to three years' imprisonment plus 50 lashes. Both prisoners appealed this decision, and on April 30, 1991, the Islamic Revolutionary Court sentenced them to death. On February 18, 1996, the Supreme Court of Iran rejected numerous appeals and confirmed the death sentences. In February 2001, after further judicial reviews, the chief of the judicial branch reduced their sentences to 15 years in prison and set February 2004 for their release. [Referenced web site has ceased operation. Human Rights Watch (some dates differ from this source)]
Irán Bihnam Mithaqi; Kayvan Khalajabadi; Iranian persecution
2004 Apr The destruction of the gravesite of Mulla Muhammad-'Ali Barfurushi, known as Quddus (The Most Holy). Quddus was the foremost disciple of the Báb, the Prophet-Herald of the Bahá'í Faith. [BWNS293] Iran Quddus; Cemeteries and graves; Persecution; Persecution, Destruction
2005 29 Oct Letter from the Iranian military headquarters to various Revolutionary Guard and police forces instructing them to identify and monitor Bahá'ís around the country. [BWNS473] Iran Systemic persecution
2005 15 Dec The death of Mr. Dhabihu'llah Mahrami, 59, who had been held in a government prison in Yazd under harsh physical conditions at the time of his death.

First arrested in 1995, Mr. Mahrami served in the civil service but at the time of his arrest was making a living installing venetian blinds, having been summarily fired from his job like thousands of other Baha'is in the years following the 1979 Iranian revolution. Although Iranian officials have asserted that Mr. Mahrami was guilty of spying for Israel, court records clearly indicate that he was tried and sentenced solely on charge of being an "apostate," a crime which is punishable by death under traditional Islamic law. While Mr. Mahrami had been a lifelong Baha'i, the apostasy charge apparently came about because a civil service colleague, in an effort to prevent Mr. Mahrami from losing his job, submitted to a newspaper an article stating that he had converted to Islam. When it later became clear to Iranian authorities that Mr. Mahrami remained a member of the Baha'i community, they arrested him and charged him with apostasy for allegedly converting from Islam to the Baha'i Faith. On 2 January 1996, he was sentenced to death by the Revolutionary Court, a conviction that was later upheld by the Iranian Supreme Court.

The death sentence against Mr. Mahrami stirred an international outcry. The European Parliament, for example, passed a resolution on human rights abuses in Iran, making reference to Mr. Mahrami's case. The governments of Australia, Brazil, Canada, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States also registered objections. [BWNS415]

Yazd; Iran Dhabihu'llah Mahrami; persecution
2006 In the year A confidential letter sent from Iran's Ministry of Science, Research and Technology instructing Iranian universities to expel any student who is discovered to be a Bahá'í. The letter refutes recent statements by Iranian officials, who said Bahá'í students in Iran face no discrimination - despite the fact that more than half of the Bahá'í university students enrolled last autumn were gradually expelled over the course of the 2006-2007 academic year. [BWNS575] Iran; persecution
2006 2 May Letter, from the Trades, Production, and Technical Services Society of Kermanshah to the Iranian Union of Battery Manufacturers, asked the Union to provide a list of members of the Bahá'í sect in their membership. [BWNS488] Kermanshah; Iran persecution
2006 19 May Iranian security officials arrested 54 Bahá'ís in the city of Shiraz who were involved in a community service project, many of them in their teens and early 20's. They were not charged and all but three were released within six days. It was the largest mass arrest of Bahá'ís since the 1980's. [New York Times 1 June, 2006] Shiraz; Iran; persecution
2006 19 Aug Iran's Ministry of Interior orders officials throughout the country to step up the surveillance of Iranian Baha'is focusing in particular on their community activities. In a letter the Ministry requests provincial officials to complete a detailed questionnaire about the circumstances and activities of local Baha'is, including their "financial status," "social interactions," and "association with foreign assemblies," among other things. [BWNS488] Iran Systemic persecution
2006 21 Dec The Education Department Management Security Office in Shiraz circulated a form to be completed for all students who belong to religious minorities and the perverse Bahaist sect. The form requires not only detailed information about the student and his or her parents, but also detailed information on all the student's siblings. [Provisional Translation of the text of the letter] Shiraz; Iran; persecution
2007 9 – 10 Sep A Bahá'í cemetery near Najafabad, Iran was destroyed using heavy equipment. More than 100 graves were desecrated. [BWNS578] Najafabad; Iran Persecution
2007 2 Oct An event was organized by the Defenders of Human Rights Centre in Iran to publicize the plight of all those who are deprived of access to education. The Bahá'ís were only one of many groups whose situations the event highlighted. The Bahá'í representative made a 5-10 minute presentation describing the difficult circumstances faced by Bahá'í students, who have persistently been denied access to post-secondary education. Journalists from within the country and abroad covered the proceedings. [The reference website is no longer in existence.] Iran persecution
2007 21 Nov The Universal House of Justice responded to a communications from the Bahá'ís attending the event of the 2nd of October advising the Friends in Iran to explore contacts with other Iranian individuals and organizations sympathetic to the plight of the Bahá'ís and to continue the effort to secure legal representation for the Bahá'í students. It also encouraged them to convey the gratitude of the Iranian Bahá'ís to the Defenders of Human Rights Centre. [The referenced website is no longer in existence.] Iran; Universal House of Justice; persecution
2008 27 Jul The results of the nationwide university entrance examination were made available on the National Organization for Educational Assessment in Iran. Most of the Bahá'í applicants found that they were rejected and received an incomplete file message. For the 2007-2008 academic year some 800 of 1000 Bahá'í students were rejected in the same manner. [Iranian, BWNS657] Iran; Persecution
2008 27 Sep The destruction of some 2,500 trees and an irrigation system in the Bahá'í Cemetery of Isfahan, known as Gulestan-e Javid (Eternal Garden). Damage was also done to a building on the site and traffic and other directional signs were pulled up. [Iran Press Watch] Isfahan; Iran Persecution
2008 Nov Ameed Saadat sat Iran's 2008 national university entrance examination. He passed was accepted to study hotel management at Goldasht College in Kelardasht, Mazandaran, and began his studies. The college's registration form required students to identify their religion. Ameed, being honest had identified himself as a Bahá'í. The day before his first-term examinations were to begin the college director told Ameed that he was being expelled and would therefore not be allowed to sit the examinations. The following day, 26 students refused to take the end-of-term exam in protest against Ameed's expulsion. [Iran Press Watch] Kelardasht; Mazandaran; Iran Persecution; Human rights; Higher education
2009 3 Feb The publication of "We are Ashamed," an open letter from a group of academics, writers, artists, journalists and Iranian activists throughout the world to the Bahá'í community. This letter has been signed by a large number of the most prominent Iranian intellectuals. [Iran Press Watch 998, Text of Letter in pdf] Iran Persecution; Open letters
2010 12 Jan – 14 Jun The trial of Iran's seven Bahá'í leaders, Fariba Kamalabadi, Jamaloddin Khanjani, Afif Naeimi, Saeid Rezaie, Mahvash Sabet, Behrouz Tavakkoli, and Vahid Tizfahm begins in Tehran. The seven are charged with "espionage", "propaganda activities against the Islamic order", "the establishment of an illegal administration", "cooperation with Israel", "sending secret documents outside the country", "acting against the security of the country", and "corruption on earth". [BWNS748, BWNS778]

  • The profiles of the accused: Profiles.
  • The trial is closed to the public. A film crew and known interrogators are permitted entry. [Video "The Story of the Baha'i Seven" 13 May 2016 BIC]
Tihran; Iran Yaran; Court cases; Imprisonments; Persecution
2010 10 May New information is obtained regarding the conditions in which the seven Bahá'í prisoners are being held-two small rancid-smelling cells. They have not been given beds or bedding. There is no natural light in their cells so when the light is turned off during the day they are held in darkness. [Video "The Story of the Baha'i Seven" 13 May 2016 BIC] Tehran Yaran; persecution
2010 8 Aug The sentence of 20 years in prison is announced for members of the "Yaran-i-Iran" or "Friends of Iran" by Judge Moqayesseh. The charges were several: "espionage", "collaborating with enemy states", "insulting the sacred", "propaganda against the state" and "forming an illegal group". The prominent civil and human right lawyer who defended them was Mr Abdolfattah Soltani. He would later serve a 13-year sentence in the Evin Prison for engaging in his profession. Another member of their legal defense team was the attorney Hadi Esmailzadeh who died in 2016 while serving a 4-year prison term for defending human rights cases. The seven Bahá'í leaders are sent to Gohardasht prison, about 50 kilometers west of Tehran. [BWNS789] Tihran; Iran Yaran; Abdolfattah Soltani; Hadi Esmailzadeh; Lawyers; Persecution; Court cases; Evin Prison; Gohardasht prison
2011 24 Sep The arrest of Abdolfattah Soltani, a senior member of the legal team representing a number of Bahá'ís in Iran await trial for providing higher education to youth barred from university. [BWNS849] Iran Abdolfattah Soltani; Lawyers; Bahai Institute for Higher Education (BIHE); Persecution; Human Rights; Education
2011. 21 Oct Launch of Inciting Hatred: Iran's media campaign to demonize Baha'is. The Baha'i International Community prepared and launched a report that documents and analyses more than 400 press and media items over a 16-month period that typify an insidious state-sponsored effort to demonize and vilify Baha'is, using false accusations.
  • The report is available in English and in Persian.
Inciting Hatred: Iran's media campaign to demonize Baha'is; BIC; persecution
2012 Jun After the January 25th revolution against Mubarak and a period of rule by the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, the Muslim Brotherhood took power in Egypt through a series of popular elections with Egyptians electing Islamist Mohamed Morsi to the presidency in June 2012.

On 3 July 2013, Morsi was deposed by a coup d'état led by the minister of defense General Abdel Fattah El-Sisi. The situation of Egypt’s Bahá’í community remained uncertain. The prescriptions of the 1960 Presidential Decree, despite the revolution, had yet to be annulled. This meant that despite the 2009 lifting of the restrictions on identification documents, the Bahá’í Faith still had not received actual recognition as a religion and Bahá'í were frequently subjected to public vilification. It was a period of extreme unrest. It is estimated that between Sisi's overthrow of Morsi and the 2014 presidential elections, an estimated 20,000 activists and dissidents were arrested by the police under the interim government. El-Sisi went on to become Egypt's president by popular election in 2014.

Egypt Opposition; Persecution; Human rights; History (general)
2013 15 Jul Iranian filmmaker and blogger Mohammad Nourizad, kissed the feet of 4 year old Artin whose parents had been arrested for participation in the Bahá'í Institute for Higher Education. [Wikipedia entry ] Iran Bahai Institute for Higher Education (BIHE); Persecution; Human Rights; Education
2013 24 Aug Mr. Ataollah Rezvani is murdered in Bandar Abbas. Rezvani was shot in the back of the head and his body was found in his car near the railway station on the outskirts of the city. His assailants had forced him to drive to that location. His body was discovered following a search when he failed to return home. [http://publicaffairs.bahai.us/388] Bandar Abbas Ataollah Rezvani; persecution
2013 3 Dec Mr. Hamed Kamal Muhammad bin Haydara (sometimes referred to in the media as "Hamed Merza Kamali Serostani ") is arrested in al-Mukalla, capital of Hadramout province in eastern Yemen. It is suggested that he was arrested on the orders of Mr. Khaled al-Mawari, the Chief Prosecutor who was involved in the unwarranted arrest and detention of another member of the Yemeni Baha'i community. the family had lived in Socotra since 1945, when his father arrived on the Yemeni island from Iran as a doctor under British colonial rule and was granted Yemeni citizenship. According to Baha'i estimates, there are about 2,000 Baha'is in Yemen [BIC website, Reuters] Sana'a; Yemen persecution; Hamed bin Haydara; Khaled al-Mawari
2014 Apr In Shiraz, the Revolutionary Guard began excavation of some 200 square meters of the Bahá'í cemetery. The site, which had been in use since the 1920s, had been confiscated by the government in 1983 and the Revolutionary Guard had taken ownership of the site some three years earlier with plans to build a cultural and sports centre. It is the site of the remains of the ten Bahá'í of Shiraz who were hanged in 1983 for the crimes of being Zionists and teaching children's classes. [BWNS993, BWNS994] Shiraz; Iran Cemeteries and graves; Bahai cemeteries; Persecution
2014 8 May Despite a worldwide outcry, the Iranian Revolutionary Guards is continuing to destroy an historic Bahá'í cemetery in Shiraz. Between 2005 and 2012 some 42 Bahá'í-owned cemeteries were desecrated in a similar fashion. [BWNS993, BWNS1016] Shiraz; Iran Cemeteries and graves; Bahai cemeteries; Persecution
2014. 28 May In the presidential election in Egypt, former Egyptian defence minister Abdel Fattah el-Sisi was elected with 97% of the vote according to government sources. The subsequent 2014 Constitution of the Sisi government, while guaranteeing the ‘inviolable’ right of freedom of religion, extended this only to Islam, Christianity and Judaism – meaning that Bahá’i were still prohibited from many basic freedoms, such as practicing their religious laws and constructing places of worship. Though Bahá’í representatives lobbied during the constitutional drafting processes to expand religious freedoms to their community, this did not occur.

In December 2014, a public workshop was held by the Ministry of Religious Endowments to warn of the dangers of the spread of the Bahá’i faith in Egypt.

Egypt Opposition; Persecution; Human rights; History (general); Consitutions
2016 25 Apr Mr. Hamed Bin Haydara, who has been imprisoned without trial since December 2013, was again brought to court for a hearing but the trial was again postponed, this time to 1 August 2017. Reports indicate that he has been sent to solitary confinement in the National Security Prison on the orders of Mr. Rajeh Zayed, the prosecutor who has caused the delays which have kept him in jail for more than three years and who has been mainly responsible for the arrest and persecution of Baha’is in Yemen. Mr. Rajeh Zayed also recently said he plans to delay Mr. Hamed Bin Haydara’s court hearings and treatment until he “dies in jail.” He is suffering from serious health conditions that require proper medical attention. He stands accused of ‘compromising the independence of the Republic of Yemen’, including spreading the Bahá’í faith in the Republic of Yemen as well as "apostasy" (He has been a Bahá'í from birth.) and “insulting Islam” . [BIC 30 Apr 2017] Yemen Hamed Bin Haydara; Rajeh Zayed; persecution
2016. 6 Sep In a letter the BIC calls on Iranian President Rouhani to end systematic economic oppression. The letter signed by Bani Dugal, Principal Representative of the Baha'i International Community to the United Nations, draws attention to the stark contradiction between statements espoused by the Iranian government regarding economic justice, equality for all and reducing unemployment on one hand, and the unrelenting efforts to impoverish a section of its own citizens on the other. New York BIC; Bani Dugal; persecution
2016 26 Oct The report from the offices of the Bahá'í International Community entitled The Bahá'í Question Revisited: Persecution and Resilience in Iran was formally released.
  • The full report can be read on-line here.
  • A list of resolutions by the United Nations and United Nations bodies that reference the situation of Baha’is in Iran since 1980 can be found at this location.
  • An annex to The Bahá'í Question Revisited is the report called "Inciting Hatred". It is an analysis of approximately 400 anti-Baha'i articles, broadcasts, and webpages from late December 2009 through May 2011 and can be found here.
  • A list of the 222 Baha’is who have been killed in Iran since 1978 can be read here.
Iran; Persecution; BIC; The Baha'i Question Revisited: Persecution and Resilience in Iran
2016 24 Nov From her cell in Evin prison, In a open letter to her six-month old granddaughter, Bajar. Fariba Kamalabadi one of the members of the imprisoned Yaran of Iran, writes about the suffering of the Bahá'í citizens and of her dreams for humanity. [Iran Press Watch 16140] Tihran; Iran Persecution; Yaran; Evin Prison
2017 12 May The Baha'i International Community launches a global campaign calling for the immediate release of the seven Iranian Baha'i leaders, unjustly imprisoned for nine years as of the 14th of May. The theme of the campaign, “Not Another Year,” is intended to raise awareness about the seven women and men unjustly arrested in 2008 and sentenced to 20 years’ imprisonment for their religious beliefs. This sentence was reduced to 10 years in 2015 after the overdue application of a new Iranian Penal Code. [BWNS1167]
  • The official video of the Bahá'í International Community to commemorate the 9th anniversary of the arrest and imprisonment of seven Iranian Bahá'í leaders - Not Another Year.
Iran Yaran; Persecution; Human rights; Imprisonments
2017 18 - 22 Oct The Iranian Baha’i community was targeted during the bicentenary period. Between 18 and 21 October, some 19 individuals were arrested in Kermanshah, Tehran, and Birjand, and the homes 25 Baha’is were raided. Twenty-six Baha’i-owned shops around the country were sealed off by authorities because the owners observed the Holy Day on 21 October. These closures occurred in Shiraz, Marvdasht, Gorgan, and Gonbad. [BWNS1215] Kermanshah,Tehran, Birjand; Shiraz,Marvdasht,Gorgan,Gonbad. persecution
2017 22 Oct Yemeni security forces raided a Baha’i gathering in Sana’a opening fire on the small group of people assembled to commemorate the bicentenary of the birth of Baha’u’llah. The attack occurred in the family home of prominent tribal leader Walid Ayyash, who had been abducted in April and whose whereabouts were unknown. The attackers were reportedly in four cars and an armored vehicle which they used to break down the front door of the house. They arrested Mr. Ayyash’s brother, Akram Ayyash.

This event proved unequivocally the extent of Iran’s role in the persecution of the Baha’is in Yemen, especially in Sana’a, which is under the control of Iranian-backed militias. Similar attacks occurred in Iran during the period of celebration of the bicentennial of the birth of Bahá'úlláh. [BWNS1215]

Sanaa; Yemen; Iran Persecution; Birth of Bahaullah

from the main catalogue

  1. Activities in Iran in the 1960s: Documents from the US government, in Foreign Relations of the United States 1964-1968, Volume XXII: Iran (1964). State Dept., CIA, and Defense documents regarding activities in Iran in the 1960s. [about]
  2. Alí Bastámí, Mullá, by Denis MacEoin, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 1 (1985). Very brief article, short enough to qualify as "fair use." [about]
  3. Ali Bastami, Mulla, by Moojan Momen (1995). [about]
  4. Alí Bastámí, Mullá, by Moojan Momen, in The Bahá'í Encyclopedia (2009). On the second disciple to recognize the Báb, and the first Bábí martyr. [about]
  5. American Dream, The: Stories from the Heart of Our Nation, by Dan Rather (2001). Commentary on Baha'i persecutions, by a famous TV news anchor. [about]
  6. August Forel Defends the Persecuted Persian Bahá'ís: 1925-1927, by John Paul Vader, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). History of Forel's involvement with the Faith. Includes correspondence from Shoghi Effendi. [about]
  7. Babi Martyrs, Some, by John Walbridge, in Essays and Notes on Babi and Bahá'í History (2002). Includes bios of Shaykh Salih Karimi, Mulla Abd al-Karim Qazvini, the Farhadis of Qazvin, the Seven Martyrs of Tehran, and others. [about]
  8. Babi Uprising in Zanjan, The, by John Walbridge, in Iranian Studies, 29:3-4 (1996). [about]
  9. Babi-State Conflicts of 1848-1853, The, by Siyamak Zabihi-Moghaddam (2003). Overview of four conflicts between the Babis and the Qajar state: one at Shaykh Tabarsi in Mazandaran (1848), one in Zanjan (1850), and two in Nayriz (1850, 1853). [about]
  10. Bahá'í Question, The: Cultural Cleansing in Iran, by Bahá'í International Community (2008). [about]
  11. Bahá'í Community of Iran, The: Patterns of Exile and Problems of Communication, by Moojan Momen, in Iranian Refugees and Exiles Since Khomeini, ed. Asghar Fathi (1991). [about]
  12. Bahá'í Martyrdoms in Persia in the Year 1903 AD, by Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali Isfahani (1917). A memoir by Abdu'l-Baha, erroneously credited to Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali, published in English as a 28-page book in 1904 and 1917, covering events from March-September 1903. [about]
  13. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 18 (1979-1983), in Bahá'í World (1986). [about]
  14. Bahá'ís in Iran, The: Twenty Years of Repression, by Firuz Kazemzadeh, in Social Research, 67:2 (2000). Overview of the modern persecution of Baha'is in Iran. [about]
  15. Bahá'u'lláh and the Fourth Estate, by Roger White, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Baha'u'llah's response to the martyrdom of seven Baha'is in Yazd in May, 1891, and his relationship with the media. [about]
  16. Christianity from a Bahá'í Perspective, by Robert Stockman (1998). Includes two topics: "A Baha'i approach to the Bible" and "Baha'i Writings on Jesus Christ." [about]
  17. Chronicle of `Abdu'l-Ahad Zanjani: Personal Reminiscences of the Insurrection at Zanjan, by Aqa Abdu'l-Ahad Zanjani, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 29 (1897). [about]
  18. Chronology of Persecutions of Babis and Baha'is (1998). [about]
  19. Commentary on a Passage in the Epistle to the Son of the Wolf, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 14 (2013). Short biography of the Son of the Wolf, Aqa Najafi; summary of persecutions from 1874-1903; and the Epistle's references to Qayyumu’l-Asma and the Muslim dawn prayer for Ramadan. [about]
  20. Conspiracies and Forgeries: The Attack upon the Bahá'í Community in Iran, by Moojan Momen, in Persian Heritage, 9:35 (2004). [about]
  21. Deaths of Two Iranian Bahá'ís, 1997, by Universal House of Justice and National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1997). Reports from the Universal House of Justice and the NSA of the United States on the deaths of Masha'llah Enayati and Shahram Reza'i. [about]
  22. Debunking the Myths: Conspiracy Theories on the Genesis and Mission of the Bahá'í Faith, by Adib Ma'sumian (2009). Response to Iranian conspiracy theories portraying the Baha'i Faith as a subversive political group, Zionist spies, affiliates of the secret police, British agents, etc. Available in English and Persian. Includes interview with author. [about]
  23. Dissimulation by Iranian Emmigrants, by Universal House of Justice and National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States (1985). Letters from the House and the US NSA concerning Baha'is who were able to escape Iran in 1997 by denying their Faith. [about]
  24. Document and Narrative Sources for the History of the Battle of Zanjan, by John Walbridge, in Occasional Papers in Shaykhi, Babi and Baha'i Studies, 2:4 (1998). Analysis of Muslim and Baha'i historical texts, including Dawnbreakers. [about]
  25. Dress for Mona, A: Abridged one-act version, by Mark Perry (2002). The story of Mona Mahmudnizhad. [about]
  26. Epistle to the Son of the Wolf (Lawh-i-Ibn-i-Dhib): Excerpts from Revelation of Baha'u'llah, by Adib Taherzadeh, in The Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh 1877-92, Vol. IV, Mazra'ih & Bahjí (1987). Excerpts from chapters 24-25, compiled for the Wilmette Institute. [about]
  27. From Moorish Cordova to the Bahá'ís of Iran: Islamic Tolerance and Intolerance, by Boris Handal Morales, in IDEA: A Journal of Social Issues, 12:1 (2007). Though Baha'is are persecuted in Iran, Muhammad taught understanding and respect towards religious minorities. Cordova, Spain is an example of historical tolerance where Muslims, Christians and Jews co-existed harmoniously under Islamic rule. [about]
  28. Human Responses to Life Stress and Suffering, by Abdu'l-Missagh Ghadirian, in Bahá'í Studies Notebook, 3:1-2 (1983). Includes the experiences of Bahá'í martyrs. [about]
  29. Human Rights Watch on Persecution of Baha'is in Iran, by Reuters (1997). Two articles covering a report by Human Rights Watch on the treatment of the Baha'is and other minorities in Iran. [about]
  30. Kirk, Durbin Introduce Resolution Condemning Iran's Continued Persecution of Bahá'í Minority, by Mark Kirk and Dick Durbin (2013). In recognition of the five-year anniversary of imprisonment of Bahá'í leaders in Iran, senators meet with their family members and friends and introduce a joint resolution calling attention to this persecution. [about]
  31. Last Great Revolution, The: Turmoil and Transformation in Iran, by Robin Wright (2000). Mentions of the Baha'is not having political representation in Iran; brief summary of Baha'i persecutions (in footnote). [about]
  32. Massacres de Babis en Perse, by A.L.M. Nicolas (1936). On events in 1903 in Rasht, Isfahan, Yazd, and Tehran, written by a French consul in Iran. [about]
  33. Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-86, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
  34. Mystery of Martyrdom, The, by Darius Shahrokh and Grace Shahrokh, in Windows to the Past (1992). Life stories of many early martyrs, and some explanations of what inspires self-sacrifice. [about]
  35. Nabil's Narrative: What History has Forgotten, by Soheila Vahdati (2008). An outsider's view of how Iranian media and society have glossed over or intentionally obscured Iran's treatment of 19th-century dissidents. [about]
  36. Nature of the Persecution against the Bahá'ís in Iran, by Bahá'í International Community (2010). [about]
  37. Nonpartisan Engagement in Public Affairs: A Critical Analysis of the Bahá'í Approach to Dialogue, Democracy, and Diplomatic Relations, by Bui Tyril (2009). How to address the dilemma of protesting human rights abuses in Iran while remaining non-partisan. Link to thesis (offsite). [about]
  38. Persecution of the Bahá'í Community of Iran Under the Islamic Republic: Twenty Years of Intolerance, by Tahirih Tahririha-Danesh, in Converging Realities, 1:1 (2000). Description of some of the persecutions of the Baha'i community in Iran over the past twenty years. [about]
  39. Persecution of the Bahá'ís of Iran 1844-1984, by Douglas Martin, in Bahá'í Studies, 12/13 (1984). [about]
  40. Persecution of the Bahá'í Community of Iran: 1983-1986, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 19 (1983-1986) (1994). Lengthy survey of events, and life stories of participants. [about]
  41. Persecution of the Baha'is in Iran: 1979-1986: A 7-year campaign to eliminate a religious minority, by Bahá'í International Community (1986). Overview of activities and propaganda against Baha'is in Iran, and the responses of the United Nations. [about]
  42. Personal Reminiscences of the Babi Insurrection at Zanjan in 1850, by E. G. Browne, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 29 (1897). [about]
  43. Preliminary Survey of the Bahá'í Community of Iran during the Nineteenth Century, A, by Moojan Momen, in Iran im 19. Jahrhundert und die Enstehung der Baha'i Religion, ed. Christoph Burgel and Isabel Schayani (1998). [about]
  44. Psychological and Spiritual Dimensions of Persecution and Suffering, by Abdu'l-Missagh Ghadirian, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 6:3 (1994). [about]
  45. Recognition of the Next Manifestation of God, by Universal House of Justice (1997). On the eventual recognition of the next Prophet by the Universal House of Justice. [about]
  46. Shirin Ebadi: A collection of newspaper articles (2003). Articles about the winner of the 2003 Nobel Peace Prize who has championed the rights of the Baha'i community. [about]
  47. Situation of the Bahá'ís in Egypt, by Bahá'í International Community (2007). Oral Statement of the Bahá’í International Community to the Human Rights Council (6th Session of the Human Rights Council), Geneva, Switzerland. [about]
  48. Tablet to Shaykh Kazim-i-Samandar II, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Eminent Bahá'ís in the Time of Bahá'u'lláh (1985). [about]
  49. Tablet to The Times of London, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh, by Adib Taherzadeh, Vol. 4 (1987). Short tablet calling newspapers to investigate the Truth. [about]
  50. Tablets of Pilgrimage (Suriy-i-Hajj): Wilmette Institute faculty notes, by Iraj Ayman (1999). [about]
  51. Television Address of Iranian President Khatami, by Universal House of Justice and Bahá'í International Community (1998). Questions and answers about a historically unique television interview of Iranian President Khatami, given on CNN Wednesday, Jan 7, 1998. [about]
  52. Treatise on Persecution of Bahá'ís in 1903, by Abdu'l-Bahá, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 14 (2007). Events in Isfahán and Yazd from March-September 1903. [about]
  53. Violence with Impunity: Acts of aggression against Iran's Bahá'í community, by Bahá'í International Community (2013). Book-length report on the rising tide of violence directed against the Iranian Baha'i community 2005-20012, and the degree to which attackers enjoy impunity from prosecution or punishment. [about]
 
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