Bahá'í Library Online
. . . .
.

Search for tag "son"

from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1843 Birth of Ahmad, son of the Báb. He passes away shortly after he is born. [B46-47]
  • DB74 for a picture of his resting-place.
Shiraz; Iran Ahmad (son of the Bab); Bab, Life of; Bab, Family of; Cemeteries and graves; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; - Basic timeline, Expanded
1849. c. Jun - Jul The Báb, in prison in the castle of Chihríq, learns of the massacre at Shaykh Tabarsí and the martyrdom of Quddús. He is so overcome with grief that He is unable to write or dictate for a period of six months. [DB411, 430] Chihriq; Iran Bab, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Prison; Shaykh Tabarsi; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Quddus; Tablets of Visitation; Bab, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
1852 Aug-Dec Bahá'u'lláh's imprisonment in the Síyáh-Chál

  • See AB10–11, BBD211–12, BKG79–83, CH41–2, DB631–3, GPB109 and RB1:9 for a description of the prison and the conditions suffered by the prisoners.
  • No food or drink is given to Bahá'u'lláh for three days and nights. [DB608]
  • Bahá'u'lláh remained in the prison for four months. [CH41; ESW20, 77; GPB104; TN31]
  • "Upon Our arrival We were first conducted along a pitch-black corridor, from whence We descended three steep flights of stairs to the place of confinement assigned to Us. The dungeon was wrapped in thick darkness, and Our fellow prisoners numbered nearly a hundred and fifty souls: thieves, assassins and highwaymen. Though crowded, it had no other outlet than the passage by which We entered. No pen can depict that place, nor any tongue describe its loathsome smell. Most of these men had neither clothes nor bedding to lie on. God alone knoweth what befell Us in that most foul-smelling and gloomy place!" [ESW20-21]
  • See CH42–3 for the effect of Bahá'u'lláh's imprisonment on His wife and children. Friends and and even family were afraid to be associated with His immediate family. During this period Mírzá Músá helped the family surreptitiously and Mírzá Yúsif, who was married to Bahá'u'lláh's cousin, a Russian citizen and a friend of the Russian Consul, was less afraid of repercussions for his support of them.
  • They were also assisted by Isfandíyár, the family's black servant that had been emancipated in 1839 on the order of Bahá'u'lláh. This man's life was in great danger. At one time they had 150 policemen looking for him but he managed to evade capture. They thought that if they questioned (tortured) Isfandíyár he would reveal Bahá'u'lláh's nefarious plots. [SoW Vol IX April 28, 1918 p38-39]
  • ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, as a child of eight, is attacked in the street of Tihrán. [DB616]
  • See AB11–12, RB1:9 for ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's account of His visit to His father.
  • Bahá'u'lláh's properties are plundered. [CH41; RB1:11]
  • See BBD4–5 and BKG94–8 for the story of ‘Abdu'l-Vahháb-i-Shírází who was martyred while being held in the Síyáh-Chál.
  • See BBD190, 200 and ESW77 about the two chains with which Bahá'u'lláh was burdened while in the Síyáh-Chál. Five other Bábís were chained to Him day and night. [CH41]
  • Bahá'u'lláh had some 30 or 40 companions. [BBIC:6, CH41]
  • An attempt was made to poison Him. The attempt failed but His health was impaired for years following. [BBIC:6; BKG99–100, GPB72]
Bahá'u'lláh's half-brother Mírzá Yahyá flees to Tákur and goes into hiding. He eventually goes to Baghdád. [BKG90, 107, CH41]
Tihran; Takur; Iran; Baghdad; Iraq Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Attempts on; Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Prison; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Vahhab-i-Shirazi; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Poison; Chains; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline
1864 Dec Mírzá Yahyá invites Bahá'u'lláh to a feast and shares a dish, half of which was laced with poison. Bahá'u'lláh is ill for 21 days following this attempt and is left with a shaking hand for the rest of His life. [CH60, BKG225; GPB165]
  • Bahá'u'lláh is attended by a foreign doctor named Shíshmán who dies shortly after seeing Him. Bahá'u'lláh intimates that the doctor has sacrificed his life for Him. [BKG225; GPB166]
Edirne; Turkey Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Bahaullah, Attempts on; Poison; Sacrifice
1866. 14 Nov The ‘star-fall' of 1866. [RB2:270, 422–6]

  • The falling of stars is predicted in Matthew 24:29.
  • For Bahá'u'lláh's reference to this see ESW131–2.
  • For the symbolism of falling stars see KI41.
  • See The Delight of Hearts pg87 for an account.
The spectacular shower of meteors in the early hours of the morning of 14 November 1866 was observed all over Europe. It was an extraordinary event exciting comment from professional astronomers and laymen alike. The following sample account is from The Times Saturday, 17 November 1866:

The Rev. Robert Main, the Radcliffe Observer at Oxford, gives the following account of the meteorological phenomenon of Tuesday night last: --

'...This great display began about 13h. (or 1 o'clock in the morning), and reached its maximum at about 13h.24m., after which time it gradually began to slacken. The watch, however, was kept up till 18h., though after 15h., there were not many meteors seen. In all there were observed not fewer than 3,000 during the night, of which about 2,000 fell between 13h. and 14h., or between 1 a.m. and 2 a.m. As to the general appearance of the meteors, it was noticed that the majority of them were of a whitish or yellowish colour. Some, however, were reddish or orange-coloured, and one meteor was noticed to be bluish. The brightest left generally a train behind them, which was to be seen for a few seconds after the meteor disappeared.' (Adapted from ‘The Revelation of Baha’u’llah', by Adib Taherzadeh, vol. 2)

Falling stars; Symbolism; Prophecies; Lawh-i-Ibn-i-Dhib (Epistle to the Son of the Wolf); Bible; Christianity
1868. c. May Bahá'u'lláh sends Nabíl-i-A`zam to Cairo to enquire after Hájí Mírzá Haydar-`Alí. He was instructed by Bahá'u'lláh to appeal to the officials for the release of several Bahá'ís who had been imprisoned in Cairo at the instigation of their enemies. He was thrown into prison in Cairo for two months and then in the Alexandria jail for a few more months. While there he befriended a Christian cellmate, Fáris Effendi, who soon becomes a Bahá'í. [BKG248, 265–6; EB268; GPB178]
  • Fáris Effendi was probably the first Christian to become a Bahá'í. [RB3:10, “Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica]
  • See BKG265–8 for an account of Nabíl's arrest and imprisonment.
  • After his release he travelled to Cyprus and Beirut and then joined the Bahá'u'lláh's exiled community in Akka in late October of 1969. He spent the last two decades of his life in that area. [“Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica]
Cairo; Egypt Nabil-i-Azam; Haji Mirza Haydar-Ali; Faris Effendi; Imprisonments; First believers by background; Christianity; Conversion; Interfaith dialogue
1889 Jun Áqá Najafí, the `Son of the Wolf', initiates a campaign against the Bahá'ís in Isfahán, Sidih and Najafábád. [BW18:383] Isfahan; Sidih; Najafabad; Iran Aqa Najafi (Son of the Wolf)
1889. 17 Jul Upheaval in Najafábád: Áqá Najafí, the `Son of the Wolf', drives over a hundred Bahá'ís out of Sidih and Najafábád. They take sanctuary in the Telegraph Office and in the stables of the governor of Isfahán. [BW18:383]
  • See BBR280–4 for Western reporting of the episode.
Najafabad; Sidih; Isfahan; Iran Aqa Najafi (Son of the Wolf); Najafabad upheaval; Upheavals
1891 (In the year) Bahá'u'lláh revealed Epistle to the Son of the Wolf addressed to Shaykh Muhammad-Taqíy-i-Najafí (Shaykh Najafí), the son of Shaykh Muhammad-Báqir. [BBD78, 164; BKG382; GPB219; RB4:368]
  • It was revealed about a year before the ascension of Bahá'u'lláh. [GPB220]
  • It was Bahá'u'lláh's `last outstanding Tablet'. [BBD78; BKG382; GPB219]
  • For an analysis of its content, themes and circumstances of its revelation, see RB34:368–412.
  • For a study guide to the Tablet see RB4:433–40.
Bahji; Yazd; Iran Lawh-i-Ibn-i-Dhib (Epistle to the Son of the Wolf); Aqa Najafi (Son of the Wolf); Shaykh Muhammad-Taqiy-i-Najafi (Shaykh Najafi); Lawh-i-Times (Tablet to the Times); Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
1891 (In the year) Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Kitáb-i-`Ahd. [BBD32; CB142; GPB236–40, BKG420–5; RB4:419–20]
  • It was probably written at least one year before His Ascension. CB142]
  • In it Bahá'u'lláh alludes to Epistle to the Son of the Wolf as the `Crimson Book'. [DG16; ESW32; GPB238]
  • In Kitáb-i-`Ahd Bahá'u'lláh explicitly appointed `Abdu'l-Bahá His successor, the Centre of the Covenant and the Expounder of the revealed word. [BKG420; GPB239]
Akka Kitab-i-Ahd (Book of the Covenant); Bahaullah, Will and Testament of; Crimson Book; Covenant (general); Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Bahji; - Basic timeline, Expanded
1891 Apr c. Two believers were arrested during the same period. Hájí Amín was sent to the prison of Qazvín, and Hand of the Cause Ibn-i-Abhar was consigned for four years in Tíhran, in which he bore the same chains as Bahá'u'lláh did, during the Latter's imprisonment in 1852.[Essay by Mehdi Wolf] Qazvin; Tihran; Iran Haji Amin (Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani); Ibn-i-Abhar (Mulla Muhammad Taqi); Hands of the Cause; Chains; Imprisonments
1895 23 Jun Birth of Leonora Stirling Holsapple (later Armstrong) in Hudson, New York. She was the first pioneer to Brazil and is regarded as the Mother of South America. [Wikipedia] Hudson; New York; United States Leonora Holsapple Armstrong; Names and titles; Births and deaths
1897 In the year Fifteen Bahá'ís were arrested in Saysán, Ádharbáyján. They were taken to Tabríz, imprisoned and fined. [BW18:384]

Three Bahá'ís were arrested in Nayríz on the orders of Áqá Najafí, the `Son of the Wolf'. [BW18:384]

The homes of several Bahá'ís in Hamadán were looted and ransacked after complaints by Jews of the town against Bahá'ís of Jewish background. [BW18:384]

Saysan; Adharbayjan; Tabriz; Nayriz; Hamadan; Iran Aqa Najafi (Son of the Wolf); Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution
1899. 3 Dec Charles Mason Remey became a Bahá'í in Paris through May Bolles. [BFA2:151–2] Paris; France Charles Mason Remey; May Maxwell (Bolles)
1908 25 Apr Charles Mason Remey and Sidney Sprague sail from New York for Iran and Russia. [BFA2:289]
  • For details of their journey see BFA2:289–95.
  • In Tihrán Tá`irih Khánum, a Bahá'í woman with advanced ideas, hosts them at a meeting at which the women remove their veils. [BFA2:292–4]
  • They give Tá`irih Khánum the address of Isabella Brittingham and the two women begin a correspondence. [BFA2:294]
New York; Tihran Charles Mason Remey; Sidney Sprague; Tairih Khanum; Isabella Brittingham; Women; Gender; Equality
1909 (In the year) Juliet Thompson made a pilgrimage to 'Akka and met with 'Abdu'l-Bahá., [ABF19] Akka Juliet Thompson; Pilgrims
1909 Nov Charles Mason Remey and Howard Struven leave the United States on the first Bahá'í teaching trip to circle the globe. [BFA2:348, GPB261]
  • They go to Hawaii, Japan, Shanghai, Singapore and to Burma, India and `Akká. [BFA2:348–50]
Hawaii; Japan; Shanghai; China; Singapore; Myanmar (Burma); India; Akka Charles Mason Remey; Howard Struven; Travel teaching
1909 Dec Charles Mason Remey and Howard Struven speak at the first Bahá'í public meeting held in Honolulu. [BFA2:348; SBR189] Honolulu; Hawaii Charles Mason Remey; Howard Struven; Firsts, Other
1910 Charles Mason Remey and Howard Struven arrive in Shanghai and meet with Áqá Mírzá `Abdu'l-Baqí Yazdí. They are probably the first Bahá'ís from the West to go to China. [PH25] Shanghai; China Charles Mason Remey; Howard Struven; Aqa Mirza Abdul-Baqi Yazdi; Firsts, Other
1911 19 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent a telegram to Charles Mason Remey in America inviting him to join HIm in Europe. [SoW vol2 no.12 (16 October 1911) p9, ABF10] Marseille; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Charles Mason Remey
1911 22 Aug - 3 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá took up residence at Thonon-les-Bains on Lake Leman (Lake Geneva). [AB140; GPB280; SBR219]
  • While there He encountered Zillu's-Sultán, the eldest son of the Sháh of the time, Násirid-Dín Sháh. It was he who had ratified the execution of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs and at least 100 others. The whole family was in exile in Geneva at this time. 'Abdu'l-Bahá was very courteous to this man who had been such an inveterate enemy of the Cause. [DJT172, AY19, GPB201] .
  • The Master sent for Juliet Thompson who had been waiting in London for His permission to join Him.
  • During His stay he had a visit from Annie Boylan, a member of the New York community that was experiencing disharmony. Unaware of Bahá'í election procedures, a group that was unhappy with the disunity and ineffectiveness of the Council had organized a vote to be rid of several of its Council members. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had written to the community a short time before recommending that the Council be expanded from 9 to 27 members so that all factions could be represented. He also recommended that women be included on the Council and that the name be changed to "the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of New York". This apparently addressed the problem of disunity because the New York community went on to contribute significantly to the progress of the Faith on a national level. [DJT181, BFA2p338]
  • Horace Holley, who lived at Quattro Torri, Siena, Italy at the time, along with his wife Bertha Herbert and baby daughter Hertha, visited 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the 29th and 30th of August. Please see his Religion for Mankind p 232-237 for a pen portrait of 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • He met with Elizabeth Stewart and Lillian Kappes who were on their way to Tehran. [find reference]
  • It would appear that He returned to Marseilles and travelled to London by sea. [SCU22-23]
Thonon-les-Bains; Lake Leman; Marseille; France; Switzerland; Italy; London; United Kingdom; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; Unity; Zillus-Sultan; Persecution; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Juliet Thompson; Horace Holley; Elizabeth Stewart; Lillian Kappes; Ships
1911 22 Aug The Master sent for Juliet Thompson who had been waiting in London for His permission to join Him. [DJT157, ABF14-15] Thonon-les-Bains; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Juliet Thompson
1911 24 Aug Tammaddun'ul-Mulk and Juliet Thompson arrived in Thonon-les-Bains from London via Geneva. She had landed in Southampton on board the Lusitania from America on the 25th of July.

Juliet Thompson had been in Paris in 1899 and had been part of the nascent Bahá'í community there along with May Maxwell and Lua Getsinger. In addition, she had met 'Abdu'l-Bahá in 'Akká in 1909.

  • She, like many others, was anxious to know when He might come to America. He replied that the unity of the believers would be His invitation. There had been strong differences of opinion among the believers in America and one of those points was in their understanding of the station of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. Some believed Him to be an ordinary man who, through spiritual practice, had attained HIs station, implying that all could do the same. Others insisted that He was the return of Christ. The differences among the believers in New York was such that an election for the New York Bahá'í Board of Council had been influenced to excluded one of the incumbents. 'Abdu'l-Bahá insisted that the Board be increased to 19 members to ensure his re-election. [ABF19]
London; United Kingdom; Thonon-les-Bains; France Tammaddunul-Mulk; Juliet Thompson; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
1911 27 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá and His party took a ferry to Vevey. a resort town on the other side of Lake Geneva (Lake Leman). Vevey was the location of the Dreyfus summer home and it was near here that Lady Blomfield and her daughters finalized the translation of Paris Talks [ABF33-44, DJT186, SoW vol 2 no 14]
  • He took a room at the Park Hôtel Mooser where He took some rest and also met Edith Sanderson and her mother. With the assembled friends He discussed immortality and divorce.
  • The party returned by ferry to Thonon-les-Bains, stopping at Évian-les-Bains. [DJT196-197]
  • In the afternoon He met with Lillian Frances Kappes and Elizabeth Harnill Stewart who had just arrived from America on their way to teach at the Tarbiyát School for girls in Iran. The school for boys had been in operation since 1897 and the school for girls was just being established in. [ABF43, SoW vol 2 no 18, SoW vol 2 no 14]
Thonon-les-Bains; Vevey; Switzerland; Evian-les-Bains; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Lady Blomfield; Edith Sanderson; Lillian Kappes; Elizabeth Harnill Stewart; Tarbiyat School; Bahai schools; Paris Talks (book)
1911 4 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in London accompanied by His secretary, Mírzá Mahmúd and Khusraw, His servant. [ABL53, AB140; GBP280; SBR22, 148, BW4p378, In the Footsteps of the Master p.5]
  • CH149 says He arrived 8 September and 3 September as per the UK Bahá'í site.
  • Those Bahá'ís who assembled to meet him were listed as: Lady Blomfield (in whose home at 97 Cadogan Gardens He stayed), Mrs Thornburg-Cropper, Miss Ethel Rosenberg, Miss Gamble, Miss Herrick, Mrs Scaramucci, Miss Elsie Lee, Mr Catanach, Mr Cuthbert, Mr and Mrs Jenner, Miss Yandell, Miss Julia Culver, Mrs Stannard, Mr and Mrs Eric Hammond, The Rev Harrold Johnston, The Rev Cooper Hunt, Miss Juliet Thompson, Mrs Louise Waite, Mrs Movius, Mrs Claudia Coles, Mr Mountfort Mills, Mr Mason Remey and Miss Drake Wright. Mr and Mrs Dreyfus-Barney provided translation. In addition there were a number of Persians who took the opportunity to meet Him. [BW4p377]
  • As described by Lady Blomfield those who came to see him were: "Ministers and missionaries, Oriental scholars and occult students practical men of affairs and mystics, Anglican-Catholics and Nonconformists, Theosophists and Hindus, Christian Scientists and doctors of medicine, Muslims, Buddhists, and Zoroastrians. There also called: politicians, Salvation Army soldiers, and other workers for human good, women suffragists, journalists, writers, poets and healers dress-makers and great ladies, artists and artisans, poor workless people and prosperous merchants, members of the dramatic and musical world, these all came; and none were too lowly nor too great to receive the sympathetic consideration of this holy Messenger, who was ever giving His life for others' good." In addition there was a representation from the Bramo-Somaj Society, a Hindu reform group. [CH150-152]
  • See BW4p377 where Lady Blomfield reports that Prince Jalalu'd-Dawlih entreated to be received by 'Abdu'l-Bahá and when in His presence fell prostrate and implored pardon for his crimes. (see 1891 19 May) [BW4p377]
  • Among the list of visitors were: Professor Edward Granville Browne, Mr Tudor-Pole, Emmeline Pankhurst, a British political activist and leader of the British suffragette movement who helped women win the right to vote. [BW4p377]
  • See BW4p381 for the story of a homeless, suicidal man who had seen a picture of 'Abdu'l-Bahá in a newspaper in a shop window.
  • See BW4p382-383 for the story of the persistent journalist who imposed upon the appointment of two ladies from Scotland who had journeyed all that day and intended to make the return voyage that same evening.
  • For details of His stay in England see AB140–58 and GPB283–5.
  • It is implied that 'Abdu'l-Bahá was attended by Dr Lutfu-lláh Hakím while in London. [BW4p380]
  • During His stay in London 'Abdu'l-Bahá received death threats by anonymous letter and he was advised to give up He planned journey to Egypt. He ignored them. [BW4p 387]
  • During His stay in London He has professional photographs of Himself taken by the Irish photographer, James Lafayette (1853-1923). "...to have a picture of oneself is to emphasise the personality, which is merely the lamp, and is quite unimportant. The light burning within the lamp has the only real significance." [SBR25, BW4p383-384, ABF84]
London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Pictures and portraits; Portraits; Abdul-Baha, Death threats to; Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper; Ethel Rosenberg; Juliet Thompson; Louise Waite; Mountfort Mills; Charles Mason Remey; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Jalalud-Din-Dawlih; Mirza Mahmud-i-Zarqani; Khusraw; Edward Granville Browne; Wellesley Tudor Pole; Emmeline Pankhurst; Lutfullah Hakim; James Lafayette
1911 5 Oct 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk at 46, avenue de Malakoff (today avenue Raymond Poincaré) at the home of Edith Sanderson and her mother Margaret Sanderson. [ABF62] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Edith Sanderson
1912 Margaret Stevenson was the first believer in New Zealand. [New Zealand Bahá'í News, May 1997]
  • See 11 February, 1941 for biographical information.
  • For a photo see Encyclopedia of New Zealand
    • She was the first New Zealand Bahá'i, and for 10 years from 1912, the only one. When the first New Zealand Bahá'i group formed in 1924, Stevenson was elected its president. Her two sisters also joined the faith. Stevenson remained secretary of the Bahá'i Spiritual Assembly in New Zealand until her death in 1941.
New Zealand Margaret Stevenson; First Bahais by country or area
1912 19 Apr Talk at Earl Hall, Columbia University, New York. [PUP29; Mahmúd's Diary p47-48]

'Abdu'l-Bahá visits The Bowery accompanied by Edward Getsinger and Juliet Thompson as noted in her unpublished Diary. They arrived with two heavy bags of quarters to distribute to the poor. [OPOP165-168, PUP32]

Bowery; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Columbia University; Abdul-Baha, Talks at universities; Charity and relief work; Edward Getsinger; Juliet Thompson
1912 22 Apr Talk at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP43, APD22-24, AY86; Mahmúd's Diary p54-55] Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Arthur Parsons; Agnes Parsons
1912 25 Apr Talk to Theosophical Society, Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP58; SoW Vol 3 No3 pg22-23, ]

Message to Esperantists, Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP60; APD47; SoW Vol 3 No5 Pg7-8]

The Turkish Ambassador Díyá Páshá hosted a "royal feast" for 'Abdu'l-Bahá and a number of dignitaries. He gave a short talk afterward. [Mahmúd's Diary p60-61]

He gave a talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons. [PUP62, APD46-49; SoW Vol 3 No 5 P7-8, Mahmúd's Diary p59-62]

Theodore Roosevelt visited 'Abdu'l-Bahá at the Parsons' home on this date. He was not the President at this time. [MD464n59]

Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Theosophical Society; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Abdul-Baha, Talks other; Arthur Parsons; Esperanto; Theodore Roosevelt
1912 27 Apr During lunch at the Parsons' home 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke about the proper method of taxation. [APD53-57]
  • For His discourse on taxation see FWU38-43]

In the evening there was a grand reception for some 300 people in honour of 'Abdu'l-Bahá on behalf of the Orient-Occident Unity Society. Among the guests and dignitaries are General Adolphus Greely, Admiral Wainwright, a Washington judge, Admiral Peary, a bishop, the chargé d'affaires of Switzerland, a member of Congress, the head of the United States Patent Office, the General Consul, the President of the Peace Congress and others. [MD64-65]

Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places; General Adolphus Greely; Wainwright, Admiral; Peary, Admiral; Agnes Parsons; Taxation
1912 9 May `Abdu'l-Bahá speaks to a capacity gathering at the Parsons' home. He noted that religious ministers in Washington were denouncing Him and the Cause. [APD61-63] Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Agnes Parsons; Opposition
1912 10 May `Abdu'l-Bahá's sits for sketches by Mr Theadore Spicer-Simon. See Medallions for pictures of his work.

In the morning Agnes Parsons takes 'Abdu'l-Bahá to the Capitol then to the Washington Monument where they take the elevator to the top.

He speaks to a small group in the Parsons' home in the afternoon and at the Studio Hall in the evening. [APD63-66]

In The Diary of Juliet Thompson p285 it is reported that 'Abdu'l-Bahá had been horrified by the prejudice He observed against Black people in Washington.

Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Abdul-Baha, Talks at other places; Capitol; Washington Monument; Studio Hall; Agnes Parsons; Abdul-Baha, Pictures and portraits; Portraits; Racism
1912 1 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá returns to New York. [AB206]
  • He has His first sitting for the portrait painted by Juliet Thompson. [DJT299]
New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Juliet Thompson; Abdul-Baha, Pictures and portraits; Portraits
1912 26 Jul `Abdu'l-Bahá's and His companions took up residence at one of the two Parsons home in Dublin, NH, a resort area. The house in question is named "Day-Spring". [APD7376] Dublin; New Hampshire; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Agnes Parsons
1912 6 Aug Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, Dublin, New Hampshire. [PUP247] Dublin; New Hampshire; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Arthur Parsons
1912 7 Nov Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D. C. [PUP397]

Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D. C. [PUP400]

Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Arthur Parsons
1912 9 Nov Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D. C .[PUP411]

Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D. C .[PUP415]

Talk at Bahá’í Banquet, Rauscher’s Hall, Washington, D. C. [PUP418]

Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Arthur Parsons; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
1912 10 Nov Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D. C .[PUP421]

Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Joseph H. Hannen, 1252 Eighth Street, NW, Washington, D. C. 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke of Bahá'u'lláh's faithful Ethiopian servant, Isfandiyar, and his service to the family of Bahá'u'lláh's family while He was in prison in the Síyáh-Chál. [PUP425, 239D181-182]

Talk at 1901 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D. C. [PUP428]

Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Abdul-Baha, Talks other; Arthur Parsons; Joseph Hannen; Isfandiyar
1912 15 Nov Talk at Home of Miss Juliet Thompson, 48 West Tenth Street, New York. [PUP431] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Juliet Thompson
1912 31 Dec `Abdu'l-Bahá visited Oxford at the invitation of Dr T. K. Cheyne to address a meeting at Manchester College. [BW4p384-385, AB352–354, ABIM284, Journey West 20130210, [Ahmad Sohrab's Diary - The Great Tour p99]
  • In 1886, Cheyne was appointed Oriel Professor of Interpretation of Scripture at Oxford University, and, as an ordained Anglican priest (1864), was installed as Canon of Rochester Cathedral (Church of England) that same year. An advocate of “higher criticism” as applied to biblical scholarship, Professor Cheyne was the first at Oxford University to teach students how to apply the methods and tools of higher criticism to the Hebrew Scriptures. See An Oxford Scholar on the Spirit of Truth by Christopher Buck.
  • For biographical information see a paper by Crawford Howell Toy entitled Thomas Kelly Cheyne.
  • See Hurqalya Publications for a translation by Stephen Lambden of a Tablet to Dr Cheyne as well as the address to Manchester College.
  • After the visit of 'Abdu'l-Bahá the elderly and infirmed professor, who was unable to walk and had difficulty speaking, went on to write the book, The Reconciliation of Races and Religions. See BWXp483 for an excerpt regarding Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • His second wife was the poetess Elizabeth Gibson Cheyne (1869-1931) whom he married (aged 69) on August 28th [19th] 1911 about four years after the death of his first wife. Elizabeth Gibson was the sister of the `War Poet' Wilfred Wilson Gibson. A paper by Judy Greenway, a grand niece of Elizabeth Gibson entitled "From the Wilderness to the Beloved City: Elizabeth Gibson Cheyne", pays tribute to the woman whom 'Abdul'-Bahá lauded during His visit. This paper was given at the invitation of the Oxford Bahá’í Community in December 2012, as part of the celebration of the centenary of Abdu’l-Bahá’s visit to Oxford.
  • See an article by Christopher Buck on Cheyne's interpretation of Isaiah's prophecies
Oxford; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; T. K. Cheyne; Elizabeth Gibson Cheyne; Stephen Lambden; Judy Greenway
1913. 23 Jan After His morning talk He visited and had lunch with Natalie Clifford Barney, the sister of Laura Dreyfus Barney and the daughter of Alice Pike Barney, probably at her salon at 20, rue Jacob.

On this day, or perhaps the next, He met the famous French philosopher and writer, Henri Bergson. (Nobel prize for literature 1928). He was a professor at the College de France. 'Abdu'l-Bahá impressed him with His simple proof for the existence of God. [ABF302-304, Bahá'íes de France]

Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Natalie Clifford Barney; Henri Bergson
1918 8 Jan President Woodrow Wilson in a speech on war aims and peace terms to the United States Congress outlined his Fourteen Points. It was a statement of principles for peace that was to be used for peace negotiations in order to end World War I. President Wilson was influenced by the Bahá’í Teachings in formulating his Fourteen Points, at least three Bahá’í volumes were known to be in the White House. The Hidden Words appears on a 1921 listing of Wilson’s private library. Also, a compilation on peace given the President by a delegation of Washington Bahá’ís ‘turned up in general reference at the Library of Congress marked “transfer from the White House”‘. And Abdul-Baha on Divine Philosophy (Boston, 1918) is said to have much influenced his thinking. [AY155]

Commenting on the Fourteen Points laid down by the President for the world community, the Master says that twelve of them derive from principles advocated by Bahá’u’lláh fifty years before, and that these Teachings had been spread worldwide through various publications, thus becoming known to leaders in Europe and America (Persian Tablets, vol. III, p. 312). [AY156-157]

United States; Washinton DC Woodrow Wilson; Fourteen Points; History (general); Principles; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha on Divine Philosophy; Peace; World War I; War (general); United States, Presidents
1919 26 Apr-1 May The 14 Tablets of the Divine Plan are unveiled in a dramatic ceremony at the Hotel McAlpin in New York, during the `Convention of the Covenant'. [ABNYP172Note24, BBD219; PP437; SBBH1:134; SBBH2:135; SBR86; AB220TDPXI]
  • For details of the convention programme, Tablets and talks given see SW10, 4:54-72; SW10, 5:83-94; SW10, 6:99-103, 111-12 SW10, 7:122-7, 138; SW10, 10:197-203; and SW10, 12:2279.
  • Mary Maxwell (Rúhíyyih Khánum) is among the young people who unveil the Tablets. [PP437]
  • Hyde and Clara Dunn and Martha Root respond immediately to the appeal, the Dunns going to Australia where they open 700 towns to the Faith, and Martha Root embarking on the first of her journeys which are to extend over 20 years. [GPB308; MR88]
  • See also CT138-9.
  • Agnes Parsons arrives from her pilgrimage just before the close of the convention and is able to convey the instructions from `Abdu'l-Bahá to arrange a Convention for `the unity of the coloured and white races'. [BW5:413; SBR87]
  • New York; United States Tablets of the Divine Plan; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Charters; Conventions, National; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Agnes Parsons; Hyde Dunn; Clara Dunn; Martha Root; Race (general); Race amity; Race unity
    1919 28 Jun The Treaty of Versailles was concluded. The United States never signed the Treaty of Versailles, never joined the League of Nations which President Wilson's foes derisively referred to as ‘Wilson’s League’. The USA made separate treaties with Germany and the other Central Powers. Wilson died on the 3rd of February, 1924. [AY160-169] Shoghi Effendi's tribute is as follows:

    "To ....President...Woodrow Wilson, must be ascribed the unique honour, among the statesmen of any nation, whether of the East or of the West, of having voiced sentiments so akin to the principles animating the Cause of Bahá’u’lláh, and of having more than any other world leader, contributed to the creation of the League of Nations—achievements which the pen of the Centre of God’s Covenant acclaimed as signalizing the dawn of the Most Great Peace, whose sun, according to that same pen, must needs arise as the direct consequence of the enforcement of the laws of the Dispensation of Bahá’u’lláh." [CoF36]

    Versailles; France Treaty of Versailles; Woodrow Wilson; League of Nations; History (general); World War I; War (general)
    1921 (in the year) Two Bahá'í publications began, Sonne der Wahrheit, meaning Sun of Truth, and Wirklichkeit, meaning Reality. [BWNS1289] Germany Sonne der Wahrheit (Sun of Truth); Wirklichkeit (Reality); - Periodicals; First publications; Publications; BWNS
    1921 19-21 May The first Race Amity Conference is held in Washington DC. [BW2:281]
    • Mabry and Sadie Oglesby and their daughter Bertha from Boston as well as Agnes Parsons and Louis Gregory were involved. Agnes Parsons, during her pilgrimage in 1920, was instructed by 'Abdu'l-Bahá, "I want you to arrange in Washington a convention for unity between the white and colored people."[SETPE1p141-145, BW2p281]
    • For details of the conference see article by Louis Gregory entitled "Inter-racial Amity". [BW2:281-2]
    • See article The Bahá'í 'Race Amity' Movement and the Black Intelligentsia in Jim Crow America:Alain Locke and Robert Abbot by Christopher Buck [Bahá'í Studies Review, 17, pages 3-46, 2011] (includes a chronology of 29 Race Amity conferences organized in the United States between 1921 and 1935).
    Washington DC; United States Race (general); Race Amity; Race unity; Conferences, Race Amity; First conferences; Mabry Oglesby; Sadie Oglesby; Agnes Parsons; Louis Gregory
    1923 (in the year) Charles Mason Remey makes preliminary plans for a monumental domed superstructure for the Shrine of the Báb. [BW6:723]

    Haifa Charles Mason Remey; Bab, Shrine of
    1926 14 Feb Dust from the Tomb of Bahá'u'lláh brought back by pilgrims (including Margaret Stevenson) from the Holy land, was placed in a ceremony into the soil of New Zealand at the Stevenson's home. [Arohanui pg94] New Zealand Margaret Stevenson; Pilgrims
    1931 May A permanent summer school is established at Louhelen Ranch near Davison, Michigan. [BW10:181; GPB340] Davison; Michigan; United States Summer schools
    1934 23 Jan Agnes S. Parsons dies after an automobile accident. [BW5:410; SBR96]
    • She is primarily remembered for her contribution to the cause of race unity in North America. [BW5:413]
    • For her obituary see BW5:410–14.
    • See also Diary of Agnes Parsons; SBR76–96.
    Washington DC; United States Agnes Parsons; Race (general); Unity; In Memoriam
    1941 The publication of The Epistle to the Son of the Wolf. [ESW]

    A Tablet addressed to Shaykh Muhammad-Taqiy-i-Najafi, a prominent Muslim cleric who had persecuted the Bahá’ís. It was revealed around 1891 at the Mansion of Bahjí and translated by Shoghi Effendi.

    BWC Lawh-i-Ibn-i-Dhib (Epistle to the Son of the Wolf); Aqa Najafi (Son of the Wolf); Shoghi Effendi, Translations by; Translation; Publications; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1941 11 Feb The passing of Margaret Stevenson, the first New Zealand Bahá’í (b. 30 November 1865, in Onehunga) in Auckland. She is buried in Hillsborough Cemetery.
    She initially heard of the Bahá’í Faith through reading an article in "The Christian Commonwealth" sent to her by her sister, Amy, who was studying music in London. Margaret, though, later admitted that she “did not think any more about it”. However, in 1913 Miss Dorothea Spinney, a professional actress who performed in many parts of the world, arrived in Auckland from California and stayed at the Stevenson home in Devonport. During that visit there were many opportunities for Miss Spinney to tell the Stevenson family about the Bahá’í Cause.
    After embracing the new Faith, Margaret began to speak to others of her new found beliefs – a courageous act for a middle-class woman in the then conservative society where following a new religion was considered odd. As New Zealand’s only Bahá’í, she held on steadfastly to her faith for many years. Finally, after the visit of the first Bahá’í travelling teachers to New Zealand in December 1922, a handful of individuals from Margaret’s social circle also became Bahá’ís. A class was established at her home in Parnell to study the Teachings in more depth and was held there regularly for 10 years. In January 1923 the first Bahá’í Nineteen Day Feast was held at her home. Margaret held various administrative roles within the Bahá’í community and remained an active and dedicated Bahá’í until her passing. [from a post by Tricia Hague-Barrett in Facebook page "Women of Bahá"]
    Margaret Stevenson; Dorothea Spinney; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1946 23 Dec Virginia Orbison, from the United States, leaves Brazil for a pioneer post in Madrid.
    • The airplane she travels in is named ‘O bandeirante’ (‘The Pioneer’).
    Madrid Virginia Orbison
    1947 Gladys Anderson Weeden arrives at the World Centre to assist Shoghi Effendi, taking responsibility for liaising with government and other officials. [BW18:694]
    • She marries Ben Weeden on 20 March 1948 in Jerusalem; he assists with building projects at the World Centre. [BW15:478; BW18:694]
    BWC Gladys Anderson Weeden; Ben Weeden
    1950 Nov From Switzerland, Shoghi Effendi invites five Bahá’ís—Lotfullah Hakim, Jessie and Ethel Revell, Amelia Collins and Mason Remey—to Haifa. [PP251]
    • They, together with Ben and Gladys Weeden who are already there, are told that they will constitute the International Bahá’í Council. [PP251–2]
    Switzerland; BWC; Haifa International Bahai Council; Lutfullah Hakim; Jessie Revell; Ethel Revell; Amelia Collins; Charles Mason Remey; Ben Weeden; Gladys Weeden
    1951 24 Dec Shoghi Effendi appoints 12 Hands of the Cause of God, the first contingent of Hands to be appointed. BBRSM127; BW12:38–40, 374–5; BW13:333–4; MBW20]
    • They are Sutherland Maxwell, Mason Remey, Amelia Collins (she had been appointed in 1946, but her appointment had not been made public), Valíyu’lláh Varqá, Tarázu’lláh Samandarí, ‘Alí-Akbar Furútan, Horace Holley, Dorothy Baker, Leroy Ioas, George Townshend, Herman Grossmann and Ugo Giachery [GBF110–11; MBW20; PP253–4]
    Haifa Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands of the Cause, Contingents; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent; Sutherland Maxwell; Charles Mason Remey; Amelia Collins; Varqa, Valiyullah; Varqa; Tarazullah Samandari; Ali Akbar Furutan; Horace Holley; Dorothy Baker; Leroy Ioas; George Townshend; Herman Grossmann; Ugo Giachery
    1952 8 Mar Shoghi Effendi announces the enlargement of the International Bahá’í Council to eight members. [MBW22; PP252–3]
    • Its members are Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, Mason Remey, Amelia Collins, Ugo Giachery, Leroy Ioas, Jessie Revell, Ethel Revell and Lotfullah Hakim. [BW12:379; MBW22]
    Haifa International Bahai Council; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Charles Mason Remey; Amelia Collins; Ugo Giachery; Leroy Ioas; Jessie Revell; Ethel Revell; Lutfullah Hakim
    1953 11 Aug Virginia Orbison arrives in the Balearic Islands from a pioneer post in Spain and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the Balearic Islands. [BW13:449] Balearic Islands Virginia Orbison; Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 8 Sep Jameson and Gale Bond arrive in Arctic Bay in the District of Franklin and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:451, SDSC127] Arctic Bay; Franklin; Canada Jameson Bond; Gale Bond; Knights of Bahaullah
    1956 Jan The first Bahá’í pioneer in what is now the Central African Republic, Samson Nkeng, arrives in Bangui from the British Cameroons. Central African Republic Samson Nkeng; pioneer
    1956 9 Dec The passing of Juliet Thompson (b. Washington, DC 1873 - d. December 9th, 1956 New York). [BW13:862-864]
    • For her memorial service at the House of Worship see Bahá'í News p475, 493.
    • After learning of the Bahá'í Faith in Washington DC near 1898 she traveled to Paris at the invitation of Laura Dreyfus-Barney's mother. Later in 1901 in Paris she met Thomas Breakwell, who gave her Arthur de Gobineau's description in French of the Execution of the Báb which confirmed her faith. In Paris she took classes on the religion from Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl. [Wiki]
    • She published her book I, Mary Magdalene in 1940. It is available at bahai-library.com/.
    • The Diary of Juliet Thompson was published by Kalimat Press in1983 from her 1947 typescript.
    • The restoration of Juliet's grave took place on December 5, 2010. After a 54 year delay, the new gravestone, commissioned by the NSA, was unveiled in the Beechwood Cemetery in New Rochelle, New York, engraved with this moving tribute from Shoghi Effendi:

      "Deplore loss of much-loved, greatly admired Juliet Thompson, outstanding, exemplary handmaid of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. Over half-century record of manifold, meritorious services, embracing the concluding years of Heroic and opening decades of Formative Ages of Bahá'í Dispensation, won her enviable position in the glorious company of triumphant disciples of the beloved Master in the Abha Kingdom. Advise hold memorial gathering in Mashriqu'l-Adhkar to pay befitting tribute to the imperishable memory of one so wholly consecrated to the Faith of Bahá'u'lláh, and fired with such consuming devotion to the Center of His Covenant."

      [December 6, 1956] (Shoghi Effendi, Citadel of Faith, p. 170)

    New Rochelle; New York; Juliet Thompson; In Memoriam
    1957 15 Nov Hands of the Cause Rúhíyyih Khánum, Mason Remey, Amelia Collins and Leroy Ioas, accompanied by Hand of the Cause Ugo Giachery, enter the apartment of Shoghi Effendi and seal with tape and wax the safe where his important documents were kept as well as the drawers to his desk. [BW13:341]
    • The keys to the safe are placed in an envelope, which is sealed and signed by the five Hands and then placed in the safe of Leroy Ioas. BW13:341]
    Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Charles Mason Remey; Amelia Collins; Leroy Ioas; Ugo Giachery
    1957 19 Nov Nine Hands of the Cause were chosen by Rúhíyyih Khánum to examine Shoghi Effendi’s apartment. [BW 13:341]
    • They were the five members of the International Bahá’í Council (Rúhíyyih Khánum, Mason Remey, Amelia Collins, Ugo Giachery and Leroy Ioas), an Afnán (Hasan Balyuzi), a representative of the Hands of the Western Hemisphere (Horace Holley), a representative of the Hands of the African continent (Músá Banání) and the Trustee of the Huqúqu’lláh (‘Alí Muhammad Varqá). [BW13:341]
    • After seeing that the seals were intact, the Hands examined the contents of Shoghi Effendi’s safe and desk. [BW13:341]
    • The nine Hands signed a document testifying that no Will or Testament of any nature executed by Shoghi Effendi had been found. This was reported to the entire body of Hands assembled in the Mansion of Bahjí. [BW13:341]
    • See CB378–9 for an explanation of why Shoghi Effendi left no Will.
    Haifa; Bahji Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; International Bahai Council; Charles Mason Remey; Amelia Collins; Ugo Giachery; Leroy Ioas; Hasan Balyuzi; Horace Holley; Musa Banani; Varqa, Ali-Muhammad
    1957 25 Nov Nine Hands are chosen to serve as Custodians of the Faith residing in the Holy Land. [BBD57; BW13:342; DH215]
    • The Hands residing in the Holy Land are established as a legal body under the title ‘The Custodians of the Bahá’í World Faith’.
    • The Hands chosen as first Custodians are Rúhíyyih Khánum, Mason Remey, Amelia Collins, Leroy Ioas, Hasan Balyuzi, ‘Alí Akbar Furútan, Jalál Kházeh, Paul Haney and Adelbert Mühlschlegel. [BW13:345–6; MC40–1]
    Haifa; BWC Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Hands of the Cause, Institution; Custodians; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Charles Mason Remey; Amelia Collins; Leroy Ioas; Hasan Balyuzi; Ali Akbar Furutan; Jalal Khazeh; Paul Haney; Adelbert Muhlschlegel; Appointed arm
    1958 21–24 Mar The second Intercontinental Conference held at the mid-point of the Crusade convenes in Sydney, Australia. [BW13:319]
    • Hand of the Cause Charles Mason Remey, who had been designated by the Guardian as his representative and who is the architect of the Mother Temple of Australasia, attends, accompanied by four other Hands of the Cause. [BW13:317]
    • For the message of the Custodians to the conference see MC72–5.
    • For a report of the conference see BW13:319–21.
    Sydney; Australia; Australasia Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Charles Mason Remey; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Sydney; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architecture; Architects
    1958 22 Mar The foundation stone of the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár of the Antipodes is laid by Hands of the Cause Charles Mason Remey and Clara Dunn. [BW13:321] Sydney; Australia Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Sydney; Charles Mason Remey; Clara Dunn; Foundation stones and groundbreaking
    1959 23 Oct - 1 Nov The third Conclave of the Hands of the Cause of God is convened at Bahjí. [BW13:351; MC161–2]
    • For the agenda of the meeting see MC163–4.
    • Charles Mason Remey unsuccessfully attempts to convince his fellow Hands that the Guardianship should continue. [BBRSM130; MC217]
    Akka Bahji; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Charles Mason Remey; Guardianship; Covenant-breakers
    1959 4 Nov The Hands of the Cause issue a message from their third Conclave. [MC166–70]
    • The date for the election of the Universal House of Justice is fixed at Ridván 1963. [MC166]
    • They call for the election at Ridván 1961 of 21 national spiritual assemblies in Latin America. [MC167–8]
    • They call for the election at Ridván 1962 of 11 national spiritual assemblies in Europe. [MC168]
    • They call for the election at Ridván 1961 of the International Bahá’í Council by postal ballot of the members of the national and regional spiritual assemblies constituted at Ridván 1960. [MC168]
    • The name of Hand of the Cause Charles Mason Remey is missing from the list of signatories to this letter. [MC170]
    Akka Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Universal House of Justice, Election of; International Bahai Council; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers
    1960 Ridván c. Hand of the Cause Charles Mason Remey claims he is the second, ‘hereditary’ Guardian of the Bahá’í Faith. [BW13:397; BW16:90; SS49]
    • See MC205–6, 231–6 for details of Remey’s claims.
    • See also BBRSM130-1, 138–9; CB386–91; MC196–217, 223–8; SBBH1:220, NOTE 207.
    BWC; Haifa Charles Mason Remey; Guardianship; Covenant-breakers
    1960 27 Apr The International Bahá’í Council by unanimous vote rejects the claim of Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC206–7] Haifa International Bahai Council; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
    1960 28 Apr The Custodians call upon all believers to join the Hands in repudiation of the claims of Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC196–7] Haifa Custodians; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
    1960 30 Apr – 10 May Twenty–four national spiritual assemblies and five national conventions send messages of support to the Custodians, repudiating the claim made by Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC199–202]
    • The National Spiritual Assembly of France votes to recognize the claim. [MC203]
    BWC; Haifa; France NSA; Custodians; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
    1960 5 May Hand of the Cause Abu’l-Qásim Faizí is sent by the Custodians to France to meet with the National Spiritual Assembly and Bahá’ís of France. [MC197]
    • After consultation, five members of the assembly continue to support Charles Mason Remey in his claim to be the second Guardian and resign from the assembly. The national assembly is dissolved. [MC203]
    BWC; Haifa; France Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Abul-Qasim Faizi; NSA; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
    1960 12 – 31 May Six national spiritual assemblies send messages of support to the Custodians, repudiating the claim made by Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC207–8] NSA; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
    1960 13 May The International Bahá’í Council writes to the Custodians recording its decision taken on 27 April to reject the claims of Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [Mc206–7] Haifa International Bahai Council; Charles Mason Remey; Custodians; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
    1960 26 Jul The Hands of the Cause of God declare Charles Mason Remey a Covenant-breaker. [BBRSM221; MC224–5] Haifa Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers
    1961 17 Sep The House of Worship in Sydney is officially opened by Hand of the Cause Rúhíyyih Khánum in two public services, each attended by 900 people. [BW13:732]
    • For message of the Custodians to the dedication service see MC309–12.
    • For cable of the Custodians to the Bahá’ís of the world see MC313.
    Quick Facts
    Location: Sydney, Australia (Ingleside on the MonaVale Road).
    Foundation Stone: 26 Jan 1958 (Clara Dunn and Hand of the Cause Charles Mason Remey, who had been designated by the Guardian as his representative, while attending the 2nd International Conference 21-24 March, 1958. A small bag of earth from the inner Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh and a piece of plaster from the room of the Báb in Máh-Kú was deposited under the floor.)
    Construction Period: 1957-1961
    Site Dedication:16 September 1961 (Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum brought a gift from the Guardian- a green silk carpet from the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh.)
    Architect C.M. Remey
    Seating: 500
    Dimensions: 124ft at the base and 130ft high
    Cost: Original budget was 120,000 Pounds Sterling
    Dependencies:
    References: BW13:319-322, BW13p720-732 CEBF241
    Sydney; Australia Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Sydney; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Dedications; Clara Dunn; Charles Mason Remey; Architects; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Mah-Ku; Gifts; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1963 22 Apr The results of the election of the Universal House of Justice are announced at the close of the morning session of the International Convention: Charles Wolcott, ‘Alí Nakhjavání, H. Borrah Kavelin, Ian Semple, Lutfu’lláh Hakím, David Hofman, Hugh Chance, Amoz Gibson and Hushmand Fatheazam. [BBD231–3; BBRSM131; BW14:425 MC425; SS50; VVXI-XII]
    • For a picture of the Hands of the Cause of God with the Universal House of Justice see ZK123.
    Haifa; BWC Charles Wolcott; Ali Nakhjavani; H. Borrah Kavelin; Ian Semple; Lutfullah Hakim; David Hofman; Hugh Chance; Amoz Gibson; Hushmand Fatheazam; Universal House of Justice, Election of; Elections; Conventions, International; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Firsts, Other
    1964 5 Nov Followers of Charles Mason Remey file suit in the United States District Court for Northern Illinois against the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States, claiming they are the rightful owners of all Bahá’í properties and funds in the United States. [BW14:95]
    • The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States files a counter claim asking the court to restrain the Covenant-breakers from using Bahá’í names and symbols protected by trademark. [BW14:95]
    United States Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; NSA; Court cases; Copyright and trademarks; Criticism and apologetics
    1965 23 Mar The case filed by the followers of Charles Mason Remey against the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States is dismissed on technical grounds. [BW14:95]
    • The Covenant-breakers file a further suit. [BW14:95]
    United States Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; National Spiritual Assemblies; Court cases; Copyright and trademarks
    1966 8 Mar The second suit brought against the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States by the followers of Charles Mason Remey, who claim to he the lawful owners of all Bahá’í properties and funds in the United States, is dismissed. [BW14:95] United States Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; National Spiritual Assemblies; Court cases; Copyright and trademarks
    1966 1 Jun The counter-claim of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States against the followers of Charles Mason Remey restraining them from using Bahá’í names and symbols, is upheld when the Covenant-breakers fail to appear at the trial. [BW14:95] United States Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; National Spiritual Assemblies; Copyright and trademarks; Court cases; Criticism and apologetics
    1968 Ridván The Universal House of Justice is elected for a second time by delegates from 81 National Spiritual Assemblies. [BW15:557]
    • Dr David Ruhe is elected to replace Dr Hakím, who resigned for reasons of ill health. The members were: Amoz Gibson, 'Ali Nakhjavani, Hushmand Fatheazam, Ian Semple, Charles Wolcott, David Hofman, H. Borrah Kavelin, Hugh Chance and David Ruhe. [VV3]
    • For a description of the second international convention and pictures see BW14:564–8.
    Haifa; BWC Universal House of Justice, Election of; Elections; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Conventions, International; Amoz Gibson; Ali Nakhjavani; Hushmand Fatheazam; Ian Semple; Charles Wolcott; David Hofman; H. Borrah Kavelin; Hugh Chance; David Ruhe
    1972 29 Apr The House of Worship in Panama is dedicated in a series of ceremonies held throughout the day attended by Hands of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, Ugo Giachery and Dhikru’lláh Khádem and four thousand Bahá’ís. [BW15:634; VV14]
    • For the history of the House of Worship see BW15:643–6.
    • For statistics on the House of Worship see BW15:647–9.
    Quick Facts
    Location: Panama City, Panama (On the Cerro Sonsonate (Singing Hill), a few miles north of Panama City)
    Foundation Stone: 8 October 1967 (Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum)
    Construction Period: 1969-1972
    Site Dedication: 29 April, 1972 (Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum)
    Architect Peter Tillotson
    Seating: 550
    Dimensions:
    Cost:
    Dependencies:
    References: BW14p493, BW15p632-649
    Panama Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Panama; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Dedications; Ugo Giachery; Dhikrullah Khadem; Peter Tillotson; Architects; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1974 4 Feb The death of Charles Mason Remey, Hand of the Cause of God (1951-60) and subsequently a Covenant-breaker. in Florence, Italy. (b.15 May 1874) [Wikipedia]
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
    • He was declared a Covenant-breaker by the Hands of the Cause on the 26th of July, 1960.
    Florence; Italy Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Births and deaths
    1982 14 May Amoz Gibson, a member of the Universal House of Justice from 1963 until 1982, passes away in Haifa. [BW18:669; VV52]
    • For his obituary see BW18:665–9.
    • Elected to the Universal House of Justice was Mr. Glenford Mitchell. He was born in Jamaica and held a Masters degree in journalism from Columbia University. An author, he had worked as a magazine editor and managing editor and taught English and journalism at Howard University. He served as chief executive officer of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States from 1968 until his electinn to the Universal House of Justice. [BWNS208]
    BWC Amoz Gibson; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Glenford Mitchell; BWNS
    1985 1 – 4 Aug An International Youth Conference to support the United Nations International Youth Year is held in Port Dickson, Malaysia, attended by 1,300 youth from 15 countries, the largest gathering of Bahá’ís ever held in Malaysia. [BW19:301] Port Dickson; Malaysia; Asia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth; International Youth Year
    1992 18 Mar The martyrdom of Mr. Bahman Samandari in the Evin prison in Tehran. Mr. Samandari was executed with no advance notice and in the absence of due process. A 52 year-old businessman from a distinguished Bahá'í family, he was buried secretly on 20 March 1992 and his family was not notified until 5 April 1992. This was the first execution in three and one-half years. It belied the public position taken by the Iránian government that the Bahá'ís were not being persecuted for their religious beliefs. [AWH118-9, VV126] Tihran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Evin Prison
    1992 25 Mar William Sears, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Tucson, Arizona. (28 March, 1911) [BINS267; VV124]
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
    Tucson; Arizona; United States Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; William Sears; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Third Contingent
    1993 23 May The following is a list of Counsellors appointed to the International Teaching Centre for a five-year term: Mr. Kiser Barnes, Mr. Hartmut Grossmann, Mrs. Lauretta King, Mrs. Joan Lincoln, Mr. Shapoor Monadjem, Mr. Donald Rogers, Mr. Fred Schechter, Mrs. Kimiko Schwerin, Mrs. Joy Stevenson. Retiring members were: Mr. Mas'úd Khamsí and Mr. Peter Vuyiya. [From a message from the Universal House of Justice dated the 13th of May, 1993] BWC Universal House of Justice; Counsellors; International Teaching Centre, Members of; Kiser Barnes; Hartmut Grossmann; Lauretta King; Joan Lincoln; Shapoor Monadjem; Donald Rogers; Fred Schechter; Kimiko Schwerin; Joy Stevenson; Masud Khamsi; Peter Vuyiya
    1994 Jan The first winter school of Mongolia is held in Songino, near Ulaan Baatar. [BINS310:6] Songino; Mongolia First summer and winter schools
    2003 7 – 9 Feb The dedication of the Louis G. Gregory Museum in his birthplace, Charleston, South Carolina. [BWNS188, Wilmette Institute, Bahá'í Encyclopedia]
    • For biographical information on Hand of the Cause Louis Gregory see Gayle Morrison, To Move the World: Louis G. Gregory and the Advancement of Racial Unity in America (Wilmette, IL, USA Bahá’í Publishing Trust, 1982, 1999 printing).
    Charleston; South Carolina Louis Gregory Museum; Louis Gregory; Gayle Morrison; BWNS
    2004 Jun After 15 years of negotiations, research, and planning, the restoration work began on the cell used to imprison Bahá'u'lláh when He was first incarcerated in ‘Acre. Approved by government authorities keen to preserve the heritage of the site, the project was supervised and financed by the Bahá'í World Centre. [BWNS336] Akka; BWC; Haifa Bahaullah, Prison cell of; Restoration; Pilgrimage; World Centre; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; BWNS
    2004 24 Nov The announcement of the completion of the restoration of the prison citadel that was occupied by Bahá'u'lláh and His family upon arrival in Akka I on August 31st, 1868. [BWNS336] Akka; BWC; Haifa Bahaullah, Prison cell of; Citadel; BWNS; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Restoration
    2008 5 Mar Mahvash Sabet – a schoolteacher and mother of two and a member of the national-level administrative group for Iran, the Yaran – was arrested having been summoned to Mashhad to discuss some matters regarding a Bahá'í burial. She subsequently spent 175 days in solitary confinement. On the 26th of May she was moved to Evin prison in Tehran. [BWNS Special Report]
    This arrest marked a new wave of persecution of the Bahá'í Faith in Iran.
    Mashhad; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution; Evin prison; BWNS; Mahvash Sabet
    2008 Sep After enduring 3.5 months of solitary confinement, the imprisoned members of the Yaran were transferred to a regular prison cell, still at the notorious Evin Prison, where they could interact with other prisoners. A month later, they were separated from other prisoners; the five men have been kept in one cell and the two women in another, isolated from others. Their status was still noted as “temporary detention”. [Iran Press Watch 1505] Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Evin prison
    2009 10 Jul Iranian officials told the families of the seven Baha'i leaders being held in Evin prison in Tehran that their trial has been delayed. No new trial date was given. [BWNS723] Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Evin prison; BWNS
    2010 8 Aug The sentence of 20 years in prison was announced for members of the "Yaran-i-Iran" or "Friends of Iran" in Branch 28 of the Revolutionary Court presided over by Judge Moqayesseh (or Moghiseh)*. The charges were several: "espionage", "collaborating with enemy states", "insulting the sacred", "propaganda against the state" and "forming an illegal group". The prominent civil and human rights lawyer who defended them was Mr Abdolfattah Soltani. He would later serve a 13-year sentence in the Evin Prison for engaging in his profession. Another member of their legal defense team was the attorney Hadi Esmailzadeh who died in 2016 while serving a 4-year prison term for defending human rights cases. After the sentencing the seven Bahá'í leaders were sent to Raja’i prison in the city of Karaj (Gohardasht) , about 50 kilometers west of Tehran. [BWNS789]
    • Raja’i prison in Mashhad has frequently been criticized by human rights advocates for its unsanitary environment, lack of medical services, crowded prison cells and unfair treatment of inmates by guards. [Wikipedia; Iran Press Watch 6315].
    • Soon after their arrival four of the Yaran were transferred to room 17 in Section 6 of this notorious prison. Section 6 is infamous in human rights circles. It has often been the scene of bloody fighting among prisoners and it is considered extremely dangerous. It is where certain political prisoners are sent to vanish. At first the Mafia-like gangs incarcerated in the same facility began to refer to the Yaran as “infidels”. The authorities have also tried to pressure other prisoners to insult and belittle the newly-arrived Bahá'ís, but it appears that most other prisoners have so far refused to comply with this suggestion. In fact, it is reported that most other prisoners are showing considerable respect to the Baha’is and try to be hospitable. [Iran Press Watch 667]

      * For a profile of Judge Mohammad Moghiseh see Iran Press Watch 17764 .

    Tihran; Mashhad; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution; Court cases; Evin Prison; Gohardasht prison; Abdolfattah Soltani; Hadi Esmailzadeh; Human rights; Prisons; BWNS; Z**** Moghiseh
    2010 Sep Following the reduction of his sentence, Vahid Tizfahm was transferred to Rajai-Shahr prison, where he remained until his release. Rajai-Shahr is located in the Alborz Province, and was at the time a maximum-security prison, a place for the “dangerous” individuals. According to Iran’s Department of Prisons, Security and Corrections’ Regulations, and based on the principle of Segregation of Crimes, Tizfahm’s transfer to Rajai-Shahr was not legal. [Iran Press Watch 29 March, 2018] Rajai-Shahr; Iran Yaran; Vahid Tizfahm; Rajai-Shahr prison; Prisons; Persecution, Iran; Z****
    2011 12 Feb Mahvash Sabet and Fariba Kamalabadi were transferred to the notorious Section 200 of Gohardasht Prison. The circumstances of the move raised concerns that it may have been orchestrated as a means of creating an insecure environment that threatens their lives.
    Since their arrival at Gohardasht, the Baha'i women – despite their own extremely challenging situation – had nonetheless been a constant source of comfort and hope to other inmates. The prison authorities apparently became alarmed that the two women began to receive signs of respect from a growing number of prisoners. As a justification for the increased harsh treatment, the authorities accused the two of teaching the Baha'i Faith. While Gohardasht is infamous for its harsh and unsanitary conditions, the Baha'i prisoners were at first kept segregated from some of the more violent elements at the complex. They also had relatively frequent access to outdoor exercise areas. [BWNS807; BWNS821]
    Mashhad; Iran Fariba Kamalabadi; Mahvash Sabet; Gohardasht Prison; BWNS; Yaran
    2011 3 May Mrs. Fariba Kamalabadi and Mrs. Mahvash Sabet were transported to Qarchak prison, some 45 kilometres from Tehran where the conditions were even worse than those at Rajaei Shahr Prison. [BWNS821] Qarchak; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Qarchak prison; Rajaei Shahr Prison; Prisons; BWNS Conflict with below
    2011 3 May After conviction the women were transferred to the even more notorious Rajaei Shahr Prison in Karaj, near Tehran. In that prison, Fariba Kamalabadi, Mahvash Sabet, and a number of political prisoners were locked up in the communal ward with hundreds of ordinary female prisoners — inmates incarcerated for crimes not linked to politics. When authorities closed the women’s ward of that prison, the prisoners were all transferred to Gharchak Prison in Varamin near Tehran, where the conditions were even worse than those at Rajaei Shahr Prison. [IranWire4985] Karaj; Varamin Mahvash Sabet; Fariba Kamalabadi; Rajaei Shahr Prison Conflict with above
    2011 20 May Fariba Kamalabadi and Mahvash Sabet were returned to Evin Prison in Tehran. They had spent a brief spell in appalling conditions at Qarchak prison, (from 3 May) some 45 kilometers from Tehran. [BIC Evin; BWNS826]
    • The five men were still being held under close scrutiny in a wing of Gohardasht prison, reserved for political prisoners. [BIC Report]
    Tihran; Iran Yaran; Evin Prison; Gohardasht Prison; Qarchak prison; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Prisons; BWNS
    2011 1 Dec The head of state of the Republic of Palau, President Johnson Toribiong, paid an official visit to the Bahá'í World Centre. [BWNS870] BWC; Palau Presidents; Prominent visitors; Johnson Toribiong; Islands; BWNS
    2014 13 Mar From Rejai Shahr Prison Mr. Behrouz Tavakkoli wrote a letter to his first grandchild who had just been born three days prior in Canada. The letter can be found at Iran Press Watch 9766. Rejai Shahr Prison Behrouz Tavakkoli; Yaran; Z****
    2014 Nov Fariba Kamalabadi, after having her fourth request to join her daughter Taraneh for her wedding denied, wrote her a letter from Evin Prison. [Iran Press Watch]
    • See Iran Press Watch 11274 for Taraneh's story of how she grew up without her mother.
    Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Evin Prison; Prisons; Human rights; Taraneh Kamalabadi; Fariba Kamalabadi; Z****
    2016 Apr The passing of former member of the International Teaching Centre, Joy Stevenson (b. 1919) in Queanbeyan, Australia. She made a distinctive contribution to the advancement of Baha'i communities in Australasia as a Counsellor and an Auxiliary Board member and as a member of the National Spiritual Assembly of Australia. [BWNS1103] Queanbeyan; Australia In Memoriam; Joy Stevenson; International Teaching Centre, Members of; BWNS
    2016 13 May Fariba Kamalabadi, while on a five-day furlough from Evin Prison, met with former Tehran MP Faezeh Hashemi. It was the first temporary leave she had been granted during her eight years of imprisonment.

    Faezeh Hashemi was the activist daughter of former President Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani and she previously shared a prison cell with Kamalabadi in Evin Prison. Hashemi was strongly condemned by politicians and religious leaders. A high-ranking member of the Iranian Judiciary vowed that action will be taken against her. Despite the widespread criticism she received from powerful quarters in Iran, Faezeh Hashemi publicly defended her decision to meet with Kamalabadi. [Iran Press Watch, from NY Times, BWNS1108]

    Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Evin prison; BWNS
    2016 24 Nov From her cell in Evin prison, In a open letter to her six-month old granddaughter, Bajar. Fariba Kamalabadi one of the members of the imprisoned Yaran of Iran, wrote about the suffering of the Bahá'í citizens and of her dreams for humanity. [Iran Press Watch 16140] Tihran; Iran Yaran; Evin Prison; Prisons; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights
    2017 19 Sep Mahvash Sabet, one of the seven members of the former leadership group of the Baha'is in Iran known as the Yaran, was relesed after 10 years of confinement in Iran's notorious Evin and Raja'i Shahr prisons. She had been arrested in March 2008 and was now 64 years old. Mrs. Sabet distinguished herself by the loving care and kindness she extended to her fellow prisoners. As has occurred with prisoners of conscience, writers, thought-leaders, and poets who have been wrongly imprisoned throughout history, the power of Mrs. Sabet's ideas and beliefs was only amplified by her persecution. The plight of its author attracted attention to this deeply moving collection of poetry, inspiring PEN International to feature Mrs. Sabet in a campaign to defend persecuted writers. Her poems also inspired a musical composition by award-winning composer Lasse Thoresen, performed at an international music festival in Oslo earlier this year. [BWNS1198]
  • See Prison Poems.
  • See CNN article Writing to survive: Baha'i woman's poetry was her best friend in Iranian jail.
  • Tihran; Iran Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Court cases; Human rights; Evin prison; Rajai Shahr prison; Prisons; Poetry; Music; Lasse Thoresen; BWNS
    2018 23 Apr Afif Naeimi, the seventh and last imprisoned member of the Yaran, returned to Rajaee Shahr Prison (also known as Gohardasht Prison) near Tehran at the end of his medical leave despite suffering from life-threatening ailments. On May 1 the judiciary’s medical experts had ruled that the 57-year-old is too ill to be incarcerated. Naeimi, who has completed his 10-year prison sentence, should have been released by that time but the judiciary extended his term by more than nine months—the period he was out of prison on furlough receiving medical treatment. He has hypertrophy, a condition where the heart muscle thickens and he is afflicted with Syncope disease, which causes temporary losses of consciousness. [Iran Press Watch 18975; Iran Press Watch 18975] Tihran; Iran Yaran; Rajaei Shahr Prison; Prisons; Persecution, Iran

    from the main catalogue

    1. Akka Traditions (hadith) in the Epistle to the Son of the Wolf, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 4 (2003). [about]
    2. Amoz Everett Gibson: The First Black Member of the Universal House of Justice, by Richard Francis (1998). Biography of a prominent black Baha'i teacher and former member of the Universal House of Justice. [about]
    3. Apparent Contradictions in the Bahá'í Writings, Reconciliation of, by Universal House of Justice (2002). On apparent contradictions, regarding Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl on Abraham and Zoroaster; 'Abdu'l-Bahá and a Baby Naming Ceremony; Minimum Age of Marriage; Smoking and Firmness in the Covenant; Corporal Punishment; Táhirih as "Woman Suffragette." [about]
    4. Arches of the Years, by Marzieh Gail (1991). Early days of the Bahá'í faith in America and of Abdu'l-Bahá's visit in 1912; Phoebe Hearst; Versailles Conference; and about Marzieh Gail herself. [about]
    5. Authority of the Hands of the Cause to direct the Faith and expel Covenant-breakers, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Authority of the Hands of the Cause assume control of the Faith and eject Covenant-breakers following Shoghi Effendi's passing. [about]
    6. Babies, on the Naming of, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Universal House of Justice (1998). [about]
    7. Bahá'í Faith in Iran, The, by John Walbridge, in Essays and Notes on Babi and Bahá'í History (2002). Includes essay "Three Clerics and a Prince of Isfahan: background to Bahá'u'lláh's Epistle to the Son of the Wolf" and bios of Ayatollah Khomeini and Zill al-Sultan. [about]
    8. Bahá'í Philosophy of Human Nature, The, by Ian Kluge, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 27:1-2 (2017). How the essential reality of the individual — the human soul and its powers of rational thought, willpower, memory, and reflection — translates these capacities into physical action through the intermediary of the brain. [about]
    9. Bahá'í Songbooks, with Chords (2008). Two separate compilations, with lyrics and chords to songs by Gloria Faizi, Red and Kathy Grammer, Kathy Liebman, Cat Winterfox, Jackie Elliot, Tom Price, Steve Seskin, Allen Shamblin, Mildred McClellan, Wiley Rinaldi, Bob Simms, Lloyd Haynes, et al. [about]
    10. Bahá'u'lláh's Epistle to the Son of the Wolf, by Marzieh Gail, in World Order, 12:2 (1946). A meditation on the themes of ESW. [about]
    11. Center of the Covenant: Tablet to Mason Remey, interview with Badi'u'llah, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Badi'u'llah, in Star of the West, 3:7 (1912). Brief interview conducted by Howard MacNutt. Includes a tablet from Abdu'l-Baha to Mason Remey. [about]
    12. Chihriq, by Juan Cole and Amir Hassanpour, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 4 (1990). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
    13. Child of Mine, by Kamelia Khoshmashrab (2015). A composition for expectant parents, featuring quotations from the Bahá’í Writings on topics such as pre-pregnancy, infant health, naming a child, parental roles, and postpartum depression. [about]
    14. Commentary on a Passage in the Epistle to the Son of the Wolf, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 14 (2013). Short biography of the Son of the Wolf, Aqa Najafi; summary of persecutions from 1874-1903; and the Epistle's references to Qayyumu’l-Asma and the Muslim dawn prayer for Ramadan. [about]
    15. Compilation of Bahá'í Songs: Bahá'í Song Book (2005). Lyrics to 95 popular Baha'i songs, including prayers and writings that are often sung. [about]
    16. Dawn over Mount Hira and Other Essays, by Marzieh Gail (1976). A collection of essays on various topics of interest to Baha'i studies and history. Most of these were first published in Star of the West and World Order between 1929 and 1971. [about]
    17. Diary of Juliet Thompson, by Juliet Thompson and Marzieh Gail (1983). Experiences in the life of Juliet Thompson, a prominent early Baha'i and friend of Abdu'l-Baha. Includes preface by Marzieh Gail. [about]
    18. Epistle to the Son of the Wolf, by Bahá'u'lláh (1979). [about]
    19. Epistle to the Son of the Wolf (Lawh-i-Ibn-i-Dhib): Study Guide, by Melanie Smith. A study guide distributed to students of the Wilmette Institute by the US Baha'i National Center; posted here with permission of author and of the USBNC. [about]
    20. Epistle to the Son of the Wolf (Lawh-i-Ibn-i-Dhib): Excerpts from Revelation of Baha'u'llah, by Adib Taherzadeh, in The Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh 1877-92, Vol. IV, Mazra'ih & Bahjí (1987). Excerpts from chapters 24-25, compiled for the Wilmette Institute. [about]
    21. Epistle to the Son of the Wolf (Lawh-i-Ibn-i-Dhib): Self-quotations from Baha'u'llah found in Epistle to the Son of the Wolf (1998). Compares Baha'u'llah's self-quotations in the Epistle with their earlier versions. [about]
    22. Epistle to the Son of the Wolf (Lawh-i-Ibn-i-Dhib): Biography of Siyyid Ismail of Zavarih, by Iraj Ayman (1999). [about]
    23. Epistle to the Son of the Wolf (Lawh-i-Ibn-i-Dhib): Wilmette Institute faculty notes, by Michael W. Sours and Iraj Ayman (1999). [about]
    24. Epistle to the Son of the Wolf (Lawh-i-Ibn-i-Dhib): The Lesser Peace, by Michael W. Sours (1999). [about]
    25. Epistle to the Son of the Wolf (Lawh-i-Ibn-i-Dhib): Introduction to, by Marzieh Gail (1953). [about]
    26. Epistola al Hijo del Lobo, by Bahá'u'lláh. Spanish translation of Epistle to the Son of the Wolf [about]
    27. Foreword to 'Abdu'l-Baha in America: The Diary of Agnes Parsons, by Sandra Hutchison, in Abdu'l-Bahá in America: The Diary of Agnes Parsons (1996). Overview of 'Abdu'l-Baha's journeys to America and his meetings with Agnes Parsons. [about]
    28. Historical Analysis of Critical Transformations in the Evolution of the Bahá'í World Faith, An, by Vernon Elvin Johnson (1974). Detailed study of major changes in the Faith's history, opposition to such changes, and their resulting tensions and resolutions. [about]
    29. Human Intellect, The: A Bahá'í-Inspired Perspective, by Adrian John Davis, in Lights of Irfan, Book 2 (2001). [about]
    30. I, Mary Magdalene, by Juliet Thompson (1940). Semi-autobiographical account of Thompson's contact with Abdu'l-Baha. [about]
    31. Indexes to Bahá'í World volumes: Obituaries, chronologies, contents, illustrations, in Bahá'í World (2013). Seven separate indexes for Bahá'í World, in PDF, Word, and Excel versions. [about]
    32. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram: In Memoriam, by Anthony Lee (2004). A short biography of Baha'i scholar and archivist R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram, who passed away October 20, 2004. [about]
    33. Jesus the Son of God and the Incarnation Doctrine, by Antonella Khursheed and Anjam Khursheed, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 1 (1996). The Baha'i approach to the sonship and divinity of Christ is consistent with Old and New Testament usage. It examines the Incarnation Doctrine, the roots of which can be traced to pagan influences coloring Christian belief in its early centuries. [about]
    34. Journal Diary of European Baha'i Travels: April - November 1948, by Charles Mason Remey (1948). A record of Remey's visits across Europe, from England to Germany. Includes coverage of Bahá'í participation in the first U.N. convention on Human Rights, held in Geneva. [about]
    35. Knowledge of God, The: An Essay on Bahá'í Epistemology, by Jack McLean, in World Order (1978). Knowledge of the divine is the beginning of all things. This can come through the investigative faculty, the path of reason, or through intuition and mysticism, the path of the heart. [about]
    36. La Raison dans les Ecrits baha'is: Son importance, sa fonction, son usage, by Ian Kluge (2013). French translation of "Reason and the Bahá'í Writings." [about]
    37. Letter to Jináb-i-Áqá Mírzá Bádí'u'lláh Khán of Abadih, by Shoghi Effendi (1997). Answers four questions: (1) re "Crimson Scroll"; (2) re the "Sacred Night"; (3) re the "Tablet of the Bell"; and (4) using the Kitab-i-Aqdas for bibliomancy. [about]
    38. Mary Magdalene: Lioness of God in the Bahai Faith, by Lil Osborn (2013). On the symbolic role of Mary Magdalene in the Baha’i tradition as a female archetype in the context of the doctrine of "return," and thus linked to the poet Tahirih, heroine of the Babi-Baha’i dispensation. [about]
    39. Mason Remey and Those Who Followed Him, by Universal House of Justice (1997). Letter from the US NSA on the importance of commitment to the covenant, a letter from the UHJ on covenant-breaking, and the history "Mason Remey and Those Who Followed Him." [about]
    40. Mayflowers in the Ville Lumière: The Dawning of Bahá'í History in the European Continent, by Julio Savi, in Lights of Irfan, 12 (2011). In intellectual and artistic Paris of the fin de siècle, a young American becomes the catalyst for the spiritual awakening of a group of early believers. The paper examines the mysterious ways through which they came to recognize the dawn of the new era. [about]
    41. Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
    42. Most Great Peace (a rap), by Brett Zamir (2007). [about]
    43. Obituary: James Nelson, by Keith Thursby, in Los Angeles Times (2011). [about]
    44. Passing of Shoghi Effendi, Ministry of the Hands of the Cause, and Defection of Mason Remey, The, by Shahin Vafai, in The Essence of the Covenant: Features, History, and Implications (2005). [about]
    45. Persian and Arabic names, by Hasan M. Balyuzi and Marzieh Gail, in The Báb (1973). Explanations of the elaborate system of Persian names and titles used in the nineteenth century. [about]
    46. Personal Names and Titles in Islamic and Baha'i Usage, by John Walbridge, in Essays and Notes on Babi and Baha'i History (2002). [about]
    47. President Wilson and the Bahá'í Connection, by Paul Pearsall, in Herald of the South (1988). Short overview of myths and facts on the Wilson-Baha'i connection. Includes addenda on the League of Nations, by Vincent Littrell, and on the Fourteen Points, by Bahram Nadini. [about]
    48. Reason and the Bahá'í Writings, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, 14 (2013). The Baha'i Faith has much to say on the importance of reason, logic, and a "rational God," but the mind alone is not sufficient to attain transrational understanding. This paper examines the uses and limitations of reason in light of cultural differences. [about]
    49. Remey, Charles Mason, by Robert Stockman (1995). [about]
    50. Sermon of the Gulf (Khutbih Tutunjiyyih): Introduction, by Khazeh Fananapazir (2000). Essay on Imám `Alí's sermon, which is also the source of Bahá'u'lláh's quote in Epistle to the Son of the Wolf, "Anticipate ye the Revelation of Him Who conversed with Moses from the Burning Bush on Sinai." [about]
    51. Statement on Mason Remey from the Western Hands of the Faith, by Corinne True and Hermann Grossmann (1960). Background information on the claims of Remey, compiled by the Hands of the Cause of God in the Western hemisphere. [about]
    52. Symbolic Profile of the Bahá'í Faith, A, by Christopher Buck, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:4 (1998). [about]
    53. These Perspicuous Verses: A passage from the Writings of Baha'u'llah, by Robert W. McLaughlin (1982). Detailed study of a section from Ishraqat and Epistle to the Son of the Wolf. [about]
    54. Women and Religious Change: A case study in the colonial migrant experience, by Miriam Dixson, in Australian Bahá'í Studies, vol. 2 (2000). The story of Margaret Dixson, and one woman's growth from Anglicanism, via numerology and astrology, to commitment to the world ideals of the Baha'i Faith. [about]
     
    See all tags, sorted numerically or alphabetically.
    Home Site Map Forum Links Copyright About Contact
    .
    . .