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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1840 The British fleet take `Akká from the Egyptians. [BBR202] Akka; Israel; Egypt; United Kingdom History (general)
1845. 1 Nov The Times of London carries an item on the arrest and torture of Quddús, Mullá Sádiq-i-Khurásání, Mullá `Alí-Akbar-i-Ardistání and Mullá Abú-Tálib in Shíráz in June. This is the first known printed reference to the Revelation. A similar article is reprinted on 19 November. [B76–7; BBR4, 69] Shiraz; Iran; London; United Kingdom Quddus; Ismullahul-Asdaq (Mulla Sadiq Khurasani); Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Ardistani; Mulla Abu-Talib; Times (newspaper); Newspaper articles; Firsts, Other First newspaper story of the events of the Bábí Faith
1847. 22 Feb Birth of Thornton Chase, designated the first American Bahá'í, in Springfield, Massachusetts. Springfield; Massachusetts; United States Thornton Chase; Births and deaths
1848 19 - 20 Jul The Women's Rights Convention was held in the Wesleyan Chapel at Seneca Falls, NY. The principle organizer was Lucretia Mott, with Elizabeth Cady Stanton as its driving intellect. A significant role was played by an African-American man, an abolitionist and a recently freed slave, Frederick Douglass. The convention adopted a Declaration of Rights and Sentiments that consisted of 11 resolutions including the right for women to vote. The signatories were the 68 women and 32 men in attendance. The right for women to vote became part of the United States Constitution in 1920. [The Calling: Tahirih of Persia and her American Contemporaries p114-160, "Seneca Falls First Woman's Rights Convention of 1848: The Sacred Rites of the Nation" by Bradford W. Miller (Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8.3, 1998)]
  • This conference has been compared to the Conference of Badasht with respect to the emancipation of women and entrenched prejudices.
Seneca Falls; New York; United States; Badasht; Iran Womens rights; Human rights; African Americans; Women; Gender; Equality; Conference of Badasht; Tahirih
1852. 21 Feb Birth of Isabella Brittingham, prominent American Bahá'í teacher, in New York City. New York; United States Isabella Brittingham; Births and deaths
1852 20 Mar The publication of Uncle Tom's Cabin; or, Life Among the Lowly by Harriet Beecher Stowe. It was the best-selling novel of the 19th century and the second best-selling book of that century, following the Bible. It is credited with helping fuel the abolitionist cause in the 1850s. In recent years, the negative associations with Uncle Tom's Cabin have, to an extent, overshadowed the historical impact of the book as a "vital antislavery tool. [Wikipedia]
  • Harriet Beecher Stowe was an ancestor of Ellen "Mother" Beecher who was a grandmother of Hand of the Cause of God Dorothy Baker.
United States Uncle Tom's Cabin: Life Among the Lowly; English literature; Literature; Race (general); Harriet Beecher Stowe; Ellen Beecher; Hands of the Cause; Dorothy Baker
1855 5 Mar Birth of John Henry Hyde Dunn, Hand of the Cause, in London. London; United Kingdom John Henry Hyde Dunn; birth; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
1855. 15 Oct 1855 or 1856 Birth of Robert Turner, first black American Bahá'í. United States Robert Turner; Births and deaths
1863. 18 Apr Birth of William Henry (Harry) Randall, Disciple of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, in Boston. Boston; Massachusetts; United States William Harry Randall; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Births and deaths
1867 16 March An appeal by 53 Bahá’ís is sent from Shushtar, Iran addressed to the US Congress. Shushtar; Iran; United States Petitions; United States government; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution 1867 Petition
1867. Apr The appeal by 53 Bahá'ís "in Baghdád" addressed to the United States Congress arrived at the American Consulate in Beirut. [BBR265, Petition from the Persian Reformers] Baghdad; Shushtar Petitions; United States government; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution 1867 Petition
1869. 12 May Birth of Clara Davis Dunn, Hand of the Cause, in London. London; United Kingdom Clara Dunn; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
1870. 14 Jan Birth of May (or Mary) Ellis Bolles, prominent American Bahá'í teacher, in Englewood, New Jersey. Englewood; New Jersey; United States May Maxwell (Bolles); Births and deaths
1871. 1 Nov Birth of `Lua' Getsinger (Lucinda Louisa Aurora Moore), Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, Herald of the Covenant and Mother Teacher of the West. Hume NY; United States Lua Getsinger; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Births and deaths
1872 31 May Birth of Thomas Breakwell, considered the first English Bahá'í, in Woking, Surrey, England. Woking; Surrey; United Kingdom Thomas Breakwell; Births and deaths
1872. 10 Aug Birth of Martha Root, Hand of the Cause and itinerant Bahá'í teacher, in Richmond, Ohio. Richmond; Ohio; United States Martha Root; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
1873. 7 Jun Birth of Amelia Engelder Collins, Hand of the Cause, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Pittsburgh; Pennsylvania; United States Amelia Collins; Births and deaths
1874. 19 May Birth of John Ebenezer Esslemont, Hand of the Cause of God, in Aberdeen, Scotland. Aberdeen; Scotland; United Kingdom Esslemont; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
1874. 6 Jun Birth of Louis George Gregory, Hand of the Cause of God at Charleston, South Carolina. Charleston; South Carolina; United States Louis Gregory; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
1875 (In the year) Theosophy was established as a religious philosophical movement in New York City by Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (1831-1891). It contain elements of Hinduism and Buddhism and held that the purpose of all the religions was to assist humanity toward perfection and that all religions had a portion of the "truth". It has since split into a number of conflicting ideologies. [ABF9note54, Wikipedia (Blavatskian)]
  • The cordial relations between the Theosophical Society and the Bahá'í Faith helped in the spreading of the Faith in the United States, Europe and in South America.
New York; United States Theosophy; Theosophical Society; Helena Blavatsky; Esoterism; Occultism
1876. 14 Feb Birth of Keith Ransom-Kehler, Hand of the Cause and the first American Bahá'í martyr, in Kentucky. Kentucky; United States Keith Ransom-Kehler; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Firsts, Other
1879 Nov 30 Birth of Laura Clifford Barney (Laura Dreyfus-Barney) in Cincinnati, Ohio. She compiled Some Answered Questions from her interviews with `Abdu'l-Bahá during her visit to Acca between 1904 and 1906. (d. Paris 18 August 1974) Cincinnati; Ohio; United States Some Answered Questions; Laura Clifford Barney; Births and deaths
1883. June 21 Thornton Chase appears in Newspaper coverage of poem printed in The Grand Army Magazine, June 1883, "Lo! the Ranks are Thinned and Thinning" United States Thornton Chase; Newspaper articles Thornton Chase in the newspapers
1887 – 1888 E. G. Browne, the noted Orientalist, spent 12 months in Persia. An important purpose of his journey was to contact the Bábís. [BBR29]
  • For a list of his books and other works and his relationship with the Bahá'í Faith see BBR29–36.
  • Also see BBD47; Balyuzi, Edward Granville Browne and the Bahá'í Faith and Momen, Selections From the Writings of E. G. Browne.
  • While sailing from Naples to New York 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave an account of Mírzá Yahyá and his followers and of the complaints they made to Edward G. Browne: "They tampered with the contents of the history of Hájí Mírzá Jání by removing some of its passages and inserting others. They sent it to the libraries of London and Paris and through such falsehood induced him [Browne] to translate and publish the document. In order to achieve his own selfish desires, he had it printed." [Mahmúd's Diary p21]
Iran; United Kingdom Edward Granville Browne; Mirza Yahya; Covenant-breakers; Haji Mirza Jani
1888 29 Mar The first lecture in the West on the Bahá'í Faith (`Bábism') is given by E. G. Browne at the Essay Society, Newcastle, England. [SCU12] Newcastle; United Kingdom Edward Granville Browne; Firsts, Other
1889 Jun E. G. Browne gives a paper on the Bahá'í Faith (`Bábism') at the Royal Asiatic Society, London.

London; United Kingdom Edward Granville Browne; Royal Asiatic Society
1891 (In the year) A Traveller's Narrative is published in two volumes by the Cambridge University Press. [BBD226; EGB55]

It is an historical account written by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá around 1886 and first published anonymously in Persian in 1890. The English translation was prepared by Professor Edward G. Browne and first published by Cambridge University Press in 1891.

Cambridge; United Kingdom Travelers Narrative (book); Publications; First publications
1891. 15 Feb First public lecture in the West on the Bahá'í Faith, given by E. G. Browne at the Southplace Institute, London.
  • He gave a lecture to Pembroke College Literary Society in England (Martletts), at which the Faith was discussed at length.
London; United Kingdom Edward Granville Browne; Southplace Institute; Firsts, Other
1891 after 19 May Bahá'u'lláh reveals the Lawh-i-Times, Tablet to the Times in which He recounts the circumstances of the martyrdoms in Yazd. [RB4:348–50, BW18p976-7, Essay by Mehdi Wolf] Akka; London; United Kingdom; Yazd; Iran Bahji; Times (newspaper); Newspapers; Media; Lawh-i-Times (Tablet to the Times); Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Seven martyrs of Yazd; Seven martyrs; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
1892 19 Jun Anton Haddad departed Cairo en route to the United States. [An Outline of the Bahá'í Movement in the United States: A sketch of its promulgator [Ibrahim Kheiralla] and why afterwards denied his Master, Abbas Effendi by Anton Haddad]
  • He is probably the first Bahá'í to reach American soil. [BFA1:26]
Cairo; Egypt; United States; North America Anton Haddad; Ibrahim Kheiralla
1892. 20 Dec Ibrahim Kheiralla arrives in New York. [BBD129; BFA1:26; SSBH1:88; AY111]
  • See BFA1 for Kheiralla's life, work for the Bahá'í Faith and defection.
New York; United States Ibrahim George Kheiralla
1893. 23 Sep First public reference in North America to the Bahá'í Faith.
  • Reference was made to it in a paper entitled `The Religious Mission of the English Speaking Nations' by Rev. Henry H. Jessup, a retired missionary from north Syria, read by Rev George A. Ford at the World Parliament of Religions in Chicago. [AB63–4; BBD2412; BBR57; BFA1:323; BW2:230; GPB256; SBBH1:76, 88, 202]
  • See AB63–4, BW2:169 for text.
Chicago; United States Henry H. Jessup; World Parliament of Religions; Interfaith dialogue
1894 In the year Green Acre is founded by Sarah J. Farmer in the aftermath of the World Parliament of Religions. [BBRSM:104; BFA2:142–7; BW5:29; GPB261; SBBH1:125]

Two Bahá'ís are arrested and bastinadoed in Níshápúr. One dies seven days later, the other two years later. [BW18:384]

Hájí Yárí, a Bahá'í of Jewish background, is arrested and imprisoned in Hamadán. [BW18:384]

A Bahá'í in Dastjirdán, Khurásán, Áqá `Abdu'l-Vahháb Mukhtárí, is beaten and expelled from the village. [BW18:384]

Bahá'ís in Fárán, Khurásán, are beaten and Bahá'í homes are looted. [BW18:384]

Eliot; Maine; United States; Nishapur; Hamadan; Dastjirdan; Khurasan; Faran; Khurasan Sarah Farmer; Green Acre; Haji Yari; Aqa Abdul-Vahhab Mukhtari; World Parliament of Religions; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution Green Acre Bahá'í School (Wikipedia)
1894. Feb Ibrahim George Kheiralla settles in Chicago. [BFA1:XXVII]
  • Owing to his work, the first Bahá'í community in North America is soon formed in Chicago. [BBRSM:100; BW10:179]
  • See AY59-60 for a description of the teaching method used by Haddad and Kheiralla.
Chicago; United States Ibrahim George Kheiralla; Anton Haddad; Teaching; Firsts, Other
1894. 5 Jun Thornton Chase becomes a Bahá'í in Chicago. [BBD53; BFA1:35–6]
  • He is designated by `Abdu'l-Bahá the first American believer. [BBD53; GPB257]
  • See BFA1:35 for his own account of how he became a Bahá'í.
  • See BFA1:33–7 for other Americans who became Bahá'ís around the same time.
  • He was given the name Thábit (Steadfast) by `Abdu'l-Bahá. [BBD53; GPB257]
  • He had been invited to join the Hearst pilgrimage in 1898 but was unable to go to the Holy Land until 1907. [AY61]
Chicago; United States Thornton Chase; First Bahais by country or area; Names and titles Thornton Chase in the newspapers (series of mentions especially 1893-7)
1895 Mrs Kate C. Ives of Orleans, Cape Cod, Massachusetts becomes a Bahá'í, making her the first woman born in the United States to accept the Bahá'í Faith. [BFA1:37] Orleans; Cape Cod; Massachusetts; United States First Bahais by country or area
1895. c. summer Miss Marion Brown becomes a Bahá'í in London, the first European to accept the Bahá'í Faith. [BFA1:37] London; United Kingdom Marion Brown; First Bahais by country or area
1895. 23 Jun Birth of Leonora Stirling Armstrong, pioneer American Bahá'í, regarded as the Mother of South America, in upstate New York. New York; United States Leonora Holsapple Armstrong; Names and titles; Births and deaths
1897. 21 May Lua Getsinger becomes a Bahá'í in Chicago. She has been called Khayru’lláh’s best pupil. [BFA1:XXVII, AY59] Chicago; United States Lua Getsinger; Ibrahim George Kheiralla
1898. Jun In New York City, 141 people become Bahá'ís in the five months since Kheiralla's arrival. [BFA1:XXVIII, 125] New York; United States Ibrahim George Kheiralla
1898. 22 Sep The first Western pilgrims depart for `Akká, travelling via New York and Paris. [BFA1:XXVIII, 140–1, 230]
  • It is arranged by Phoebe Hearst, who had already planned a journey to Egypt for the autumn. [BFA1:140, AY60]
  • There are 15 pilgrims in all. Among them is Ibáhím Kheiralla. [AB68; AY111]
New York; United States Pilgrimage; First pilgrims; Pilgrims; Phoebe Hearst; Lua Getsinger; Edward Getsinger; Robert Turner; Ibrahim George Kheiralla
1899 Miss Olive Jackson of Manhattan becomes the first black American woman Bahá'í. [BFA1:126–7] Manhattan; New York; United States Race (general); Firsts, Other
1899 The Serpent by Thornton Chase, an 18-page pamphlet on the image of the serpent in the Bible, is published in Chicago. This is probably the first published essay written by an American Bahá'í. [BFA2:26] Chicago; United States Thornton Chase; First publications; Publications
1899 Feb The first Tablets of `Abdu'l-Bahá arrive in America. [BFA1:143]
  • See BFA1:143 for the recipients.
United States Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Firsts, Other
1899 May A council board of seven officers, a forerunner of the Local Spiritual Assembly, is established in Kenosha. [BFA1:112; GPB260] Kenosha; Wisconsin; United States Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies
1899. c. 1 May and period following Kheiralla returns to the United States from `Akká. [BFA1:xxix, 158]
  • His ambitions to lead the Bahá'í Faith cause a crisis in the American Bahá'í community. [BFA1:158–84; CB247–9, GPB259–260; 319; SBBH194, 239; AY119; WOB82-83]
  • In the coming months `Abdu'l-Bahá dispatches successive teachers to heal the rift:
    • Hájí `Abdu'l-Karím-i-Tihrání, who had taught Kheiralla the Faith, from c. 26 Apr to 5 Aug 1900. [BFA1:173–6; BFA2:17–29]
    • Hájí Hasan-i-Khurásání, from 29 Nov 1900 to Aug 1901. [BFA2:35, 389]
    • Mírzá Asadu'lláh-i-Isfahání, from 29 Nov 1900 to 12 May 1902. [BFA2:VI, 35–43ff]
    • Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl, from Aug 1901 to Dec 1904. [BFA2:XV-XVI, 80–7; BW9:855–60]
    • "...four chosen messenger of 'Abdu'l-Bahá who, in rapid succession, were dispatched by Him to pacify and reinvigorate that troubled community. ...were commission to undertake, the beginnings of that vast Administration, the corner-stone of which these messengers were instructed to lay... [WOB83-84; AY119]
    • See BFA1:177–8 for lists of believers who sided with Kheiralla, left the Faith or remained loyal to `Abdu'l-Bahá.
    • See SBBH1:98–101 for Kheiralla's teachings.
United States; Akka Ibrahim George Kheiralla; Covenant-breakers; Haji Abdul-Karim-i-Tihrani; Haji Hasan-i-Khurasani; Mirza Asadullah-i-Isfahani; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani
1899 Summer Ethel Jenner Rosenberg accepts the Bahá'í Faith, the first English woman to become a Bahá'í in her native land. [AB73–4; ER39; GPB260; SBR20, 33; SEBW55-64, SCU17]
  • For her biography see Rob Weinberg's, Ethel Jenner Rosenberg.
  • She visited 'Abdu'l-Bahá several times in the first decade of the century. [SCU17]
United Kingdom Ethel Rosenberg; First Bahais by country or area
1899 Oct - Nov Stoyan Vatralsky, a Harvard educated, Bulgarian Christian, attacks the Bahá'ís, `Truth-knowers', in a series of talks in a church in Kenosha, Wisconsin. [BFA1:XXIX, 114–15; SBBH2:111]
  • By this time two per cent of the population of Kenosha are Bahá'ís. [BFA1:114]
Kenosha; Wisconsin; United States Opposition
1900. c. 1900 The Kitáb-i-Aqdas is translated by Anton Haddad. It is not published but circulates in typescript form. [BFA2:27; SA251] United States Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Translation
1900 Tablets, Communes and Holy Utterances, a collection of writings by Bahá'u'lláh, is published in the United States. [BFA2:26]
  • It is the first prayer book and first compilation of Bahá'í writings published in the West. [BFA2:26]
  • It was probably translated by Anton Haddad and published by the Behais Supply and Publishing Board. [BFA2:26]
Chicago; United States Compilations; Prayer texts; Anton Haddad; Publications; Publishing Trusts; First publications
1900 Sarah Farmer puts Green Acre at the disposal of the Bahá'ís after her pilgrimage to `Akká in 1900. [BFA2:144–5; GPB261]
  • After 1900 Green Acre effectively became the site of the first Bahá'í summer school in the world, although it was not officially so until 1929. [BBRSM:104; BW5:29–30; SBBH1:125]
Eliot; Maine; United States Sarah Farmer; Green Acre; First summer and winter schools
1900 Jan The Behais Publishing and Supply Board is created in Chicago. [BFA1:XXIX] Chicago; United States Publishing Trusts
1900 8 Mar At a meeting in Kenosha, Kheiralla publicly announces his doubts about `Abdu'l-Bahá's leadership of the Bahá'í community [BFA1:XXIX; SBBH1:96; SBBH2:117]
  • He allies himself with Muhammad-`Alí. [SSBH1:96]
  • The Bahá'ís effectively divide into two camps. [SSBH1:96]
  • For the changes to the Bahá'í community as a result of this see SSBH1:96–9 and SSBH2:117–20.
Kenosha; Wisconsin; United States Ibrahim George Kheiralla; Mirza Muhammad Ali; Covenant-breakers
1900 c. 16 Mar The Chicago community re-organizes by selecting a ten-member Board of Council. Neither Kheiralla nor any of his supporters are on the Board. [BFA1:XXIX, 170] Chicago; United States Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; Ibrahim George Kheiralla
1900 26 Apr Hájí `Abdu'l-Karím-i-Tihrání arrives in New York, the first Persian Bahá'í to visit North America, to try to bring Kheiralla back into the Faith and to explain the basic teachings of the Faith to the American believers. He is accompanied by Mirza Sinore Raffie, his translator. [BFA173–6; BFA2:17–29] New York; United States Haji Abdul-Karim-i-Tihrani; Ibrahim George Kheiralla; Mirza Sinore Raffie
1900 4 or 29 Nov The arrival Persian teachers in America, Mírzá Asadu'lláh-i-Isfahání (1826-1930) and Hájí Hasan-i-Khurásání. Their task was to consolidate the American community and to address the effects of Kheiralla's disaffection. [BFA2:VI; 35–43ff]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá provided them with two translators, Mírzá Husayn Rúhí, a young Persian Bahá'í who has learned English in Egypt and Mírzá Burzurg.
  • Mírzá Asadu'lláh spent three weeks in New York then relocated to Chicago where he stayed for eighteen months. He did not accompany 'Abdu'l-Bahá to America, however, shortly after His return, Mírzá Asadu'lláh and his son insisted on going to the West and did so against 'Abdu'l-Bahá's wishes. Both he and his son were expelled from the Faith. [APD143; AY119]
New York; Chicago; United States Haji Hasan-i-Khurasani; Mirza Asadullah-i-Isfahani; Mirza Husayn Ruhi; Mirza Burzurg; Covenant-breakers
1900 26 Nov Agnes Baldwin Alexander wrote to `Abdu'l-Bahá declaring her belief in Bahá'u'lláh. [BFA2:159; SBR176]
  • She had heard of the Bahá'í Faith from Charlotte Dixon while staying in a pension in Rome. She stayed in Rome for three months studying prophecies then travelled to Paris for further study with May Bolles for another three and one half months. [BFA2:159; SBR176]
  • She left Paris in the Spring of 1901 for London, New England, Oakland, Ca and finally Honolulu. On returning to Hawaii in December 1901 she became the first Bahá'í to set foot in Hawaii. [BFA2:159–60; SBR177]
Rome; Italy; Paris; France; Oakland; California; London; United Kingdom; Honolulu; Hawaii Agnes Alexander; May Maxwell (Bolles); Charlotte Dixon
1900 7 Dec In New York, nine men were selected to govern the affairs of the Faith. Those serving were Arthur Dodge, Hooper Harris, William Hoar, Andrew Hutchinson, Howard MacNutt, Frank Osborne, Edwin Putnam, Charles Sprague and Orosco Woolson. Among the problems that they had to face was the effect of the disaffection of Kheiralla. [BFA2p36] New York; United States Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; Ibrahim George Kheiralla
1901 Arthur Pillsbury Dodge publishes his book The Truth of It, the first introductory book on the Bahá'í Faith written by a Western believer. [BFA2:93] United States Arthur Pillsbury Dodge; Introductory; First publications; Publications
1901 William Hoar, one of the first Bahá'ís in America, is asked by `Abdu'l-Bahá to meet with the Persian ambassador in Washington to request justice for the Bahá'ís of Iran, thus marking the beginning of the efforts of the American Bahá'í community to alleviate the persecution of their brethren. [BFA2:51] Washington DC; United States; Iran William Hoar; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Ambassadors; Human rights; Firsts, Other
1901 22 Jan The passing of Queen Victoria.
  • Of all the leaders addressed by Bahá'u'lláh only she is reputed to have made a courteous reply. [CBM47; PDC65]
  • See CBM47–8 for Bahá'u'lláh's prophecy concerning the success of her reign.
London; United Kingdom Queen Victoria; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
1901 15 May The Chicago Bahá'ís elect a nine-man Board of Council for a term of five years. [BFA2:XXV, 44–7] Chicago; United States Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies
1901 20 May The number of members on the Board of Council is raised to 12. [BFA2:47] Chicago; United States Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies
1901 24 May The name of the Chicago Board of Council is changed to the House of Justice. [BFA2:48]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá requests that this name be changed a year later. [BFA2:49]
Chicago; United States Board of Council; House of Justice; Spiritual Assemblies
1901 29 May The Bahá'í women of Chicago elect their own Board and hold the first business meeting of the `Women's Auxiliary Board'. [BFA2:XV, 49–50] Chicago; United States Women
1901 Aug Mírzá Abu'l-Faḍl-i-Gulpáygání arrived in North America. [BFA2:XV]
  • Laura Barney financed the visit of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl to the United States in 1901-04 in order to propagate the Faith and to help publish the translation of his Ḥojaj al-bahīya (Cairo, 1342/1925; tr. Ali-Kuli Khan as The Bahá'í Proofs, New York, 1902; 2nd ed., ed. J. R. I. Cole, Wilmette, Ill., 1983) [Wikipedia, Laura Clifford Barney.]
  • See BFA2:80–7 and BW9:855–860 for accounts of his visit.
  • See Wikipedia, Green Acre and Wikipedia, Mary Hanford Ford for accounts of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl at Green Acre.
  • Mirza Ahmad Sohrab was sent to assist him. Sohrab remained and worked at the Iranian Consulate until 1912 and during this time he translated much of the correspondence between 'Abdu'l-Bahá and the Western believers. At the conclusion of the American tour he returned to the Holy Land. After the passing of 'Abdu'l-Bahá he rejected the authority of Shoghi Effendi and was expelled. [APD155]
New York; United States Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Proofs; Bahai literature; Publications; Laura Clifford Barney; Ahmad Sohrab; Covenant-breakers; Green Acre
1901 26 Nov The Day of the Covenant The Day of the Covenant is a Bahá'í holy day honouring the Covenant of Bahá’u’lláh, in particular, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá as the “Centre of the Covenant" and as such, the successor, the interpreter and the exemplar of the Bahá'í Faith. Bahá'u'lláh's Covenant also provided for the extension of this covenant to the Guardian and to the Universal House of Justice.
The first celebration of the Day of the Covenant in North America was marked on this day.
  • Prior to this time some of the believers celebrated the birth of 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the 22nd of May. Others marked the 29th of May, the anniversary of the passing of Bahá'u'lláh and thusly, the day on which He acceded to the leadership of the Bahá'í community.
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá chose the day November 26th, as reckoned by the Gregorian calendar, as approximately half a year away from this date, to commemorate His appointment of the Centre of the Covenant.
  • The day was know as Jashn-i-A'zam (The Greatest Festival) in the East because He was Ghusn-i-A'zam, the Greatest Branch or the "Most Might Branch" [GPB238, BFA2:XV, 56; SA247, Day of the Covenant by Christopher Buck, AB523]
New York; United States Day of the Covenant; Firsts, Other; Covenant (general); Holy Days; Abdul-Baha, Birth of; Bahaullah, Ascension of; Bab, Declaration of
1902 Joseph Hannen, future Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, and Pauline Hannen become Bahá'ís in Washington DC. Washington DC; United States Joseph Hannen; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Pauline Hannen
1902 8 May May Bolles marries Sutherland Maxwell in London and moves to Montreal. [BW8:635; GPB260]
  • BFA2:156 says they married `late' in 1902.
London; United Kingdom; Montreal; Canada May Maxwell (Bolles); Sutherland Maxwell
1902 10 May The Chicago House of Justice changes its name to the House of Spirituality. [BFA2:XV] Chicago; United States House of Justice; House of Spirituality; Spiritual Assemblies
1902 12 May Mírzá Asadu'lláh-i-Isfahání leaves the United States. [BFA2:VI] United States Mirza Asadullah-i-Isfahani
1902 10 Oct The Behais Supply and Publishing Board incorporates as the `Bahai Publishing Society', a non-profit company. It is the first Bahá'í institution to be legally incorporated. [BFA2:XVI, 74] United States Publishing Trusts; Firsts, Other
1903 7 Mar Inspired by the news of the `Ishqábád Temple project, the Chicago House of Spirituality asks `Abdu'l-Bahá for permission to construct a Mashriqu'l-Adhkár. [BFA2:XVI, 118; BW10:179; GPB348] Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Wilmette; Chicago; United States House of Spirituality; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
1903 30 May A letter from `Abdu'l-Bahá is received by the Chicago House of Spirituality giving His approval for the building of a Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in North America. [BFA2:119] Wilmette; Chicago; United States House of Spirituality; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
1903 7 Jun Eight days after `Abdu'l-Bahá's first Tablet arrives, a second Tablet arrives from Him approving the project. [BW10:179; CT41; GPB262, 349; MBW142] Wilmette; Chicago; United States House of Spirituality; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
1904 A compilation of Bahá'í writings in English is published by the Board of Counsel of New York. [BW10:179] New York; United States Compilations; Publications
1904 28 Oct Ali Kuli Khan marries Florence Breed, the first marriage between a Persian and a Western Bahá'í. [BFA2:147]
  • For details of this marriage see SUR223–20.
  • When 'Abdu'l-Bahá heard the new of the marriage He said, ‘This is the first sign of union between East and West.’ Then He sent for candies to be brought and said, ‘The event is so joyous that it must be celebrated!’ And He distributed the candy to those present, as is the custom for the parents of the bridegroom to do at a Persian wedding banquet. [AY26]
  • See AY51-53 for the history of the Breed name.
  • See AY53-> for the relationship between Khan and the Hearst family.
United States Ali-Kuli Khan; Florence Breed; Firsts, Other; Interracial marriage; Weddings; Hearst family; Phoebe Hearst
1904 Dec Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl departed from the United States. [BFA2:XVI] United States Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani
1905 Agnes Alexander arrives in Alaska, the first Bahá'í travelling teacher to visit the territory.

A Bahá'í group is established in Germany. [BBRSM:107, 219]

Alaska; United States; Germany Agnes Alexander
1905 -1906 The publication of The Seven Valleys and the Four Valleys. [7V74V]

Two works written in Baghdad after Bahá’u’lláh returned from Kurdistan in 1856. The Seven Valleys was revealed in reply to a letter from Shaykh Muhiyi’d-Din, the religious judge of Khaniqin, who was a Sufi. The Four Valleys was addressed to Shaykh ‘Abdu’r-Rahman, leader of the Qadiriyyih Sufi order, with whom Bahá’u’lláh had been in contact in Sulaymaniyyih.

“To these two outstanding contributions to the world’s religious literature, (Shoghi Effendi had written of the Kitáb-i-Íqán and the Hidden Words) … was added, during that same period, a treatise that may well be regarded as His greatest mystical composition, designated as the “Seven Valleys,”.., in which He describes the seven stages which the soul of the seeker must needs traverse ere it can attain the object of its existence.” [GPB140]

In the West this was one of the earliest available books of Bahá'u'lláh, first translated directly to French in 1905, and English in 1906. [GPB140]

The Seven Valleys was translated into English by Marzieh Gail in consultation with her father, Alí-Kuli Khan Nabil-al Douleh. The publication date of the first English translation was 1945 with an introduction added in 1952. The second edition of The Seven Valleys published in 1968 and 1975 by the US Bahá'í Publishing Trust.

France; United States Haft Vadi (Seven Valleys); Chahar Vadi (Four Valleys); Marzieh Gail; Ali-Kuli Khan; Bahaullah, Writings of; Translation; Publications
1905 23 May The first Nineteen Day Feast celebrated in the West is held in New York City, the first known to have been held in North America. [BFA2:XVI, 245]
  • It consists of a devotional portion and a social part. The administrative aspect of the Feast is developed in the 1930s. [BFA2:245; SA208]
  • Howard and Mary MacNutt, along with Julia Grundy, had been on pilgrimage early in the year and had been encouraged to hold Feasts by 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
New York; United States Nineteen Day Feast; Howard MacNutt; Mary MacNutt; Julia Grundy; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Pilgrims
1906 The first Bahá'í of Hungarian origin, Countess Aurelia Bethien, declares her faith in the USA. [http://www.bahai.hu] Hungary; United States First Bahais by country or area
1907 It is estimated that there are from 1000 to 1100 believers in North America by this date, with about 12 believers in Montreal and six Bahá'ís in other localities in Canada. [BFA2:230] United States; Montreal; Canada Statistics
1907 Feb Corinne True travels to `Akká to present `Abdu'l-Bahá with a scroll with the signatures of 800 Bahá'ís calling for construction to start on the American House of Worship. [CT51–3]
  • BW13:847 says the scroll contained over a thousand signatures.
Akka; United States Corinne True; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
1907 spring A census of religions in the United States counts 1280 Bahá'ís. [BFA2:XVI] United States Statistics
1907 31 Mar The Bahá'í calendar is used in North America for the first time. BFA2:247–8] North America; United States Badi calendar; Firsts, Other
1907 19 Jul The Chicago `Bahai Assembly' files an affidavit of incorporation, the first Bahá'í community to acquire legal status. [BFA2:278]
  • The incorporation is in the name of the community rather than the governing body. [BFA2:278–9]
Chicago; United States Spiritual Assemblies; Incorporation; Recognition; Firsts, Other
1907 26 Nov The first national Bahá'í conference is held in America. [BFA2:XVI; BW10:179]
  • At the invitation of the House of Spirituality of Chicago, nine Bahá'ís from various communities join some ten from the Chicago area at a one-day conference to foster national cooperation on the Temple project and to choose a suitable site for the Temple. [BFA2:280; CT78; GPB262, 349]
Chicago; United States Conferences; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, National; House of Spirituality; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; First conferences
1908 Mar The book Some Answered Questions is published simultaneously in the United States and in Great Britain in English. [AB82; BBD212–13; BFA2:238]
  • The Persian edition is published the same year. [AB82]
  • It is the only pilgrims' notes to be considered part of Bahá'í sacred literature. [BFA2:238; BW12:98–107, ABF8]
United States; United Kingdom Some Answered Questions; Pilgrims notes; Publications; Translation; Authenticity
1908 9 Apr Two building plots for the future House of Worship are purchased in Wilmette for the sum of $2000. [BFA2:XVI; BW10:179, GPB262] Wilmette; United States Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Purchases and exchanges
1908 Sep The Bahá'í Publishing Society is founded in Chicago. [BW10:179] Chicago; United States Bahai Publishing Society; Publishing Trusts
1909 (In the year) The passing of Robert Turner (b. 15 October, 1856, Virginia d. 1909 California)
  • the first African-American Baha'i and a member of the first Western Pilgrimage to Haifa in 1898, led by his employer Mrs. Phoebe Hearst. He was a butler in her household for more than 35 years. He was taught the Baha'i Faith by Lua Getsinger in the process of serving tea and remained a devoted believer his entire life. "Such was the tenacity of his faith that even the subsequent estrangement of his beloved mistress from the Cause she had spontaneously embraced failed to becloud its radiance, or to lessen the intensity of the emotions which the loving-kindness showered by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá upon him had excited in his breast." (GPB259) [A Vision of Race Unity, Vingp101, AZBF475, An Early Pilgrimage by May Maxwell]
  • He received a Tablet from 'Abdu'l-Bahá while on his deathbed and a tribute after his passing. [AY60, 61, 339, AB72]
  • He was one of the nineteen Western Bahá'ís designated as a Disciple of 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • A Tablet to him from 'Abdu'l-Bahá can be found in SWABpg114 #78 and 'Abdu'l-Bahá in America (website).
  • See also Bahaikipedia, Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • Find a Grave.
Virginia; California; United States Robert Turner; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Firsts, Other; Phoebe Hearst; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
1909 Jan c. Isabella Brittingham organizes 12 Bahá'í women into a `Unity Band' to write monthly to the 12 Bahá'í women's clubs formed in Iran. [BFA2:294] New Jersey; United States; Iran Isabella Brittingham; Women; Writing
1909 21 Mar `Abdu'l-Bahá lays the sacred remains of the Báb in their final resting place at the Shrine in Haifa. [AB126; BBD210; DH138; GBF103; GPB276]
  • See AB126–30, CT84 and GPB273–8 for details of the occasion and its history.
  • The Shrine is a simple rectangular structure of six rooms. [DH71, ZK284]
  • The marble sarcophagus used for the remains of the Báb is a gift from the Bahá'ís of Rangoon. [AB129; MC155]
  • For details of the sarcophagus see RB3:431.
BWC; Mount Carmel; Rangoon; Myanmar (Burma); Chicago; United States Bab, Shrine of; Bab, Sarcophagus for; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Marble; Gifts; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; - Basic timeline, Expanded
1909 21 Mar On the same day as the interment of the sacred remains of the Báb on Mount Carmel the first American Bahá'í Convention opened in Chicago. [BFA2:XVII, 309; BW13:849; MBW142–3; SBBH1:146]
  • It was held in the home of Corinne True. [CT82–3]
  • It was attended by 39 delegates from 36 cities. [GPB262; SBBH1:146]
  • The Convention established the 'Bahá'í Temple Unity', incorporated to hold title to the Temple property and to provide for its construction. A constitution was framed and an Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity elected. This body became the future National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada. [BBD39; BBRSM:106; BW10:179; GPB349; PP397; SBBH1:146]
Chicago; United States; Canada Conventions, National; Corinne True; Bahai Temple Unity; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; First conventions; NSA
1909 21 Mar The first printing of Volume 1 of Tablets of 'Abdu'l-Bahá by the Bahá’í Publishing Society in Chicago.
  • Laura Dreyfus-Barney is credited as being one of the translators. [ABF9not53]
Chicago; United States Tablets of Abdul-Baha (book); Publications; Laura Clifford Barney
1909. July 23 Louis George Gregory joins the Bahá'í Faith after investigating since 1907. [Wikipedia] Washington DC; United States Louis Gregory; Hands of the Cause
1909 20 Aug Birth of Paul Haney, Hand of the Cause of God, in Chicago.
  • His given name is `Abdu'l-Bahá, bestowed upon him by `Abdu'l-Bahá Himself at his birth.
Chicago; United States Paul Haney; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
1910 c. Ghodsea Khanoum Ashraf (Qudsíyyih Ashraf) arrives in the United States, the first Persian woman to travel to the country. [BFA2:358]
  • See Ahmad Sohrab's letter to her in SW6, 10:77–9.
United States Ghodsea Khanoum Ashraf (Qudsiyyih Ashraf); Ahmad Sohrab; Firsts, Other
1910 The publication of The Oriental Rose, or, The teachings of 'Abdu'l-Bahá which trace the chart of "The Shining Pathway" by Mary Hanford Finney Ford.
  • See page 158-159 for her pen portrait of 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
New York; United States Mary Hanford Ford; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Introductory; Abdul-Baha, Pen portraits; Pen portraits; Portraits; Publications
1910 8 Jan The Persian-American Educational Society is inaugurated in Washington DC. [BFA2:XVII; 355–8]
  • Its primary purpose is to assist the Tarbíyat School in Iran. [BFA2:357]
Washington DC; United States; Iran Bahai associations; Tarbiyat School; Bahai schools; Education
1910 21 Mar The first issue of the Bahá'í News is published in Chicago. [BFA2:XVII; BW10:179]
  • See BFA2:320–2, BW8:927 and SBBH1:116–17 for the magazine's development.
  • It is the first Bahá'í magazine published in the West. [BBD2 14]
  • Star of the West is published as Bahá'í News (Volume 1, Issues 1-19 from 21 March, 1910 until 2 March, 1911) and later under Star of the West /The Bahá'í Magazine (Volume 2 to Volume 25, 21 March, 1911 until 25 March,1935).
  • Its editors were Albert Windust and Gertrude Buikema. Others involved with its publication over its history were Albert and Emily Vail, Dr. Zia Bagdadi, Ahmad Sohrab, Edna M. True; with Horace Holley and Stanwood Cobb being singled out as early contributors. [Duane Troxel]

Star of the West Published March 1910 to April 1935
          URL   (For cut 'n' paste)  
         Volume # / Dates (links)   
Vol 1 (Mar 1910) - Vol 10 (Mar 1920)
Vol 11 (Mar 1920) - Vol 20 (Mar 1930)
Vol 21 (Apr 1930) - Vol 25 (Apr 1935)

For an access to the Star of the West archives see http://www.starofthewest.info. This site is not searchable.

Chicago; United States Star of the West; Bahai News; - Periodicals; Firsts, Other; Publications
1910 8 Aug Birth of Mary Sutherland Maxwell, Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, Hand of the Cause of God, in New York City. New York; United States Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
1911 8 Apr W. Morgan Shuster was an American chosen by the Persian Chargé d’Affaires at Washington, Mirza Ali Kuli Khan, to serve as Treasurer-general of Persian for a period of three years. His mandate was to organize and conduct the collection and disbursements of the revenues. Four American assistants were likewise engaged to serve under the Treasurer-general. Since the Anglo-Russian agreement of 1907 the country was under the influence of the Russians in the north and the British in the south. The purpose in engaging Shuster was to put the country's financial affairs in order so that they might attract investment from other nations.
  • After an encounter with the Russian Consul-General he was forced to leave on the 14th of January, 1912. [AY79-82]
Iran; Washington DC; United States Ali-Kuli Khan; Iran, General history; History (general)
1911. 26 - 29 Jul The First Universal Races Congress was held at the University of London. It was the first important conference in which the British Bahá'ís participated. It was an international symposium on the theme of the brotherhood of humankind and attracted leading politicians, theologians and scholars from the whole of the British Empire and from Europe as well as North America. During the Congress itself there were several presentations from Bahá'ís including the reading of a letter from 'Abdu'l-Bahá who was in Egypt at the time. [NBAD45]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Letter.
  • See SoW Vol II No 9 for a report by Wellesley Tudor-Pole, an article by Thorton Chase as well as the letter from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to the conference.
  • A bibliography of the presentions, papers and contributions and secondary literature by Ralph Dumain can be found here.
London; United Kingdom Conferences, Racial amity; Race amity; Race (general); Race unity; Firsts, Other
1911 11 Aug The beginning of `Abdu'l-Bahá's first Western tour. [AB139]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá departs from Egypt with a party of four on the S. S. Corsica for Marseilles, Thonon-les-Bains and London. [AB139; GPB280; SBR22, SoW Vol2 no.10 (8 September, 1911) p7]
  • Subsequent research has shown that the ship was not the S.S. Corsica as stated in GPB280 but rather the L'Orenoque. See 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Paris page 6 note 47.
  • See BW1:130 for a list of cities He visits between 1911 and 1913.
  • It is believed that funds for ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s teaching journeys to the West were provided by an oil-rich believer in Baku, Áqa Músá Maqiof,. [AY11; ABF295note684]
Baku; Alexandria; Egypt; Marseilles; Thonon-les-Bains; France; London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha in Egypt; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; S. S. Corsica; Orenoque; Ships; Funds; Donations; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded
1911 18 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá had an exchange of telegrams with Wellesley Tudor Pole from the Theosophical Summer School in Derbyshire, England where he had just presented a lecture on the Bahá'í Faith. [ABF9-10, SoW Vol 2 no10 p.7] Marseille; France; Derbyshire; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Wellesley Tudor Pole; Theosophical Society
1911 22 Aug - 3 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá took up residence at Thonon-les-Bains on Lake Leman (Lake Geneva). [AB140; GPB280; SBR219]
  • While there He encountered Zillu's-Sultán, the eldest son of the Sháh of the time, Násirid-Dín Sháh. It was he who had ratified the execution of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs and at least 100 others. The whole family was in exile in Geneva at this time. 'Abdu'l-Bahá was very courteous to this man who had been such an inveterate enemy of the Cause. [DJT172, AY19, GPB201] .
  • The Master sent for Juliet Thompson who had been waiting in London for His permission to join Him.
  • During His stay he had a visit from Annie Boylan, a member of the New York community that was experiencing disharmony. Unaware of Bahá'í election procedures, a group that was unhappy with the disunity and ineffectiveness of the Council had organized a vote to be rid of several of its Council members. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had written to the community a short time before recommending that the Council be expanded from 9 to 27 members so that all factions could be represented. He also recommended that women be included on the Council and that the name be changed to "the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of New York". This apparently addressed the problem of disunity because the New York community went on to contribute significantly to the progress of the Faith on a national level. [DJT181, BFA2p338]
  • Horace Holley, who lived at Quattro Torri, Siena, Italy at the time, along with his wife Bertha Herbert and baby daughter Hertha, visited 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the 29th and 30th of August. Please see his Religion for Mankind p 232-237 for a pen portrait of 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • He met with Elizabeth Stewart and Lillian Kappes who were on their way to Tehran. [find reference]
  • It would appear that He returned to Marseilles and travelled to London by sea. [SCU22-23]
Thonon-les-Bains; Lake Leman; Marseille; France; Switzerland; Italy; London; United Kingdom; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; Unity; Zillus-Sultan; Persecution; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Juliet Thompson; Horace Holley; Elizabeth Stewart; Lillian Kappes; Ships
1911 24 Aug Tammaddun'ul-Mulk and Juliet Thompson arrived in Thonon-les-Bains from London via Geneva. She had landed in Southampton on board the Lusitania from America on the 25th of July.

Juliet Thompson had been in Paris in 1899 and had been part of the nascent Bahá'í community there along with May Maxwell and Lua Getsinger. In addition, she had met 'Abdu'l-Bahá in 'Akká in 1909.

  • She, like many others, was anxious to know when He might come to America. He replied that the unity of the believers would be His invitation. There had been strong differences of opinion among the believers in America and one of those points was in their understanding of the station of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. Some believed Him to be an ordinary man who, through spiritual practice, had attained HIs station, implying that all could do the same. Others insisted that He was the return of Christ. The differences among the believers in New York was such that an election for the New York Bahá'í Board of Council had been influenced to excluded one of the incumbents. 'Abdu'l-Bahá insisted that the Board be increased to 19 members to ensure his re-election. [ABF19]
London; United Kingdom; Thonon-les-Bains, France Tammaddunul-Mulk; Juliet Thompson; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
1911 4 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in London accompanied by His secretary, Mírzá Mahmúd and Khusraw, His servant. [ABL53, AB140; GBP280; SBR22, 148, BW4p378, In the Footsteps of the Master p.5]
  • CH149 says He arrived 8 September and 3 September as per the UK Bahá'í site.
  • Those Bahá'ís who assembled to meet him were listed as: Lady Blomfield (in whose home at 97 Cadogan Gardens He stayed), Mrs Thornburg-Cropper, Miss Ethel Rosenberg, Miss Gamble, Miss Herrick, Mrs Scaramucci, Miss Elsie Lee, Mr Catanach, Mr Cuthbert, Mr and Mrs Jenner, Miss Yandell, Miss Julia Culver, Mrs Stannard, Mr and Mrs Eric Hammond, The Rev Harrold Johnston, The Rev Cooper Hunt, Miss Juliet Thompson, Mrs Louise Waite, Mrs Movius, Mrs Claudia Coles, Mr Mountfort Mills, Mr Mason Remey and Miss Drake Wright. Mr and Mrs Dreyfus-Barney provided translation. In addition there were a number of Persians who took the opportunity to meet Him. [BW4p377]
  • As described by Lady Blomfield those who came to see him were: "Ministers and missionaries, Oriental scholars and occult students practical men of affairs and mystics, Anglican-Catholics and Nonconformists, Theosophists and Hindus, Christian Scientists and doctors of medicine, Muslims, Buddhists, and Zoroastrians. There also called: politicians, Salvation Army soldiers, and other workers for human good, women suffragists, journalists, writers, poets and healers dress-makers and great ladies, artists and artisans, poor workless people and prosperous merchants, members of the dramatic and musical world, these all came; and none were too lowly nor too great to receive the sympathetic consideration of this holy Messenger, who was ever giving His life for others' good." In addition there was a representation from the Bramo-Somaj Society, a Hindu reform group. [CH150-152]
  • See BW4p377 where Lady Blomfield reports that Prince Jalalu'd-Dawlih entreated to be received by 'Abdu'l-Bahá and when in His presence fell prostrate and implored pardon for his crimes. (see 1891 19 May) [BW4p377]
  • Among the list of visitors were: Professor Edward Granville Browne, Mr Tudor-Pole, Emmeline Pankhurst, a British political activist and leader of the British suffragette movement who helped women win the right to vote. [BW4p377]
  • See BW4p381 for the story of a homeless, suicidal man who had seen a picture of 'Abdu'l-Bahá in a newspaper in a shop window.
  • See BW4p382-383 for the story of the persistent journalist who imposed upon the appointment of two ladies from Scotland who had journeyed all that day and intended to make the return voyage that same evening.
  • For details of His stay in England see AB140–58 and GPB283–5.
  • It is implied that 'Abdu'l-Bahá was attended by Dr Lutfu-lláh Hakím while in London. [BW4p380]
  • During His stay in London 'Abdu'l-Bahá received death threats by anonymous letter and he was advised to give up He planned journey to Egypt. He ignored them. [BW4p 387]
  • During His stay in London He has professional photographs of Himself taken by the Irish photographer, James Lafayette (1853-1923). "...to have a picture of oneself is to emphasise the personality, which is merely the lamp, and is quite unimportant. The light burning within the lamp has the only real significance." [SBR25, BW4p383-384, ABF84]
London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Pictures and portraits; Portraits; Abdul-Baha, Death threats to; Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper; Ethel Rosenberg; Juliet Thompson; Louise Waite; Mountfort Mills; Charles Mason Remey; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Jalalud-Din-Dawlih; Mirza Mahmud-i-Zarqani; Khusraw; Edward Granville Browne; Wellesley Tudor Pole; Emmeline Pankhurst; Lutfullah Hakim; James Lafayette
1911 5 Sep ‘Abdu’l-Bahá was interviewed by the editor of The Christian Commonwealth, Mr Albert Dawson, and later met with the Rev R. J. Campbell. The Christian Commonwealth was a weekly newspaper. On 13 September it printed, on its front cover, an article which included the interview between ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and Rev R. J. Campbell that had taken place on 5 September. The following week the front cover had another article, entitled ‘The Vanishing of the Veil’, about ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s visit to St John’s, Westminster. Other issues also had substantial articles about His visits. [In the Footsteps of the Master p.7] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Interviews; Newspaper articles
1911. 8 Sep 'Abdu’l-Bahá visited the home of Miss Ethel Jenner Rosenberg for a Unity meeting at White Lodge, 8 Sunnyside, Wimbledon (since demolished). [ABL44-45, In the Footsteps of the Master p.9] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Ethel Rosenberg
1911 9 Sep ‘Abdu’l-Bahá visited the home of Mrs Thornburgh-Cropper at 31 Evelyn Mansions, Carlisle Place, Victoria.

In the afternoon ‘Abdu’l-Bahá visited the home of Miss Anett Schepel and Miss Alice Buckton, Vanners, Byfleet, Surrey (since demolished), some 20 miles out of London. He spoke with a number of working women from the Passmore Edwards' Settlement who were visiting while on holidays. (The Passmore Edwards' Settlement began in 1890 as one of the first “settlements” run by socially-conscious middle-class educators for the benefit of local working people and their children.)

Alice Mary Buckton (1867-1944) wrote many plays and poems. Her play Eager Heart was seen by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá on His second visit to England. She became a member of the Froebelian Society which was formed to reform educational methods. She persuaded Anett Schepel who had worked at Pestalozzi-Froebel Haus in Germany to move to England and together they worked to improve child education, opening a school in St John’s Wood. [ABL85-86, In the Footsteps of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá p9-10]

Byfleet; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
1911 10 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá gives His first public address in the West in the City Temple Church in Holborn, London to an audience of over 2,000 people. He proclaimed that “This is a new cycle of human power…the gift of God in this enlightened age is the knowledge of the oneness of mankind and the fundamental oneness of religion.” [ABL17-20, AB140; BW2:227; GPB283–4, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p11]
  • He spoke at the invitation of The Reverend R J Campbell. Mr. Wellesly Tudor-Pole read the translation. [CH154]
    • For the text of His talk see AB140–2.
    • For the words He wrote in the pulpit Bible see AB145. The church was bombed in World War II and the pulpit Bible was destroyed. The church was rebuilt in 1958.
    • For a photo see BWNS792.
  • London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches; Firsts, Other; BWNS
    1911 13 Sep Mrs Thornburgh-Cropper gave a reception for ‘Abdu’l-Bahá at her home 31 Evelyn Mansions, Carlisle Place, Victoria for about 45 people. [ABS46-47, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p12]
    • Note: Star of the West Vol. II No. 11, records this meeting as having taken place on 12th September.
    London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper
    1911 17 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá addresses the congregation of St John's, Westminster, His second address to a Western audience. He also met with members of the Salvation Army who were singing outside. [ABL21-25, AB145; SBR8, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p13]
    • For text of His talk see AB147–8.
    • He spoke at the invitation of Archdeacon of Westminster, Albert Wilberforce, grandson of famed abolitionist William Wilberforce. The invitation had been extended to Him during a private audience in the home of Lady Blomfield. [CH153-154]
    • 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent an invitation to the Archdeacon asking him to meet with Him. He turned Him down with a message, "We are all one behind the veil." 'Abdu'l-Bahá replied, "...and the veil is thinning quite." When Wilberforce met with 'Abdu'l-Bahá he found that there was no separation between them. [Ahmad Sohrab's Diary - The Great Tour p99]
    • See also Star of the West Vol. II No. 12, p. 12.
    Westminster; London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches
    1911. 22 Sep ‘Abdu’l-Bahá visited the home of Misses Marion Jack and Elizabeth Herrick, at 10 Cheniston Gardens, Wright's Lane (sometimes given as 137a High Street, Kensington. About 80 people were present. [ABL48-49, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p14]
    • The talk was stenographically recorded and published as Discourse by 'Abdu'l-Bahá at the Unity Meeting of Misses Jack and Herrick. September 22nd, 1911. For full text see NBAD233-234.
    London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Elizabeth Herrrick; Marion Jack; Publications
    1911 23–25 Sep Abdu’l-Bahá travelled by train from London to Bristol going from Paddington to Bristol Temple Meads. He stayed at the Clifton Guest House at 17 Royal Crescent which was owned by Major Wellesley Tudor Pole. He departed for London by train on the morning of the 25th of September. [AB156, ABL81-84, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p15-16]
    • See also Star of the West Vol II No. 12.
    • During His stay in Bristol He had a photograph taken. [ABF84]
    Bristol; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Wellesley Tudor Pole; Trains; Abdul-Baha, Pictures and portraits
    1911 28 Sep 'Abdu'l-Bahá visited Byfleet for a second time by motorcar. He stayed the night and returned the evening of the next day. [ABL86, 99, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p.17]
    • Mrs Thornburgh Cropper had place her motorcar at His service. She and Ethel Rosenberg who had visited Him in 'Akká were lovingly attentive to Him. [BW4p384]
    Byfleet; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Cars
    1911 29 Sep A farewell reception was given for 'Abdu'l-Bahá in the hall of the Passmore Edwards' Settlement in Tavistock Place. It was attended by a capacity crowd of some 460 people. [ABL31-39, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p.18] Byfleet; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
    1911 30 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá addresses the Theosophical Society in London, His last talk in England on this visit. He met the Theosophical society at their new Headquarters at the express request of their president Mrs. Annie Besant. After a general history of the movement and sympathetic words of welcome by Mr. A. P. Sinnett, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá rose and delivered to the crowded assembly an address upon the distinctive notes of the Bahá’í teaching, warmly commending the eagerness of the Society in its search for Truth. [ABL26-30, 58 AB152, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p.19] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at other places; Theosophical Society; Annie Besant
    1911 1 Oct A young Persian couple asked 'Abdu'l-Bahá to marry them. The union was blessed at the Higher Thought Centre, 10 Cheniston Gardens, Kensington. The bride, Regina Núr Mahal Khánum, had travelled from Baghdad to meet and marry her bridegroom, Mírzá Yuhanna Dáwud. [AB:77, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p.20] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 2 Oct Abdu’l-Bahá breakfasted with the Lord Mayor of London at the Mansion House, City of London. The Lord Major of London at the time of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s visit was Sir Thomas Vezey Strong (1858- 1920). He was a teetotaler and a temperance advocate. He traded in paper and was the holder of a number of honours. [In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p.20] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Mayor of London; Mayors
    1911 3 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves London for Paris. [AB154; SBR25, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p22]
    • See ABL113 for details of His last day in London. He left from Victoria Station.
    • He was accompanied by many Bahá'ís from England who attended many of the public meeting at which He spoke in Paris. This group included Marion Jack. [NBAD47]
    • He remains in Paris for nine weeks. [AB159; GPB280]
    • For details of His visit see AB159–68.
    • For `Abdu'l-Bahá's talks given in Paris see PT.
    London; United Kingdom; Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Marion Jack; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of
    1912 The publication of The Brilliant Proof by Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl Gulpáygání in Chicago by the Bahai News Service, 1912. The first edition notes state that it was written December 28, 1911, in Syria, "by the pen of Mirza Abul Fazl Gulpaygan."
    • The publication of this book marks the end of an early era of Bahá'í teaching in the West. As 'Abdu'l-Bahá continued his journeys in the United States and Canada, He delivered hundreds of public talks and private addresses which were tailored to Western audiences. The fresh outpouring of teachings which resulted from these encounters produced a new Bahá'í literature of the words of 'Abdu'l-Bahá in the West. Examples include the following: The Promulgation of Universal Peace: Talks Delivered by `Abdu'l-Bahá During His Visit to the United States and Canada in 1912, compiled by Howard MacNutt, (Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1922-25); Paris Talks: Addresses Given by `Abdu'l-Bahá in Paris in 1911-1912 (London: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1912); 'Abdu'l-Bahá in London.
    • 239D93 says this book was written by Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl in answer to a London minister's criticism of the Cause.
    Chicago; United States Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Criticism and apologetics; Proofs; Promulgation of Universal Peace (book); Paris Talks (book); Abdul-Baha in London (book); Bahai literature; Publications
    1912 25 Mar `Abdu'l-Bahá sails from Alexandria on the S.S. Cedric to New York via Naples. They arrive in that city after two day's sailing. [AB171; CWB281]
    • `Abdu'l-Bahá prefered the slower S.S. Cedric to the Titanic, about to make her maiden voyage. [AB171]
    • `Abdu'l-Bahá's companions numbered six: Shoghi Effendi, Siyyid Asadu'lláh-i-Qumí, Dr Amínu'lláh Faríd, Mírzá Munír-i-Zayn, Áqá Khusraw and this servant, Mahmúd-i-Zarqání. [Mahmud's Diary p13]
    Alexandria; Egypt; Naples; Italy; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha in Egypt; S. S. Cedric; Ships; Titanic; Abdul-Baha, Life of; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
    1912 11 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá arrived in New York. [AB172; GPB281; APD3-5; SoW Vol 3 No 3 p3; Mahmúd's Diary p38-39]
    • He remained on board doing interviews with a number of newspaper men. Edward Kinny was called to come on the ship and the rest of those awaiting were told to leave the pier, proceed to the Kinney residence and wait for Him. [Mahmúd's Diary p38-39; DJT233-234]
    • Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP3]
    • One of the Persians in the Master’s suite had cabled Alice Ives Breed in New York City, about the Master’s arrival date. Thus alerted, Ali-Kuli Khan directed the Persian Consul, Topakian (an Armenian business man), to officially greet ‘Abdu’l-Bahá with full courtesies. Mr Topakian carried this out, and the Master was much pleased with his services. [AY85]
    • During His tour `Abdu'l-Bahá visits 32 cities and makes numerous addresses of which 185 are recorded. [SBBH1:110]
    • For a chronological list of talks given by `Abdu'l-Bahá while in North America see PUP473–8 or Index.
    • For details of His journey see AB171–339.
    • Ward, 239 Days; Balyuzi, `Abdu'l-Bahá; The Diary of Juliet Thompson; many editions of Star of the West and numerous biographies of Bahá'ís of the time as well as other books carry information about `Abdu'l-Bahá travels and talks.
      He was accompanied by:
      • Sayyid Asadu'lláh Qumí
      • Dr Fareed Amin Ullah, He was a nephew of 'Abdu'l-Bahá and served as his translator during His tour of the West. Because of his disobedience both he and his father were expelled from the Faith. See AY102-103 and AB230.
      • Mírza Mahmúd-i Zarqání. He was a member of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's entourage for both the Western and European tours. He wrote an account of the travels in a book entitled Kitáb-i Badáyi'u'l-Áthár and called "Mahmúd's Diary" in the English translation. [APD151]
      • Mirza Ahmad Sohrab. He had originally come to the West to assist Mírzá Abú'l-Fadl Gulpaygání in 1901. He remained and worked at the Iranian Consulate until 1912 and during this time he translated much of the correspondence between 'Abdu'l-Bahâ and the Western believers. After the American tour he returned to the Holy Land. After the passing of 'Abdu'l-Bahá he rejected the authority of Shoghi Effendi and was expelled. [APD155]
    New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other; Ali-Kuli Khan; Edward Kinney; Topakian, Mr; Consuls; Mahmuds Diary; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
    1912 12 Apr Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Howard MacNutt, 935 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, New York, [PUP4]
    • Talk at Studio of Miss Phillips, 39 West Sixty-seventh Street, New York. [PUP7; DJT239; Mahmúd's Diary p39-41]
    New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Howard MacNutt
    1912 13 Apr Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Alexander Morten, 141 East Twenty-first Street, New York [PUP9; Mahmúd's Diary p41-42] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
    1912 14 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá spoke from the pulpit of the Church of the Ascension, Fifth Avenue and Tenth Street, New York at the invitation of Percy Grant who was later reprimanded by his bishop, Bishop Burch for inviting 'Abdu'l-Bahá to sit in the Bishop's Chair behind the alter rail. [ABF22, 239D:21–3, PUP11, 239 Days in America Day52; Mahmúd's Diary p43-44]
    • Talk at Union Meeting of Advanced Thought Centers, Carnegie Lyceum, West Fifty-seventh Street, New York. [PUP14]
    New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches; Abdul-Baha, Talks other; Percy Grant
    1912 15 Apr Talk at the home of Mountfort Mills, 327 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP16; Mahmúd's Diary p44-45] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Mountfort Mills
    1912 16 Apr Talk at Hotel Ansonia to Baha’i’ Friends of New Jersey, Broadway and Seventy-third Street, New York. [PUP18; Mahmúd's Diary p45] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
    1912 17 Apr Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York, [PUP23; Mahmúd's Diary p46]

    Talk at Hotel Ansonia, Broadway and Seventy-third Street, New York. [PUP20]

    New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
    1912 18 Apr Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Marshall L. Emery, 273 West Ninetieth Street, New York. [PUP25; Mahmúd's Diary p46-47] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
    1912 19 Apr Talk at Earl Hall, Columbia University, New York. [PUP29; Mahmúd's Diary p47-48]

    'Abdu'l-Bahá visits The Bowery accompanied by Edward Getsinger and Juliet Thompson as noted in her unpublished Diary. They arrived with two heavy bags of quarters to distribute to the poor. [OPOP165-168, PUP32]

    Bowery; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Columbia University; Abdul-Baha, Talks at universities; Charity and relief work; Edward Getsinger; Juliet Thompson
    1912 20 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá arrived in Washington DC after a five hour train ride from New York by train. He was accompanied by Dr Getsinger, Dr Fareed, Mírzá Valiyu'lláh Nakhjavání and Mahmúd-i-Zarqání. [239D:37–8; AB178; SBR78, APD9]
    • John Bosch had travelled from California specifically to see Him. He was given a Persian name by the Master, Núrání (The Luminous). [Mahmúd's Diary p48-49]
    • He stayed at the Parsons' home, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, for several days and gave a talk every afternoon at 5PM.
    • Talk at Orient-Occident-Unity Conference, Public Library Hall, Washington, D.C. [PUP35]
    • See AY85 for the welcome He received from the Kahn family and others including Mrs Agnes Parson, Mason Remy and Joseph Hannen.
    • ‘Abdu’l-Bahá encouraged commercial ties between the United States and Persia. ‘For the Persians there is no government better fitted to contribute to the development of their natural resources and the helping of their national needs in a reciprocal alliance than the United States of America; and for the Americans there could be no better industrial outlet and market than the virgin … soil of Persia. The mineral wealth of Persia is still latent and untouched. It is my hope that the great American democracy may be instrumental in developing these hidden resources and that a bond of perfect amity and unity may be established between the American republic and the government of Persia. May this bond—whether material or spiritual—be well cemented.’ [AY48]
    Washington DC; New York; United States; Iran Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places; Trains; Business
    1912 21 Apr Talk at Studio Hall, 1219 Connecticut Avenue, Washington, D.C. [PUP37, APD14]

    Talk at Universalist Church, Thirteenth and L Streets, Washington, D.C. [PUP39; APD16; Mahmúd's Diary p50-54]

    Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Studio Hall; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches; Abdul-Baha, Talks at other places
    1912 22 Apr Talk at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP43, APD22-24, AY86; Mahmúd's Diary p54-55] Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Arthur Parsons; Agnes Parsons
    1912 23 Apr Talk at Howard University, Washington, D.C. Howard University had been founded in 1867 to educate the newly freed slaves at by this time it was one of the foremost black universities in the country. It is reported that well over a thousand students, faculty members, administrators and guests jammed into the Rankin Chapel. [PUP44, APD29, 239Dp40; Mahmúd's Diary p50-54]

    Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP46]

    Talk to Bethel Literary Society, Metropolitan African Methodist Episcopal Church, M Street, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP49; SoW Vol 3 No 3 pg5]

    Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at universities; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches
    1912 24 Apr Talk at Children’s Reception, Studio Hall, 1219 Connecticut Avenue, Washington, D.C. [PUP54; Sow Vol 3 No3 pg7; Mahmúd's Diary p56-59]

    Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP56, APD37-45]

    Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
    1912 25 Apr Talk to Theosophical Society, Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP58; SoW Vol 3 No3 pg22-23, ]

    Message to Esperantists, Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP60; APD47; SoW Vol 3 No5 Pg7-8]

    The Turkish Ambassador Díyá Páshá hosted a "royal feast" for 'Abdu'l-Bahá and a number of dignitaries. He gave a short talk afterward. [Mahmúd's Diary p60-61]

    He gave a talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons. [PUP62, APD46-49; SoW Vol 3 No 5 P7-8, Mahmúd's Diary p59-62]

    Theodore Roosevelt visited 'Abdu'l-Bahá at the Parsons' home on this date. He was not the President at this time. [MD464n59]

    Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Theosophical Society; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Abdul-Baha, Talks other; Arthur Parsons; Esperanto; Theodore Roosevelt
    1912 26 Apr 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke al the (All Souls) Unitarian Church to the Women's Alliance on the subject of equal rights to men and women. [APD50]

    Before lunch He spoke in the home of John J. White at the invitation of Mrs White. Lunch was taken at the Parsons home with the Turkish Ambassador as a guest.

    In the early evening He addressed a gathering in the Parsons' home on the subject of "Human and Divine Spirit in Man" before leaving for the (Memorial) Continental Hall where he spoke on the equality of women and men. This was perhaps the most prestigious meeting place in Washington, the public meeting hall of the Daughters of the Revolution. [APD50-53; Mahmúd's Diary p62-64]

    None of His talks for this day have been recorded in The Promulgation of Universal Peace.

    Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
    1912 27 Apr During lunch at the Parsons' home 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke about the proper method of taxation. [APD53-57]
    • For His discourse on taxation see FWU38-43]

    In the evening there was a grand reception for some 300 people in honour of 'Abdu'l-Bahá on behalf of the Orient-Occident Unity Society. Among the guests and dignitaries are General Adolphus Greely, Admiral Wainwright, a Washington judge, Admiral Peary, a bishop, the chargé d'affaires of Switzerland, a member of Congress, the head of the United States Patent Office, the General Consul, the President of the Peace Congress and others. [MD64-65]

    Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places; General Adolphus Greely; Wainwright, Admiral; Peary, Admiral; Agnes Parsons; Taxation
    1912 28 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá give private interviews in the morning then calls on the Turkish Ambassador. [APD56-59] . `Abdu'l-Bahá spent considerable time with the Turkish ambassador, Zia Pasha while in Washington. [AY86-87]

    For a list of some of the well-known individuals whom the Khans brought into ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s presence see AY88.

    `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Washington for Chicago. [239D:46; AB184; SBR81]

    `Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in Chicago. [239D:47]

    Washington DC; Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Ambassadors
    1912 30 Apr Talk at Public Meeting Concluding Convention of Bahá’í Temple Unity, Drill Hall, Masonic Temple, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP65,]

    Talk at Hull House, Chicago, Illinois. Hull House was a community centre, one of the earliest in Chicago, founded by the National American Woman Suffrage Association [PUP67, MD70]

    Talk at Fourth Annual Conference of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Handel Hall, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP69, MD71]

    Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Conventions, National; Bahai Temple Unity; Abdul-Baha, Talks at other places
    1912 1 May `Abdu'l-Bahá lays the cornerstone of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in Wilmette. [239D:51; AB186; GPB288, 349; MBW143]
    • Talk at Dedication of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár Grounds. [PUP71]
    • The cornerstone has been offered by Mrs Nettie Tobin. [AB186]
    • `Abdu'l-Bahá asks delegates from the various Bahá'í communities and Bahá'ís from different backgrounds each to dig the earth to lay the stone. [AB186–7]
    Wilmette; Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Nettie Tobin; Foundation stones and groundbreaking; Abdul-Baha, Life of; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
    1912 3 May Talk at Hotel Plaza, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP83]

    Talk at Hotel Plaza, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP84]

    Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
    1912 4 May Talk to Theosophical Society, Northwestern University Hall, Evanston, Illinois. [PUP87] Evanston; Illinois; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Theosophical Society; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1912 5 May Talk at Children’s Meeting, Hotel Plaza, Chicago, Illinois. [PSBW134–5, PUP91]

    Talk at Plymouth Congregational Church, 935 East Fiftieth Street, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP93]

    Talk at All-Souls Church, Lincoln Center, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP97]

    Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
    1912 6 May `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Chicago, arriving in Cleveland the same day. [239D:57; AB189]

    Talk at Euclid Hall, Cleveland, Ohio. [PUP101]

    Talk at Sanatorium of Dr. C. M. Swingle, Cleveland, Ohio. [PUP104]

    Chicago; Cleveland; Ohio; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1912 7 May `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Cleveland for Pittsburgh, arriving the same day. [239D:63; AB189]

    Talk at Hotel Schenley, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The hotel is now the University of Pittsburgh's Student Union building, known as the William Pitt Union. [PUP105, Schenley Hotel]

    Cleveland; Pittsburgh; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
    1912 8 May `Abdu'l-Bahá takes a morning train from Pittsburgh, arriving in Washington DC that night for His second visit to that city. [239D:64; AB189; SBR81]

    He and His entourage moves into the apartment of William P. Ripley who have vacated it for this purpose. [APD59-60]

    Pittsburgh; Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Trains
    1912 9 May `Abdu'l-Bahá speaks to a capacity gathering at the Parsons' home. He noted that religious ministers in Washington were denouncing Him and the Cause. [APD61-63] Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Agnes Parsons; Opposition
    1912 10 May `Abdu'l-Bahá's sits for sketches by Mr Theadore Spicer-Simon. See Medallions for pictures of his work.

    In the morning Agnes Parsons takes 'Abdu'l-Bahá to the Capitol then to the Washington Monument where they take the elevator to the top.

    He speaks to a small group in the Parsons' home in the afternoon and at the Studio Hall in the evening. [APD63-66]

    In The Diary of Juliet Thompson p285 it is reported that 'Abdu'l-Bahá had been horrified by the prejudice He observed against Black people in Washington.

    Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Abdul-Baha, Talks at other places; Capitol; Washington Monument; Studio Hall; Agnes Parsons; Abdul-Baha, Pictures and portraits; Portraits; Racism
    1912 11 May `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Washington for New York City, arriving the same day. [239D:64–5, AB190, APD66-67]

    Talk at the Hudson Apartment House at 227 Riverside Drive, New York. [PUP111, DJT282]

    Washington; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at other places
    1912 12 May `Abdu'l-Bahá takes a ferry to New Jersey. He takes a train for Montclair where He addresses the congregation of the Unity Church before returning to New York to speak to the International Peace Forum at the Grace Methodist Episcopal Church West 104th Street, New York. [239D:66; AB191, PUP113, PUP116] Montclair; New Jersey; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches; Conferences, Peace; Peace; Trains
    1912 13 May `Abdu'l-Bahá, very unwell, attends a reception and gives a talk to the New York Peace Society at the Hotel Astor. [239D:67; AB192, PUP123, APD67] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other; Peace
    1912 14–16 May `Abdu'l-Bahá attends the Conference on International Peace and Arbitration at Lake Mohonk, delivering an address on the first evening. [239D:67–9; AB193, ABF15] Lake Mohonk; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Conferences, Peace; Conferences, International; Peace; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1912 19 May In the morning He spoke at the Church of the Divine Paternity, Central Park West, New York. [PUP126]

    `Abdu'l-Bahá travels to Jersey City to speak in the Unitarian Church, the Brotherhood Church, Bergen and Fairview Avenues, of which Howard Colby Ives is the pastor. [239D:70–1; AB194, PUP129] ]

    Jersey City; New Jersey; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Howard Colby Ives; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches
    1912 20 May Talk at Woman’s Suffrage Meeting, Metropolitan Temple, Seventh Avenue and Fourteenth Street, New York. [PUP133] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1912 22 May `Abdu'l-Bahá travels to Boston, arriving the same day. [239D:71; AB198] New York; Boston; Massachusetts; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912 23 May The Bahá'ís of Cambridge, Massachusetts, celebrated `Abdu'l-Bahá's birthday with a cake bearing 68 candles. (Significantly, He did not stay for the festivities. He forgave this time, but had forbidden the celebration of His birthday. Six years before He had told Khan and other pilgrims that besides Naw-Rúz, the Holy Days were only for the Báb and Bahá’u’lláh, that His birth on the twenty-second/twenty-third of May was ‘only a coincidence’.) `Abdu'l-Bahá addressed the group on the importance of the Báb at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Francis W. Breed, 367 Harvard Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts. [239D:72; AB199, PUP138]

    Before arriving in the early evening, He had proceeded to Worcester and addressed Clark University there. [AY95]

    Worcester; Cambridge MA; Massachusetts; United States Abdul-Baha, Birth of; Day of the Covenant; Holy Days; Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Abdul-Baha, Talks at universities; Bab, Life of; Clark University; Universities
    1912 24 May Talk at Free Religious Association, or Unitarian Conference, Boston, Massachusetts. [PUP140] Boston; Massachusetts; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1912 25 May Talk at Huntington Chambers, 30 Huntington Ave, Boston, Massachusetts. [PUP143] Boston; Massachusetts; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at other places
    1912 26 May `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Boston and returns to New York, arriving in the evening. [239D:73; AB201]

    Talk at Mount Morris Baptist Church, Fifth Avenue and 126th Street, New York. [PUP147]

    Boston; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches
    1912 28 May `Abdu'l-Bahá and His party are evicted from their hotel because of the `coming and going of diverse people' and the `additional labours and troubles' caused to the staff. [239D:74]

    Talk at Reception at Metropolitan Temple, Seventh Avenue and Fourteenth Street, New York. [PUP150]

    New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches
    1912 25 May Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP154] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Edward Kinney
    1912 30 May Talk at Theosophical Lodge, Broadway and Seventy-ninth Street, New York. [PUP156] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Theosophical Society; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1912 31 May `Abdu'l-Bahá travels to Fanwood, New Jersey. [239D:75; AB207]

    Talk at Town Hall, Fanwood, New Jersey. [PUP161]

    Fanwood; New Jersey; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
    1912 1 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá returns to New York. [AB206]
    • He has His first sitting for the portrait painted by Juliet Thompson. [DJT299]
    New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Juliet Thompson; Abdul-Baha, Pictures and portraits; Portraits
    1912 6 Jun Talk at Church of the Ascension, Fifth Avenue and Tenth Street, New York at the invitation of Percy Grant. [PUP163, ABF22] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches; Percy Grant
    1912 3 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá travels to Milford, Pennsylvania. [AB208] Milford; Pennsylvania; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912 4 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá returns to New York. [AB208] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912 8 Jun Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York, [PUP171]

    `Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in Philadelphia. [239D:88; AB209]

    New York; Philadelphia; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
    1912 9 Jun Talk at Unitarian Church, Fifteenth Street and Girard Avenue, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. [PUP172]

    Talk at Baptist Temple, Broad and Berks Streets, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. [PUP176]

    Philadelphia; United States Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches; Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912 10 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Philadelphia and returns to New York, arriving the same day. [239D:88; AB211] Philadelphia; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912 11 Jun Talk at Open Committee Meeting, Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP183]

    Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP183]

    Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP186]

    New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Edward Kinney
    1912 12 Jun Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP187] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
    1912 15 Jun Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP189] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
    1912 16 Jun Talk at Fourth Unitarian Church, Beverly Road, Flatbush, Brooklyn, New York. [PUP190]

    Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Howard MacNutt, 935 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, New York. [PUP194]

    Talk at Central Congregational Church, Hancock Street, Brooklyn, New York. [PUP197]

    New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Churches; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Howard MacNutt
    1912 17 Jun Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP204] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
    1912 18 Jun Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP205]

    'Abdu'l-Bahá made a recording of His voice on an "Edison Talking Machine". (a cylinder phonograph). [‘Abdu’l-Bahá's Journey West: The Course of Human Solidarity Fig5.1, AY320]

    New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Abdul-Baha, Voice recording of
    1912 19 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá names New York the `City of the Covenant'. [239D:93; AB220; BBD55, ABNY51; DJT315-316]
    • See 239D:92–93 for a description of this event.
    New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Covenant, City of; Covenant (general)
    1912 20 Jun Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP206] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
    1912 21 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in Montclair, New Jersey. [239D:97; AB221] Montclair; New Jersey; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912 23 Jun Talk at Montclair, New Jersey. [PUP210] Montclair; New Jersey; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1912 29 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá hosts a Unity Feast in the Evergreen Cabin at the Wilhelm properties in West Englewood, New Jersey. [239D:102; AB223, PUP213]
    • For pictures of this event see 239D:100–1.
    • Some years later, in 1953, Curtis Kelsey helped to rebuild and enlarge Evergreen Cabin, built on the spot where 'Abdu'l-Baha was host at the first Unity Feast in America. [BW15p470]
    West Englewood; New Jersey; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Unity Feast; Roy Wilhelm; Evergreen cabin
    1912 30 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá returns to New York after visiting Mr Topakyan, the Persian Consul General, in Morristown. [239D:103; AB225–6] New York; Morristown; New Jersey; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Topakian, Mr; Consuls
    1912 1 Jul Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP216]
    • 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke on the subject of poverty and the alleviation of the discrepancy between the rich and the poor.
    Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP218]
    New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Wealth and poverty
    1912 5 Jul Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York, the home of Howard MacNutt. [PUP218]

    Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP220]

    On this occasion 'Abdu'l-Bahá assigned Howard the task of deepening a group of Chicago Bahá’ís on the importance of the Covenant and instructing them not to associate with Covenant-breakers. Howard failed to complete this task and continued correspondence with associates of Kheiralla. For more information see this date.

    New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Covenant (general); Covenant-breakers
    1912 6 Jul Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP225] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
    1912 14 Jul Talk at All Souls Unitarian Church, Fourth Avenue and Twentieth Street, New York. [PUP228] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches
    1912 15 Jul Talk at Home of Dr. and Mrs. Florian Krug, 830 Park Avenue, New York. [PUP236]
    • See AY112-113 for the story of Dr. Florian Krug and his second wife, Grace.
    New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Florian Krug
    1912 23 Jul `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves New York, arriving in Boston the same day for His second visit. [239D:117; AB233]

    Talk at Hotel Victoria, corner of Newbury and Dartmouth Sts, Boston, Massachusetts. [PUP238]

    • For an interesting story about Nancy Douglas Bowditch see Wikipedia.
    • Also see The Artist's Daughter: Memoirs, 1890 - 1979 the autobiography of Nancy Douglas Bowditch.
    New York; Boston; Massachusetts; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places; Nancy Douglas Bowditch
    1912 24 Jul Talk to Theosophical Society, The Kensington, Exeter and Boylston Streets, Boston, Massachusetts. [PUP239] Boston; Massachusetts; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Theosophical Society; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1912 25 Jul Talk at Hotel Victoria, Boston, Massachusetts. [PUP244]

    `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Boston, arriving in Dublin, New Hampshire, the same evening. [239D:117; AB233; SBR82, APD72-73]

    Dublin; New Hampshire; Boston; Massachusetts; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
    1912 26 Jul `Abdu'l-Bahá's and His companions took up residence at one of the two Parsons home in Dublin, NH, a resort area. The house in question is named "Day-Spring". [APD7376] Dublin; New Hampshire; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Agnes Parsons
    1912 28 Jul `Abdu'l-Bahá's speaks at the Parsons home. [APD79-80] Dublin; New Hampshire; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
    1912 5 Aug Talk at Dublin Inn, Dublin, New Hampshire. [PUP245] Dublin; New Hampshire; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
    1912 6 Aug Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, Dublin, New Hampshire. [PUP247] Dublin; New Hampshire; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Arthur Parsons
    1912 16 Aug `Abdu'l-Bahá journeys to Green Acre by car, arriving the same day. [239D:123; AB240]

    Talk at Green Acre, Eliot, Maine. [PUP253]

    • For `Abdu'l-Bahá's activities while in Green Acre see AB240–51.
    • For the story of Fred Mortensen see 239D:126–9 and AB247–51.
    • See also Green Acre on the Piscataqua.
    Eliot; Maine; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Cars; Fred Mortensen; Abdul-Baha, Talks other; Green Acre
    1912 17 Aug Talk at Green Acre, Eliot, Maine. [PUP261]

    Talk at Green Acre, Eliot, Maine. [PUP263]

    Talk at Green Acre, Eliot, Maine. [PUP264]

    Talk at Green Acre, Eliot, Maine. [PUP270]

    Eliot; Maine; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Green Acre; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1912 23 Aug `Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in Malden, Massachusetts, for a week-long stay, making trips to Boston and Cambridge. He stayed in the home of Miss Marie P. Wilson [239D:131; AB251–2]

    At some point during the visit He attended the wedding of Ruby Breed, the younger sister of Florence Breed. The wedding was held in the Breed home and was presided over by an Episcopalian minister. [AY96]

    Malden; Massachusetts; Boston; Cambridge; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Weddings
    1912 25 Aug Talk at the New Thought Forum, Metaphysical Club, Boston, Massachusetts about women's rights. [PUP276, 239Dp131] Boston; Massachusetts; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1912 26 Aug Talk at Franklin Square House, Boston, Massachusetts. [PUP280] Boston; Massachusetts; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1912 27 Aug Talk at Metaphysical Club, Boston, Massachusetts. [PUP284] Boston; Massachusetts; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1912 29 Aug Talk at Home of Madame Beale Morey, 34 Hillside Avenue, Malden, Massachusetts. He spoke on "Religions of the World". [239Dp132, PUP289] Boston; Massachusetts; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
    1912 12 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Buffalo for Chicago, arriving the same day. [239D:142]
    • He stays at the home of Corinne True. [239D:142; AB266]
    Buffalo; Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Corinne True
    1912 15 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Chicago for Kenosha, Wisconsin. [239D:145; AB267]
    • He misses His train and tells the Bahá'ís not to be concerned over this, as there is a good reason for it; travelling on the next train they come across the wreckage of the first, which has been in a collision. [239D:145; AB267]
    Chicago; Kenosha; Wisconsin; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Trains
    1912 16 Sep Talk at Home of Mrs. Corinne True, 5338 Kenmore Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP320]

    `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Chicago for Minneapolis, arriving the same night. [239D:146; AB273]

    Chicago; Minneapolis; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Corinne True
    1912 20 Sep Talk at Home of Mr. Albert L. Hall, 2030 Queen Avenue South, Minneapolis, Minnesota. [PUP325]

    Talk at Home of Dr. and Mrs. Clement Woolson, 870 Laurel Avenue, St. Paul, Minnesota. [PUP329]

    `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Minneapolis for Omaha, Nebraska, arriving the same night. [239D:20]

    • AB279 says this was 21 September.
    Omaha; Nebraska; Minneapolis; Minnesota; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
    1912 21 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá visits Lincoln, Nebraska, then leaves for Denver. [239D:151] Lincoln; Nebraska; Denver; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912 23 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in Denver in the afternoon. [239D:152; SoG221-222] Denver; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912 24 Sep Talk at Home of Mrs. Roberts Denver, Colorado. [PUP334] Denver; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
    1912 25 Sep Talk at Second Divine Science Church, 3929 West Thirty-eighth Avenue, Denver, Colorado . [PUP337] Denver; Colorado; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches
    1912 26 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Denver and arrives in Glenwood Springs, Colorado. [239D:158] Denver; Glenwood Springs; Colorado; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912 27 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Glenwood Springs for Salt Lake City. [239D:159] Denver; Glenwood Springs; Salt Lake City; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912 27 Sep Louisa Mathew and Louis Gregory, an interracial Bahá'í couple, are married in New York City. [239D:169] New York; United States Louisa Mathew Gregory; Louis Gregory; Firsts, Other; Race (general); Unity; Interracial marriage; Weddings
    1912 28 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in Salt Lake City. [239D:159] Salt Lake City; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912 30 Sep Thornton Chase, the first American Bahá'í, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, passes away in California before 'Abdu'l-Bahá'í and His retinue arrive. He is buried at Inglewood. [BBD71; BFA2:XVII] Los Angeles; California; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Thornton Chase; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Cemeteries and graves
    1912 1 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in San Francisco about midnight. [239D:165; AB286] San Francisco; California; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912 7 Oct Talk to Japanese Young Men’s Christian Association, Japanese Independent Church, 576 Sycamore Street, Oakland, California. [PUP343] Oakland; California; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1912 8 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá speaks at Leland Stanford Junior University in Palo Alto. [239D:166 AB288, PUP348]
    • There are two thousand in the audience. [AB288]
    Palo Alto; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at universities; Universities
    1912 10 Oct Talk at Open Forum, San Francisco, California [PUP355] San Francisco; California; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
    1912 12 Oct Talk at Temple Emmanu-El, 450 Sutter Street, San Francisco, California. [PUP361, ABF408] San Francisco; California; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches
    1912 13 or 14 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá visited Phoebe Hearst at her estate, at her invitation. [239D:168; AB307]
    • She was estranged from the Faith because one or two individuals had tried to extort money from her but her invitation is sincere. AB307–8]
    California; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Phoebe Hearst; Hearst estate
    1912 16 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá returns to San Francisco. [AB308] San Francisco; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912 17 Oct 'Abdu'l-Bahá discovers His signet ring is missing and for the rest of His trip He signs, rather than seal, every Tablet He writes or dictates. [Historical Dictionary of the Bahá'í Faith pg. xxxvii, AY101-102] Oakland; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Rings; Seals
    1912 18 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves San Francisco for Los Angeles, arriving the same day. [239D:169; AB309] Los Angeles; San Francisco; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912 19 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá visits the grave of Thornton Chase in Inglewood. [239D:169; AB309]
    • The purpose of His journey to Los Angeles is to visit the grave of Thornton Chase. [AB309]
    Inglewood; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Thornton Chase; Cemeteries and graves
    1912 21 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Los Angeles for San Francisco. [AB310] Los Angeles; San Francisco; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912 25 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves San Francisco for Sacramento, arriving at noon the same day. [239D:171]

    Talk at Hotel Sacramento, Sacramento, California. [PUP370]

    San Francisco; Sacramento; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
    1912 26 Oct Talk at Assembly Hall, Hotel Sacramento, Sacramento, California. [PUP376]

    `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Sacramento for Denver. [239D:172; AB316]

    Sacramento; California; Denver; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
    1912 28 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in Denver at midnight. [239D:175; AB316] Denver; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912 30 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Denver for Chicago. [239D:175] Denver; Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912 31 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá arrived in Chicago and gave a talk at the Plaza Hotel. [239D:176; PUP381].

    It is likely that 'Abdu'l-Bahá encountered Rabindranath Tagore who was to become a well-known Bengali poet and musician who would reshape Bengali literature and music and be the first non-European to win the Nobel Prize in Literature. [Rabindranath Tagore: Some Encounters with Bahá'ís by Peter Terry; Wikipedia]

    Chicago; United States; India Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places; Rabindranath Tagore
    1912 1 Nov Talk at Home of Mrs. Corinne True, 5338 Kenmore Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP383] Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Corinne True
    1912 4 Nov `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Chicago and arrives in Cincinnati the same day. [239D:179] Chicago; Cincinnati; Ohio; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912 5 Nov Talk at Grand Hotel, Cincinnati, Ohio. [PUP388]

    `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves Cincinnati for Washington DC. [239D:179]

    Cincinnati; Ohio; Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
    1912 6 Nov `Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in Washington DC. [239D:179]

    Talk at Universalist Church, Thirteenth and L Streets, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP390]

    Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches
    1912 7 Nov Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D. C. [PUP397]

    Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D. C. [PUP400]

    Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Arthur Parsons
    1912 8 Nov Talk at Eighth Street Temple, Synagogue, Washington, D. C. [PUP411]

    Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at synagogues
    1912 9 Nov Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D. C .[PUP411]

    Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D. C .[PUP415]

    Talk at Bahá’í Banquet, Rauscher’s Hall, Washington, D. C. [PUP418]

    Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Arthur Parsons; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1912 10 Nov Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D. C .[PUP421]

    Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Joseph H. Hannen, 1252 Eighth Street, NW, Washington, D. C. 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke of Bahá'u'lláh's faithful Ethiopian servant, Isfandiyar, and his service to the family of Bahá'u'lláh's family while He was in prison in the Síyáh-Chál. [PUP425, 239D181-182]

    Talk at 1901 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D. C. [PUP428]

    Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Abdul-Baha, Talks other; Arthur Parsons; Joseph Hannen; Isfandiyar
    1912 11 Nov `Abdu'l-Bahá travels to Baltimore by train and arrives at Camden Station at 11AM. He is accompanied by Dr. Ameen Fareed and Mirza Ahmad Sohrab (interpreters), Mirza Mahmud, Mirza 'Ali Akah, Mirza Valiollah Khan, Dr. Zia Bagdadi, and Saya Assadollah [239D:183; AB329]
    • At noon He speaks at the chapel of the Unitarian Church on the unity of religions and the oneness of God. The chapel is packed with Johns Hopkins University faculty members and many local professional men.
    • After the address he shares lunch at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Struven with more than 50 people.
    • He leaves Baltimore about 3PM and on his return to New York He passes through Philadelphia, where He meets the Bahá'ís on the train platform. ['Abdu'l-Bahá in Baltimore by Allison Vaccaro and Edward E. Bartlett]
    Baltimore; Philadelphia; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches; Trains
    1912 12 Nov `Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in New York at 1:00 a.m. [AB329] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912 15 Nov Talk at Home of Miss Juliet Thompson, 48 West Tenth Street, New York. [PUP431] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Juliet Thompson
    1912 16 Nov Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP437] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
    1912 17 Nov Talk at Genealogical Hall, 252 West Fifty-eighth Street, New York. [PUP437] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1912 18 Nov `Abdu'l-Bahá visits the library of J. Pierpont Morgan and inscribes his album with a blessing for his philanthropy. [239D:186–7]

    Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Frank K. Moxey, 575 Riverside Drive, New York. [PUP422]

    New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; J. P. Morgan; J. P. Morgan Library; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
    1912 18 Nov `Abdu'l-Bahá had instructed MacNutt to meet with a group of potential Covenant-breakers in Chicago and warn them of the danger. He also ordered MacNutt to break all communication with Ibrahim Kheiralla and other Covenant-breakers. He had failed to do as directed. They met in the Kenny's home for the first time since his trip, where `Abdu'l-Bahá advised him that he had violated the Covenant himself and commanded him to repent before a group of New York Bahá'ís gathered there, which he did, reluctantly. [DJT371; AY121] New York; United States Covenant-breakers; Howard MacNutt; Ibrahim George Kheiralla
    1912 23 Nov A farewell banquet is held for `Abdu'l-Bahá at the Great Northern Hotel, 118 West Fifty-seventh Street, in New York. [239D:187; AB331, PUP447]
    • The hotel does not allow the black Bahá'ís to attend. [239D:187]
    New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912 24 Nov `Abdu'l-Bahá and the white Bahá'ís serve the black Bahá'ís at a dinner at the Kinney's. [239D:187] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Kinney
    1912 29 Nov Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP449] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Edward Kinney
    1912 2 Dec Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP452]

    Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP453]

    New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Edward Kinney
    1912 3 Dec Talk at Home of Dr. and Mrs. Florian Krug, 830 Park Avenue, New York. [PUP457]

    Talk to Mr. Kinney’s Bible Class, 780 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP458]

    Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP460]

    New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
    1912 4 Dec `Abdu'l-Bahá addresses His last meeting in North America with a talk to Theosophical Society, 2228 Broadway, New York. [239D:193, PUP462] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Theosophical Society; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1912 5 Dec `Abdu'l-Bahá sails on the S. S. Celtic from New York to Liverpool. [239D:193–4; AB337; GPB281]
    • For `Abdu'l-Bahá's final words to the Bahá'ís, spoken while on board ship, see PUP468.
    • For Ahmad Sohrab's account of the sea crossing see SW3, 16:2.
    New York; United States; Liverpool; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Ships; S. S. Celtic; Ahmad Sohrab; Abdul-Baha, Life of
    1912 13 Dec `Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in Liverpool aboard the S. S. Celtic at about 9PM. He is met by dozens of Bahá'ís from Liverpool, Manchester and Leads as well as Hippolyte Drefus-Barney who had come from Paris. [AB343; SBR38, ABTM273-4] Liverpool; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; S. S. Celtic; Ships
    1912 14 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá stayed in Liverpool at the Adelphi Hotel. His first talk was to the Theosophical Society. [ABTM274, SoW Vol III No17 9Jan1913 p3] Liverpool; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Theosophical Society
    1912 15 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke at Pembroke Chapel and was introduced by Rev Donald Fraser. [ABTM275, SoW Vol III No 17 9Jan1913 p4] Liverpool; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912 16 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá and his entourage departed Liverpool for London by train from the Lime Street Station. When they arrive at Euston Station they are met by a group of about 50 Bahá'ís. He is taken by motorcar to the home of Lady Blomfield at 97 Cadogan Gardens which she again offered to Him during His stay in London. After resting He gave a talk to newspaper reporters and later gave a talk to the gathering of Bahá'ís. [AB343, ABTM276] Liverpool; London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Trains; Cars; Lady Blomfield
    1912 17 De A Bahá'í arrived from Ireland to see 'Abdu'l-Bahá, possibly Joan Waring, after travelling all day and all night.
    • He made comments on the character of the American people.
    • In the afternoon He spoke to a large gathering at Caxton Hall in Westminster. [SoW Vol III no 19 2Mar1913 p3-4, ABTM276-277]
    London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912 18 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá gives a talk at which E. G. Browne is present. He visits `Abdu'l-Bahá several more times while in London. [SoW Vol III no19 2Mar1913 p4, AB346, ABTM277-278]

    Hájí Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardakání (Hájí Amín) arrives in London from Paris with three young Persian. He spoke neither English nor French and had had some difficulty in getting from Paris to London. He crossed the English Channel and then found himself back in Paris. His second attempt was successful. [SoW Vol III no19 2Mar1913 p4, AB346–7, ABTM278]

    London; United Kingdom; Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Edward Granville Browne; Haji Amin (Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani)
    1912 19 Dec Hájí Amín, the Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh, presented 'Abdu'l-Bahá with a gift from a poor workman in 'Ishqábád. He had nothing monetary to offer so he gave Hájí Amín his mid-day meal, two small loaves of bread and an apple wrapped in a handkerchief. 'Abdu'l-Bahá took the offering tenderly, ate a small piece of the stale bread and gave the rest to be passed around to the rest of the table. [SoW Vol III No 19 2Mar1913 p5, ABTM278] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Gifts; Huququllah; Haji Amin
    1912. 20 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá interviewed E. S. (Ethel Stefana) Stevens who had come from Southhampton to meet Him. Three years prior she had spent 3 or 4 months in 'Akka and Haifa gathering material for her book, published in 1911, about the second coming of Christ. [SoW Vol III no 19 2Mar1913 p6] Mountain of God]

    He discussed the question of "spiritual communication" and gave the prerequisites. [SoW Vol III no 19 2Mar1913 p6]

    In the evening He was driven to Westminster for a meeting at the Palace Hotel, His first public talk since returning to London. [SoW Vol III no 19 2Mar1913 p6, [SoW Vol III no 17 19Jan1913 p510]

    London; Westminster; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Ethel Stevens
    1912 21 or 22 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá witnessed His first dramatic performance. It was a mystery Christmas play entitled Eager Heart written by Miss Alice Buckton and performed at the Church House, Westminster before an audience of 1,200. [SoW Vol III no 19 2March1913 p 7, CH154, AB34]
    • He is reported to have said, perhaps on another occasion, "The stage will be the pulpit of the future". [Quoted by Loulie Mathews in The Magazine of the Children of the Kingdom, Vol 4, No. 3 (June 1923, p69]
    • Star of the West, Vol. 19 no. 11 Feb1929, p.341 quotes 'Abdu'l-Bahá as saying: "drama is of the utmost importance. It has been a great educational power in the past; it will be so again,". [BW1994-1995p255]
    Westminster; London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Drama; Arts
    1912 c. Dec On another occasion He gave an outline for a play to his hostess for the evening, Mrs Gabrielle Enthoven, which He called Drama of the Kingdom. It was put to print by Lady Blomfield's daughter, Mary Basil Hall, approved by the Reviewing Committees for the National Assemblies of both the British Isles and the United States and Canada. It was published in 1933. In 1994 a production based on this outline was premiered in Perth, Australia entitled The Face of Glory: A Musical Rendezvous with the Soul. [CH155-156, Bahá'ís and the Arts: Language of the Heart by Ann Boyles, also published in 1994-95 edition of The Bahá'í World, pp. 243-272] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Drama; Mary Basil Hall; Lady Blomfield; Publications
    1912 24 Dec `Abdu'l-Bahá received many expensive Christmas gifts; He turned them all away by returning them and asking the donors to sell them and give the money to the poor.

    That evening He visited the Salvation Army Shelter in Westminster. That night there were 1,000 men present. After His talk He departed but not before leaving twenty gold sovereigns and many handfuls of silver with Col Spencer for a similar dinner to be held on New Year's Eve. [ABTM282-283]

    London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Charity and relief work; Gifts
    1912. 29 Dec In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá received a visit from the Maharajah or Jhalawar. [ABTM283]

    In the afternoon He spoke at the home of Miss Annie Gamble. [SoW Vol. 9 No 2 9Apr1918 p 24]

    In the evening He gave a talk at the King's Weigh House Methodist Church hosted by Rev E W Lewis. [SoW Vol. 4 No 17 19Jan1914 p284-285]

    London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Maharajahs
    1912. 30 Dec The 19 Day Feast was held at the home of Mrs Robinson. [AB352] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912 31 Dec `Abdu'l-Bahá visited Oxford at the invitation of Dr T. K. Cheyne to address a meeting at Manchester College. [BW4p384-385, AB352–354, ABIM284, Journey West 20130210, [Ahmad Sohrab's Diary - The Great Tour p99]
    • In 1886, Cheyne was appointed Oriel Professor of Interpretation of Scripture at Oxford University, and, as an ordained Anglican priest (1864), was installed as Canon of Rochester Cathedral (Church of England) that same year. An advocate of “higher criticism” as applied to biblical scholarship, Professor Cheyne was the first at Oxford University to teach students how to apply the methods and tools of higher criticism to the Hebrew Scriptures. See An Oxford Scholar on the Spirit of Truth by Christopher Buck.
    • For biographical information see a paper by Crawford Howell Toy entitled Thomas Kelly Cheyne.
    • See Hurqalya Publications for a translation by Stephen Lambden of a Tablet to Dr Cheyne as well as the address to Manchester College.
    • After the visit of 'Abdu'l-Bahá the elderly and infirmed professor, who was unable to walk and had difficulty speaking, went on to write the book, The Reconciliation of Races and Religions. See BWXp483 for an excerpt regarding Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
    • His second wife was the poetess Elizabeth Gibson Cheyne (1869-1931) whom he married (aged 69) on August 28th [19th] 1911 about four years after the death of his first wife. Elizabeth Gibson was the sister of the `War Poet' Wilfred Wilson Gibson. A paper by Judy Greenway, a grand niece of Elizabeth Gibson entitled "From the Wilderness to the Beloved City: Elizabeth Gibson Cheyne", pays tribute to the woman whom 'Abdul'-Bahá lauded during His visit. This paper was given at the invitation of the Oxford Bahá’í Community in December 2012, as part of the celebration of the centenary of Abdu’l-Bahá’s visit to Oxford.
    • See an article by Christopher Buck on Cheyne's interpretation of Isaiah's prophecies
    Oxford; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; T. K. Cheyne; Elizabeth Gibson Cheyne; Stephen Lambden; Judy Greenway
    1913. 5 Jan The Master spoke at the home of Miss Herrick's to some 150 people. He gave a very "spiritual" lecture about the negligence of the people about God and their submerging in the sea of materialism. London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1913 6 Jan `Abdu'l-Bahá and His party, Síyyíd Asadu'lláh-i-Qumí, His attendant, Ahmad Sohrab, His interpreter and Mírzá Mahmúd-i-Zarqání, His secretary, depart by train and arrive in Edinburgh's Waverly Station in the late afternoon. [SCU68]

    Also with 'Abdul-Bahá during His time in Edinburgh were Lady Blomfield and Alice Buckton and a young Persian student, Lutful'lláh Hakím.

    On the train He told the story of Miss Wardlaw-Ramsay of the Church Missionary Society who was a missionary in 'Acca for some 40 years. She was antagonistic to the Cause but the Master showed her all manner of kindness because she was very faithful to her Christ. When she left Akka and returned to Scotland He gave a party for her. [Ahmad Sohrab's Diary, Edinburgh, 1913 p5]

    Upon arrival He is taken to the home of Mrs Jane Elizabeth Whyte (neé Barbour) (1857-1944) at 7 Charlotte Square. She had met 'Abdu'l-Bahá before. She and her friend, Mrs Thornburgh-Cropper, had been invited to visit her sister who was on an extended stay in Egypt during the winter of 1905-6. In March they made a visit to 'Akká. By 1912 she had become a member of the "Council" established to promote the Faith in Britain. The Whytes, along with the Theosophical Society, had been instrumental in arranging Abdu'l-Bahá's visit to Edinburgh.

    Mrs Whyte's account of her meeting in 1906 is in her book Seven Candles of Unity, pp 47-49. and in her book entitled Seven Candles of Unity: the Story of 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Edinburgh (London: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1991). [Scottish Women: A Documentary History, 1780-1914 by Esther Breitenbach and Linda Fleming p.213]

    Her husband, Mr Alexander Whyte (1837-1921) was a Scottish divine; a minister of the Free Church of Scotland, he became colleague and successor of Dr R S Candlish at Free St Georges (now St George's West, 58 Shandwick Place), and then principal and professor of New Testament literature at New College, Edinburgh. [AB355, 363–8; SBR26]

    Miss Isobel Fraser served as the advance publicity agent for the visit.

    Edinburgh; Scotland; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Isobel Fraser; Trains
    1913. 7 Jan 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke to a crowd of several hundred Theosophists. The Theosophical Society (founded 1875) promoted brotherhood, the importance of Eastern philosophies and the search for spiritual and psychic truths. Edinburgh had one of the most active centres in Europe.

    In the late morning they had a tour of Outlook Tower, 549 Castlehill, Edinburgh EH1 2ND. Outlook Tower was an educational institution which taught astronomy, natural geography, cartology etc. The tour guide was Sir Patrick Geddes (1854-1932) who was a Scottish biologist and botanist, known also as an innovative thinker in the fields of urban planning and education; as a town-planner in Palestine he had involvement in the cypress avenue leading up to the Shrine of the Báb, and he also planned a Bahá'í House of Worship in India. [AB447, Leroy Ioas, p218, SCU68, 73-82]

    In the evening 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke to the Esperanto Society at Freemason's Hall, 96 George Street, Edinburgh EH2 3DH. There were 1,000 people in the hall and some 300 outside. This was His first public address in Scotland. [ABTM294, Ahmad Sohrab's Diary, Edinburgh, 1913]

    Edinburgh; Scotland; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Esperanto; Theosophical Society; Patrick Geddes, Sir
    1913 8 Jan 'Abdu'l-Bahá was given a tour of the Edinburgh College of Arts conducted by the President. (74 Lauriston Place, Edinburgh EH3 9DF) This was followed by a tour of a school in the poorer district, North Canongate School.

    In the afternoon He spoke to a capacity attendance at Rainy Hall, New College, the Mound, Edinburgh EH1 2LX.

    'Abdu'l-Bahá attended a charity performance of Handel's Messiah at St Giles Cathedral. (Royal Mile, Edinburgh EH1 1RE) St. Giles was also known as the High Kirk of Edinburgh. It was Edinburgh's religious focal point for at least 900 years.

    And the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together: for the mouth of the Lord hath spoken it. (Isaiah 40:5) [Ahmad Sohrab's Diary, Edinburgh, 1913, ABTM297, SCU85-100]

    Edinburgh; Scotland; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; St Giles Cathedral; Handels Messiah; Edinburgh College of Arts; North Canongate School
    1913. 9 Jan After a morning of receiving visitors 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke to a woman's group that included those of a wide spectrum of conviction on the role of women from suffragists to suffragettes to those opposed of giving women the vote.

    'Abdu'l-Bahá visited the painter, John Duncan, (1866 Dundee-1945) a foremost Celtic revivalist painter, on the Management Board of the College of Arts, who was guided along by Patrick Geddes. He married Christine Allen in 1912 and immediately moved to 29 Bernard's Crescent as his home and studio, where this visit took place. Both were members of the Theosophical Society. Christine Duncan née Allen (c1886-) was a spiritualist with connections to Wellesley Tudor Pole and Alice Buckton.

    He was driven north of the city to see the Forth Railway Bridge, Edinburgh EH30 9TB. This engineering marvel, stretching 2.5 km from South to North Queensferry opened on the 4th of March 1890 and has been designated as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. [UNESCO]

    'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke at the Theosophical Society meeting at 28 Great King Street, Edinburgh EH3 6QN. "Several hundred" attended. [Ahmad Sohrab's Diary, Edinburgh, 1913 p.14, SCU101-107]

    Edinburgh; Scotland; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Theosophical Society; John Duncan; Christine Duncan
    1913 10 Jan `Abdu'l-Bahá returns to London departing Waverly Station at 11 AM and arriving at Euston at 7 PM. He returned to the home of Lady Blomfield at 97 Cadogan Gardens. She devotedly placed her whole apartment at His disposal, whilst she herself (certainly in 1913) stayed a few moments away with Lady Elcho in 62 Cadogan Square (now likely 58). [AB368, SCU109-113, Ahmad Sohrab's Diary, Edinburgh, 1913, David Merrick p8] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1913. 11 Jan 'Abdu'l-Bahá was most anxious that follow-up be done in Scotland. In and interview with Miss Buckton and Miss Schepel He encouraged them to go as soon as possible. [Ahmad Sohrab's Diary, Edinburgh, 1913, David Merrick p17]
    • 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke at Caxton Hall in Westminster and after entertained a small crowd of people at His residence where He recounted stories of Bahá'ulláh's suffering. [AB368, ABTM299]
    London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1913. 12 Jan He attended a dinner party at the home of Sir Richard and Lady Shapely. Dinner was followed by a talk. [AB369, ABTM299] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1913. 13 Jan 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke at Cadogan Gardens on the darkness of superstitions and imitations. [AB369, ABTM299] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Superstitions
    1913. 14 Jan 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke in the East End of London at a Congregational Church. [CH168, AB369, ABTM299] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Churches
    1913 15 Jan `Abdu'l-Bahá travels to Bristol and stays at the Clifton Guest House which belonged to Mr and Mrs Tudor-Pole. He was accompanied by the Persian ambassador, Dúst-Muhammad Khán. In the evening He addressed a meeting in the Guest House. [AB369] Bristol; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Wellesley Tudor Pole; Dust-Muhammad Khan
    1913 16 Jan `Abdu'l-Bahá returns to London and spoke at 97 Cadogan Gardens. He spoke about the diversity of those entering the Faith and the recommended way to conduct a meeting. [AB370, ABTM302-303] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1913 18 Jan `Abdu'l-Bahá received guests from the Muslim Community of Britain and was asked to speak at the Shah Jehan Mosque at Woking, one of the two mosques in England at the time and the first built in England and perhaps Western Europe. He spoke on the subject of the Unity of Religions and translation was done by Mírzá Ahmad Sohrab. [CH152, AB370, BW3p278-279, BW4p377]
    • Note ABTM303 reports that this event took place on the 17th of January.
    • Dr. Gottlieb Wilhelm Leitner (1840–1899) was the builder of the Oriental Institute, founded to train Asians living in Europe for the learned professions, to the study of linguistics and culture, and for the teaching of languages to Europeans who wished to travel to the East. To cater for the spiritual needs of students of all major faiths and to provide for any who lived within reach, Dr. Leitner intended to build a synagogue, a church, a temple and a mosque. Only the Shah Jehan Mosque was completed. (Oct-Nov 1889). The Institute relied too heavily upon Dr. Leitner’s personal enthusiasm and wealth and it did not survive his early death in March of 1899. The Mosque was closed and practically empty between 1899 and 1912. Khwaja Kamal-ud-Din, a prominent Kashmiri lawyer and founder of the Woking Muslim Mission, worked to repair and re-open the Mosque in 1913. It was the first formal place of Islamic worship in England and became a centre of Islam in the UK. [Dr. Gottlieb Wilhelm Leitner]
    • For a photo of the gathering see BW3p280 or BWNS818.
    Woking; Surrey; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Mosques; Unity of religion; Interfaith dialogue; BWNS
    1913 19 Jan 'Abdu'l-Bahá was the guest of Rev Dr R J Campbell for luncheon. A number of divines had also been invited. [AB371] London; Woking; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1913 20 Jan Dr Felix Mosscheles held a reception for 'Abdu'l-Bahá in his home that was attended by a number of notable people.

    'Abdu'l-Bahá was the guest of a Rajput prince who gave a dinner party for Him.

    In the evening He spoke at the Higher Thought Centre, His last engagement in London. [AB371]

    London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1913 21 Jan `Abdu'l-Bahá leaves London for Paris. [AB371]
    • The visit to Paris lasts several weeks. [AB372; SBR220]
    London; United Kingdom; Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1914 9 Jan John Ferraby, Hand of the Cause of God, is born in Southsea, England. Southsea; United Kingdom John Ferraby; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1914 (Middle of the year) The defection of Dr Amín Faríd, `Abdu'l-Bahá's translator while in America, becomes publicly known. [AB407] United States; Europe Amin Farid; Covenant-breakers
    1914 4 Aug England declares war on Germany. United Kingdom; Germany; Europe World War I; War (general); History (general)
    1915 A plan to fund part-time travelling Bahá’í teachers in the USA and Canada is approved. There had been a great deal of reluctance to take this measure for fear of creating a "clergy" class but the vastness of the country and the fewness of believers of independent means as well as the impetus to teaching sparked by 'Abdu'l-Bahá's visit helped to take the decision. [BBRSM:105, 219] United States; Canada Subsidies; Funds; Travel teaching
    1915 19-25 Apr The Panama-Pacific International Exposition is held in San Francisco and the 24th of April is declared International Bahá'í Congress Day. [BW8:797-808] San Francisco; United States Conferences, Other
    1915 16 Jun Miss Margaret Green of Washington DC arrives in Alaska, the first known resident Bahá'í. Washington DC; Alaska; United States Margaret Green
    1915 11 Oct Arthur Pillsbury Dodge, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, passes away in Freeport, New York. [sBR15]
    • For biographies see Bahá'í Chronicles; BFA1:116-17, SBR1-16 and SW6, 13:100-1.
    • For his obituary see SW6, 19:161-7.
    • Dodge's books include The Truth of It (1901) [SW6, 13:101] and Whence? Why? Wither? (1907). [SW6, 13:101]
    Freeport; New York; United States Arthur Pillsbury Dodge; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1916 The United States census shows 2,884 Bahá'ís. [BBRSM:105; SBBH1:117] United States Statistics
    1916 Apr or May The first Chinese Bahá'í in China, Chen Hai An (Harold A. Chen), becomes a Bahá'í in Chicago through the efforts of Dr Zia Baghdádí. [PH29-30]
    • PH30 says this was 1919 but this is clearly a typographical error.
    • He returns to China in December 1916.
    China; Chicago; United States First Bahais by country or area; Zia Baghdadi
    1916 8 Sep The first five Tablets of the Tablets of the Divine Plan are published in Star of the West. [BBD219; 5w7, 10:87-91]
    • For editorial comment see SW7, 10:86.
    • After this, communication is cut off with the Holy Land. [BBD219]
    Chicago; United States Tablets of the Divine Plan; Star of the West; Publications
    1917 6 Apr The United States enters World War I.
    • See CF36 for Shoghi Effendi's opinion of its participation in the war.
    Europe; United States World War I; War (general); History (general); Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1917. 2 Nov The Balfour Declaration was a letter sent to Lord Walter Rothschild by British Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour declaring support for the establishment of a ‘national home for the Jewish people’ in what was to become the British Mandate of Palestine. It was the first official declaration of political support for Jewish independence and is viewed by some as paving the way for the legal foundations of the modern State of Israel as evidenced by the level of international diplomacy that went into securing the letter. In the context of WWI which was still raging at the time, it offered Britain the opportunity for a stake in the Middle East in the expected wake of the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. It also marked one of the first major successes of the political Zionist movement which had officially been established with the First Zionist Congress in 1897.

    Given that the Balfour Declaration was not a unilateral document on behalf of the British but rather something which had been agreed upon privately by allied diplomats before it was issued, it is viewed as the beginning of a legal process, which involved the San Remo conference of 1920 where the Declaration was officially adopted by the allied powers and latter, the creation of the British Mandate for Palestine in 1922.

    The implementation of the Declaration was not without its failings. It provided for the safeguarding of the rights of the residents of Palestine saying ‘nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine’. In the run up to WWII that the British wanted to placate the Arab leadership in the Mandate. They issued a White Paper limiting Jewish immigration to the Mandate to fifteen thousand every year for five years, ultimately refusing entry to thousands of Jewish refugees from Europe, many of whom would tragically die in the Holocaust. [Wikipedia]

    Palistine; Israel Balfour Declaration; Jews; Judaism; History (general); United Kingdom
    1918 8 Jan President Woodrow Wilson in a speech on war aims and peace terms to the United States Congress outlined his Fourteen Points. It was a statement of principles for peace that was to be used for peace negotiations in order to end World War I. President Wilson was influenced by the Bahá’í Teachings in formulating his Fourteen Points, at least three Bahá’í volumes were known to be in the White House. The Hidden Words appears on a 1921 listing of Wilson’s private library. Also, a compilation on peace given the President by a delegation of Washington Bahá’ís ‘turned up in general reference at the Library of Congress marked “transfer from the White House”‘. And Abdul-Baha on Divine Philosophy (Boston, 1918) is said to have much influenced his thinking. [AY155]

    Commenting on the Fourteen Points laid down by the President for the world community, the Master says that twelve of them derive from principles advocated by Bahá’u’lláh fifty years before, and that these Teachings had been spread worldwide through various publications, thus becoming known to leaders in Europe and America (Persian Tablets, vol. III, p. 312). [AY156-157]

    United States; Washinton DC Woodrow Wilson; Fourteen Points; History (general); Principles; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha on Divine Philosophy; Peace; World War I; War (general); United States, Presidents
    1919 (in the year) Amelia Collins, Hand of the Cause, becomes a Bahá'í in Pasadena, California. [PSBW74] Pasadena; California; United States Amelia Collins; Hands of the Cause
    1919 13 Apr The passing of Phoebe Apperson Hearst (b. 3 December, 1842) in her home in Pleasanton, California during the worldwide influenza epidemic of 1918-1919. She was buried at Cypress Lawn Memorial Park, Colma, California. [AY49, Find a grave, Bahá'í Chronicles]
    • See AY55-> for a brief history of her life and her contribution to the progress of the Faith. She had learned of the Faith through Lua Getsinger and members of her group in the early days of the Faith in California.
    • ‘Abdu’l-Bahá called her ‘the servant of Bahá, the “Mother of the Faithful”’. He writes that she had ‘sincerely turned unto her Master... completely faced toward the Kingdom of God ... [she] shall surely have a firm and steady footing in the Cause of God, her face shall shine forth from the Horizon of Loftiness, her fame shall be spread in the Kingdom of God, and [she] shall have a ringing voice ... and the light of her glorious deeds shall beam forth during cycles and ages.’ [AY54-55; 106-107]
    Pleasanton; California; Colma; United States Phoebe Hearst; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves; Lua Getsinger; Names and titles
    1919 26 Apr-1 May The 14 Tablets of the Divine Plan are unveiled in a dramatic ceremony at the Hotel McAlpin in New York, during the `Convention of the Covenant'. [ABNYP172Note24, BBD219; PP437; SBBH1:134; SBBH2:135; SBR86; AB220TDPXI]
    • For details of the convention programme, Tablets and talks given see SW10, 4:54-72; SW10, 5:83-94; SW10, 6:99-103, 111-12 SW10, 7:122-7, 138; SW10, 10:197-203; and SW10, 12:2279.
    • Mary Maxwell (Rúhíyyih Khánum) is among the young people who unveil the Tablets. [PP437]
    • Hyde and Clara Dunn and Martha Root respond immediately to the appeal, the Dunns going to Australia where they open 700 towns to the Faith, and Martha Root embarking on the first of her journeys which are to extend over 20 years. [GPB308; MR88]
    • See also CT138-9.
  • Agnes Parsons arrives from her pilgrimage just before the close of the convention and is able to convey the instructions from `Abdu'l-Bahá to arrange a Convention for `the unity of the coloured and white races'. [BW5:413; SBR87]
  • New York; United States Tablets of the Divine Plan; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Charters; Conventions, National; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Agnes Parsons; Hyde Dunn; Clara Dunn; Martha Root; Race (general); Race amity; Race unity
    1919 19 Aug The Anglo-Persian agreement was signed whereby Persia would get advisors for every department and give every concession to England. It effectively made Persia a British protectorate and eliminated the Russian influence that had been established by the earlier Anglo-Russian pact. The United States Government was much displeased, for this represented a breach of ‘open covenants openly arrived at’, one of Wilson’s Fourteen Points, and represented a continuation of the secret diplomacy of former times. The price of this agreement, according to one official, was £500,000 paid out to one prominent official, and £300,000 to another.

    When the Persians discovered by what dubious means this Agreement was contrived, they arose in fury, there was a coup d’état with the backing of the Cossack Brigade, Siyyid Zia-ed-Din came to power (1921) and abrogated the Agreement. Then he himself would be overthrown, and replaced by Reza Khan of the Cossack Brigade as Minister of War and Commander in Chief. Thus an illiterate one-time army private, once a sentry at a hospital gate, would eventually (1925) become a powerful Shah. [AY172, 210]

    Iran; United Kingdom Anglo-Persian agreement; British history; History (general); Iran, General history
    1919. 18 Nov The periodical entitled "The Magazine of the Children of the Kingdom" was published and distributed by Miss Ella Roberts from 1919 to 1924. [Encyclopedia of Women and Religion in North America: Native American creation stories, edited by Rosemary Skinner Keller, Rosemary Radford Ruether, Marie Cantlon p.782-783]
    • The story of the naming of the magazine...
        Margaret Randall told of the establishment of a Bahá'í Junior Magazine and asked 'Abdu'l-Bahá for a name for it. The Master was told who had charge of it, and His face lighted up with a beautiful smile as He said: "The name is The Magazine of the Children of the Kingdom. Who writes it? This (name) is suitable for it. [WHR128-129]
    • See A Compilation on Bahá’í Education #96 for a tablet by 'Abdu'l-Bahá to the children of the Bahá’í school, Urbana, Illinois found here.
    • See A Compilation on Bahá’í Education #102 for a tribute to the magazine by Shoghi Effendi found here. He called it "first and only organ of the Bahá’í youth throughout the world".
    • At the American National Convention in 1925 (July 4 - 9) it was reported that "The Magazine of the Children of the Kingdom", edited by Ella Roberts and "Bahá’í World Fellowship" edited by Mrs. Victoria Bedikian had merged. ["Bahá’í News Letter" #6 Jul-Aug 1925 p.6]
    Haifa; United States Magazine of the Children of the Kingdom; Children; Youth; - Periodicals; Publications; Firsts, Other
    1920. 27 Jan The passing of Joseph H. Hannen, Disciple of 'Abdu'l-Bahá a week after he was knocked down by a car in Washington, DC. (b. January 27, 1920, Allegheny, Pennsylvania) It was Joseph Hannen who served as a note-taker for many of the talks of 'Abdu'l-Bahá during His tour in the United States. A number of the entries in Promulgation of Universal Peace are accredited to him. [The Washington Times 28 January, 1928]

    ‘Abdu’l-Bahá sent the first Tablet of the Divine Plan to the southern states in care of Joseph. He and his wife Pauline taught the Faith to African Americans; among those they taught were Louis Gregory and Mrs. Pocahontas Pope. [Bahá'í Chronicles, Alain Locke: Faith and Philosophy pp 38-39 by Christopher Buck, Kalimat Press]

    He is buried with his wife, Pauline Amalie Knobloch Hannen (b. 29 August, 1874 d. 4 October, 1939) in Prospect Hill Cemetery, in Washington, DC.

    Washington DC; Allegheny; United States Joseph Hannen; Pauline Hannen; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves; Tablets of the Divine Plan; Promulgation of Universal Peace (book)
    1920 Apr Mírzá Asadu'lláh Fádil-i-Mázandarání arrived in North America with Manúchihr Khán in time to speak at the National Convention. [AB443; SBR88] United States Mirza Asadullah Fadil-i-Mazandarani; Manuchihr Khan; Conventions, National crossreference URLs; title; title
    1920 Apr Louis Bourgeois is selected as the architect for the Chicago House of Worship. [DP94; GPB303; SBBH1:145]
    • For details of the designs and selection process see DP76-100.
    • See CT159 for the source of inspiration for the design.
    Wilmette; Chicago; United States Louis Bourgeois; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Architecture; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architects
    1920 20 Apr Shoghi Effendi left Haifa to take up his studies at Balliol College in Oxford. As instructed by 'Abdu'l-Bahá he stayed in a sanitarium in Neuilly (Maison d'Hydrothérapie et de convalescence du Parc de Neuilly, 6 Boulevard du Château, Neuilly-sur-Seine) before leaving for England in July. [SEO58]
    • See AY179-186 for and account of Shoghi Effendi's stay in the Paris area. According to Marzieh Gail he was probably in the area from about the 9th of April until the 13th of July.
    Haifa; Oxford; United Kingdom; Neuilly; France Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Balliol College
    1920 27 Apr The design for the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar at Wilmette, Illinois, was finally chosen by the forty-nine delegates present at the Twelfth Annual Convention of Bahá'í Temple Unity, being held at the Hotel McAlpin, New York. Excavation at the site began on the 24th of September and construction commenced on the 20th of December. New York; United States; Wilmette Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architecture find reference
    1920 24 May Charles Greenleaf, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, passes away at the home of William Harry Randall in Boston. [SBR105]
    • For details of his life see SBR97-105.
    • For his obituary see SW11, 19:321-2.
    Boston; Massachusetts; United States Charles Greenleaf; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; William Harry Randall; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1920 24 Sep Boring begins at the site of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in Wilmette to determine the depth of the bedrock. [DP104]
    • Soon afterwards construction begins. [DP108]
    Wilmette; United States Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
    1920 Oct Shoghi Effendi enters Balliol College, Oxford University. [CB284; DH149; GBF11-12]
    • For his purpose in going to Oxford see GBF12.
    • For his time in Oxford see PP34-8.
    • A Q Faizi is reported to have said, during a talk to pilgrims in May-June, 1965 that "Shoghi Effendi was sent to Oxford to protect him from potential enemies, not to learn English or be educated." [SDSC273]
    Oxford; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Balliol College; Oxford University; Universities; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1921 21 Mar Construction begins on the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in Wilmette. DP108]
    • See DP107 for a picture of Bahá'ís inaugurating the construction of Foundation Hall.
    Note: The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1952 Information Statistical & Comparative p.5 says construction commence in December 1920.
    Wilmette; United States Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
    1921 19-21 May The first Race Amity Conference is held in Washington DC. [BW2:281]
    • Mabry and Sadie Oglesby and their daughter Bertha from Boston as well as Agnes Parsons and Louis Gregory were involved. Agnes Parsons, during her pilgrimage in 1920, was instructed by 'Abdu'l-Bahá, "I want you to arrange in Washington a convention for unity between the white and colored people."[SETPE1p141-145, BW2p281]
    • For details of the conference see article by Louis Gregory entitled "Inter-racial Amity". [BW2:281-2]
    • See article The Bahá'í 'Race Amity' Movement and the Black Intelligentsia in Jim Crow America:Alain Locke and Robert Abbot by Christopher Buck [Bahá'í Studies Review, 17, pages 3-46, 2011] (includes a chronology of 29 Race Amity conferences organized in the United States between 1921 and 1935).
    Washington DC; United States Race (general); Race Amity; Race unity; Conferences, Race Amity; First conferences; Mabry Oglesby; Sadie Oglesby; Agnes Parsons; Louis Gregory
    1921 9 Jul Mírzá Asadu'lláh Fádil-i-Mázandarání left the United States for the Holy Land. [AB443footnote] United States; BWC Mirza Asadullah Fadil-i-Mazandarani
    1921 29 Nov A cable is sent to London with news of `Abdu'l-Bahá's passing. Shoghi Effendi is summonsed to the office of Wellesley Tudor Pole, probably at at 61, St. James St. in London, and learns of his grandfather's passing about noon after seeing the cable on Tudor Pole's desk. [GBF13]
    • See GBF13 and PP39-40 for Shoghi Effendi's reaction.
    London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Passing of; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Wellesley Tudor Pole
    1921 5-6 Dec The second Convention for Amity between the White and Coloured Races is held in Springfield, Massachusetts. [BW2:282; SBR92]
    • Over a thousand people attend. [SW13, 3:51]
    • For a report of the convention see SW13, 3:51-5, 601.
    • For a photograph see SW13, 3:50.
    Springfield; Massachusetts; United States Race (general); Race amity; Race unity; Conferences, Race amity
    1921 16 Dec Shoghi Effendi leaves England for Haifa in the company of Lady Blomfield and his sister Rouhangeze [Rúhangíz]. Lady Blomfield stayed on in the Holy Land for several months to assist Shoghi Effendi in his new role as the Guardian. [GBF13-14; PP42; SBR66]
    • Owing to passport difficulties Shoghi Effendi cannot leave sooner. [GBF13; PP42; SBR66]
    London; United Kingdom; Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Lady Blomfield; Rouhangeze (Ruhangiz); Shoghi Effendi, Family of
    1921 29 Dec Shoghi Effendi arrives in the Holy Land from England by train from Egypt. [GBF14; PP42]
    • An envelope addressed to him from 'Abdu'l-Bahá is waiting for him. It contained the Will and Testament. [Ruhi8.2p2]
    • He is so worn and grief-stricken that he has to be assisted up the stairs and is confined to bed for a number of days. [CB285]
    United Kingdom; Egypt; Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha, Passing of
    1922 in the year The publication of The Promulgation of Universal Peace: Talks Delivered by ‘Abdu’l‑Bahá during His Visit to the United States and Canada in 1912. Compiled by Howard MacNutt.
    • From the preface to the 1922 edition..."This treasury of His words is a compilation of informal talks and extemporary discourses delivered in Persian and Arabic, interpreted by proficient linguists who accompanied Him, and taken stenographically in both Oriental and Occidental tongue."
    • From the same preface is a letter from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to Howard MacNutt dated 13 April, 1919 approving his idea to publish the compilation of His talks in America and urging him to be most careful to reproduce the exact text as well as promising an "effulgent face" in the Abhá Kingdom as well as the praise and gratitude of the friends.
    • And again from the same source is a letter from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to Albert Windust written on the 20th of July, 1919 asking him to name the book The Promulgation of Universal Peace and to direct that the Introduction must be written by Howard MacNutt. Prior to His coming to America the friends were unclear about His station and their differences in understanding was a major source of disunity. On one extreme were those that believed that 'Abdu'l-Baha was a man who, through the application and complete obedience to the Faith, had earned a high station, like the Christ's disciple Peter, implying that others could do the same. In the other camp were those who insisted that He was the return of Christ. Little wonder that they were confused because never in religious history had there been someone like 'Abdu'l-Bahá, one Who held the station of "The Mystery of God". Howard's failure to understand 'Abdu'l-Bahá's station and disobedience to Him and taken him precariously close to the company of Covenant-breakers but through 'Abdu'l-Bahá's unfailing love and guidance he was able to come to a true understanding. The Introduction to the 1922 edition was his testament to the station of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [DJT369-372]
    • The Promulgation of Universal Peace, although not "scripture", could be compared to Some Answered Questions in that it is a carefully transcribed record of His talks. Unlike that publication where He answered questions, in The Promulgation of Universal Peace it was 'Abdu'l-Bahá who chose the subject. Upon arrival in New York He said, "It is my purpose to set forth in America the fundamental principles of the revelation and teachings of Bahá'u'lláh." [PUPxii]
    Chicago; New York; United States Promulgation of Universal Peace (book); Howard MacNutt; Publications
    1922 9 Jan William H. Hoar, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, passes away in Fanwood, New Jersey. [SW12, 19:310]
    • For his obituary see SW12, 19:310-12.
    Fanwood; New Jersey; United States William Hoar; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1922 16 Jan The Greatest Holy Leaf cables the United States that Shoghi Effendi has been appointed Guardian. [PP48] BWC; United States Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Guardianship; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1922 19 Feb Helen Goodall, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, passes away in San Francisco. [SEBW33]
    • See SEBW21-33 for details of her life.
    San Francisco; United States Helen Goodall; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam
    1922 25 Feb The Will and Testament of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá was written entirely in ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s own hand and it was Shoghi Effendi's first translation for the believers in the West. It was sent to New York and addressed to "The beloved of God and the handmaids of the Merciful throughout the United states of America and Canada". The "Will" delineated the Bahá’í World Order, already founded in the Kitab-i-Aqdas, and of which 'Abdul'-Bahá was the architect. [AY304] Haifa; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Translation; Shoghi Effendi, Translations by; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Firsts, Other
    1922 Apr Shoghi Effendi sends verbal messages through Consul Schwarz to Germany and Ethel Rosenberg to Britain to form local spiritual assemblies and to arrange for the election of a national spiritual assembly in each country. [CB293; ER209, 211-12; PP56]

    To the United States and Canada he sends a message to transform the 'Executive Board' into a legislative institution. [CB293; CT160; ER211-12; PP56]

    Germany; United Kingdom; United States; Canada Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Consuls; Albert Schwarz; Ethel Rosenberg; National Spiritual Assemblies; Local Spiritual Assemblies; Spiritual Assemblies; Executive Board
    1922 Apr Shoghi Effendi calls for the Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity to become an elected legislative body. It had been functioning since 1909 concerned mostly with the construction of the Bahá'í House of Worship. He addresses his first letter to this body as the "National Spiritual Assembly of the United States" on December 23rd however in God Passes By pg333 he states that the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States was not formed until 1925. [SETPE1p107, CT160, CoB293] Chicago; United States Executive Board; Bahai Temple Unity; National Spiritual Assemblies; Spiritual Assemblies; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1922 25 Apr A National Spiritual Assembly was elected in the United States to replace the Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity. [SBR94]
    • The difference between this body and its forerunner is little more than a change in name. [DP122]
    • The conversion of the Bahá'í Temple Unity into the National Spiritual Assembly took four years; it was not until 1925 that Shoghi Effendi recognized the American national body as a National Spiritual Assembly. [CT161; DP121-2; GPB333]
    • The election procedure followed that used in the United States: there was electioneering and candidates were nominated, with a straw poll taken to trim the number of eligible candidates. [CT160; DP122]
    Chicago; United States NSA; Spiritual Assemblies; Executive Board; Bahai Temple Unity; Elections; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1922 Late May The communities of London, Manchester and Bournemouth elect a Bahá'í Spiritual Assembly for England. [ER213; SBR28, 67]
    • This is also known as the Spiritual Assembly for London and the All-England Bahá'í Council. [ER2 13; SBR67]
    • See ER213 and SBR28 for membership.
    London; Manchester; Bournemouth; United Kingdom Spiritual Assemblies; All-England Bahai Council
    1922 6 Jun The All-England Bahá'í Council meets for the first time. [SBR28; UD9, 468]
    • ER2 13 says it first met 17 June.
    • The meeting is held in the home of Mrs Thornburgh-Cropper. [SBR28, 67]
    United Kingdom All-England Bahai Council; Firsts, Other; Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper
    1922 9 Jul Bahá'ís gather in the Foundation Hall of the Chicago House of Worship for the first time, to commemorate the martyrdom of the Báb. [CT158-9; SW13, 6:132]
    • Regular meetings are not held here until 1927. [CT158-9]
    Wilmette; United States Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
    1923 Feb Shoghi Effendi sends his early translation of The Hidden Words to America. [PP205] BWC; United States Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Translations by; Translation; Kalimat-i-Maknunih (Hidden Words); Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1923 Early Sep J. E. Esslemont's Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era is published in Britain by George Allen and Unwin. [DJEE28; RG77]
    • Shoghi Effendi views this as a landmark in British Bahá'í history. [UD97]
    • Over the years he encourages its translation into dozens of languages. [RG77]
    • See DJEE37-8 for the importance of this work.
    United Kingdom Esslemont; Bahaullah and the New Era (book); Introductory; Publications; Translation
    1923 13 Oct The National Spiritual Assembly of Britain meets for the first time, at the home of Ethel Rosenberg. [ER228; UD13, 163]
    • It becomes the National Spiritual Assembly of the British Isles in 1930 and the National Spiritual Assembly of the United Kingdom in 1972.
    United Kingdom NSA; Ethel Rosenberg; NSA of UK
    1924 28 Jan Isabella Brittingham, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, passes away at the Revell home in Philadelphia. [SEBW138]
    • For her life see SEBW131-8.
    Philadelphia; United States Isabella Brittingham; Disciples of Abdul-Baha
    1924 28-30 Mar The third Convention for Race Unity is held in New York City. [BW2:282-3; SBR93; TMW1467] New York; United States Race (general); Race amity; Race unity; Conferences, Race amity
    1924 18 Jul American Vice-Consul Major Robert Imbrie was murdered in Tihrán for being a Bahá'í, which he was not, straining relations between the Persian and American governments. When Washington threatened to sever diplomatic relations, Persia arrested some two hundred mullás, formally apologized to the United States and accepted Washington’s terms for full reparations. [BBR462-5; BW18:388, [AY277-279]
    • For a picture of the floral tribute sent to his funeral by the Bahá'ís of Persia and America see BW1:100.
    Tihran; Iran; United States Major Robert Imbrie; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1924 22 Sep-3 Oct The conference `Some Living Religions within the British Empire' is held in London. [BW2:225; ER233; GPB342]
    • For details of the planning of the conference and its outcome see ER231-5.
    • For Shoghi Effendi's attitude to the conference see UD17, 19, 21-2, 245.
    • Two papers about the Bahá'í Faith are read at the conference, one by Horace Holley read by Mountfort Mills and the other by Rúhí Afnán. [BW2:225; ER232-3; SBR73]
    • For texts of the papers see BW2:227-42.
    • Note that a paper was delivered by Richard St. Barbe Baker. As a result of attending the conference he met a Bahá'í and dedicated the rest of his life in service to the Cause. [Baha'i Chronicles]
    London; United Kingdom Conferences, Other; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Horace Holley; Mountfort Mills; Ruhi Afnan; Afnan; Richard St Barbe Baker; Interfaith dialogue
    1924 24 Dec The first Bahá'í News Letter, forerunner of Bahá'í News, is published in New York by the National Assembly of the United States and Canada with Horace Holley as the editor. [BBRSM122; BW10:180; BW13:856; SBR232]
    • For links to the publications see entry at 1990-10-00.
    New York; United States Newsletters; Bahai News; Horace Holley; Publications
    1925 At the suggestion of Horace Holley a Bahá'í yearbook was published under the name Bahá'í Year Book and subsequent editions were called The Bahá'í World, A Biennial International Record. Although it was published by the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States, Shoghi Effendi was the editor-in-chief. Volume 13 (1954-1963) saw publication shift to the Bahá'í World Centre and in1992 the format changed. The last year of publication was 2006. [PP209-212, SETPE1p107] United States; BWC Bahai World volumes; Publications; Shoghi Effendi, Writings of
    1925 Jan The American Bahá’ís publishes Shoghi Effendi’s revised Hidden Words. [ER255]
    • A final translation is made in 1926–7. [ER254; GT55–8]
    United States Shoghi Effendi, Translations by; Translation; Kalimat-i-Maknunih (Hidden Words); Publications; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1925 There are 43 local spiritual assemblies in North America by this date. [BBRSM121] North America; United States LSA; Statistics
    1925 10 Apr Shoghi Effendi writes to the American National Spiritual Assembly indicating that the word ‘assembly’ is to apply only to the elected body of nine believers in each locality or to the national assembly, not to the believers as a whole. [BA83; SBBH258] United States Administration; National Spiritual Assemblies; Local Spiritual Assemblies; Spiritual Assemblies
    1925 4–9 Jul The Seventeenth Annual Convention of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada is held at Green Acre. [GAP117; SBR94]
    • National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada is elected for the first time. [GPB333, SETPE1p107]
    • Like the previous attempts at electing a National Assembly in 1922, 1923 and 1924, the delegates didn't fully understand the Bahá'í election procedure. Nine members were elected as well as nine alternates whose purpose was to replace absent members. [SETPE1p108]
    • The members were: Alfred Lunt, William Randall, May Maxwell, George Latimer, Louis Gregory, Elizabeth Greenleaf, Mariam Haney and Keith Ransom-Kehler with Horace Holley becomes its first full-time secretary. [BW13:852; SBR233, SETPE1p108]
    United States; Canada Alfred Lunt; William Harry Randall; May Maxwell (Bolles); George Latimer; Louis Gregory; Elizabeth Greenleaf; Mariam Haney; Keith Ransom-Kehler; Horace Holley; NSA; First National Spiritual Assemblies
    1925 Dec "A Plan of Unified Action to Spread the Baha'i Cause Throughout the United States and Canada January 1, 1926-December 31, 1928" was formulated by The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada in response to Shoghi Effendi's message to the annual National Convention. [BA86-89]
    • It can be found at [Plan] The goals were (1) to unify the American Bahá'í community's efforts, (2) to increase the number of Bahá'ís, (3) to "penetrate the consciousness of the public with the spirit of Bahá'u'lláh", and (4) to raise $400,000 so that the construction of the first unit of the Temple's superstructure could begin. [SBBR14p160, BFA1p110]

    • This was the first of two Plans developed by the North American National Assembly in the years from 1926 to 1934 the second being "A New Plan of Unified Action To complete the Bahá'í Temple and promote the Cause in America (1931-1934)". [SBBR14p155-197]
    • The above two plans were the first to have the expansion and development of the Bahá'í community as a primary goal and it is likely that they provided the model for other plans organized by Shoghi Effendi and other National Assemblies. [SBBR14p155

    • The first Plan of Unified Action indicates the ascendancy of those Bahá'ís who supported a centralizing authority over those who wanted a more amorphous system or no organization at all.[BiW177-8] For an essay on this subject see "Some Aspects of the Establishment of the Guardianship" by Dr Loni Bramson-Lerche in SBBR5p253-293

    • During the years of these two plans the National Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada developed practices commonly used in subsequent plans, organized propagation, a central budget and the modern form of the Nineteen Day Feast. [SBBR14p160]

    United States; Canada Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National; NSA
    1926 Green Acre comes under the direct supervision of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada. [GAP118] Eliot; Maine; United States; Canada Green Acre; NSA United States and Canada
    1926 The Bahá’í World is first published. [BW1:4; GT77; PP209; SBR232]
    • The first edition, April 1925 to April 1926, is called The Bahá’í Yearbook.
    • For Shoghi Effendi’s impression of it see UD82–4.
    United States Bahai World volumes; First publications; Publications
    1926 Jan Orcella Rexford and her husband Dr Gayne Gregory (the first to accept the Faith in Alaska) come to Haifa on pilgrimage and are technically the first from Alaska to do so. They are in the process of moving from Alaska to the Continental USA. [SETPE1p112-112]
    • See BW11p495-498 for for details of the life of Orella Rexford
    Haifa; Alaska; United States First Bahais by country or area; Orcella Rexford
    1926 4 May Queen Marie of Romania writes three articles as a testimonial to the Bahá’í Faith for a syndicated series entitled ‘Queen’s Counsel’, which appears in over 200 newspapers in the United States and Canada. [BBR61, HEC57-58, MR245, BW2p174-6]
    • For text of the articles see BBR60–1.
    • For Shoghi Effendi’s response see BA110–13 and UD56–8.
    United States; Romania Queen Marie of Romania; Newspaper articles
    1926 16 Jul The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada makes representations to the Iranian government concerning the martyrdoms in Jahrum and asking the Sháh to intervene on behalf of the oppressed Bahá’ís. [BBR469; BW2:287]
    • For text of the petition see BW2:287–300.
    United States; Jahrum; Iran NSA; Petitions; Persecution, Iran; Persecution; Human rights
    1926 2 and 4 Aug Two Bahá’í Esperanto conventions are held in conjunction with the Eighteenth Universal Esperanto Congress in Scotland. [BW2:266] Scotland; United Kingdom Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Other; Esperanto
    1926 26 Dec Howard MacNutt, Disciple of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, passed away in Florida after being struck by a motorcycle while walking to a meeting in a "Coloured" area. He had lost is beloved wife Mary about one month earlier.. (b. 13 July, 1858 in Philadelphia) He had been a student of Ibrahim George Kheiralla in New York and had learned both Persian and Arabic to better understand the Writings. Howard MacNutt was elected to the Bahá’í Board of Counsel for New York when it was established on December 7, 1900 and served on the body for many years. [SEBW42]
    • In 1905 Howard and his wife went on pilgrimage and attended a Nineteen Day Feast held by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, Who encouraged him to establish the practice in America. MacNutt consulted with the New York Board of Counsel after returning and a Feast was held in New York on May 23, 1905.
    • Howard wrote a booklet consisting of what he learnt while on Pilgrimage titled Unity Through Love.
    • MacNutt also edited Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl's Bahá'í Proofs before it was first published in 1902 and revised Ali Kuli Khan's manuscript translation of the Kitáb-i-Íqán for publication in 1904.
    • He held a belief that `Abdu'l-Bahá had no extraordinary spiritual station and he did not regard Him as being different in Spirit from other men, that through works and service and overcoming all He attained to His station. This opinion resulted in MacNutt failing to appreciate the Bahá'í teaching that Covenant-breaking is a spiritual disease. When `Abdu'l-Bahá came to the United States in 1912 He assigned to MacNutt the task of meeting with a group of potential Covenant-breakers in Chicago and warning them. He also ordered MacNutt to break all communication with Ibrahim Kheiralla and other Covenant-breakers. When MacNutt failed to do as directed, `Abdu'l-Bahá advised him that he had violated the Covenant himself and commanded him to repent before a group of New York Bahá'ís, which he did on 18 November 1912. The matter was not resolved; `Abdu'l-Bahá cabled Ali Kuli Khan on 16 April 1913, "MACNUTT REPENTED FROM VIOLATION OF COVENANT BUT WAS NOT AWAKENED." After several months of correspondence between MacNutt and `Abdu'l-Bahá via Ali Kuli Khan, MacNutt satisfied `Abdu'l-Bahá that he had come to understand and had repented for his earlier errors. Even though `Abdu'l-Bahá recognized MacNutt as a Bahá'í his reputation in the Bahá'í community remained tarnished. To redeem himself he took on the task of compiling `Abdu'l-Bahá's talks in the United States and Canada and editing them. It was published as The Promulgation of Universal Peace, the name chosen by 'Abdu'l-Bahá himself, in 1922. MacNutt's preface contains a long and important statement about `Abdu'l-Bahá's station. His redemption was complete. [PUPxx]
    • For further details of his life and his brush with Covenant-breaking see SEBW35–42. Also see "In Memoriam: Arthur Pillsbury Dodge, 1849-1915", SoW, Vol. 6, No. 19 (2 March 1916) p165 as well as BFA1p125, 168-17, DJT369-372, AOY111-133
    • See BW2p218 for a photo.
    • See AY321-323 for an account of his accidental death and his funeral.
    Dade City; Pasco County; Florida; United States Howard MacNutt; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Promulgation of Universal Peace (book)
    1927 8 Jan The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada appoints seven people to a National Race Unity Committee. [SBR94; TMW166]
    • For the functions and challenges faced by the committee see TMW165–72.
    United States; Canada NSA; Race (general); Race Unity; Race Amity
    1927 13–16 Jan A World Unity Conference is held in Dayton, Ohio, one of many such conferences to be held in the year in major cities of the United States. [TMW159, 165] See also The Babi and Bahá'í Religions: An Annotated Bibliography, section 'conference listing'. Dayton; Ohio; United States Conferences, Unity
    1927 8 - 10 Apr The second conference for racial amity in Washington was held at the Mt Pleasant Congregational Church with the cooperation and participation of other like-minded groups and persons. [BW2p284] Washington DC; United States Race (general); Race Amity; Race unity; Conferences, Race Amity
    1927 29 Apr The British delegates, at their first National Convention, elects ten members as there is an equal number of votes for ninth and tenth places. [ER253; UD70–1]
    • One of the members is a Rev. Biggs. [ER253; UD71]
    • Shoghi Effendi writes on 13 May recommending that next year the number of members be strictly confined to nine. In an earlier letter written on his behalf he explained that all of the delegates were to choose nine members of the National Assembly from all of those eligible. Prior to that time the understanding was that, for example, the London delegates would vote for a proportional number of persons from the London area, the Manchester delegates would choose a number of members based on their proportion of the total Bahá'í population. [ER253; UD70, SETEP1p140]
    United Kingdom NSA; Elections; Conventions, National; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; First conventions
    1927 29 Apr - 1 May The nineteenth National Convention of the Baha'is of the United States and Canada was held at the Windsor Hotel in Montreal, the hotel where 'Abdu'l-Bahá stayed during His visit in 1912. [Bahá'í News No. 17 April, 1927] Montreal; Quebec; Canada; United States Conventions, National
    1927 May The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada draws up and publishes a ‘Declaration of Trust’ and ‘By-laws of the National Spiritual Assembly’. [BW2:89, BW10:180]
    • For text see BW2:90–8.
    • The Guardian describes it as the Bahá’í ‘national constitution’ heralding ‘the formation of the constitution of the future Bahá’í World Community’. [GPB335; PP302–3]
    • The drafting is largely the work of Horace Holley with assistance from the lawyer Mountfort Mills. [SBR234]
    • In subsequent years the National Assemblies of India and Burma, of Egypt, Iraq, Persian and the British Isles all adopted this example almost verbatum. [UD101, BA134-5, SETPE1p145-6]
    United States; Canada NSA; Horace Holley; Mountfort Mills; Constitutions; By-laws; Recognition; Firsts, Other
    1927 1 Aug Geyserville Bahá’í Summer School, the first American Bahá’í summer school, is established on property in California donated by John Bosch. It was to operate until 1973 when a new road project divided the property. The land was sold and the funds used to purchase land in the mountains above the coastal town of Santa Cruz. The new school was named In honour of John and Louise Bosch. [BBD87; BW10:180; GPB340, Bosch]
    • BW5:28–9 says this was the second Bahá’í summer school in America but Shoghi Effendi indicates in GPB340 that Green Acre is formally established as a Bahá’í summer school in 1929.
    Geyserville; California; United States Summer schools; First summer and winter schools; John Bosch
    1927 Oct Shoghi Effendi entrusts Dr William Slater and his wife Ida Slater, who are visiting Haifa on a 19-day pilgrimage, with carpets from the Shrines of the Báb and 'Abdu'l-Bahá for the House of Worship in Chicago. [SETPE1p149] Haifa; Wilmette; United States William Slater; Ida Slater; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Bab, Shrine of; Carpets; Gifts; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1927 10 - 11 Nov The third convention for amity in inter-racial relations in Washington was held in the Mt. Pleasant Congregational Church. [BW2p285] Washington DC; United States Race (general); Race Amity; Race unity; Conferences, Race Amity
    1928 26–30 Apr The National Convention of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada is held in the Foundation Hall of the House of Worship for the first time. [BW2:180; CT167]
    • See BW2:180 for a picture.
    Wilmette; Chicago; United States Conventions, National; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Firsts, Other
    1928 7 Aug The word ‘Bahá’í’ is registered with the United States Patent Office as a trademark. [BW6:348] United States Patent Office; Copyright and trademarks
    1928 31 Dec Ruth White, who had met 'Abdu'l-Bahá in New York in 1912 and who had been on pilgrimage in 1922, writes to the High Commissioner of Palestine with a charge that the Will and Testament of 'Abdu'l-Bahá is a forgery. [SETPE1p157]
    • See AY103 for 'Abdu'l-Bahá's reaction to Ruth White in New York in 1912.
    Palestine; New York; United States Covenant-breakers; Ruth White; Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; Abdul-Baha, Life of
    1929 16 Mar In December of 1925 the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of United States and Canada adopted the "Unified Plan of Action" and among the resolutions was to raise some $400,000 over the following three years to construct the first unit of the superstructure of the Temple. By the end of 1926 only $51,000 had been collected and the following year was just as disappointing. At the National Convention in 1928 Fred Schopflocher's donation of $25,000 inspired contributions and the Fund rose to about $87,000 by March 1929. On this day Fred and Lorol Schopflocher contributed a further $100,000. [LoF388-389]
    • See "1937 May".
    Montreal; Canada; Wilmette; United States Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Fred Schopflocher; Lorol Schopflocher; Unified Plan of Action
    1929 Apr The New History Society is founded in New York by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s former secretary and interpreter Ahmad Sohrab. [BRRSM124, LDG2p134]
    • It comes into conflict with the local Bahá’í Assembly, which sees the organization as a threat to the unity of the Bahá’í Faith. [BBRSM124]
    New York; United States New History Society; Ahmad Sohrab
    1929 May The American National Spiritual Assembly incorporates as a voluntary Trust. [BBRSM122; GPB335]
    • This enables the National Spiritual Assembly to hold property, receive bequests and enter into contracts. [BBRSM122; GPB335–6]
    United States NSA; Voluntary Trust
    1929 12 Aug Green Acre becomes a fully fledged Bahá’í summer school when the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada obtains legal title to the property. [BBD91; GAP118; GPB340; SBBH126, Green Acre] Eliot; Maine; United States Summer schools; Green Acre
    1929 Sep Shoghi Effendi sailed from England to Cape Town and proceeded overland to Cairo. [PP180–1, SETPE1p163]
    • He travelled through East Africa passing through Rhodesia where he visited the grave of Cecil Rhodes and further north in Rhodesia to see the Victoria Falls.
    • He rode as a passenger through part of East Africa with an English hunter and travelled on a train for some five hundred miles.
    • He crossed the Nile River through a papyrus swamp on a ferry.
    • He was back in Haifa by October. [SETPE1p163]
    United Kingdom; Cape Town; South Africa; Cairo; Egypt; Africa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1929 9 Sep The British Bahá’ís open their new centre, at Walmar House, Upper Regent Street, London. [PSBW46–7] London; United Kingdom Bahai centres
    1929 14 Sep The Green Acre Trustees are appointed by the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada. [GAP118] Eliot; Maine; United States Trustees; Green Acre
    1930 Apr A ceremony is held at the American annual convention in dedication of the resumption of the building activities on the Wilmette Temple. [BBRSM183; BW3:47]
    • Shoghi Effendi’s gift to the Temple is ‘the most valuable sacred possession in the Holy Land’ a ‘precious ornament of the Tomb of Bahá’u’lláh’, an exquisite Persian carpet. [BA180–1; BW4:208–12]
    Wilmette; United States Conventions, National; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Gifts; Carpets
    1930 39 May With respect to the New History Society and Ahmad Sohrab, Shoghi Effendi writes to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada to make a definitive statement regarding that organization and the Cause.
    • "To accept the Cause without the administration is like accepting the teachings without acknowledging the divine station of Bahá’u’lláh. To be a Bahá'í is to accept the Cause in its entirety. To take exception to one basic principle is to deny the authority and sovereignty of Bahá’u’lláh, and therefore is to deny the Cause. The administration is the social order of Bahá'u'lláh. Without it all the principles of the Cause will remain abortive. To take exception to this, therefore, is to take exception to the fabric that Bahá'u'lláh has prescribed, it is to disobey His law."
    • The message goes on to say that "unfailing kindness and goodwill" should be paid to the individuals and that the doors to Bahá'í fellowship should always remain open. [Bahá'í News p333]
    BWC; United States New History Society; Ahmad Sohrab; Covenant-breaker
    1930 Aug The National Spiritual Assembly published a statement in the Bahá'í News entitled The Case of Ahmad Sohrab and the New History Society. Summarized, the article stated that the “New History Society was begun in New York early in 1929 by Sohrab and "one of its avowed purposes being to spread the Bahá'í teachings. Neither the local nor the National Assembly was consulted in the matter, and the meetings and activities of the New History Society have been maintained apart from the principles of consultation which today, under the Will and Testament of 'Abdu’l-Bahá, form the basis of Bahá'í unity and the protection of the Cause."

    "Both the local and National Assembly on several occasions attempted, through oral and written communications, to bring about full and frank consultation with the leaders of the New History Society, but without success.

    "Under these conditions it becomes the obvious responsibility of the National Spiritual Assembly to inform the friends that activities conducted by Ahmad Sohrab through the New History Society are to be considered as entirely independent of the Cause, as outside the jurisdiction of the local and National Assembly, and hence in no wise entitled to the cooperation of Bahá'ís."

    This statement also quoted from a letter written on behalf of the Guardian by his Secretary to the National Spiritual Assembly on May 30, 1930: "To accept the Cause without the administration is like accepting the teachings without acknowledging the divine station of Bahá’u’lláh. To be a Bahá'í is to accept the Cause in its entirety...." "The administration is the social order of Bahá'u'lláh. Without it all the principles of the Cause will remain abortive. To take exception to this, therefore, is to take exception to the fabric that Bahá'u'lláh has prescribed, it is to disobey His law." [Ahmad Sohrab and the New History Society]

    New York; United States Covenant-breakers; Ahmad Sohrab; New History Society
    1930 19 Aug Louis Jean-Baptiste Bourgeois, designer of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár in Wilmette, passes away in that city. He was born in Saint-Célestin-de-Nicolet, Quebec on March 19, 1856. [DP145]
    • He learned of the Faith in Boston through the efforts of Mary Hanford Ford. [Wikipedia]
    • For details of his life see DP76–86.
    Wilmette; Boston; United States Louis Bourgeois; Architects; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Mary Hanford Ford
    1930 7 Oct Ruth White writes to the High Commissioner of Palestine stating that she has sent a photograph of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Will and Testament to Dr Ainsworth Mitchell in England who had declared it a forgery. The High Commissioner requests she sends that same evidence to him and he forwards it to the Governor of Haifa who requests to meet with Shoghi Effendi and allow an expert to examine the original. The expert declares the Will authentic. [SETPET1p157] Haifa; Israel; United Kingdom Covenant-breakers; Ruth White; Abdul-Baha, Will and testament of; Authenticity; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; High Commisioners
    1930 Nov The National Assembly published a detailed supplementary statement in the Bahá’í News, quoting passages from the Aqdas, from the Master's Will and Testament, and from the Guardian's letters published in Bahá’í Administration, followed by a reprint of the exchange of correspondence and cables with Mrs. Chanler, and with the Guardian, including the Guardian's cable to New York believers: "True unity can only be preserved by maintenance paramount position National Spiritual Assembly," and his cable approving the statement published in August, 1930, Bahá'í News. Further, in a letter from Haifa to the Yonkers Assembly, “The Guardian pointed out the difference between the freedom defined by Bahá'u'lláh ("To have liberty is to observe My commandments") and that advocated by Sohrab ("The other kind of freedom which is in defiance of law He (Bahá'u'lláh) considers to be animal, and far from being of any good to man"). [Ahmad Sohrab and the New History Society] New York; United States Covenant-breakers; Ahmad Sohrab; New History Society
    1930 17 Nov Ethel Rosenberg, (b.6 August, 1858, Bath) Disciple of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, ‘England’s outstanding Bahá’í pioneer worker’, passes away in London. [BW4:118–19; ER274–5]

    She became a Bahá’í around 1899 and went on her first pilgrimage in 1901. While ‘Abdu’l-Bahá was in London, Ethel Rosenberg was His social secretary, arranging appointments for the Master. ‘Abdu’l-Bahá asked Ethel Rosenberg and a number of other people to form a committee to decide what to do about collecting funds and publishing Bahá’í books. Their first published book was ‘Abdu’l-Bahá in London. She made her third pilgrimage in November 1921, but arrived just after ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s passing. Shoghi Effendi sent her home with instructions to call for the election the first National Spiritual Assembly of England. She served on this body for a number of years. Shoghi Effendi named her an ‘Apostle of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’. [In the Footsteps of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá p9]

    London; United Kingdom Ethel Rosenberg; In Memoriam; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Births and deaths
    1931 May A permanent summer school is established at Louhelen Ranch near Davison, Michigan. [BW10:181; GPB340] Davison; Michigan; United States Summer schools
    1931 1 May The superstructure of the Wilmette House of Worship is completed and dedicated. [BW10:180; DP:156–7; SBBH1:145] Wilmette; United States Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
    1931 Nov The New York Bahá’í community drafts the by-laws of a Bahá’í local assembly. [GPB335]
    • These become the pattern for all local Bahá’í constitutions throughout the world. [BBRSM122; GPB335; PP303]
    New York; United States By-laws
    1932 17 Feb The Chicago Bahá’í Assembly incorporates, the first local spiritual assembly in the world to do so. This set the pattern for other Assemblies. [GPB336, Century of LIght p57] Chicago; United States LSA; Incorporation; Recognition; Firsts, Other
    1932 27 Feb Race Amity gatherings became an effective way promote the principle of racial equality. At one such gathering held in Los Angeles, the circle of racial amity activities was widened to include not only white and coloured but also Native Americans, as well as Chinese and Japanese. At the banquet dinner, Chief Standing Bear, who attended in full regalia with a number of his tribesmen, offered a prayer and spoke of peace as a covenant among all races. A Native American tribal dance followed as part of the programme. [Louis Gregory, ‘Racial Amity in America: An Historical Review’, in BW7p652-666.] Los Angeles; California; United States Race (general); Race Amity; Race unity; Conferences, Race Amity; Native Americans; Chinese diaspora; Japanese diaspora
    1932 10 Jun The American National Spiritual Assembly addresses a petition to the Sháh of Iran requesting that the ban on Bahá’í literature be removed and asking that its representative, Mrs Keith Ransom-Kehler, be recognized to present in person the appeal. [BW5:390–1] United States; Iran NSA; Petitions; Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Keith Ransom-Kehler; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1932 15 Aug Keith Ransom-Kehler meets the Iranian Court Minister Taymur Tash. [BW5:392]
    • She presents the American petition to him asking that the ban on Bahá’í literature in Iran be lifted and receives assurances from him that this will be effected. [BW5:392]
    • She made seven successive petitions addressed to the Sháh of Persia. [GPB345]
    • For the history and unsuccessful outcome of this effort see BW5:391–8.
    Iran; United States Keith Ransom-Kehler; NSA; Petitions; Reza Shah Pahlavi; Shahs; Keith Ransom-Kehler; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1934 23 Jan Agnes S. Parsons dies after an automobile accident. [BW5:410; SBR96]
    • She is primarily remembered for her contribution to the cause of race unity in North America. [BW5:413]
    • For her obituary see BW5:410–14.
    • See also Diary of Agnes Parsons; SBR76–96.
    Washington DC; United States Agnes Parsons; Race (general); Unity; In Memoriam
    1934 28 Aug Mishkín-Qalam’s calligraphic rendering of the Greatest Name is registered as a trademark with the United States patent office. [BW6:350] United States Mishkin-Qalam; Greatest Name; United States patent office; Copyright and trademarks
    1935 Mar World Order magazine is founded. [SBR236]
    • There was a break in publication from 1949 to 1966. [Bahá'í Works]
    • PDFs of some volumes are available for downloading from the Bahá'í Works website.
    United States World Order magazine; - Periodicals; Firsts, Other; Publications
    1935 Oct Shoghi Effendi wrote to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada stating that the laws of fasting, obligatory prayer, the consent of parents before marriage, the avoidance of alcoholic drinks and monogamy should be regarded as universally applicable and binding. [CB313] United States; Canada Laws; Gradual implementation of laws; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1936 summer Britain holds its first Bahá’í summer school. [GT137; UD109] United Kingdom First summer and winter schools; Summer schools
    1936 Jul Following on the success of the initial Race Amity conferences in Washington, DC, the National Spiritual Assembly formed a racial amity committee. For a list of the committees complete with membership from 1921 until 1932 see The Bahá'í 'Race Amity' Movement and the Black Intelligentsia in Jim Crow America: Alain Locke and Robert Abbot by Christoper Buck. [Baha’i Studies Review 17, 2011, 3–46]
    In July, 1936 it was announced that "The National Spiritual Assembly has appointed no Race Amity Committee this year. Its view is that race amity activities have sometimes resulted in emphasizing race differences rather than their unity and reconciliation within the Cause. Local Assemblies are requested to provide for amity meetings and regard them as a direct part of teaching." [TMW213]
    United States Race (general); Race Amity; Race unity; Conferences, Race Amity; Unity; NSA
    1936 3–16 Jul The World Congress of Faiths is held in London under the auspices of the World Fellowship of Faiths. [GPB342; GT123]
    • Shoghi Effendi is asked in a personal letter from the chairman of the Congress, Sir Francis Younghusband, to contribute a paper, a task Shoghi Effendi delegates to George Townshend. [GT123; UD104]
    • George Townshend reads the paper ‘Bahá’u’lláh’s Ground Plan of World Fellowship’, which has been approved by Shoghi Effendi. [BW7:635; GT132–3]
    • For text of the paper see BW6:614–19.
    • For the conference programme see BW7:634–45.
    London; United Kingdom World Congress of Faiths; Francis Younghusband; George Townshend; Interfaith dialogue; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1937 The British Bahá’í Publishing Trust is founded. [BBRSM184; BW9:32; GT138–42] United Kingdom Publishing Trusts
    1937 Ridván The First Seven Year Plan is launched in North America. [BBD180; BBRSM158; BW7:17–18; MA9]
    • For the role of individuals, local spiritual assemblies and the National Spiritual Assembly see MA11–12.
    • The Plan calls for:
    • the completion of the exterior of the Wilmette Temple. BW7:17–18; PP385]
    • the establishment of a local spiritual assembly in each state and province of the United States and Canada. [PP385]
    • the establishment of a centre in each of the republics of Latin America. [PP385]
    United States; Canada Seven Year Plan, US and CA (1937-1946); Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National; LSA; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
    1937 May Fred Schopflocher contributes and additional $100,000 (see 16 March, 1929) to the goal of $350,000 to complete the exterior ornamentation of the House of Worship. For is dedication to the construction the Guardian designated him as "Chief Temple Builder". [LoF 388-390, BW12p664] Wilmette; United States Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Fred Schopflocher
    1938 15 Mar Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper (Maryam Khánum), the first Bahá’í of the British Isles, passes away in Kensington, London. She was known to her friends as Minnie and first heard of the Bahá’í Faith in 1898 when she was 41. She was an American living in London and had been married to an Englishman. Shortly after reading about the Báb in an encyclopedia, by coincidence, she was invited by her friend Phoebe Hearst to be part of the first group of Western Bahá’í pilgrims to visit ‘Abdu’l-Bahá in the Holy Land. She is considered to be the first person to become a Bahá’í in the UK and throughout her life was a very active member of the community. She was a member of the first elected National Spiritual Assembly of England (later Great Britain). She made her motor-car available to ‘Abdu’l-Bahá during His visits. [SBR30, BW4p375, In the Footsteps of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá p9]
    • For details of her life see BSR17–30.
    • For her obituary see BW8:649–51.
    • Notes: It is possibly she, rather than her mother, Mrs Thornburgh, who is referred to as a Disciple of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá in BW3:84–5. The picture is not that of Mrs Thornburgh-Cropper.
    London; United Kingdom Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam
    1938 1 May At the National Convention in Chicago, Grace Roberts Ober, who had just given a report on a travel teaching trip to Louisville Ky and on her work in Toronto where she had been the previous Fall, collapses into the arms of the Convention chairman, Harlan Ober in view of the assembled delegates while ending her address. She is removed from the convention hall and passes away shortly thereafter. See TG75-76 for the background to this story.
    • Born in Thorold, ON of Sarah E. Wilson and the Rev Thomas Tempest Robarts, a cannon in the Anglican Church her life's work was that of a teacher.
    • During 'Abdu'l-Baha's tour of America she served as his household manager, going ahead to secure an apartment for him and acting as His housekeeper and hostess.
    • On July 17, 1912 she married Harlan Ober at 'Abdu'l-Bahá's suggestion. The legal marriage was conducted by Howard Colby Ives. [BW8p656-660]
    Chicago; United States Grace Robarts Ober; In Memoriam
    1939 Apr The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the British Isles incorporates after a long and difficult struggle. [BW8:161–2; UD127] United Kingdom NSA of UK; Incorporation; Recognition
    1939 Aug The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the British Isles incorporate as an unlimied non-profit company under the Companies Act of 1929. GPB336 United Kingdom NSA of UK; Incorporation; Recognition
    1939 3 Sep World War II begins with Britain and France declaring war on Germany after Germany invades Poland. Europe; Germany; United Kingdom; France; Poland World War II; History (general); War (general)
    1939 22 Sep The State of Illinois issues the first Bahá’í marriage licence, authorizing the Spiritual Assembly of Chicago to solemnize Bahá’í marriages and issue Bahá’í marriage certificates. [GPB373] Illinois; United States Marriage; Weddings; Recognition; Firsts, Other
    1939 1 Oct The national Bahá’í office of the United States is established at 536 Sheridan Road, Wilmette, Illinois. [BW10:181]
    • Horace Holley, the full-time secretary of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada, transfers his office from New York to the Hazíratu’l-Quds in Wilmette. [SBR238]
    Wilmette; United States Horace Holley; Haziratul-Quds
    1939 31 Dec Lady Blomfield, entitled Sitárih Khánum, passes away in London. [BW8:651; SEBW109] London; United Kingdom Lady Blomfield; In Memoriam
    1940s early The publication in Iran of Amir Kabir and Iran, considered perhaps the most influential scholarly work of history published prior to the Islamic Revolution, by Fereidoon Adamiyyat, one of the most influential and widely acknowledged Iranian historians of the 20th century. The book argues that British intelligence officers were behind a plot which led to the creation of the Bahá'í Faith. [Iran Press Watch] Iran; United Kingdom Amir Kabir; Conspiracy theories
    1940 15 May Shoghi Effendi determines to go to England; Shoghi Effendi and Rúhíyyih Khánum leave Haifa for Italy en route to London. [PP 178]
    • For the difficulties and dangers of this journey see PP178–80.
    • A few days after their arrival Rúhíyyih Khánum travels to Genoa to meet her father, Sutherland Maxwell who had arrived on the S.S. Rex from Montreal. After the passing of his wife Mr. Maxwell had been invited by Shoghi Effendi to come and live in Haifa. [PP178]
    Haifa; Genoa; Italy; London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; World War II; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1940 25 May Shoghi Effendi and Rúhíyyih Khánum leave for England via Menton and Marseilles after having obtained a visa for Britain in Rome. A few days later the Italians enter the war against the Allies. [PP179] Rome; Italy; Menton; Marseilles; France; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; World War II
    1940 28 Jul Shoghi Effendi, Rúhíyyih Khánum and Sutherland Maxwell leave England for South Africa. [PP180]
    • This is the only route open back to Palestine, as Italy’s entrance into the war has closed the Mediterranean to Allied ships. [PP180]
    • The trip across Africa takes them to Stanleyville, Congo; Juba in the Sudan; down the Nile to Khartoum and back to Palestine through Cairo. [PP180–1, TG159]
    United Kingdom; Africa; South Africa; Congo; Sudan; Egypt Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum, Journeys of; Sutherland Maxwell; World War II; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1940 Sep William Sears, Hand of the Cause of God, becomes a Bahá’í in Salt Lake City, Utah. Salt Lake City; Utah; United States William Sears; Hands of the Cause
    1941 Nov The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada distributed a mimeographed statement concerning the New History Society entitled The Basis of the Bahá’í Community, which explained the purpose and outcome of the lawsuit entered against the founders of the New History Society to prevent their misuse of the name "Bahá’í” on which the National Spiritual Assembly had obtained a trademark patent. The court took the position that it was not authorized to decide religious questions. [The Basis of the Bahá'í Community: A Statement Concerning the New History Society] United States Covenant-breakers; New History Society; Ahmad Sohrab
    1943 The publication of A Commentary on the Will and Testament of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá written by David Hofman by a new publisher, George Ronald. They went on to publish books on business ethics, comparative religion, studies of sacred texts, Islam, poetry, music, novels, biography and philosophy as well as a number of other subjects. George Ronald is primarily a publisher of books related to the history, teachings, doctrines and personalities of the Bahá’í Faith. See the reference for a list of Bahá'í books published up to 2013. [George Ronald A Bibliographic History by Jan Jasion]
    • A current catalogue can be found at their website.
    United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Will and Testament of; George Ronald; Firsts, Other; Publishing; Publications
    1943 8 Jan The exterior ornamentation of the Wilmette Temple is completed. [BW10:181; UD155–6]
    • The cost of the building is $1.3 million. [UD165]
    Wilmette; United States Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
    1943 18 Jun The passing of Mabel Rice-Wray Ives (Riswanea) in Oklahoma City, OK. She was born in St. Louis, MO in 1878. [BW9p616-623] Oklahoma City; United States Mabel Rice-Wray Ives (Riswanea); In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1943 4 Sep The first local spiritual assembly in Alaska is established at Anchorage. Anchorage; Alaska; United States First Local Spiritual Assemblies
    1944 Ridván The Bahá'ís of the British Isles launched a Six Year Plan (1944-1950). [Ruhi 8.2 p46] United Kingdom Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National
    1944 Apr The first Bahá’í shortwave radio broadcast is beamed from New York towards South America. [BW9:44–5]
    • VV76 says this was 1943.
    New York; United States Bahai radio; Firsts, Other
    1944 19–25 May An international celebration of the Centenary of the founding of the Faith is held at the House of Worship in Wilmette.
    • For a description of this event see BW10:158–61.
    • For the programme see BW10:162–70.
    • For a list of the countries participating in the conference see BW10:168.
    Wilmette; United States Centenaries; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
    1944 May The British at national convention decide to ask the Guardian for their own Six Year Plan. [UDXVI]
    • He responds immediately by setting them the task of forming 19 assemblies spread over England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland and Eire. [UD173]
    • Shoghi Effendi describes this as ‘their first collective enterprise’. [UDXVI, 173–4]
    • See also BBRSM158, 185
    United Kingdom; Ireland Conventions, National; Teaching Plans, National; Firsts, Other; LSA
    1944 May The first All-American Bahá’í Convention is held.
    • For the first time the delegates have been selected at state and provincial conventions by votes from all believers rather than by communities with local assemblies. [BW9:44; PP390]
    North America; United States Conventions, National; Conventions, District; First conventions Hilda Yen joins Bahá'í Faith (Wikipedia)
    1945 The World Forestry Charter Gathering is founded in Britain by Richard St Barbe Baker. [VV106; WH75] United Kingdom Richard St Barbe Baker; Environment
    1945 25 Apr The United Nations convenes in San Francisco.
    • For the Bahá’í response see BW17:81.
    San Francisco United Nations
    1945 24 Oct The United Nations is formally established.
    • For the relationship of the Bahá’í Faith to the United Nations see BW16:327–52.
    • See SDC64-65 for 'Abdu'l-Bahá's prophetic statement, written in 1875, "True civilization will unfurl its banner...".
    San Francisco; California; United States United Nations; Secret of Divine Civilization (book); Collective security; Prophecies; World War II; War (general); Peace; History (general)
    1946 21 Apr The Second Seven Year Plan of the United States and Canada (1946-1953) is launched. [BBR180; BBRSM158, 185; MA87-89, MA89]
    • This marks the beginning of the second epoch of the Formative Age. [CB316; CF5–6]
    • For details of the plan see BW16:81–2.
    United States; Canada Seven Year Plan, US and CA (1946-1953); Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National; Formative Age; Ages and Epochs
    1946 22 Jul The passing of John David Bosch (named "Núraní by 'Abdu'l-Bahá) at his home near Geyserville, California (b. August 1, 1855 at Neu-St Johann, Canton Gall, Switzerland) He had become a Bahá'í in 1905. His teachers being Mrs Beckwith, Mrs Goodall, Mrs Cooper and Thornton Chase. He is buried in the Olive Hill Cemetery, Geyserville.
    • He along with George Latimer and Leroy Ioas were appointed by the National Spiritual Assembly to find a location to establish a "Western Green Acre". John donated his 35 acre estate.
    • For a pen portrait and biography of John and Louise Bosch see Other People Other Places by Marzieh Gail pages 182-194 or Bahá'í News page 705.
    • For pictures of John and Louise Bosch see the Bosch Bahá'í School site.
    Geyserville; California; United States In Memoriam; John Bosch; Louise Bosch
    1946 11 Aug The passing of Orcella Rexford in Los Angeles. She is buried near the grave of Thornton Chase in the Inglewood Park Cemetery. [BW11p495-498] Los Angeles; United States Orcella Rexford; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Cemeteries and graves; Thornton Chase
    1947 1 Feb Reflecting the unity in diversity highly valued by the Baha'i community, Amin Banani, Mildred Mottahedeh, Hilda Yen, and Matthew Bullock presented the statement "A Baha'i Declaration of Human Obligations and Rights" to the UN, which ended by quoting a well-known passage by Baha'u'llah: "The earth is but one country, and mankind its citizens."

    Amin Banani was an influential scholar; Mildred Mottahedeh was a member of the International Baha'i Council from 1961-63 and later a representative of the BIC for many years; Hilda Yen was a leading figure in Chinese-American society who worked as a diplomat for many years; and Matthew Bullock was a Knight of Baha'u'llah for the Dutch West Indies, on this day was also a Knight for the Netherlands Antilles, and later a representative of the BIC. [BWNS1172]

    New York; United States United Nations; Matthew Bullock; Bahai International Community; Firsts, Other; BWNS
    1947 spring The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada is accredited by the United Nations as a non-governmental organization. [BW12:597; PP303] America NSA United States and Canada; United Nations; NGO
    1947 9 Jul Shoghi Effendi receives a letter from the chairman of the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine requesting a statement on the relationship the Bahá’í Faith has to Palestine and the Bahá’í attitude to any future changes in the status of the country. [BW11:43, Text]
    • Shoghi Effendi replies on 14 July setting out the non-political character of the Bahá’í Faith and explaining that Palestine is both the administrative and the spiritual headquarters of the religion. [BW11:43–4]
    • He also includes a statement of the history, aims and significance of the Bahá’í Faith, later published by the American National Spiritual Assembly in pamphlet form. [BW11:44; PP351]
    • For the text of this latter statement see GTT1–10.
    Haifa; Palestine United Nations; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Writings of; Statements; Publications
    1948 Mar The name ‘Bahá’í International Community’ is first used to refer to the eight existing National Spiritual Assemblies recognized collectively as a non-governmental organization. [BBRSM149; BW11:43; BW12:597]
    • The Bahá’í International Community evolved to become an international non-governmental organization with affiliates in over 180 countries and territories, which together represent over 5-6 million members of the Bahá’í Faith. As an international NGO, the Office interacts and cooperates with the United Nations, its specialized agencies, with governments, as well as with inter-governmental and non-governmental organizations. The BIC seeks to promote and apply principles — derived from the teachings of the Bahá’í Faith — which contribute to the resolution of current day challenges facing humanity and the development of a united, peaceful, just, and sustainable civilization. The work of the BIC focuses on the promotion of a universal standard for human rights, the advancement of women, and the promotion of just and equitable means of global prosperity.
    • Mildred Mottahedeh is appointed to serve as the accredited Bahá’í International Observer, a post she holds as a volunteer for almost 20 years. [BW12:601]
    • The following is a list of UN agencies with whom the BIC has representation: United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF), United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and World Health Organization (WHO).
    New York; United States Bahai International Community (general); Mildred Mottahedeh; UNICEF; UNIFEM; UNEP; Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC); World Health Organization (WHO); Firsts, Other; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1948 May The Bahá’í International Community takes part in its first United Nations conference, on human rights. [BW11:43] BIC; United Nations; Human rights
    1949 The pamphlet written by by George Townshend to all Christians under the title “The Old Churches and the New World Faith” was sent out to 10,000 so-called “responsible people” in the British Isles on the occasion of his resignation from the church. [UD470] Ireland; United Kingdom George Townshend; Christianity; Interfaith dialogue
    1949 Agnes Harrison (née Parent), an Athabascan, becomes a Bahá’í in Alaska, the first Native Alaskan to accept the Faith in the country. Alaska; United States First Bahais by country or area
    1949 24 Apr The passing of Montfort Mills.
    He had been a believer since 1906 and by 1909 he had made two pilgrimages to 'Akká as well as a third in early 1921.
    In 1922 he and Roy Wilhelm are invited to Haifa to discuss the possibility of calling for the formation of the Universal House of Justice.
    He was the first chairman of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada when it first formed in 1922 and was elected to that body seven times between 1922 and 1937 and was responsible for the final draft of the Declaration of Trust and By-Laws adopted in 1927.
    One of his most outstanding achievements was his role in the case of the appeal for possession of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád. He made two trips to Baghdad and had audiences with King Feisal. During one of these trips he was brutally assaulted and suffered the effects for many years.
    He met with Professor E. G. Browne and, after hearing Mr. Mills explanation of the evolution of the Faith and of the Covenant, Mr. Browne realized he had been veiled by conflicting claims and disturbances following the martyrdom of the Báb and expressed a desire to translate later Bahá'í works but died before this contribution could be made. [BW11p509-511]
    United States; Baghdad; Iraq House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); In Memoriam; Edward Granville Browne; Births and deaths; Covenant-breakers
    1949. 9 Dec The General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the Resolution entitled Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.
    • It was largely through the one-man campaign of a Polish jurist, Raphael Lemkin, someone who had lost family members in the Nazi holocaust, and who had invented the term "genocide", that the Resolution was adopted. [In Search of a Better World by Payam Akhavan p91-92]
    • The attitude at the time could be summed up in the words "Never again!" however the world would have to wait another 50 years before the International Criminal Court would be established to provide any real meaning to this Resolution.
    Genocide; United Nations; Justice; Law, International; World War II; War (general); History (general)
    1950 20 Jan World Religion Day is first observed in the United States. [BBD242]
    • Its purpose is to associate the term ‘world religion’ with the Bahá’í Faith. [BBD242]
    United States World Religion Day; Interfaith dialogue; Firsts, Other
    1950 Apr Shoghi Effendi announces the Africa Campaign in a cable to the British national convention. [BW12:52; UD245–6]
    • The British community is to lead the campaign supported by the Bahá’ís of the United States and Egypt. [UD245]
    • For the objectives of the campaign see UD245–6.
    • For the importance of the enterprise see UD260–3.
    • The plan is to be launched after a year’s respite but the British Bahá’ís begin to implement the plan immediately. [CB317]
    • At the time of the Campaign there was "one National Spiritual Assembly with its seat in Cairo, Egypt, the opening of 12 countries to the light of the Faith, and some 50 localities established throughout its vast lands." [Message from the Universal House of Justice To the Friends gathered at the Bahá’í International Conference at Lagos dated 19 August, 1982.]
    Africa; United Kingdom; United States; Egypt Teaching Plans; Africa Campaign
    1950 Jul The British Six Year Plan is successfully completed. [BW11:25; MBW4] United Kingdom Teaching plans; Teaching Plans, National
    1951 Ridván The Bahá'ís of the British Isles launched a Two Year Plan (1951-1953). [Ruhi 8.2 p46] United Kingdom Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National
    1951 Ridván Several National Spiritual Assemblies-Britain, Egypt, India, Iran and the United States, join forces in their first collaborative teaching effort called the Africa Campaign (1951-1953). [Ruhi 8.2 p46, BBRSM158, MBW135-140] Africa; United Kingdom; United States; Egypt; India; Iran Teaching Plans; Africa Campaign
    1951 30 Jul Louis Gregory, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Eliot, Maine, near Green Acre. [BW12:666; TMW310, LOF98]
    • Soon after his passing he is designated by Shoghi Effendi the first Hand of the Cause of his race. (On 5 August, 1951) [BBD91; BW12:666, MoCxxii]
    • See TG114, 117-8 for a description of his passing .
    • For his obituary see BW12:666–70.
    • For biographical information on Hand of the Cause Louis Gregory see Gayle Morrison, To Move the World: Louis G. Gregory and the Advancement of Racial Unity in America (Wilmette, IL, USA Bahá’í Publishing Trust, 1982, 1999 printing).
    • For short biographical information see Bahá'í Encyclopedia]
    Eliot; Maine; United States Louis Gregory; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Firsts, Other
    1951 20 Dec Roy C. Wilhelm, (b.17 September, 1875) passes away in Lovel, Maine. [BW12:662]
    • On his passing Shoghi Effendi designates him a Hand of the Cause of God. (23 December, 1951) [MoCxxii, BW12:662]
    • For his obituary see BW12:662–4.
    • Find a grave
    Lovel; Maine; United States Roy Wilhelm; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi
    1952 1 Jun In a letter written on behalf of the Guardian by the Assistant Secretary, the National Spiritual Assembly was informed that Ahmad Sohrab had cabled the Israeli Minister of Religion to influence the court case brought by the Covenant-breakers, against the Guardian, and which resulted in complete vindication of the Guardian's control of the Bahá'í Shrines and properties. Sohrab's cable identified the Caravan with the Covenant-breakers and stated that the organization was not under the authority of Shoghi Effendi. In a letter dated May 25, 1941, the Guardian wrote through his Secretary that Sohrab "is no doubt the most subtle, resourceful and indefatigable enemy the Faith has had in America." United States Covenant-breakers; New History Society; Ahmad Sohrab
    1952 8 Oct Holy Year, "The Great Jubilee", October 1952 to October 1953, is inaugurated. [BW12:116; DG84; PP409–10; SBR170–1]
    • Centenary celebrations of the birth of Bahá’u’lláh’s mission are initiated. [MBW16–18]
    • Four international conferences are scheduled in Kampala, Wilmette (dedication of the Temple), Stockholm and New Delhi. [SETPE2p31-43]
    Kampala; Uganda; Wilmette; United States; Stockholm; Sweden; New Delhi; India Great Jubilee; Holy Years; Centenaries; Bahaullah, Birth of Revelation of; Siyah Chal (Black Pit)
    1952 12 Nov Dagmar Dole, pioneer to Alaska and Denmark, passes away in Glion, Switzerland.
    • Shoghi Effendi says she is the ‘first to give her life for the Cause in the European project’. [BW12:702; ZK66–7]
    • For her obituary see BW12:701–2.
    Glion; Switzerland; Alaska; United States; Denmark Dagmar Dole; In memoriam; Births and deaths
    1953 29 Apr - 2 May The All-American Jubilee celebrations begin. [BW12:149] United States Centenaries
    1953 1 May The House of Worship in Wilmette is consecrated in a simple ceremony for Bahá’ís only. [BW12:143, 152; ZK93]
    • For details of the dedication see BW12:152–4.
    Wilmette; United States Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Dedications
    1953 2 May The House of Worship in Wilmette is dedicated in a public ceremony. [BW12:142, BWNS218]
  • For the text of the Guardian’s message of dedication see BW12:141–2.
  • For an account of the event see BW12:154–63.
  • See The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1952 Information Statistical & Comparative p24-26 for project statistics and a chronology of events.
  • Towards the end of his life in Tehran, Ahmad (of "Tablet of Ahmad" fame) had entrusted the original Tablet to his grandson Jamal who in turn, out of the purity of his heart and his devotion to the Faith of God offered it as a gift to Hand of the Cause, Trustee of Huqúq, the son and brother of two illustrious martyrs, Jinab-i-Valiyu'llah Varqá. When Jinab-i-Varqa, according to the instructions of the beloved Guardian, was sent to take part in this dedication ceremony he brought this most precious Tablet as his offering to the archives of the Bahá'ís of the United States. [A Flame of Fire by A.Q. Faizi.]
  • See the message of the Universal House of Justice dated 1 August, 2014 for more on the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in Wilmette.
  • Quick Facts
    Location: Wilmette, Illinois, U.S. Cook County
    Administration: On the same day as the interment of the sacred remains of the Báb on Mount Carmel, March 21st, 1909, the first American Bahá'í Convention opened in Chicago. The Convention established the 'Bahá'í Temple Unity', incorporated to hold title to the Temple property and to provide for its construction. A constitution was framed and an Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity elected. This body became the future National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada. [BBD39; BBRSM:106; BW10:179; GPB349; PP397; SBBH1:146; BFA2:XVII, 309; BW13:849; MBW142–3]
    Foundation Stone: by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, 1 May, 1912
    Construction Period:The purchase of the site completed: 1914. Design Chosen: 1920. Superstructure: 1921 – 1 May 1931. External Ornamentation: June 1932 -1943. Interior: 1951
    Dedication: 1 May 1953
    Architects: Louis Bourgeois with Alfred Shaw (interior cladding)
    Seating: 1,191
    Dimensions: 203ft at the base and 191ft high
    Cost: $2.6 million
    Dependencies: Construction of a home for the aged was began in December, 1957 and inaugurated on 1 February, 1959. It is located about three blocks away.
    Note: In GPB349 Shoghi Effendi states that “…this enterprise—the crowning achievement of the Administrative Order of the Faith of Bahá’u’lláh in the first Bahá’í century…”.
    References: CEBF236-241,GPB348-353, MDM121-239, The Dawning Place

    Wilmette; United States Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Lawh-i-Ahmad (Tablet of Ahmad (Arabic)); Gifts; Archives; Dedications; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Alfred Shaw; Architects; Bahai home for the aged; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Dependencies of; BWNS; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1953 3 – 6 May The All-America Intercontinental Teaching Conference is held in Chicago. [BW12:133]
    • For the texts of Shoghi Effendi’s messages to the conference see BW12:133–41 and MBW142–6.
    • Twelve Hands of the Cause are present. [BW12:143]
    • At the conference, five members of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States resign from that body in order to go pioneering: Elsie Austin, Dorothy Baker, Matthew Bullock, Mamie Seto and Dr William Kenneth Christian. [ZK102]
    • Extract from the cecond message to All-American Intercontinental Conference from Shoghi Effendi... [MBW150]
      .....the lands contributed in Latin America for a similar purpose approximate one-half of a million square meters, ninety thousand of which have been set aside near Santiago, Chile, for the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár of South America..
    Chicago; United States; Santiago; Chile; America Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade; Teaching; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Pioneering; Elsie Austin; Dorothy Baker; Matthew Bullock; Mamie Seto; William Kenneth Christian; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Santiago; Purchases and exchanges
    1953 26 Aug Ella Bailey (b. 16 December, 1864, Houston, Harris County, Texas) in Tripoli, Tarabulus, Libya at the age of 88 years. [BW12:687]
    • She was elevated to the rank of martyr. [MBW170]
    • For the story of her life see PSBW131–42.
    • For her obituary see BW12:685–8.
    • For information on her burial site and a short biography see Find-a-grave.
    • See Youtube video I Adjure Them - The Ella Bailey Story as told by Hand of the Cause of God William Sears.
    Tripoli; Libya; Houston; Texas; United States Ella Bailey; Names and titles; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1953 Sep Brigitte Hasselblatt arrives in Shetland and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:455] Shetland Islands; Scotland; United Kingdom Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Sep Brigitte Lundblade (nee Hasselblatt), (b. 1923 - d. 17 May 2008) arrived in the Shetland Islands and was later honoured with being named as Knight of Bahá'u'lláh. [Bahaikipedia] Shetland Islands; Scotland; United Kingdom Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 The first Tlinget from Alaska to become a Bahá’í, Eugene King, enrols. Alaska; United States First Bahais by country or area find reference
    1954 May Elinore Putney arrives in the Aleutian Islands and is named a Knight of Bahá’u‘lláh. [BW13:449] Aleutian Islands; Alaska; United States; Russia Knights of Bahaullah
    1955 23 May The Bahá’í International Community submits its Proposals for Charter Revision to the United Nations for the Conference for Revision of the UN Charter. [BW13:788, 795–802] New York; United States Bahai International Community; United Nations Charter; United Nations
    1955 Aug Appeals are made by National Spiritual Assemblies around the world through the Bahá’í International Community to the UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld to ask the Iranian government to halt the attacks on the Bahá’ís. [BW13:789–91; BW16:329; MBW88–9; PP304, 311]
    • The intervention of the Secretary-General of the UN, along with the efforts of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States, bring an end to the physical persecution of the Bahá’ís, although their human rights are still denied. [BW13:790; BW16:329]
    • This marks the first time the Faith is able to defend itself with its newly born administrative agencies. An “Aid the Persecuted Fund” was established.
    • Historian Mohamad Tavakoli-Targhi noted that the 1955 anti-Bahá'í campaign was both the apogee and the point of separation of the state-clergy co-operation. The Shah succumbing to international pressure to provide human rights, withdrew support. The result was that the period from the late fifties until 1977-1978 was a period of relative safety. [Towards a History of Iran’s Baha’i Community During the Reign of Mohammad Reza Shah, 1941-1979 by Mina Yazdani.]
    New York; United States; Iran Bahai International Community; Dag Hammarskjöld; United Nations, Secretary-Generals; United Nations; NSA; Human rights; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1956 The first Tlinget to become a Bahá’í in Alaska, Joyce Anderson Combs, enrols. Alaska; United States First Bahais by country or area
    1956 20 May Louisa Mathew Gregory, whose wedding to Hand of the Cause of God Louis Gregory in 1912 was the first interracial western Bahá’í marriage, passes away in Eliot, Maine. [BW13:878]
    • For her obituary see BW13:376–8.
    Eliot; Maine; United States Louisa Mathew Gregory; Louis Gregory; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Firsts, Other
    1957 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Alaska is formed and incorporated immediately upon formation.
    • This is the first time a political entity (i.e. the United States) is subdivided to form a national spiritual assembly. [BW13:270]
    Alaska; United States NSA; Incorporation
    1957 Oct Shoghi Effendi calls for the convocation of a series of Intercontinental Conferences to be held successively in Kampala, Uganda; Sydney, Australia; Chicago, United States; Frankfurt, Germany; and Djakarta, Indonesia. [BW13:311–12; MBW125] BWC; Kampala; Uganda; Sydney; Australia; Chicago; United States; Frankfurt; Germany; Djakarta; Indonesia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade
    1957 4 Nov Passing of Shoghi Effendi

    Shoghi Effendi passes away in London of coronary thrombosis after a bout of Asian influenza. [CB377; PP446]

    • He was in London to purchase some furniture to complete the interior of the International Archives Building. [PP445]
    • For a tribute to Shoghi Effendi written by Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum see BW13:58–226.]
    • See also Rabbání, The Guardian Of The Bahá’í Faith and The Priceless Pearl.
    London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; International Bahai Archives; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Appointed arm; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1957 9 Nov The funeral of Shoghi Effendi took place in the Great Northern Cemetery, London. [BW13:222; PP448]
    • See BW13:222 for details of the funeral service.
    • See BW13:222–5 and PP449–50 for a description of the funeral.
    • For an a account of the funeral see AY314-319.
    London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Passing of
    1957 10 Nov The Hands of the Cause meet in London. [TG157]
    • See SDSC191-195 and SDSC430 note 8 for excerpts from the transcript of the talk recorded in shorthand by Rose M Wade and given by Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum to the gathered Hands and other friends.
    London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum
    1958 The first Aleut to become a Bahá’í, Vassa Lekanoff, enrols in Unalaska. Unalaska; Alaska; United States First Bahais by country or area
    1958 20 Apr Mírzá Ahmad (Esphahani) Sohrab, the Covenant-breaker who rebelled against Shoghi Effendi, dies. [MC90]
    • For the story of his defection from the Faith see CB343–7.
    • He is buried in the Saint Paul Episcopal Church Cemetery, Glen Cove, Nassau County, New York.
    Glen Cove; Nassau County; New York; United States Ahmad Sohrab; Covenant-breakers; New History Society
    1958 2–4 May The third Intercontinental Conference held at the mid-point of the Crusade convenes in Wilmette, Illinois. [BW13:323]
    • Hand of the Cause Dr Ugo Giachery, who had been designated by the Guardian as his representative, attends, accompanied by four other Hands of the Cause. [BW13:323]
    • For the message of the Custodians to the conference see MC90–8.
    • For a report of the conference see BW13:323–5.
    Wilmette; Illinois; United States; America Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Ugo Giachery; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade
    1958 1 Nov The monument marking Shoghi Effendi’s resting place is completed. [MC117]
    • Dust from the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh is placed in the foundations. [MC117]
    • For a description of the resting place see BBD194–5 and MC135–6.
    • The monument is paid for from a Memorial Fund established after Shoghi Effendi’s passing. Money in excess of the amount required is spent on the teaching work and on the construction of the Temples. [MC132]
    • Marble for the monument came from Chiampo, Italy as for the Archives Building, the Shine of the Báb, the Seat of the Universal House of Justice, The Terraces project, the Monument Gardens and the Houses of Worship in India and Samoa. [BWNS1223]
    London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Resting place of; Bahaullah, Shrine of; BWNS
    1959 The first Inuit in Alaska to become a Bahá’í, William Wiloya, enrols in Nome. Nome; Alaska; United States First Bahais by country or area; First believers by background; Inuit
    1959 Bahá’í communities in the United States begin the observation of World Peace Day to call attention to the need for world peace. [BBD175]
    • This was replaced in 1985 by the observance of the UN International Day of Peace, which occurs on the third Tuesday in September. [BBD175]
    United States World Peace Day; United Nations; International Day of Peace; Peace
    1959 1 Feb The ‘first Dependency of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár in Wilmette’, the Bahá’í Home for the Aged, opens. [BW13:747]
    • For the history of its building see BW13:743–8.
    • For pictures see BW13:742, 744–7.
    Wilmette; United States Bahai home for the aged; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Dependencies of
    1959 10 Apr Representatives of the Bahá’í International Community present to the President of the Human Rights Commission, Ambassador Gunewardene of Ceylon, a statement endorsing the Genocide Convention. [BW13:791–4] New York; United States BIC; Human Rights; United Nations; Genocide; BIC statements
    1960 12 Jul Horace Hotchkiss Holley, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Haifa. (b. 7 April, 1887 in Torrington, CT) [MC226-227, BW13:849]
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the first contingent on the 24th of December, 1951. [MoCxxiii]
    • For his obituary see BW13:849–858.
    • For cable from the Hands of the Cause see MC217–18.
    • See also SBR214-247, LoF253-264 and Holley, Horace Hotchkiss by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram.
    • His publications Bahaism: The Modern Social Religion, Religion for Mankind, World Unity, Bahai, The Spirit of the Age, Baha'i Scriptures; Selections from the Utterances of Bahaʼuʼllah and Abdul Baha, Read-aloud Plays, Divinations and Creation, The World Economy of Baháʼuʼlláh, The Inner Garden; A Book of Verse .
    Haifa; Torrington; Connecticut; United States Horace Holley; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, First Contingent; Bahai Scriptures (book); Plays; Arts
    1961 Knud Jensen (of mixed Danish, St Thomanian parentage), the first local person to become a Bahá’í in the Virgin Islands, enrols. Virgin Islands; United States First Bahais by country or area
    1961 3 Apr Corinne True, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Chicago. [BW13:846]
    • For her obituary see BW13:846–9.
    • For cables from the Custodians see MC257.
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed her among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
    • See also Rutstein, Corinne True.
    Chicago; United States Corinne True; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Second Contingent
    1961 1 May Kanichi (Moto) Yamamoto, the first Japanese Bahá’í, passes away in Berkeley, California. [SBR185]
    • For the story of his life see SBR176–86.
    • For picture see SBR190.
    Berkeley; California; United States Kanichi Yamamoto
    1961 5 Nov The Hands of the Cause issue a message from their fifth Conclave. [MC313–23]
    • They call for the election of the Universal House of Justice at a convention to be held in the Holy Land on the first, second and third days of Ridván 1963. [CB392; MC321]
    • They ask the electors to leave the Hands free to ‘discharge their duties’. [MC321]
    • The celebration of the Most Great Jubilee, the Centenary of the Declaration of Bahá’u’lláh, is to be held in London rather than Baghdád, owing to the situation in the Middle East. [MC322]
    Haifa; Baghdad; Iraq; London; United Kingdom Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Hands of the Cause, Conclaves; Bahji; Most Great Jubilee; World congresses; Centenaries; Universal House of Justice, Election of; UHJ
    1962 22 Aug The Custodians ask the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States to make representations to the diplomatic missions of Morocco in Washington and at the United Nations concerning the 14 Bahá’ís imprisoned in Morocco. [MC368–9] United States; Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; NSA; Custodians
    1962 23 Sep The Custodians ask the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States to obtain an interview with the personal representative of the King of Morocco who heads that country’s delegation to the United Nations General Assembly in New York in connection with the Bahá’ís imprisoned in Morocco. [MC373–4] United States; Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; NSA; United Nations
    1962 21 Dec Telegrams are sent to 35 United Nations delegations appealing for help under the Genocide Convention for the Bahá’ís sentenced to death and imprisoned for life in Morocco. [BW13:794] Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; United Nations
    1962 23 Dec The Custodians ask national spiritual assemblies to cable Secretary General of the United Nations U Thant requesting his intervention on behalf of the Bahá’ís under sentence of death and imprisoned for life in Morocco. [BW13:794; MC397–8] Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Custodians; NSA; United Nations
    1963 31 Jan Roger Baldwin, Chairman of the International League for the Rights of Man, appears before the UN sub-commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities and states that, as far they know; the Bahá’í prisoners in Morocco are the only example in recent history where members of a religion have been condemned to death solely for holding and expressing religious views regarded as heretical. [MC415–16] Morocco Persecution, Morocco; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; United Nations
    1963 20 Apr The Ten Year Crusade is successfully completed. The achievements of the Ten Year Crusade were celebrated at the Most Great Jubilee in April and May 1963, which commemorated the Centenary of the Declaration of Baha’u’llah’s Mission. Two historic events transpired during that time: the International Convention, convened in Haifa, Israel, to elect the first Universal House of Justice; and the World Congress held in London, England.
    • For a summary of achievements during the Crusade see BW13:459–60.
    • For countries, islands and dependencies opened to the Faith during the Crusade see BW13:461–2. (259)
    • For number of localities in which Bahá’ís reside in different parts of the world see BW13:462. (from 2,000 to more than 11,000)
    • For languages into which Bahá’í literature has been translated see BW13:462–4.
    • For races represented in the Bahá’í world community see BW13:464.
    • For national spiritual assemblies at the end of the plan see BW13:468–9. (from 12 to 56)
    Worldwide; BWC; London; United Kingdom Ten Year Crusade; Most Great Jubilee; Conventions, International; Growth; Statistics; Teaching plans; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1963 28 Apr - 2 May The first Bahá’í World Congress, the ‘Most Great Jubilee’, is held in London to celebrate the centenary of the declaration of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW14:57]
    • For a detailed account and many pictures see BW14:57–80.
    • For the programme of speakers see BW14:60–1.
    • Some 6,000 Bahá’ís attend.
    London; United Kingdom Most Great Jubilee; World Congresses; Centenaries; Bahaullah, Declaration of; First conferences; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1964 5 Nov Followers of Charles Mason Remey file suit in the United States District Court for Northern Illinois against the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States, claiming they are the rightful owners of all Bahá’í properties and funds in the United States. [BW14:95]
    • The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States files a counter claim asking the court to restrain the Covenant-breakers from using Bahá’í names and symbols protected by trademark. [BW14:95]
    United States Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; NSA; Court cases; Copyright and trademarks; Criticism and apologetics
    1965 18 Mar The Bahá’í International Community establishes its own offices in the United Nations Plaza Building in New York. [BW14:90, BIC-History] New York BIC; United Nations
    1965 23 Mar The case filed by the followers of Charles Mason Remey against the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States is dismissed on technical grounds. [BW14:95]
    • The Covenant-breakers file a further suit. [BW14:95]
    United States Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; National Spiritual Assemblies; Court cases; Copyright and trademarks
    1966 8 Mar The second suit brought against the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States by the followers of Charles Mason Remey, who claim to he the lawful owners of all Bahá’í properties and funds in the United States, is dismissed. [BW14:95] United States Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; National Spiritual Assemblies; Court cases; Copyright and trademarks
    1966 7 Apr The passing of Ali Kuli Khan in Washington, DC. [BW14p351] Washington DC; United States Ali-Kuli Khan; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1966 1 Jun The counter-claim of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States against the followers of Charles Mason Remey restraining them from using Bahá’í names and symbols, is upheld when the Covenant-breakers fail to appear at the trial. [BW14:95] United States Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; National Spiritual Assemblies; Copyright and trademarks; Court cases; Criticism and apologetics
    1967 Victor de Araujo is appointed by the Universal House of Justice as the full-time Accredited Representative of the Bahá’í International Community to the United Nations; Mildred Mottahedeh appointed Alternate Representative. [BW14:88–9; BW15:364]
    • For picture see BW15:365.
    New York; United States Victor de Araujo; Mildred Mottahedeh; Bahai International Community; United Nations
    1967 21 Feb The Universal House of Justice establishes the International Bahá’í Audio-Visual Centre in Victor, New York. [BW14:91–2] Victor; New York; United States Audio-Visual Centres; Universal House of Justice
    1967. 25 Dec The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Charles Dunning (b.27 March, 1885 need Leeds). [BW14p305-308] Cardiff; Wales; United Kingdom Knights of Bahaullah; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1968 22 – 23 Jun The first National Youth Conference of the Bahá’ís of the United States opens in Wilmette, Illinois. [BW15:327 8]
    • For picture see BW15:325.
    Wilmette; Illinois; United States Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, National
    1970 - early 1971 Over 20,000 Afro-Americans from the rural areas of the south-eastern United States become Bahá’ís. [BBRSM187] United States Mass conversion
    1970. 20 Feb The passing of Curtis Demude Kelsey (b. 6 March, 1894 in Salt Lake City, UT) in Bradenton, FL.
    • He became a Bahá'í in 1917 through the influence of his mother, a talented poetess and writer who learned of the Faith in 1909.
    • Roy Wilhelm had sent three generators to the Holy Land and had asked permission from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to have Curtis come and install them. His request was granted and Curtis spent from September, 1921 until April, 1922 in the Holy Land. The units were installed at the Shrine of the Báb, (See SETPE1p38) at Bahjí (See SETPE1p55) and at the home of 'Abdu'l-Bahá at #7 Haparsin Street and the work was completed at all three locations on the last day of Ridván, 1922.
    • On the 6th of August, 1928 he married Harriet Morgan Kelsey (d. 18 March, 1971), a gifted musician and the a teacher. They raised four children.
    • In 1953 while on pilgrimage Shoghi Effendi asked him to extend his stay to install a pump and watering system for the grounds at Bahjí.
    • He served on the Spiritual Assembly of West Englewood (now Teaneck) for some 30 years.
    • Curtis spent some time serving as an Auxiliary Board Member and gave talks at summer schools.
    • He passed away while serving at his place of retirement in Bradenton Florida. [BW15p468-473]
    Bradenton; FL; United States Curtis Kelsey; Harriet Kelsey; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1970. 27 May The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) of the United Nations approves the recommendation by the Committee on Non-Governmental Organisations of February 12 1970, that the Baha'i International Community be granted consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council. New York; NY United Nations Economic and Social Council find reference
    1970 27 May The Bahá’í International Community is granted consultative status, category II, by the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) of the United Nations [BBRSM149; BW15:178, 366; BW16:333; BW19:30; VV54]
    • As a result, the Bahá’í International Community begins to be represented at sessions of UN bodies addressing a wide range of issues of particular interest to Bahá’ís, including human rights, social development, status of women, environment, human settlements, agriculture, science and technology, new and renewable resources, population, law of the sea, crime prevention, narcotic drugs, children, youth, the family, disabled persons, the ageing, the United Nations University and disarmament.
    • At such sessions the Bahá’í International Community offers statements on the Bahá’í position on the subject under discussion.
    • Prior to this date individuals were accredited as "observer" representatives of the "Bahá'í International Community" which originally had been established in 1947 under the auspices of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States. Individuals who served as observer representatives on a part-time basis were Mildred Mottahedeh, Dr Ugo Giachery, John Ferraby, 'Azíz Navidi and Dr Amin Banáni among others. In 1963 the responsibility for the BIC was transferred to the Universal House of Justice and in 1965 permanent offices were established in New York with a full-time representative appointed. The first representative was Mildred Mottahedeh who soon asked to be replaced. Dr Victor de Arujo served for 23 years until his retirement in January, 1991. [BW15p358-367]
    New York; United States Bahai International Community; United Nations; Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC); Mildred Mottahedeh; Ugo Giachery; John Ferraby; Aziz Navidi; Amin Banani; Victor de Araujo
    1970 19 – 21 Jun Rúhíyyih Khánum interrupts her African teaching safari to meet with more than 2,000 youth at the National Youth Conference in the United States. [BW15:331; VV10] United States; Africa Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum, Journeys of; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth
    1972 summer Over 150 American youth join European youth in Operation Hand-in-Hand, a joint teaching project. [BW15:338]
    • For picture see BW15:347.
    United States Teaching campaigns; Youth
    1972 17 Dec The passing of Matthew Bullock (b. 11 September, 1881 in Dabney, North Carolina) in Detroit, Michigan.
    • He was a singer, a talented athlete, a football coach, a teacher, a soldier, a war hero, a civic leader, a church leader.
    • Lawyer-graduated from Harvard Law School in 1907.
    • Found the Faith in 1940 after many years of careful investigation.
    • Husband to Katherine Wright, (d. 1945), father to Matthew W. Bullock Jr (a judge) and Julia Gaddy (librarian).
    • Chairman of the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Boston.
    • Travel teacher to Haiti, Costa Rica, Mexico, Belgian Congo, Liberia.
    • Elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of the the United States in 1952.
    • Represented the NSA at the first Intercontinental Bahá'í Conference in Uganda, East and received permission to visit the Holy Land on pilgrimage prior to attending the Conference.
    • Became a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh in 1953 for Dutch West Indies when he and four other members of the NSA resigned to take up pioneer posts.
    • He received an honorary degree from Harvard in recognition of the lifetime of achievements.
    • He spent his last years in Detroit in the care of his daughter. [BW15p535-539]
    Dabney, NC; Detroit; United States In Memoriam; Matthew Bullock; Knights of Bahaullah; Births and deaths
    1973 5 Sep John Ferraby, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Cambridge, England. (b. 9 January,1914) [BW16:511, VV8]
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
    • For his obituary see BW16:511–12.
    Cambridge; United Kingdom John Ferraby; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Third Contingent
    1974 The first Native Council takes place in Haines, Alaska, attended by 50 native Bahá’ís. Haines; Alaska; United States Firsts, Other
    1974 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of Kotzebue, an Iñupiat Eskimo community situated north of the Arctic Circle, is formed. Kotzebue; Alaska; United States; Arctic LSA
    1974 13 Jul The dedication of the John Bosch Bahá'í Summer School in Santa Cruz, California. [Bosch web site] Santa Cruz; California; United States John Bosch Summer schools
    1974 28 Aug - 2 Sep The conference held in St Louis, Missouri, to launch the Five Year Plan in the United States attracts some 10,000 Bahá’ís, the largest gathering of Bahá’ís to take place anywhere in the world to date. [BW16:203; VV40] St Louis; Missouri; United States Conferences, Bahai
    1975 5 Feb A strip of land facing the resting place of Shoghi Effendi is bought by the Universal House of Justice to ensure protection of the site. [BW16:134; BW17:82; VV22] London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Resting place of
    1976 10 Jan The most northerly-located local spiritual assembly in the world is formed in the Iñupiat community of Barrow, Alaska. Barrow; Alaska; United States LSA; Superlatives
    1976 8 Mar The Bahá’í International Community is granted consultative status with the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). [BW16:337–8; VV54] BIC; United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)
    1976 24 Apr The passing of Mark George Tobey (b. December 11, 1890 Centerville, Wisconsin – d. April 24, 1976 Basel, Switzerland) [Bahá'í News page 341, Wiki, VV119]
    • He had been introduced to the Faith by Bernard Leach. [OPOP223]
    • Another version is that In 1918 Mark Tobey came in contact with Juliet Thompson and posed for her. During the session Tobey read some Bahá'í literature and accepted an invitation to Green Acre where he converted. [Seitz, William Chapin (1980). Mark Tobey. Ayer Publishing. p. 44]
    • Tobey was one of the twentieth century’s most cosmopolitan of artists. An inveterate traveler—he eventually settled in Basel, Switzerland—he was always better known in Europe than in his homeland. His mature ‘white writing’ works are made up of pulsing webs of lines inspired by oriental calligraphy, explicitly acknowledged the direct influence of the Baha’i Faith on his painting. It has been said that Tobey “made line the symbol of spiritual illumination, human communication and migration, natural form and process, and movement between levels of consciousness.” He often stated, “that there can be no break between nature, art, science, religion, and personal life".
    • See Bahá'í World 1994-95 pg248 for an article by Anne Boyles entitled "The Language of the Heart: Arts in the Bahá'í World Community" for mention of Mark Tobey.
    • For his obituary see BW17:401–4.
    • Towards the end of his life, Tobey was the recipient of some of the highest distinctions that the European art scene of his time could bestow. He won the gold medal at the Venice Biennale in 1958—the first American painter to do so since 1895. In 1961, a major retrospective of his work was held at the Louvre in Paris, an unprecedented achievement for a living and American artist.
    • See The Journal of Bahá'í Studies, Volume 26, number 4 – Winter 2016 p94 for an article by Anne Gordon Perry entitled Anne Gould Hauberg and Mark Tobey: Lives Lived for Art, Cultivated by Spirit.
    • An exhibition, Mark Tobey: Threading Light showed at the Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice, 6 May to 10 September 2017 and at the Addison Gallery of American Art, Phillips Academy, Andover, Massachusetts, 4 November 2017–11 March 2018.
    Centerville; Wisconsin; United States; Basel; Switzerland In Memoriam; Mark Tobey; Bernard Leach; Anne Gould Hauberg; Arts; Painting
    1976 23 – 25 Jul An International Teaching Conference is held in Anchorage, Alaska, attended by 1,005 Bahá’ís. [BW17:81]
    • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:130–1.
    • For pictures see BW17:110, 113, 116–17.
    Anchorage; Alaska; United States Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching
    1976 3 – 6 Aug An International Teaching Conference is held in Paris, attended by some 5,700 Bahá’ís. [BW17:81; DM416; VV33]
    • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:131–2.
    • For the message of Kurt Waldheim, Secretary-General of the United Nations, see BW17:140.
    • For pictures see BW17:109, 117–19.
    Paris; France; Europe Kurt Waldheim; United Nations; United Nations, Secretary-Generals; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching
    1976 12 Sep His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II of Western Samoa visits the resting place of Shoghi Effendi. [BW17:69; VV22] Samoa; London; United Kingdom Malietoa Tanumafili II of Western Samoa; Shoghi Effendi, Resting place of
    1976 5 Oct The passing of Adelaide Sharp (b. Texas, 1896) in Tehran. In 1929 she accompanied Dr Susan Moody (77) to Tehran and and took up the position of principal of the Tarbiyat School for Girls (opened 1910). In 1931 she invited her mother, Clara Sharp, to come and live with her. After the closing of the Tarbiyat Schools on the 6th of December, 1934, the Guardian asked her to remain in Persia. She organized study classes for both boys and girls to study English writings such as Bahá'í Administration, The Promised Day is Come, The World Order of Bahá'u'lláh and other works from the Guardian. In 1954 the Guardian ruled that women could serve on Baha'i administrative bodied in Persia. She was elected to the National Spiritual Assembly and served in this role for the next fourteen years. She attended the First and Second International Conventions in 1963 and in 1968. Her five decade legacy of service in Iran included children's education, translating Writings, consolidating administrative institutions, serving as the"external affairs" representative for the National Assembly. Upon her passing memorial services where held in Tehran as well as other centres throughout the country. [BW17p418-420, Baha’i Heroes & Heroines] Texas; United States; Tihran; Iran Adelaide Sharp; Clara Sharp; Tarbiyat School; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Firsts, Other
    1977 16 – 17 Apr The first annual Bahá’í Studies Seminar supported by the Departments of Religious Studies and of Sociology at the University of Lancaster, England, takes place. [BW18:204] Lancaster; United Kingdom Bahai Studies, Associations for; Firsts, Other
    1977 Jun At the behest of the Universal House of Justice, two conferences are held for Persian-speaking Bahá’ís resident in Europe, one in Germany and one in London. [BW17:194] Germany; London; United Kingdom; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Conferences, Persian-speaking Bahais; Persian diaspora
    1978 23 May The House of Worship in Wilmette is included in the register of historic places in the United States. [BW17:166, 375]
    • For picture see BW17:165.
    Wilmette; United States Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
    1979 6 May Bernard Leach CBE, internationally known potter, artist and author, passes away in St Ives, Cornwall. [BW18:669–71]
    • See AY50 for the significance of the name of the village of St. Ives.
    St Ives; Cornwall; United Kingdom Bernard Leach; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1979. 24 Oct The publication of the compilation Inspiring the Heart by the Universal House of Justice. This compilation was published as a book by the Baha'i Publishing Trust of the United Kingdom in 1981. [Messages63-86p430] BWC; United Kingdom Inspiring the Heart (book); Publications; Compilations; Universal House of Justice
    1980 The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the year. [BW18:92]
    • Twenty–four Bahá’ís are executed or otherwise killed. [BW18:229–30]
    • BW18:291–2 shows a slightly different, incorrect list.
    • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:293–305 and BW19:236–46.
    • For accounts of some of the martyrdoms see BW18:275–81.
    • Twelve Bahá’ís disappear and are presumed dead. [BW19:235]
    • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments, and other actions taken, see BW18:92–6.
    • For a list of the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community, Bahá’í institutions and others see BW18:339–41, 415–17.
    Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; United Nations; Bahai International Community; Human rights
    1980 12 Feb Hasan M. Balyuzi, Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in London. (b. 7 September, 1908) [BW18:635; VV52]
    • For his obituary see BW18:635–51 and SBBR5:XI–XX.
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
    • See Bahá'í Chronicles for a biography.
    • For a brief biography see Balyuzi, Hasan M. by Richard Francis.
    • For some essays and excerpts from Hasan Balyuzi's work see Bahá'í Library.
    London; United Kingdom Hasan Balyuzi; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Bahai studies
    1980 Sep The European Parliament, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe and the United Nations Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities adopt resolutions on the plight of the Bahá’ís in Iran. [BW19:38] Iran European Union; United Nations; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights
    1981 The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the year. [BW18:92]
    • Forty–six Bahá’ís are executed and two assassinated. [BW18:292–3; BW19:230–1]
    • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
    • For accounts of some of the martyrdoms see BW18:277–8, 281–4.
    • For excerpts from the wills of some of the martyrs see BW18:284–9.
    • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments, and other actions taken, see BW18:92–6 and BW19:44–6.
    • For a list of the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community, Bahá’í institutions and others see BW18:341–5, 417–20.
    Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; United Nations; Bahai International Community; Human rights
    1982 The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the year. [BW18:92]
    • Thirty–two Bahá’ís are executed or otherwise killed. [BW19:232]
    • BW18:293–4 shows a slightly different, incorrect list.
    • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
    • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments, and other actions taken, see BW18:92–6 and BW19:44–6.
    • For a list of the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community, Bahá’í institutions and others see BW18:345–52, 420–4.
    • See the Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 26 January 1982 for a summation of the steps taken by the coordinated Bahá'í community to expose the crimes of the Iranian regime and to bring pressure to have the persecutions stop.
    Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; United Nations; Bahai International Community; Human rights
    1982 25 May The Subcommittee on Human Rights and International Organizations of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the United States House of Representatives hears the testimony of six witnesses concerning the persecution of the Bahá’ís in Iran. [BW18:172] Washington; United States; Iran Human Rights; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; United States government
    1982 9 Jun The passing of Richard Edward St. Barbe Baker (b. 9 October, 1889 West End, Hampshire, England d. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan) He was one of the foremost world famous environmentalists of the twentieth century, an ecologist, conservationist, forester, vegetarian, horseman, apiarist, author of some thirty books and numerous articles and a committed Bahá’í who rendered service to the Bahá’í Faith for more than fifty years.

    He formally founded the Men of the Trees organization in England in 1924 and it soon spread to many other countries. (Shoghi Effendi enrolled as the first life member of the Men of the Trees.) Now known in many countries as the International Tree Foundation, it has a large membership of women and men from all walks of life. In 1978 Charles, Prince of Wales, became the society’s patron. [Baha'i Chronicles, BW18p802-805]

    Hampshire; United Kingdom; Saskatoon; Saskatchewan; Canada Richard St Barbe Baker; Men of the Trees; International Tree Foundation; Environment; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves
    1982 19 – 20 Jun The teaching project Camino Del Sol (Trail of Light), comprising indigenous believers from North America, is formed on the Navajo Reservation in Arizona, United States. [BW18:239]
    • The team travels through Central and South America in a programme of cultural exchange. [BW18:172]
    • For a report of the project and pictures see BW18:239–45 and BW19:74–6.
    Arizona; United States Indigenous people; Native Americans; Navajo (Dine)
    1982 29 Dec The passing of Stanwood Cobb,(b. November 6 Newton, Massachusetts , 1881 – d. December 29, 1982) noted Bahá'í lecturer, educator and author at his home in Chevy Chase, Maryland at the age of 101 after 75 years of service to the Cause.
    • He was the author of some 30 books, numerous articles and was an editor of Star of the West until 1939 and co-editor of World Order. He founded Avalon Press in 1935 through which he published his works.
    • His first exposure to the Faith was at Green Acre. While serving as an college instructor in Constantinople he made a visit to 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Akka disguised as a Turk while He was still a prisoner. He met Him again in 1910 and while He was in Paris and the United States during His Western Travels.
    Chevy Chase; United States Stanwood Cobb; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1983 The Association for Bahá’í Studies, English-Speaking Europe, is established in the Republic of Ireland.
    • Responsibility for the Association is transferred to the United Kingdom in 1989.
    Ireland; United Kingdom; Europe Bahai Studies, Associations for
    1983 The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the year. [BW18:92; BW19:177–226]
    • Twenty–nine Bahá’ís are executed or otherwise killed. [BW19:232–3]
    • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
    • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments, and other actions taken, see BW18:92–6 and BW19:44–6.
    • For a list of the actions taken by the Bahá’í International Community, Bahá’í institutions and others see BW18:352–6, 424–5.
    Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; United Nations; Bahai International Community; Human rights
    1983 5 – 7 Aug The first Los Angeles Bahá’í History Conference is held at the University of California at Los Angeles. [BW19:369–70] Los Angeles; United States Bahai history; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Other; Conferences; First conferences
    1984 The persecution of the Bahá’ís of Iran continues throughout the year. [BW19:177–226]
    • Thirty Bahá’ís are executed or otherwise killed. [BW19:233-4]
    • For pictures of the martyrs see BW18:295–305 and BW19:236–46.
    • For a list of resolutions adopted by the United Nations, regional bodies, national and provincial governments and other actions taken, see BW19:44–6.
    Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; United Nations; Human rights
    1984 Ridván Delegates at the United States National Convention petition the Universal House of Justice requesting that the law of Huqúqu’lláh be made binding on the American Bahá’ís. [AWH30; ZK146–77]
    • The Universal House of Justice replies that it is not yet the time to take this step. [AWH30, Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 6 August, 1984]
    United States Conventions national; UHJ; Huququllah; Gradual implementation of laws
    1984 16 Nov Shu’á’u’lláh ‘Alá’í, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Scottsdale, Arizona. (b. 16 November 1889) [BW19:594; VV123]
    • BW19: 159 says this was 17 November.
    • For his obituary see BW19:593–5.
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
    Scottsdale; Arizona; United States Shuaullah Alai; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Second Contingent
    1985 To support the United Nations International Youth Year Bahá’í communities undertake a variety of activities. [BW19:301–10] Worldwide United Nations; International Youth Year
    1985 3 – 7 Jul An International Youth Conference to support the United Nations International Youth Year is held in Columbus, Ohio, United States attended by more than 3,200 youth from 42 nations. [BW19:300] Columbus; Ohio; United States; North America Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth; International Youth Year
    1985 15 – 26 Jul Ten representatives of the Bahá’í International Community attend the World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women and Forum ‘85 in Nairobi. [BW19:147–8, 412; VV28–9]
    • For a report of the Bahá’í participation see BW19:4.12–15.
    • For pictures see BW19:413, 415.
    Nairobi; Kenya Bahai International Community; United Nations; Women
    1985 24 Oct On the fortieth anniversary of the United Nations and in anticipation of the United Nations International Year of Peace, the Universal House of Justice addressed a message to the peoples of the world inviting them to consider that a new social order can be fostered by all peoples’ seeing themselves as members of one universal family. This message was presented to world leaders and countless others during the United Nations International Year of Peace. [BBD174, 187–8; BW19:139, 155; VV59, 86–8, The Promise of World Peace]
    • Within six months national spiritual assemblies present copies to 167 world leaders, including 140 to leaders of independent countries. [BW19:139, 334–6]
    • For pictures see BW19:337–44.
    • For text see BW19:324–33.
    BWC; Worldwide United Nations; Universal House of Justice; Universal House of Justice, Basic timeline; Promise of World Peace (statement); Statements; Publications; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Universal House of Justice, Letters and messages
    1985 22 Nov The Promise of World Peace is presented to the Secretary-General of the United Nations Javier Perez de Cuellar by Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum and representatives of the Bahá’í International Community. [BW19:33, 382; VV87] United Nations; Javier Perez de Cuellar; United Nations, Secretary-Generals; Promise of World Peace (statement); Bahai International Community
    1985 13 Dec For the first time, the United Nations General Assembly adopts a resolution on the human rights situation in Iran which contains specific references to the Bahá’ís. [BW19:38; VV55] Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; United Nations; Human rights
    1986 13 Mar The United Nations Commission on Human Rights adopts a resolution asking its chairman to appoint a new special representative to report to the General Assembly in November 1986 on the human rights situation in Iran, including the situation of the Bahá’ís. [BINS153:12] Iran United Nations Commission on Human Rights
    1986 19 Oct Lorraine Kahn of Pine Springs, Arizona, is elected a delegate to the United States National Convention, the first Navajo woman to serve in this capacity. [BINS161:19] United States Lorraine Kahn; Native Americans; Conventions, National; Firsts, Other
    1986 13 Nov Zikrullah Khadem (Dhikru’lláh Khádem), Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Skokie, Illinois. (b.1904) [VV123; ZK151]
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
    • See also Khadem, Zikrullah Khadem: The Itinerant Hand of the Cause of God.
    Skokie; Illinois; United States Zikrullah Khadem; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Second Contingent
    1987 Sep The United Nations Secretary-General designates the Bahá’í International Community and the National Spiritual Assemblies of Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Kenya and Lesotho as Peace Messengers, an honour given to only 300 organizations worldwide for their support of the UN Year of Peace 1986. [BINS173:4] New York; United States; Australia; Belgium; Brazil; Kenya; Lesotho United Nations; Bahai International Community; International Year of Peace; Peace
    1987 autumn The Post Office of the United Kingdom issues a commemorative stamp honouring Bernard Leach, Bahá’í and world-renowned potter. [BINS173:8] United Kingdom Bernard Leach; Stamps; Artists; Arts
    1988 ‘Arts for Nature’, a fund-raising programme held to benefit the work of the World Wide Fund for Nature, is held in London with the collaboration of the Bahá’í International Community. [AWH61; VV106] London; United Kingdom Bahai International Community; Arts; Nature; World Wide Fund for Nature; Environment
    1988 17 Feb The publication of the statement by the Bahá'í International Community, “Eliminating Religious Intolerance”, to the forty-fourth session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights. Geneva Eliminating Religious Intolerance; United Nations
    1988. 19 Feb The publication of the statement by the Bahá'í International Community, “Eliminating Torture”, to the fouty-fourth session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights. Geneva Eliminating Torture; United Nations; UN
    1988 30 Nov The Bahá’í International Community is elected Secretary of the Board of the ‘Conference on Non-Governmental Organizations in consultative status with the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations’ (CONGO) for the period 1988–91. [BINS189:2] New York Bahai International Community; United Nations; Social and economic development
    1988 8 Dec The plenary session of the General Assembly of the United Nations adopts a resolution concerning human rights in Iran which specifically mentions the suffering of the Bahá’ís. [BINS189:2] Iran United Nations; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights
    1988 18 Dec H. Borrah Kavelin, former member of the first House of Justice, passes away in Albuquerque, New Mexico. [VV97] Albuquerque; New Mexico; United States H. Borrah Kavelin; Universal House of Justice, Members of; Births and deaths; In Memoriam
    1988 29 Dec The Universal House of Justice issues a letter to the Bahá’ís in the United States published as Individual Rights and Freedoms in the World Order of Bahá’u’lláh. BWC; United States Universal House of Justice, Letters and messages; Publications; Administration; Administrative Order; Authority; Bahai Faith, Evolutionary nature of; Consultation; Criticism and apologetics; Ethics; Freedom; Freedom of expression; Human rights; Individualism; Liberty; Moderation; Review; Unity; Western culture
    1989 The New Era Foundation was formed by the US National Spiritual Assembly to sponsor a wide range of development projects in several continents. [VV81] United States New Era Foundation
    1989 The establishment of the Bahá'í International Community's Office of the Environment in New York. Ridván Message 1992 [AWH75; VV54 106] New York; United States Bahai International Community; Environment
    1989 Feb The inaugural publication of One Country, the newsletter of the Bahá'í International Community. It is a publication of the Office of Public Information of the Bahá'í International Community in New York. The periodical reports mainly on activities of the worldwide Bahá'í community in relation to issues of sustainable development, peace and world order, human rights, and the advancement of women. [BW'86-‘92 p.539] New York; United States One Country; Newsletters; Bahai International Community; Publications Find date
    1989. 8 Feb The publication of the statement by the Bahá'í International Community, “Eliminating Racism”, to the forty-fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights. Geneva Eliminating Racism; United Nations
    1989. 9 Feb The publication of the statement by the Bahá'í International Community, “Right to Development”, to the forty-fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights. Geneva; Switzerland Human rights; BIC statements; BIC; United Nations
    1989. 15 Feb The publication of the statement by the Bahá'í International Community, “Creating a Universal Culture of Human Rights”, to the fourty-fifth session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights. Geneva Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Human Rights; United Nations
    1989 9 Mar The Commission on Human Rights adopts a resolution expressing grave concern at human rights violations in Iran, mentioning the Bahá’ís three times. [BINS195:1] Iran United Nations; Human rights; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1989 Sep The Bahá’í Office of the Environment is established as part of the Bahá’í International Community in New York. [AWH75; VV54, 106] New York; United States Bahai Office of the Environment; Environment; Bahai International Community
    1989 4 – 6 Nov The European Bahá’í Youth Council, comprising seven youth and appointed by the Universal House of Justice to coordinate those European youth activities that have a continental impact, meets for the first time, in London. [BINS213:4; BW93–4:121] London; United Kingdom; Europe European Bahai Youth Council; Youth
    1989 15 Dec A World Forestry Charter Gathering organized by the Offices of Public Information in London and New York takes place in London. [AWH75; BINS214:1–2]
    • It commemorates the centenary of the birth of Richard St Barbe Baker, the Bahá’í environmentalist who founded the Gatherings in 1945.
    London; United Kingdom Richard St Barbe Baker; Environment
    1990 The United Nations International Literacy Year. [VV108] United Nations; Literacy
    1990 With the approval of the Universal House of Justice, the Bahá'í administrative institutions of the eastern and western parts of Germany are re-united. [BINS230:2] Germany East; West; united
    1990 For the first time a representative of the United Nations officially meets with a representative of the Bahá'í community in Iran. [AWH76] Iran United Nations
    1990 For the first time a representative of the United Nations was able to officially meet with a representative of the proscribed Bahá'í community in Irán. The report to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights resulted in a resolution being adapted on Irán in a session held in Geneva. [AWH76] Irán; Geneva United Nations Commission on Human Rights
    1990 26 Jan The Bahá'í Chair for World Peace is established at the University of Maryland's Centre for International Development and Conflict Management at the official signing of the Memorandum of Understanding. [AWH76; BINS217:7; VV108]
    • Professor Suheil Bushrui is appointed to the Chair in 1992.
    • For picture see VV108.
    • On the 12th of February the Universal House of Justice announced that the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and the University of Maryland had signed a memorandum of understanding to establish "The Bahá'í Chair for World Peace" in its Centre for International Development and Conflict Management.
    • In 1992 Professor Suheil Bushrú’í was named as the first scholar to hold the Chair. [AWH76; VV108]
    • See The American Bahá'í for information on the endowment to fund the Chair as well as the programs and activities. "As part of its threefold objective of research, education and publication, the Bahá’í Chair collaborates with academics and practitioners to provide inspiration and direction to students, faculty and leaders seeking solutions to the world’s great challenges."
    • Official website.
    Maryland; United States Bahai Chair for World Peace; Suheil Bushrui;
    1990 31 Mar 31 – 1 Apr The first Bahá'í International Chinese Symposium is held in San Francisco, California; it is attended by 362 Bahá'ís from eight countries. [BINS222:6] San Francisco; California; United States Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Conferences, Other; First conferences; China
    1990 May The US Senate unanimously adopted a concurrent resolution condemning Irán's continued repression of the Bahá'ís calling for their complete emancipation. This was the fourth congressional appeal. [VV60] United States; Iran United States Senate; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1990 6 Sep The Bahá'í International Community opens a branch of its United Nations Office for the Pacific region in Suva, Fiji. [AWH76; BINS233:4–5; VV54] Suva; Fiji Bahai International Community; United Nations; Pacific
    1990 Oct The publication of the last issue of the Bahá'í News by the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States after nearly 70 years of uninterrupted service. [CBN Feb1991pg15]
    • Issues 1 to 40 were published under the name Bahá'í News Letter. Subsequent issues, from #41 to #714, were entitled simply Bahá'í News.


    Bahá'í News Published December 1924 to October 1990
              Link (Will open in this window)            
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    "Bahá'í News" Issues 001-110
    Dec 1924 - Sep 1937
    969
    bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn01.pdf
    "Bahá'í News" Issues 111-210
    Oct 1937 - Aug 1948
    1186
    bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn02.pdf
    "Bahá'í News" Issues 211-280
    Sep 1948 - Jun 1954
    1072
    bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn03.pdf
    "Bahá'í News" Issues 281-345
    Jul 1954 - Nov 1959
    1088
    bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn04.pdf
    "Bahá'í News" Issues 346-400
    Dec 1959 - Jul 1964
    849
    bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn05.pdf
    "Bahá'í News" Issues 401-440
    Aug 1964 - Nov 1967
    716
    bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn06.pdf
    "Bahá'í News" Issues 441-490
    Dec 1967 - Jan 1972
    1008
    bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn07.pdf
    "Bahá'í News" Issues 491-525
    Feb 1972 - May 1975
    958
    bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn08.pdf
    "Bahá'í News" Issues 526-580
    Jun 1975 - Jul 1979
    1019
    bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn09.pdf
    "Bahá'í News" Issues 581-630
    Aug 1979 - Sep 1983
    958
    bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn10.pdf
    "Bahá'í News" Issues 631-670
    Oct 1983 - Jan 1987
    780
    bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn11.pdf
    "Bahá'í News" Issues 671-714
    Feb 1987 - Oct 1990
    847
    bahai-news.info/pdfs/bn12.pdf

    Subscribers in the United States received an insert entitled US Supplement from 1958 to 1967 and the name of the insert was changed to National Bahá'í Review from 1968 until the Bahá'í News discontinued publication in 1990.
    United States Bahai News; Newsletters; Publications
    1991 The first major public statement of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States, The Vision of Race Unity: America's Most challenging Issue, is published and disseminated widely throughout the country. United States Vision of Race Unity (statement); Race (general); Unity; Publications; Statements Find ref
    1991 In Iran, a secret government memorandum (known as the Golpaygani Memorandum) was drawn up by Iran's Supreme Revolutionary Cultural Council and signed by Iran's supreme leader, Ayatollah Khamenei, which provided a blueprint of the policies and actions to which the Bahá'í community of Iran was to be subjugated. The memorandum demanded a shift in Iran's stance towards Bahá'ís from overt persecution to a more covert policy aimed at depleting the Iranian Bahá'í community's economic and cultural resources. This was a change in the policy for the Islamic regime which had openly persecuted and killed Bahá'ís during its first decade in power and had accused them of being spies for various foreign powers. The document also called for “countering and destroying their [Baha’is’] cultural roots abroad.” [ iranpresswatch.org/post/1407/ ]

    The memorandum can be found here and here.
    • This document might have remained secret had it not been divulged to Reynaldo Galindo Pohl, the Salvadoran diplomat who served as the United Nations (UN) Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Iran between 1986 and 1995. Professor Pohl disclosed the document in 1993 during a session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights (now replaced by the Human Rights Council).
    Iran; United States Ayatollah Khamenei; Ayatollahs; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; United Nations
    1991 Jan Dr. Victor de Araujo, Bahá'í representative to the United Nations for 23 years and the first full-time representative, retired from his duties. He had represented the BIC at innumerable conferences and seminars throughout the world as well as at the UN headquarters in New York, often serving as chairman on the UN committees. [VV54]
    • Mr. Techeste Ahderom of Eritrea succeeded him. [VV54]
    New York; United States Victor de Araujo; Bahai International Community; United States; Techeste Ahderom; Firsts, Other
    1991 25 Jan Mottahedeh Development Services was established by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of the United States as a non-profit agency to promote social and economic development to benefit individuals of any race, creed, or nationality. The agency name honours more than fifty years of dedicated service by Mildred and Rafi Mottahedeh, two pioneers in social and economic development.
    • Mottahedeh Development Services was organized as a charitable organization under US law. [MDS]
    United States NSA USA; Social and economic development; Mildred Mottahedeh; Rafi Mottahedeh
    1991 25 Feb In Irán, a secret Government memorandum, drawn up by the Supreme Revolutionary Cultural Council which was obtained and made public in 1993 by United Nations' Special Representative Reynaldo Galindo Pohl, who was then charged with investigating the human rights situation in Iran. Signed by Iranian Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei, the memorandum established a subtle government policy aimed at essentially grinding the community into nonexistence by
    • forcing Bahá'í children to have a strong Islamic education,
    • pushing Bahá'í adults into the economic periphery and forcing them from all positions of power or influence, and
    • requiring that Bahá'í youth "be expelled from universities, either in the admission process or during the course of their studies, once it becomes known that they are Bahá'ís."
    [One Country, Iran Press Watch]
    Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Education; Persecution; Hashemi Rafsanjani; Ali Khamenei; Galindo Pohl; Human rights; United Nations; Iran Memorandum
    1992 The establishment of the Bahá'í Chair for Peace at the University of Maryland in the United States. The mission of the Bahá'í Chair for Peace, in part, is to develop alternatives to the violent resolution of conflict, promote global education and spiritual awareness, and reflect the beliefs of the Bahá'í world community in building a global society. Suheil Bushrui held the chair from 1992 until 2005. [ news.bahai.org/story/282 ] Maryland; United States Bahai Chair for World Peace; University of Maryland
    1992 Prime Minister Hamilton Green of Guyana made a formal state visit to the temple in Wilmette. Bahá'í Newsreel Vol. 3 number 2 [VV133] Guyana; Wilmette; United States Prime Ministers; Hamilton Green; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Prominent visitors
    1992 3 – 6 Feb The Association of Bahá'í Publishers and Distributors is established at a Bahá'í Publishers' Conference in Oakham, England, with its headquarters in the Netherlands. [BINS273:4-5; VV71] Oakham; United Kingdom; Netherlands Publishing Trusts; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Other
    1992 25 Mar William Sears, Hand of the Cause of God, passes away in Tucson, Arizona. (28 March, 1911) [BINS267; VV124]
    • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
    Tucson; Arizona; United States Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; William Sears; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Third Contingent
    1992 April World population 5.48 billion.
    • American Bahá'í population: 110,000 in more than 7000 communities. [From a press release by the American National Office dated the 28th of May, 1993]
    United States Statistics
    1992 May 29 The Centenary of the Ascension of Bahá'u'lláh is commemorated at the Guardian's Resting Place in London. London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Resting place of; Centenaries; Bahaullah, Ascension of Find ref
    1992 1 - 14 Jun Bahá'ís from many countries participate in the United Nations Conference on the Environment (UNCED), known as the Earth Summit, and the Global Forum for non-governmental organizations in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. [BINS272:1–3; BW92–3:124; VV110]
    • For a report of the Bahá'í involvement at the Earth Summit see BW92–3:177–89.
    • For the text of the statement of' the Bahá'í International Community read at the plenary session see BW92–3:191–2.
    • For pictures see BW92–3:179, 183, 186.
    Rio de Janeiro; Brazil Earth Summit; United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; United Nations; Environment
    1992 5 Jun The Bahá'í Vocational Institute for Rural Women, a non-profit education project based in Indore, India, is one of 74 individuals and institutions presented with the United Nations Environment Programme ‘Global 500' award in Rio de Janeiro. [BINS272:5; BW92–3:125; VV110]
    • For picture see BW92–3:183.
    Rio de Janeiro; Brazil; Indore; India Bahai Vocational Institute for Rural Women; Women; Sustainable development; United Nations; Environment; Awards
    1992 18 Jun The passing of Counsellor Isobel Sabri, member of the International Teaching Centre in England. She was born in California in 1924. Letter from the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada to all Local Spiritual Assemblies date the 16th of October 1992. [VV124] California; United States; United Kingdom Counsellors; Isobel Sabri; International Teaching Centre, Members of; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1992 15 Sep Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum was officially invited to open the Exhibition of Bahá'í Manuscripts at the British Museum in London. [VV134] London; United Kingdom Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Exhibitions of Bahai manuscripts and relics; British Museum
    1992 23 – 26 Nov The Second World Congress was held in New York City to commemorate the centenary of the passing of Bahá'u'lláh and the completion of the Six Year Plan. It was attended by some 28,000 Bahá'ís from some 180 countries. [BBD240] [VV136-141] [BW92-3p98-101, 136]
    • Nine auxiliary conferences were held in Buenos Aires, Sydney, New Delhi, Nairobi, Panama City, Bucharest, Moscow, Apia and Singapore. [BINS283:3-4]
    • For pictures see [BINS283:9-10], [BW92-3p100] and [VV136-141]
    • "New York will become a blessed spot from which the call to steadfastness in the Covenant and Testament of God will go forth to every part of the world." - 'Abdu'l-Bahá [AWH77-8 90-1 105-6]
    • On the 25th of November a concert was held in Carnegie Hall as a birthday tribute to Dizzy Gillespie called "Celebrating the Bahá'í Vision of World Peace". [VV141]
    • On the 26th of November Bahá'ís around the world are linked together by a live satellite broadcast serving the second Bahá'í World Congress, the nine auxiliary conferences and the Bahá'í World Centre and is received by those with access to satellite dish antennas. [BINS283:1–5, 8; BINS286:10; BINS287:4]
    • For the message of the Universal House of Justice read on the satellite link see BW92–3:37–4.
    • For accounts of personal experiences by some of the attendees see In the Eyes of His Beloved Servants: The Second Bahá'í World Congress and Holy Year by J. Michael Kafes.
    New York; United States; Buenos Aires; Argentina; Sydney; Australia; New Delhi; India; Nairobi; Kenya; Panama; Bucharest; Romania; Moscow; Russia; Apia; Samoa; Singapore World Congresses; Carnegie Hall; Centenaries; Bahaullah, Ascension of; Dizzy Gillespie; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1992 Dec The Universal House of Justice announced its decision to establish an Office for the Advancement of Women at the headquarters of the Bahá'í International Community in New York. Support for UN efforts to improve the status of women, which had been carried out for twenty years by the United Nations Office, continued uninterrupted under the auspices of this new office. At annual sessions of the UN Commission on the Status of Women, statements addressed appropriate topics on the agenda, such as partnership between women and men, the status of girl children, the participation of women in decision making, partnership for development, and the human rights of women. [VV29; 54; BIC Document #: 95-0228; BW92–3:136]
    • The Office for the Advancement of Women officially opened its doors on the 26th of May, 1993. [BINS296:2; BW93–4:83–9; VV29] For pictures see BW93–4:83, 86.
    New York; United States Bahai International Community; Women; Office for the Advancement of Women
    1993 Jan Reynaldo Galindo Pohl, the United Nations' special representative in charge of monitoring the human rights situation in Iran, reveals a secret document written by Iran's Supreme Revolutionary Cultural Council providing evidence that the Iranian Government has formulated a plan to oppress and persecute the Bahá'í community both in Iran and abroad. [BW92–3:139; BW93–4:154] Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Human rights; Persecution; Human rights; United Nations
    1993 6 Jan The passing of John Birks "Dizzy" Gillespie. His autobiography was entitled “To Be, or Not...to Bop". [VV141
    • See Bahá'í World 1994-95 pg251 for an article by Anne Boyles entitled "The Language of the Heart: Arts in the Bahá'í World Community" for mention of Dizzy Gillespie.
    Englewood; New Jersey; United States Dizzy Gillespie; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1993 19 Jan The Bahá'í Chair for World Peace at the University of Maryland is inaugurated. It is situated in the College of Behavioral and Social Sciences. [BW92–3:140–1]

    The Baha’i Chair for World Peace is an academic program that conducts and publishes research with a diverse group of scholars on global issues. The organization’s purpose is to study worldwide challenges and discuss solutions that could advance peace and promote tolerance. In addition to conducting academic research and releasing publications, the chair hosts events at the University of Maryland that are available to students, university staff and the general public. Although the chair was inspired by the spiritual teachings of the Bahá'í faith’s focus on humanity’s unity, the program emphasizes science-based analysis along with the values the Faith provides. [Unwind Magazine]

    Maryland; United States Bahai Chair for World Peace; University of Maryland
    1993 22 Feb At the 49th session of the UN Commission on Human Rights, the United Nations in Geneva released a report providing evidence that the Iránian Government has established a secret plan approved by Irán's highest ranking officials including both President Hashemi Rafsanjani and Ayatollah Khomeini's successor, Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei, to oppress and persecute the Bahá'í community both in Irán and abroad. Galindo Pohl, special representative in charge of monitoring the human rights situation in Iran, highlights the contents of the secret document written by Iran's Supreme Revolutionary Cultural Council. [BW92–3:139; BW94–5:134] [from Bahá'í Community of Canada Department of Public Affairs press release dated 25 February, 1993] Iran; Geneva; Switzerland Persecution; Hashemi Rafsanjani; Ali Khamenei; Galindo Pohl; Human rights; United Nations; Iran Memorandum
    1993 15 Apr The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Stanley Bagley, (b.2 February, 1912). He had been a pioneer Belgium, France, Guadeloupe, Martinique, the United States as well as Sicily where he and his family received the Knighthood for their service. [BW93-94p319] United States Knights of Bahaullah; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1993 23 May The first general conference of Health for Humanitarian association of health professionals sponsored by the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States, is held in Evanston, Illinois. [BINS298:7; BW93–4:104] Evanston; Illinois; United States Health
    1993 10 – 25 Jun The Bahá'í International Community and Bahá'ís from 11 countries participate in the United Nations World Conference on Human Rights in Vienna and the parallel meeting for non-governmental organizations. [BINS298:1–2] Vienna; Austria United Nations conferences; Human Rights; Bahai International Community
    1993 Oct The Australian Bahá'í community and the Arrente Aboriginal tribe co-sponsor an intercultural celebration of indigenous peoples, ‘Heart of Australia Calling' in Alice Springs to mark UN International Year for the World's Indigenous Peoples. [BW93–4:90] Alice Springs; Australia Indigenous people; Cultural diversity; United Nations
    1993 16 Oct The passing of Marzieh Nabíl Carpenter Gail, the second child and eldest daughter of the first Persian-American marriage in the Bahá'í Faith between Persian diplomat Ali-Kuli Khan and Boston debutante Florence Breed. (b. 1 April, 1908) [BW1993-1994p320-321, Find a grave]
    • See AY91 for ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s praise of her as a child and confirmation and promises for the future. He commented that she had átish (fire) and namak (salt). [AY93]
    • A translator (Arabic and Persian into English) and author. Poet Roger White would say of his friend: "She is the first lady of Bahá'í literature and I and many writers are indebted to her for leading the way."s
    • Translations include: The Seven Valleys and the Four Valleys (1945) and The Secret of Divine Civilization (1957) with her father; Memorials of the Faithful (1971); Selections from the Writings of 'Abdu'l-Bahá (1976) with a Committee at the Bahá'í World Centre; My Memories of Bahá'u'lláh (1982).
    • Author of a dozen Bahá'í and non-Bahá'í books in addition to countless essays, articles, and short stories. Her remembrances of 'Abdu'l-Bahá are contained in The Sheltering Branch (1959), and those of His Exalted Sister in Khanum: The Greatest Holy Leaf (1981).
    • Many of her essays and pioneering stories are contained in Dawn Over Mount Hira (1976) and Other People, Other Places (1982). As well she wrote “Six Lessons in Islam” (1953), Summon Up Remembrance (1987), Arches of the Years (1991) and, “Bahá'í Glossary” (1955). [Bahá'í Studies Review, Vol6, 1996]
    • See Obituary: Marzieh Nabil Carpenter Gail (1908-1993): Translator and Author, "Patron Saint" of Women Bahá'í Scholars by Constance M. Chen.
    San Francisco; United States Marzieh Gail; Ali-Kuli Khan; Florence Breed; Bahai scholars; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1994 Jul 20 – 25 The European Bahá'í Youth Council sponsors five regional ‘Shaping Europe' conferences, in Berlin, Bucharest, St Petersburg, Barcelona and Wolverhampton, United Kingdom. [BINS323:3–5; BW94–5:177–8, 189] Berlin; Germany; Bucharest; Romania; St Petersburg; Russia; Barcelona; Portugal; Wolverhampton; United Kingdom; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth
    1994 Jul 28 The World Forestry Charter Gatherings, established by Richard St. Barbe Baker in 1945, are re-instituted by the Bahá'í International Community's Office of the Environment at a luncheon at St James's Palace, London. [AWH75; BW94–5:112–13, 142–3; OC6,2:1; VV106]
  • For pictures see BW94–5:143 and OC6,2:1, 12.
    London; United Kingdom Environment; Richard St Barbe Baker
    1994 Sep 5 – 13 The Bahá'í International Community attends the United Nations International Conference on Population of Development and the parallel Non-Governmental Organizations' Forum in Cairo. [BINS328:1] Cairo; Egypt BIC; United Nations
    1994 19 Oct The publication of In the Eyes of His Beloved Servants: The Second Bahá'í World Congress and Holy Year by J. Michael Kafes. This book captures the firsthand experiences of Baha'is from all around the world, who participated in the Baha'i World Congress at Jacob Javits Convention Center in November 1992, as well as experiences Baha'is had during the Baha'i Holy Year. [from the book] New York; United States World congresses; Holy years
    1995 Jan By decision of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United State the Wilmette Institute is established as an agency of the National Assembly. "The Wilmette Institute is a center of Bahá’í learning. Its programs aim to facilitate study and dialogue on the teachings and principles of the Faith to help individuals and communities apply learning and advance human civilization." In 1998, the Wilmette Institute moved to a largely online study approach in order to provide educational classes to a broader student body. [Wilmette Institute] Chicago; United States Wilmette Institute
    1995 Mar 3 – 12 The Bahá'í International Community and Bahá'ís from many countries participate in the United Nations World Summit for Social Development and the parallel Forum ‘95 for non-governmental organizations in Copenhagen. [BINS337:1–2]
    • For a report of the Bahá'í involvement in the Summit see BW94–5:37–6.
    • For the text of The Prosperity of Humankind the Bahá'í International Community statement released at the Summit, see BW94–5 273–96.
    • For pictures see BW94–5:39, 43, 45.
    Copenhagen; Denmark United Nations Summits; Bahai International Community; Social and economic development; Prosperity of Humankind (statement); BIC statements; Statements; Publications
    1995 Aug 30 – Sep 8 The Bahá'í International Community and some 400 Bahá'í women and men from more than 50 countries around the world participate in the Fourth United Nations International Conference on Women and the parallel Non-Governmental Organization Forum, held in the resort city of Huairou some 50 kilometers north of Beijing, from 30 August to 8 September. [One Country Vol 7 Issue 2] Beijing; China BIC; United Nations; Women Find ref
    1995 Oct The publication of Turning Point For All Nations by the Bahá'í International Community, United Nations Office, in New York in commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the United Nations. It was a call for world leaders to define a role for the UN. [Turning Point for all Nations, en français] New York; United States Turning Point For All Nations (statement); Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications; United Nations
    1996 30 May - 14 Jun The Bahá'í International Community and 150 Bahá'ís from many countries participate in the Second United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II) and the parallel Non-Governmental Organization Forum in Istanbul. [BINS365:5] Istanbul; Turkey BIC; United Nations; Migration
    1997 In the year The Tahirih Justice Center was founded to address the acute need for legal services of immigrant and refugee women who have fled to the U.S. to seek protection from human rights abuses.
    • The Center's founder, Ms. Layli Miller, created the Center after she was besieged by requests for legal assistance following her involvement in a high-profile case that set national precedent and revolutionized asylum law in the United States. The case was that of Fauziya Kassindja, a 17 year-old woman who fled Togo in fear of a forced polygamous marriage and a tribal practice known as female genital mutilation. After arriving in the U.S. and spending more than seventeen months in detention, Ms. Kassindja was granted asylum on June 13th, 1996 by the United States Board of Immigration Appeals in a decision that opened the door to gender-based persecution as a grounds for asylum. [Tahirih Justice Center]
    • For more on the Tahirih Justice Center see article in the Religion News Service.
    United States Tahirih Justice Center; Human rights; Women; Refugees; Migration; Layli Miller-Muro
    1998. 25 March The passing of former Universal House of Justice member (1963-1993) Mr. Hugh E Chance (b. 28 December, 1911 in Winfield, Kansas d. 25 March,1998 in Tisdale KS.). [BW97-98p271-272]
    • Mr Chance had been a member of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States from 1961 to 1963.
    • He was the co-author of "A Crown of Beauty" with Eunice Braun which was published by George Ronald in 1982.
    Tisdale; Kansas; United States Hugh Chance; In Memoriam
    1998 23 Nov The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States announced the results of the elections for their first Regional Councils. Four were elected in the regions corresponding to those mentioned in The Tablets of the Divine Plan. [Results of the First Regional Bahá'í Council Election] United States Regional Bahai Councils; Tablets of the Divine Plan
    1999 The Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity was established as a non-profit organization in association with the Bahá'í International Community. One of the purposes of the Institute was to explore, with others, the complementary roles that science and religion – as co-evolving systems of knowledge and practice – must play in the advancement of civilization. The very first ISGP seminar for undergraduate students, which was held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.[ISPG Web site, BWNS1266] New York; United States; Kuala Lumpur; Malaysia Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity (ISGP); Bahai International Community; Science; Social discourse
    1999 5 May Firuz Kazemzadeh, Secretary for External Affairs for the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States, is appointed by President Clinton as a member of the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom. White House Press Release United States Firuz Kazemzadeh; NSA; United States government; United States Commissions; Religious freedom; Human rights Find ref
    1999 21 Jun The passing of Meherangiz Munsiff in London (b. 23 November, 1923 Bombay, India) Born into a Bahá'í family she travelled in India with Martha Root at the age of 14 years. She was appointed Knight of Bahá'u'lláh for the French Cameroons. In addition she visited more than 150 countries to teach and assist in the development of Bahá'í communities and was know as a lecturer and an activist among the international humanitarian community. [The Bahá'í World99-00p308-309] London; United Kingdom Meherangiz Munsiff; First Bahais by country or area
    1999 15 - 18 Aug The third conference was held Sidcot, Avon, United Kingdom, jointly with the Bahá'í Agency for Social and Economic Development - UK. It brought together 44 participants from 13 countries on 5 continents, as well as internet connection with an additional 70 "electronic" conference participants in 29 countries, for a total of 114 participants from 38 countries, including 8 in Africa. (From web site) United Kingdom Social and economic development; Bahai Agency for Social and Economic Development; Conferences, Bahai Find ref
    2000 17 Feb The passing of Mildred Mottahedeh in New York. She had been elected to the International Bahá’í Council, the first globally elected Bahá’í body and was the first Bahá'í International Community representative to the United Nations. She was born in Seabright, New Jersey, on 7 August 1908 and was 91. [One Country Jan-Mar 2000 Vol 11 Issue 4, TP705-706] New York; Seabright; New Jersey; United States International Bahai Council; Bahai International Community; Mildred Mottahedeh; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Firsts, Other
    2000 22 - 26 May The United Nations Millennium Forum was held at United Nations Headquarters in New York. It attracted 1,350 participants from more than 106 countries and many others participated remotely via Internet. The purpose was to give organizations of civil society an opportunity to formulate views and recommendations on global issues to be taken up at the subsequent Millennium Summit in September to be attended by heads of state and government. Convened by the UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan, the Forum's overarching theme - "The United Nations for the 21st Century" - encompassed six main sub-themes in its declaration: 1) Peace, security and disarmament; 2) Eradication of poverty, including debt cancellation and social development; 3) Human rights; 4) Sustainable development and environment; 5) Facing the challenges of globalization: achieving equity, justice and diversity; and, 6) Strengthening and democratizing the United Nations and international organizations. The document was divided into three main areas: recommendations for governmental action; proposals for the United Nations; and actions to be undertaken by civil society itself. The Bahá’í International Community as an NGO representing a cross-section of humankind acted as a unifying agent in major discussions. Our principal representative at the United Nations, Techeste Ahderrom, was appointed to cochair a committee of non-governmental organizations. Lawrence Arturo and Diane 'Alá'í represented the Bahá'í International Community. [BW00-01p87-89, Letter from the Universal House of Justice dated 24 September 2000] New York; United States United Nations Millennium Forum and Summit; United Nations; United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; Conferences; Millennium; Bahai International Community; Peace; Security; Disarmament; Poverty; Social and economic development; Human rights; Sustainable development; environment; Globalization; Justice; Diversity; Prosperity; Equality; Solidarity; Tolerance; Nature; Cooperation; Interfaith dialogue; Techeste Ahderom; Lawrence Arturo; Diane Alai
    2000 28 - 31 Aug The Millennium Peace Summit of Religious and Spiritual Leaders was held in New York and involved more than 1,000 attendees. The “very specific purpose” of this meeting was “to further the prospects for peace among peoples and nations, and within every individual.” The outcome of this Peace Summit was the adoption and signing of a declaration committing the participants to global peace. Noting that “the United Nations and the religions of the world have a common concern for human dignity, justice and peace,” accepting that “men and women are equal partners in all aspects of life and children are the hope of the future,” and acknowledging that “religions have contributed to the peace of the world but have also been used to create division and fuel hostilities,” the declaration resolved to “collaborate with the United Nations and all men and women of goodwill locally, regionally and globally in the pursuit of peace in all its dimensions.” The Baha'i' International Community was represented by its Secretary-General, Mr Albert Lincoln. Laurence Arturo and Bani Dugal-Gujral also attended as BIC representatives. [BW00-01p89, Letter from the Universal House of Justice dated 24 September 2000] New York; United States United Nations Millennium Forum and Summit; United Nations; United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; Conferences; Millennium; Bahai International Community; Peace; World Peace Summit of Religious and Spiritual Leaders; Interfaith dialogue; Albert Lincoln; Laurence Arturo; Bani Dugal Gujral
    2000 6 - 8 Sep The General Assembly Millennium Summit was held at the United Nations Headquarters in New York and was attended by leaders of more than 150 nations. UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan presented a report entitled, "We The Peoples: The Role of the United Nations in the 21st Century". In which was presented an overview of the challenges facing humankind and suggested practical solutions. Some of the key themes addressed include health, environment, human rights and other social issues, international law, peace and rejuvenating the United Nations. It is striking that called upon by the Secretary-General of the United Nations to address so historic a gathering was Mr. Techeste Ahderom, the principal representative of the Bahá’í International Community to the United Nations, addressed the gathering as the spokesman of civil society. He was accorded this honour because he had presided as cochair at the earlier United Nations Millennium Forum. After all the national leaders had spoken and before the Summit had adopted its declaration on 8 September, Mr. Ahderom made a speech in which he conveyed to that unprecedented assemblage a report of the Forum. The text of his speech is enclosed herewith. On the last day a declaration was unanimously adopted that began by asserting: “We, Heads of State and Government, have gathered at United Nations Headquarters in New York from 6 to 8 September 2000, at the dawn of a new Millennium, to reaffirm our faith in the Organization and its Charter as indispensable foundations of a more peaceful, prosperous and just world.” [BW00-01p91-93, Letter from the Universal House of Justice dated 24 September 2000]
    • The text of Ahderom's speech can be found on the BIC's website and at BW00-01p243-247.
    New York; United States United Nations Millennium Forum and Summit; United Nations; United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; Conferences; Millennium; Bahai International Community; Peace; Security; Disarmament; Poverty; Social and economic development; Human rights; Sustainable development; environment; Globalization; Justice; Diversity; Prosperity; Equality; Solidarity; Tolerance; Nature; Cooperation; Interfaith dialogue; Techeste Ahderom
    2000 19 Sep In a ceremony, the final earth samples from 26 nations were deposited in the Peace Monument, which was built by the Bahá'í International Community and the Bahá'í Community of Brazil in 1992 for the 1992 Earth Summit. Designed by the renowned Brazilian sculptor Siron Franco, the five-meter concrete and ceramic monument is located near the entrance to the Santos Dumont Airport in Rio de Janeiro, just north of Flamengo Park and the site of the 1992 Global Forum, the parallel conference of non-governmental organizations held during the 1992 Earth Summit, which was formally known as the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. [BWNS85] Rio de Janeiro; Brazil Earth Summit; United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; United Nations; Environment; Peace Monument; Monuments; Earth; BWNS
    2000 Nov Early in 2000 the eagle from the Guardian's Resting Place was stolen and the monument damaged in the process. Its replacement was accompanied by an understandably stricter measure of security.

    When Shoghi Effendi was interred in November 1957 London's Great Northern Cemetery (since renamed New Southgate Cemetery) was larger than it is now. Over the years parts were sold off for development, and it was in response to this process that a sizeable portion around the Guardian's Resting Place was subsequently bought for the Faith so that it could be preserved and developed suitably. The cemetery opened a new entrance and the one through which the Guardian's funeral cortege passed fell into disuse. The gates and pillars of this entrance were purchased by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United Kingdom, acting on behalf of the Universal House of Justice, and a long process to have them reinstalled in a more suitable place came to fruition in 1998. [Reference links no longer in existence.]

    London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Resting place of; Cemeteries and graves; Vandalism; Eagles
    2000 Dec A new eagle was placed atop the column at the Guardian's Resting Place and repair was done to the damage to the site when the previous one was stolen earlier this year.[Reference links no longer in existence.] London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Resting place of; Cemeteries and graves; Eagles
    2000 12 - 14 Dec The 4th Annual Conference of the International Environment Forum (IEF) was held in Orlando, Florida. The theme was Applying the Baha'i Teachings to the Environmental Challenges Facing the World. (IEF Web Site) Orlando; Florida; United States Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; International Environment Forum; Environment
    2001 4 Jan The passing of Dr. Victor de Araujo of Vista, NY at the age of 78 years. He was born near London, England and spent his childhood and youth in Brazil. He came to the United Stated in 1946 as a vice consul to the Brazilian Consulate in Chicago. From 1967-1990, Dr. de Araujo served as a Representative of the Bahá'í International Community to the United Nations. In his years in this position he represented the Bahá'í International Community both at the United Nations headquarters and at numerous conferences around the world. He also participated in the preparation of Bahá'í statements on human rights, the environment, and the equality of men and women, which were presented to the United Nations. [Baha’i Announce 5Jan2001] London; United Kingdom; Brazil; New York; United States Bahai International Community; United Nations; In Memoriam; Victor de Araujo
    2001 30 Apr – 2 May The Bahá'í International Community today issued a statement, entitled Sustainable Development: the Spiritual Dimension, for the first session of the United Nations Preparatory Committee of the World Summit on Sustainable Development at the UN in New York. [BWNS93]

    For the complete text with footnotes see: Statement.

    New York; NY Bahai International Community; Sustainable Development; United Nations; United Nations Summits; BWNS
    2001 25 - 27 Jun The Baha'i International Community issued this statement for the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS in New York entitled HIV/AIDS and Gender Equality: Transforming Attitudes and Behaviours". [Text] New York Bahai International Community; United Nations; HIV/AIDS; Gender; Equality Find ref
    2001 31 Aug – 7 Sep United Nations World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, was held in Durban, South Africa. The Bahá'í International Community issued a statement entitled One Same Substance: Consciously Creating a Global Culture of Unity. See BWNS133 for the full text or on the BIC Site. Durban; South Africa United Nations; Racism; Discrimination; Bahai International Community
    2001 23 - 25 Nov International Consultative Conference on School Education in relation with Freedom of Religion and Belief, Tolerance and Non-discrimination, a United Nations conference was held in Madrid, Spain. The Bahá'í International Community presented a statement, entitled Belief and Tolerance: Lights Amidst the Darkness. For the text of the document see BWNS141 or on the BIC Site. Madrid; Spain United Nations conferences; Tolerance; Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications; BWNS
    2001 16 Dec The passing of Philip Hainsworth at the age of 82 in Sevenoaks, Kent, England. Shoghi Effendi had described him as "the spiritual Stanley of Africa". [BW01-02p304-305] Sevenoaks; Kent; United Kingdom; Africa Philip Hainsworth; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Names and titles
    2001 23 Dec National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States published a full-page advertisement in The New York Times, the statement, entitled The Destiny of America and The Promise of World Peace," stated that Bahá'ís believe the American nation will evolve, through tests and trials to become a land of spiritual distinction and leadership, a champion of justice and unity among all peoples and nations, and a powerful servant of the cause of everlasting peace. The 645-word document identified six prerequisites for world peace: universal acceptance of the oneness of humanity; the eradication of racism; the full emancipation of women; the elimination of inordinate disparity between the rich and the poor; an end to unbridled nationalism; and harmony between religious leaders. [BWNS147, Includes text of the statement] New York; United States Promise of World Peace (statement); Statements; NSA of US; Peace; BWNS
    2002 26 Jun – 2 Jul In commemoration of the Second Bahá'í World Congress 23-26 November in 1992 in New York, a Festival of the Arts is celebrated in that same city. The project is an independent initiative of Global Music, Inc., a Bahá'í-owned company, and associated individuals. It is not under the sponsorship of any Bahá'í institution. The centerpiece event is held at Carnegie Hall featuring a 550-voice choir under the direction of Mr. Tom Price and known as the Voices of Baha. It is composed of Bahá'ís from some 24 countries. [BWNS162] New York; United States World Congresses; Arts; Music; Carnegie Hall; Tom Price; Voice of Baha; Choirs; BWNS
    2002 26 Aug – 4 Sep World Summit on Sustainable Development, a United Nations conference in Johannesburg, South Africa. The Bahá'í International Community issues a statement, entitled Religion and Development at the Crossroads: Convergence or Divergence?. [BWNS169, BWNS170] Johannesburg; South Africa United Nations; Sustainable Development; Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications; BWNS
    2002 21 Sep The dedication, at the Green Acre Bahá'í School in Eliot Maine, the oldest permanent Bahá'í school in the world, of a new classroom and lecture hall designated as The Harriet and Curtis Kelsey Center, with an attendant Manny Reimer Hall. [BWNS175] Eliot; Maine; United States Green Acre; Bahai schools; Curtis Kelsey; Harriet Kelsey; First schools; BWNS
    2003 11 Mar Bani Dugal Gujral was appointed Principal Representative of the Bahá'í International Community to the United Nations.
    • Ms. Dugal Gujral had been serving as interim Principal Representative since the resignation of Techeste Ahderom in 2001.
    • Ms. Dugal Gujral came to the Bahá'í International Community in 1994 and served as Director of the Community's Office for the Advancement of Women. A native of India, where she practiced law before coming to the United States, Ms. Dugal Gujral holds a Master's degree in Environmental Law from Pace University School of Law in New York. [One Country Vol.14 Issue4]
    New York; United States Bani Dugal Gujral; Bahai International Community; Women; Techeste Ahderom; United Nations
    2003 9 May The passing of David Hofman in England.
    • He was one of the nine elected members of the Universal House of Justice when that institution came into being in 1963.
    • He presented the first statement from the supreme Baha'i administrative body in April 1963 to the World Congress in London. Twenty-nine years later, in 1992, he delivered the opening address to the second Baha'i World Congress in New York, an event attended by some 30,000 people.
    • He served as a member of the Universal House of Justice for 25 years, until he left in 1988 at the age of 80. [BWNS209, BW'03-‘04pg234, UK Bahá'í Journal]
    United Kingdom David Hofman; Universal House of Justice, Members of; World Congresses; In Memoriam; BWNS
    2003 Jul His Royal Highness Prince Andrew has become the first member of the Royal Family to visit the National Bahá’í Centre in London. [The referenced web site has since ceased operation.] London; United Kingdom Prince Andrew, HRH
    2004 11 Feb A member of the British Baha'i community, Lois Hainsworth, received the award of Member of the Order of the British Empire (MBE) at Buckingham Palace.
    • The announcement of the award for services to three organizations that promote the rights of women was made in the United Kingdom's New Year's Honours List. The citation refers to Mrs. Hainsworth's services to the Women's National Commission, the Baha'i Office for the Advancement of Women, and UNIFEM UK. [BWNS273]
    Buckingham Palace; London; United Kingdom Lois Hainsworth; Order of the British Empire (MBE); Women; Awards; BWNS
    2004 19 Apr The passing of Mr Aziz Ismayn Yazdi in Vancouver, Canada at the age of 94. Aziz Yazdi lived in Egypt, Syria, Iran, Iraq, Great Britain, Uganda, Kenya, Israel, and finally Canada. In 1968 he was appointed to the Continental Board of Counsellors in Central and East Africa and was an inaugural member of the International Teaching Centre in Haifa. [BWNS297, BW'03-‘04pg239] Vancouver; Canada; Egypt; Syria; Iran; Iraq; United Kingdom; Uganda; Kenya; Israel Aziz Ismayn Yazdi; Counsellors; International Teaching Centre, Members of; In memoriam; Births and deaths; BWNS
    2004 20 Dec United Nations General Assembly has passed a resolution expressing "serious concern" over the human rights situation in Iran, making specific mention of the ongoing persecution of the Baha'i community there.
    • It called on Iran to "eliminate all forms of discrimination based on religious grounds" and took note of the recent upsurge of human rights violations against the Baha'is of Iran.
    • Specifically, the resolution noted the "continuing discrimination against persons belonging to minorities, including Christians, Jews, and Sunnis, and the increased discrimination against the Baha'is, including cases of arbitrary arrest and detention, the denial of free worship or of publicly carrying out communal affairs, the disregard of property rights, the destruction of sites of religious importance, the suspension of social, educational, and community-related activities, and the denial of access to higher education, employment, pensions, and other benefits." [BWNS341]
    Iran; New York; United States UN General Assembly; United Nations; Human rights; BWNS
    2005 23 Jul The purchase of a new Bahá'í Centre at 44 Albany Street, Edinburgh EH1 3QR. [bahai.org.uk] Edinburgh; Scotland; United Kingdom Bahai centres
    2005 6 Sep The passing of former Universal House of Justice member David S. Ruhe near Newburg, New York. He served on the Universal House of Justice from 1968 to 1993. [BWNS388] Newburg; NY; United States David Ruhe; Universal House of Justice, Members of; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; BWNS
    2005 Nov Dr. John Grayzei was appointed to the Bahá'í Chair for Peace at the University of Maryland in the United States. He succeeds Suheil Bushrui who held the position since its inauguration in 1992. [BWNS404] Maryland; United States John Grayzei; Suheil Bushrui; Bahai Chair for World Peace; University of Maryland; BWNS
    2005 1 Nov A new Bahá'í Centre is obtained at 44 Albany Street in Edinburgh, Scotland. [BWNS347, BWNS395] Edinburgh; Scotland; United Kingdom Bahai centres; BWNS
    2007 24 May The passing of Hadi Rahmani-Shirazi in the United Kingdom.
    • pioneered to Afghanistan at the Guardian's behest
    • served on the National Spiritual Assembly and the Auxiliary Board in the Cradle of the Faith
    • served as the executive director of the Nawnahalan Company
    • among first appointed to institution of the Counsellors created by the Universal House of Justice in June 1968
    • relocated to the United Kingdom in the early 1980s
    • contributed greatly to the development of the Institution of Huququ'llah through his services as a Deputy. [UK BAHA'I NEWS EMAIL SERVICE message from the National Spiritual Assembly nsa@bahai.org.uk 24 May 2007]
    United Kingdom; Afghanistan; Iran Hadi Rahmani-Shirazi; Nawnahalan Company; Counsellors; Huququllah; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    2007 13 Sep The General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the resolution entitled United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. [United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples]
    • The vote was passed by a majority of 144 states in favour, 4 votes against (Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States) and 11 abstentions (Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burundi, Colombia, Georgia, Kenya, Nigeria, Russian Federation, Samoa and Ukraine). Since that time, the four countries voting against have reversed their position and now support the Declaration. [Division for Social Policy and Development Indigenous Peoples website]
      • In November 2010, Canada issued a Statement of Support endorsing the principles of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.
      • In November 2015, the Prime Minister of Canada asked the Minister of Indigenous and Northern Affairs and other ministers, in the mandate letters, to implement the declaration.
      • In May 2016, the Minister of Indigenous and Northern Affairs announced Canada is now a full supporter, without qualification, of the declaration.
    • For an Historical Overview of the resolution see Division for Social Policy and Development Indigenous Peoples website.
    • The text of the Resolution A/RES/61/295 has been published in a number of languages and is also available in an "Adolescent-Friendly Version of the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples".
    New York UN; United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples
    2008 14 Feb The publication of a new statement from the Bahá'í International Community entitled Eradicating Poverty: Moving Forward as One. In English [Moving Forward as One, In Farsi] New York; United States Poverty; Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications
    2008 6 – 7 Dec Regional Conferences held in Portland, United States, Chicago, United States, Atlanta, United States and Almaty, Kazakhstan. [ Portand, Chicago, Atlanta, Almaty] Portland; United States; Chicago; United States; Atlanta; United States; Almaty; Kazakhstan Regional Conferences; BWNS
    2008 13 – 14 Dec Regional Conferences held in Stamford, United States, Dallas, United States and Los Angeles, United States. [BWNS677] Stamford; United States; Dallas; Los Angeles Regional Conferences; BWNS
    2009 3 – 4 Jan Regional Conferences held in London, United Kingdom and Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. [BWNS686] London; United Kingdom; Abidjan; Côte d'Ivoire Regional Conferences; BWNS
    2009 7 – 18 Dec The Copenhagen Climate Change Conference raised climate change policy to the highest political level. Close to 115 world leaders attended the high-level segment, making it one of the largest gatherings of world leaders ever outside UN headquarters in New York. More than 40,000 people, representing governments, nongovernmental organizations, intergovernmental organizations, faith-based organizations, media and UN agencies applied for accreditation. The delegation of the Bahá'í International Community, registered with the United Nations as an international nongovernmental organization, comprises some 20 people. [BWNS742] Copenhagen; Denmark Climate change; Environment; United Nations; United Nations conferences; BWNS
    2010 May The publication of Rethinking Prosperity: Forging Alternatives to a Culture of Consumerism," for the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. The statement can be read at BIC10-0503. [BWNS770] New York; United States Sustainable Development; Prosperity; Consumerism; Materialism; Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications; United Nations; BWNS
    2011. 21 Oct Launch of Inciting Hatred: Iran's media campaign to demonize Baha'is. The Baha'i International Community prepared and launched a report that documents and analyses more than 400 press and media items over a 16-month period that typify an insidious state-sponsored effort to demonize and vilify Baha'is, using false accusations.
    • The report is available in English and in Persian.
    New York; United States Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Bahai International Community
    2012 24 Feb The inaugural screening of Iranian Taboo by Dutch-Iranian filmmaker Reza Allamehzadeh in Los Angeles. [Iranian Taboo, BWNS890] Los Angeles; United States Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Documentaries; Iranian Taboo; Reza Allamehzadeh; BWNS
    2012 Jul The Bahá'í Chair for World Peace was assumed by Professor Hoda Mahmoudi who previously headed a research department at the Bahá'í World Center in Israel. [Bio Professor Hoda Mahmoudi] Maryland; United States Hoda Mahmoudi; Bahai Chair for World Peace; University of Maryland
    2013 11 Apr – 5 Dec The commemoration of the centenary of the visit of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá to North America. [BWNS918] Wilmette; United States Centenaries; Abdul-Baha, Travels of; BWNS
    2015 12 Feb The official opening of the new location of the Afnan Library Trust at Sandy, close to Cambridge. The Afnan Library Trust was established in 1985 to manage the collection bequeathed by Hasan Balyuzi when he passed away in 1980. It consists of some 10,000 books, as well as a vast quantity of manuscripts, original letters, maps, documents, periodicals, and unpublished items – some of them dating back to the nineteenth century. [BWNS1040] The official website can be found here. Sandy; Cambridge; United Kingdom Afnan Library Trust; Afnan; Hasan Balyuzi; Libraries; Bahai studies; Scholarship; BWNS
    2015 27 Feb The premiere of the film To Light a Candle by Iranian-Canadian filmmaker and journalist, Maziar Mahari. The gala in Los Angeles is part of a campaign called "Education is Not a Crime", started in 2014, to highlight the plight of Bahá'í' students in Iran and their recourse to the denial of education, the Bahá'í' Institute of Higher Education. The film is also screened in some 300 locations around the world. [BWNS1041, BWNS1025] Los Angeles; United States Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Education; Persecution; Documentaries; Education is not a Crime; BWNS
    2015 14 May A global campaign called "Seven Days in Remembrance of Seven Years in Prison for the Seven Baha'i Leaders" to call attention to the long and unjust imprisonment of seven Iranian Baha'i leaders is launched on the seventh anniversary of their arrest. Each day of the week-long campaign, starting 14 May 2015, was dedicated to one member of the seven: Mahvash Sabet, Fariba Kamalabadi, Jamaloddin Khanjani, Afif Naeimi, Saeid Rezaie, Behrouz Tavakkoli, and Vahid Tizfahm. [7 Days] Tihran; Iran; New York; United States; Worldwide Yaran; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; Bahai International Community
    2015 Sep As of this date the Baha’i community in the United States had about 175,000 Bahá’ís (less than one percent of the nation’s population), residing in more than 9,000 localities. The makeup of the faith’s adherents was very diverse. The largest communities were in California, Georgia, Illinois, South Carolina, and Texas. There are Bahá’í communities in every state. (From ‘Information about the Bahá'í Faith for Funeral Directors’, a document available at US National website)[Bahá'í Historical Facts MARCH 4, 2018] United States Statistics
    2016 23 - 24 May The first World Humanitarian Summit is held in Istanbul, Turkey. The summit, organized by the United Nations, called on government leaders as well as those from business, aid agencies, civil society and faith-based organizations to consult on the question of disaster relief. A statement released by the Baha'i International Community (BIC) for the occasion, titled "Rising Together: Building the Capacity to Recover from Within" is available at their website. Istanbul; Turkey United Nations Summits; United Nations conferences; Conferences; Disaster relief; Charity and relief work; Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Statements; Publications
    2016. 6 Sep In a letter the BIC calls on Iranian President Rouhani to end systematic economic oppression. The letter signed by Bani Dugal, Principal Representative of the Baha'i International Community to the United Nations, draws attention to the stark contradiction between statements espoused by the Iranian government regarding economic justice, equality for all and reducing unemployment on one hand, and the unrelenting efforts to impoverish a section of its own citizens on the other. New York; United States Bani Dugal Gujral; Bahai International Community; Persecution, Iran; Persecution
    2016 26 Oct The report from the offices of the Bahá'í International Community entitled The Bahá'í Question Revisited: Persecution and Resilience in Iran was formally released.
    • The full report can be read on-line here.
    • A list of resolutions by the United Nations and United Nations bodies that reference the situation of Baha’is in Iran since 1980 can be found at this location.
    • An annex to The Bahá'í Question Revisited is the report called "Inciting Hatred". It is an analysis of approximately 400 anti-Baha'i articles, broadcasts, and webpages from late December 2009 through May 2011 and can be found here.
    • A list of the 222 Baha’is who have been killed in Iran since 1978 can be read here.
    Iran; New York; United States Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Bahai International Community; Human rights; United Nations
    2017 5 May The film Changing the World, One Wall at a Time was premiered in Harlem on the 5th of May and in Los Angeles on the 5th of June. The film evolved from shorter videos that were posted from the "Education is not a Crime" campaign and was made by Iranian-Canadian filmmaker Maziar Baharie. [BWNS1173] Harlem; New York; Los Angeles; California; United States Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Education; Persecution; Documentaries; Education is not a Crime; BWNS
    2017 Sep Arrests of Baha’is in Yemen has drawn international censure which led to a United Nations resolution, Titled “Human Rights, Technical Assistance and Capacity-building in Yemen”. It was introduced by Egypt on behalf of the Arab Group and supported by the entire UN Human Rights Council—calling for the immediate release of all Baha’i detainees. The Council is the principal human rights body at the UN and is composed of 47 members who are elected by the General Assembly based on equitable geographic distribution.

    At the time of the resolution there were seven Baha’is in prison in Yemen, most of whom are held in undisclosed locations and one of which has been detained for nearly four years due to repeatedly postponed court-hearings. Arrest warrants had been issued for over a dozen others, while a number of families had been forced to leave their homes. Developments in Yemen indicated that the authorities’ prosecution of individuals had broadened in scope to be against the Baha’i community in general and that efforts were being made to turn public opinion against all of the Baha’is under the premise that they are secretly plotting to stir unrest in Yemen.

    The resolution establishes a Group of Eminent International and Regional Experts tasked with monitoring and reporting on the situation on human rights in Yemen. It is also mandated to carry out a comprehensive examination of all alleged violations and abuses of international human rights in the country. [BIC News 3 October 2017, UN Human Rights Council – 36th Session, Agenda Item 10]

    Geneva; Switzerland; Yemen Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Arrest; Persecution; United Nations; Human Rights
    2017 6 Nov - 22 Jan An exhibition of Baha’u’llah’s writings opened at the John Addis Gallery in the British Museum. One of the central themes was the power of the Word, which refers to divine revelation, a concept fundamental to the origins of all the world’s great faiths. The exhibition showed original handwriting of Baha’u’llah, as well as other archival items associated with His life such as His reed pens and examples of "revelation writing" by His scribe as he tried keep up with Bahá'u'lláh's dictation. The exhibition, timed to commemorate the period of celebration of the 200th anniversary of His birth, was open to the public until the 22nd of January. [BWNS1220] London; United Kingdom British Museum; Exhibitions of Bahai manuscripts and relics; Relics; Bahaullah, Writings of; Exhibitions; Reed pens; Reed (general); Calligraphy; Revelation writing; Mirza Aqa Jan; Tajalliyat (Effulgences); Kalimat-i-Maknunih (Hidden Words); Bahaullah, Pen portraits of; Portraits; Edward Granville Browne; Gifts
    2017. 17 Nov A committee of the United Nations General Assembly condemned Iran by a vote of 83 to 30 with 68 abstentions for its continuing violations of human rights, the 30th such resolution since 1985. The Third Committee of the General Assembly approved a five-page resolution expressing concern over illegal practices ranging from torture, poor prison conditions, arbitrary detention, and curbs on freedom of religion or belief to state-endorsed discrimination against ethnic and religious minorities as well as women. The resolution expressed specific concern over Iran’s treatment of members of the Baha’i Faith and highlighted the economic and educational discrimination against them and called on Iran to release the more than 90 Baha’is who were unjustly held in Iranian prisons. The resolution follows a strongly worded document from the UN Special Rapporteur on human rights in Iran, Asma Jahangir. Her 23-page report, released earlier this session, catalogued a broad range of rights violations by Iran. [BWNS1221] New York; United States United Nations; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights; BWNS
    2018 12 Mar The Bahá'í International Community in New York released the statement "Beyond Mere Economics: A Moral Inquiry into the Roots of Empowerment" to the 62nd session of the Commission on the Status of Women (12 to 23 March 2018). [BWNS1243] New York; United States Bahai International Community; BIC statements; Women; Empowerment; Economics; United Nations; BWNS
    2018 12 Apr The premiere of the documentary film, An American Story: Race Amity and The Other Tradition in a television broadcast on station WBGH, channel 2 in Boston, MA. [Trailer]
    • From the film website...."The primary purpose of the documentary project, An American Story: Race Amity and The Other Tradition, is to impact the public discourse on race. To move the discourse from the “blame/grievance/rejection” cycle to a view from a different lens, the lens of “amity/collaboration/access and equity.”
    Boston; Massachusetts; United States Race (general); Unity; Race Amity; Race unity; Racism; Documentaries
    2018 29 Sep In the second court hearing presided over by judge Abdu Ismail Hassan Rajeh three additional Bahá'ís were sentenced to death. Five of the indicted Baha’is were in attendance at the court where the judge requested the prosecutor to publish the names of 19 others indicted in a newspaper, further endangering the lives of the Yemeni Baha’i community. The judge also ordered that all of the properties belonging to the Baha’is indicted be frozen until the court verdict is issued. He furthermore objected to a request by the lawyer for the five to be released on bail and deferred any such decision to the next hearing to be held in a month and ten days.

    The actions undertaken by the Houthis were condemned in two recent United Nations resolutions, one of which called for the immediate release of all Baha’is detained in Yemen due to their religious beliefs and to cease any harassment they are subjected to. [Iran Press Watch 4 October, 2018]

    Sanaa; Yemen United Nations; Persecution, Yemen; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights

    from the main catalogue

    1. 1867 Petition from Bahá'ís in Shushtar, Iran, to the U.S. Congress, An, in World Order, 37:3 (2006). A petition sent by Bahá'ís in Persia in 1867 to the US Consulate general, seeking assistance in getting Baha'u'llah released from imposed exile. Includes introduction, prepared on behalf of the US NSA. [about]
    2. 60th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration on Human Rights, by Bahá'í International Community (2008). Baha'i International Community’s Statement on the occasion of the 60th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration on Human Rights [about]
    3. Bahá'í Approach to Cosmopolitan Ideas in International Relations, The, by Nalinie N. Mooten (2005). Link to document offsite. [about]
    4. Bahá'í Approach to Cosmopolitan Ideas in International Relations, The, by Nalinie Mooten (2006). A Bahá’í approach to the cosmopolitan tradition in International Relations theory, and what contributions the Bahá’í model can offer to this growing tradition. [about]
    5. Bahá'í Contribution to Cosmopolitan International Relations Theory, The, by Nalinie Mooten, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). [about]
    6. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 18 (1979-1983), in Bahá'í World (1986). [about]
    7. Economic Justice and the Creation of a New International Economic Order, by Keith Suter, in 75 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Australasia (1996). The "New Right," history of economic philosophy and the role of the Church in Europe, challenges of the global economy, the failure of the UN to deal with the problems of the globalized economy, and how NGOs and individuals can work for economic justice. [about]
    8. Fifty Three Years In Syria, by Henry H. Jessup (1910). Passing encounters between Baha'is and a Christian missionary in Iran, 1867-1901. [about]
    9. Gender perspectives and the work of the United Nations, by Bahá'í International Community (2007). Statement to the UN Human Rights Council on integrating gender perspectives. [about]
    10. Historia de su Cooperacion con las Naciones Unidas, by Bahá'í International Community. [about]
    11. Hora Decisiva para todas las Naciones, by Bahá'í International Community. Declaración de la Comunidad Internacional Bahá'í con motivo del 50 aniversario de Naciones Unidas Octubre 1995 [about]
    12. Human Rights in the Bahá'í Writings (2001). Brief compilation on human rights from the writings of Baha'u'llah, Abdu'l-Baha, and Shoghi Effendi. [about]
    13. Kirk, Durbin Introduce Resolution Condemning Iran's Continued Persecution of Bahá'í Minority, by Mark Kirk and Dick Durbin (2013). In recognition of the five-year anniversary of imprisonment of Bahá'í leaders in Iran, senators meet with their family members and friends and introduce a joint resolution calling attention to this persecution. [about]
    14. Law of the Land and the State of the Soul, The: Analyzing Theoretical Frameworks of Bahá'í and Islamic Law Within and Beyond the Nation-State, by Moussa Z. Traore (2012). Details, laws, and constitution of the Baha'i system which, analogous to the United Nations or a Supreme Court, presents a legal framework for a non-State governance structure at the international level. [about]
    15. Letters to and from US Presidential Archives (1984). A collection of correspondence circa 1984 from and to archivist David Piff concerning Baha'i-related holdings. Also included is some correspondence between offices of the presidents and the US National Spiritual Assembly and the BIC. [about]
    16. Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
    17. Millennium Forum, by Universal House of Justice (2000). [about]
    18. More Constructive Encounter, A: A Bahá’í View of Religion and Human Rights, by Barney Leith, in Does God Believe in Human Rights? Essays on Religion and Human Rights, ed. Nazila Ghanea et al. (2007). Relationship between religion and human rights, and the work of the Bahá’í community in wholeheartedly supporting the theory and practice of universal rights. [about]
    19. Petition from the Persian Reformers (1867). A petition sent by Baha'is in Baghdad and Shushtar, Iran, in 1867 to the US Consulate general, seeking assistance in getting Baha'u'llah released from imposed exile. [about]
    20. Proposals to the United Nations for Charter Revision, by Bahá'í International Community (1955). Proposals from the Bahai International Community for revision of the U.N. charter in its capacity as a non-governmental organization with consultative status at the U.N. [about]
    21. Protecting the Human Family: Humanitarian Intervention, International Law, and Bahá'í Principles, by Brian D. Lepard, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 13:1-4 (2003). [about]
    22. Religious Freedom in the Asia Pacific: The Experience of the Bahá'í Community, by Graham Hassall, in Human Rights, Faith, and Culture (1998). Some aspects of the Baha'i Community's approach to one human rights initiative, the "Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief." [about]
    23. Search for Values in an Age of Transition, The: includes Study Guide , by Bahá'í International Community (2005). A statement on the 60th anniversary of the United Nations, new paradigms taking hold, and the place of the UN. Includes study guide to assist readers in their understanding and examination of the concepts presented in the statement. [about]
    24. Statement in Rebuttal of Accusations Made against the Bahá'í Faith by the Permanent Mission of the Islamic Republic of Iran to the United Nations, by Bahá'í International Community (1982). In a document distributed to the UN, "Human Rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran," Iran made a number of false and damaging statements concerning the Baha'i Faith. The BIC wishes to refute these false statements and to present the true facts. [about]
    25. Supreme Tribunal (Mahkamiy-i-Kubra), by Ali Nakhjavani, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Meaning of "Baha'i Court" in the writings of the Guardian and how it compares with the General Assembly of the United Nations. [about]
    26. Television Address of Iranian President Khatami, by Universal House of Justice and Bahá'í International Community (1998). Questions and answers about a historically unique television interview of Iranian President Khatami, given on CNN Wednesday, Jan 7, 1998. [about]
    27. Turning Point for All Nations, by Bahá'í International Community (1995). A statement on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the United Nations, about the scope, function, and mandate of the UN, and world concerns it must address. [about]
    28. United Nations and the Bahá'ís, The: An Interview with Kofi Annan, by Kofi Annan, in Yale International Forum, 1:2 (1999). Annan's vision for the institution of the U.N., and mentions of the Baha'is in Iran. [about]
     
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