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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1799 in the year Napoleon, returning from Egypt, captured Jaffa and laid siege to Akka.

The French in Egypt were being threatened by the British Fleet. Napoleon's objective was to compare the Ottoman government to come to terms with the French. He defeated the Turks on the Plain of Jereel and advanced as far as Nazareth and Safed but failed to capture Akka. He withdrew his forces in June of 1799. [Handbook of Palestine edited by H C Luke and E Keith Roach, McMillan, London, 1922 pp22-23, Handbook of Palestine]

Akka Napoleon; History (general); War (general)
1804 - 1813 Russo-Persian War resulted in a Russian victory. The Battle of Aslan Duz on 31 October 1812 was the turning point in the war, which led to the complete destruction of the Persian army, thus leaving Fath Ali Shah with no other option but to sign the Treaty of Gulistan on 24 October 1813. Numerically, Persian forces had a considerable advantage during the war, a ratio of 5 to 1 over their Russian adversaries, however, the Persian forces were technologically backwards and poorly trained - a problem that the Persian government failed to recognize. With the Treaty of Gulistan Persia ceded what is now Georgia, Dagestan, parts of northern Armenia, and most of what now comprises modern Azerbaijan to Russia. Gulistan; Aslan Duz; Iran; Russia Russo-Persian War; Treaty of Gulistan; War (general); History (general); Iran, General history
1828 10 Feb Defeat of the Persians at the hands of the Russians. The Russo-Persian War of 1826–28 was the last major military conflict between the Russian Empire and Iran. The war ended following the occupation of Tabriz and had even more disastrous results for Persia than the 1804-1813 war. The ensuing Treaty of Turkmenchay, signed on 10 February 1828 in Torkamanchay, Iran, stripped Persia of its last remaining territories in the Caucasus, which comprised all of modern Armenia, the southern remainder of modern Azerbaijan, and modern Igdir in Turkey. Through the Gulistan and Turkmenchay treaties Persia had lost all of its territories in the Caucasus to Russia making them the unquestioned dominant power in the region. [BBRSM55] Tabriz; Turkmenchay; Iran Russo-Persian War; Wars; History (general); Iran, General history
1839 Defeat of Persia at the hands of the British. [BBRSM55] Iran War (general); Britain; History (general); Iran, General history
1843 The sacking of the holy city of Karbalá at the hands of the Turks. Thousands of its citizens were killed even those taking refuge in the Shrines of Imám Husayn or 'Abbás. [BBRSM55, HotD10, DB36] Karbala; Iraq Ottoman Empire; War (general); History (general)
1846 c. Nov Manúchihr Khán arranges a meeting between the Báb and the clerics to silence their opposition. After the encounter, about 70 of them meet and issue a death-warrant. [B112–13; DB205–9] Isfahan; Iran Manuchihr Khan; Bab, Life of; Death-warrant
1870 19 Jul – 1871 10 May Franco-Prussian War was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia. The conflict was caused by Prussian ambitions to extend German unification and French fears of the shift in the European balance of power that would result if the Prussians succeeded.
  • See KA90 for Bahá'u'lláh's reference to this and KAN121 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's interpretation.
Germany; France Franco-Prussian War; War (general); History (general); Napoleon III
1870 1 - 2 Sep Battle of Sedan. Napoleon III suffers defeat at the hands of Kaiser Wilhelm I. It resulted in the capture of Emperor Napoleon III and large numbers of his troops and for all intents and purposes decided the war in favour of Prussia and its allies, though fighting continued under a new French government. Napoleon goes into exile in England, where he dies in 1873.
  • Bahá'u'lláh refers to this in KA86.
Sedan; France; Germany Franco-Prussian War; War (general); History (general); Napoleon III; Kaiser Wilhelm I; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book)
1877 – 1878 War between Russia and Turkey, freeing some 11 million people from the Turkish yoke. Adrianople is occupied. [BKG262; GPB225]
  • See BKG460 for the Siege of Plevna.
Edirne (Adrianople); Plevna; Turkey; Russia Wars; History (general)
1887 – 1888 E. G. Browne, the noted Orientalist, spends 12 months in Persia. An important purpose of his journey is to contact the Bábís. [BBR29]
  • For a list of his books and other works and his relationship with the Bahá'í Faith see BBR29–36.
  • Also see BBD47; Balyuzi, Edward Granville Browne and the Bahá'í Faith and Momen, Selections From the Writings of E. G. Browne.
Iran Edward Granville Browne
1888 29 Mar The first lecture in the West on the Bahá'í Faith (`Bábism') is given by E. G. Browne at the Essay Society, Newcastle, England. [SCU12] Newcastle; United Kingdom Edward Granville Browne; Firsts, Other
1889 Jun E. G. Browne gives a paper on the Bahá'í Faith (`Bábism') at the Royal Asiatic Society, London.

London; United Kingdom Edward Granville Browne; Royal Asiatic Society
1890 E. G. Browne was in `Akká. Bahá'u'lláh was staying in the Templer colony in Haifa when he arrived. [BBR253] Akka; Haifa Edward Granville Browne; Templer colony; Bahaullah, Life of
1890. 15–20 Apr E. G. Browne is granted four successive interviews with Bahá'u'lláh at Bahjí. [BBD43; BBR225; BKG371; GPB193]
  • See BBR225–32 for Browne's own account of the visit.
  • See BBR229–31, BKG371–3 and DH110 for Browne's pen portrait of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá gives Browne the manuscript of A Traveller's Narrative: the Episode of the Báb in the handwriting of Zaynu'l-Muqarrabín for his to translate. [EGB54, BW11p510]
  • BFA1:445; Balyuzi, Edward Granville Browne And The Bahá'í Faith and Momen, Selections From the Writings of E. G. Browne.
Akka Edward Granville Browne; Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Pen portraits of; Pen portraits; Portraits; Travelers Narrative (book); Zaynul-Muqarrabin (Mulla Zaynul-Abidin); Bahji
1891. 15 Feb First public lecture in the West on the Bahá'í Faith, given by E. G. Browne at the Southplace Institute, London.
  • He gave a lecture to Pembroke College Literary Society in England (Martletts), at which the Faith was discussed at length.
London; United Kingdom Edward Granville Browne; Southplace Institute; Firsts, Other
1898 Jul or Aug Phoebe Hearst becomes a Bahá'í in California through the efforts of Lua and Edward Getsinger. [BFA1:XXVIII 139]
  • SBBH1:93 says this was July, based on Kheiralla's autobiography; BFA1 is based on a letter from Phoebe Hearst.
California Phoebe Hearst; Lua Getsinger; Edward Getsinger
1898. 22 Sep The first Western pilgrims depart for `Akká, travelling via New York and Paris. [BFA1:XXVIII, 140–1, 230]
  • It is arranged by Phoebe Hearst, who had already planned a journey to Egypt for the autumn. [BFA1:140, AY60]
  • There are 15 pilgrims in all. Among them is Ibáhím Kheiralla. [AB68; AY111]
New York; United States Pilgrimage; First pilgrims; Pilgrims; Phoebe Hearst; Lua Getsinger; Edward Getsinger; Robert Turner; Ibrahim George Kheiralla
1898. 10 Dec The first Western pilgrims arrive in `Akká. [AB68; BBD13; BBRXXX; DH214; GPB257; SCU13; Bahá'í Teachings]
  • They divide themselves into three parties, using Cairo as a staging post. [AB68; BFA1:143; SBBH1:93]
  • See AB68–72; BFA2:9; DH61; GPB257, 259 for those included in the pilgrimage group.
  • Included were Mrs Hearst's nieces, a few American friends and, joining in London, Mrs Mary Thornburgh-Cropper and her mother. [SCU13. CH234-236]
  • See BFA1:143–4 for those included in the first group.
  • Among the group is Robert Turner, the first member of the black race to become a Bahá'í. For 35 years, Turner faithfully served as butler to Phoebe Apperson Hearst and Senator George Hearst, parents of newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst. [AB72; BBD227; BFA1:139; GPB259]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá receives the pilgrims in the House of `Abdu'lláh Páshá. [BBD13, 108; DH61]
  • See AB68–71; BW16:104–5; CH235–6 and GPB257–9 for the pilgrims' responses to the pilgrimage.
  • Edward Getsinger makes a recording of `Abdu'l-Bahá chanting a prayer. [BFA1:160]
  • The Getsingers returned from the pilgrimage with an Arabic copy of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas which was later translated by Anton Haddad. [BFA2:11]
Akka; Cairo; Egypt Pilgrims; Pilgrimage; First pilgrims; Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper; Robert Turner; First believers by background; Edward Getsinger; Lua Getsinger; Anton Haddad; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); House of Abdullah Pasha; Abdul-Baha, Voice recording of
1909 Summer Sir Ronald Storrs, then a student of Arabic of Edward Granville Browne, visits 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Akka. [BW10p192] Akka Ronald Storrs, Sir; Edward Granville Browne
1909 Nov Charles Mason Remey and Howard Struven leave the United States on the first Bahá'í teaching trip to circle the globe. [BFA2:348, GPB261]
  • They go to Hawaii, Japan, Shanghai, Singapore and to Burma, India and `Akká. [BFA2:348–50]
Hawaii; Japan; Shanghai; Singapore; Burma; India; Akka Charles Mason Remey; Howard Struven; travel teaching
1909 25 Nov Dr Susan Moody, a famed American homeopathist, arrived in Tihrán. She and four Persian Bahá'í doctors start the Sehat Hospital. Because the hospital was only accessible to the wealthy she established a private practice that was open to all women regardless of their ability to pay. [BFA2:359-360]
  • She spent two days in 'Akká en route to Persia and 'Abdu'l-Bahá conferred upon her the title Amatu'l-'Alí (Handmaid of the Most High). [BFA2:358]
  • Dr Sarah A. Clock arrives from Seattle in 1911 to assist her followed by Miss Elizabeth Stewart (nurse). [BFA2:361]
Tihran; Iran Susan Moody; Sehat Hospital; Sarah A. Clock; Elizabeth Stewart; Women; Social and economic development; Homeopathy; Names and titles
1909 Dec Charles Mason Remey and Howard Struven speak at the first Bahá'í public meeting held in Honolulu. [BFA2:348; SBR189] Honolulu; Hawaii Charles Mason Remey; Howard Struven; Firsts, Other
1910 Charles Mason Remey and Howard Struven arrive in Shanghai and meet with Áqá Mírzá `Abdu'l-Baqí Yazdí. They are probably the first Bahá'ís from the West to go to China. [PH25] Shanghai; China Charles Mason Remey; Howard Struven; Aqa Mirza Abdul-Baqi Yazdi; Firsts, Other
1910 Within a year of her arrival Dr. Susan Moody opens the Tarbíyat School for Girls in Tihrán. [BBD221–2; BFA2:360–1]

Those serving at the school were:

  • Miss Lillian Kappes of Hoboken, New Jersey arrived in December of 1911 to serve as a teacher. She died on the 1st of December, 1920 of typhus and was buried there.
  • She was replaced by Genevieve Coy, a qualified psychologist, a Ph.D. in 1922 who was followed by Adelaide Sharp in 1929. Her mother, Clara Sharp joined her in 1931. [BFA2p361, AY233]
  • Elizabeth Stewart who served as a nurse at the school accompanied Lillian Kappes on her arrival. Miss Stewart served until 1924 when she returned to Philadelphia where she died in 1926. [ABF43]
  • Munírih Khánum Ayádí, the mother of Dr Karím Ayádí (later famed as the Shah much-trusted doctor) was Persia’s first official Director of the Tarbíyat School for Girls. She was widely recognized as exceptional, at a time when Persia’s Bahá’í women were only gradually emerging from their earlier state under Islam. Much respected by the men, her attitude toward them was one of total equality. Her greatness was in herself, her devotion to the Faith absolute, and she was made a member of such advanced committees as the Bahá’í Women’s Committee. Her views were moderated by her sense of humour, which included self-deprecation, so that she never subjected you to her piety. One day during the Bahá’í Fast ,she asked Marzieh Gall: ‘Do you think God would notice if I ducked into that room and sneaked a few puffs of tobacco?’ [AY333]
Tihran; Iran Tarbiyat School; Bahai schools; Susan Moody; Lillian Kappes; Genevieve Coy; Adelaide Sharp; Clara Sharp; Elizabeth Stewart; Women; Equality; Gender; Social and economic development; Munirih Khanum; Karim Ayadi
1911 22 Aug - 3 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá took up residence at Thonon-les-Bains on Lake Leman (Lake Geneva). [AB140; GPB280; SBR219]
  • While there He encountered Zillu's-Sultán, the eldest son of the Sháh of the time, Násirid-Dín Sháh. It was he who had ratified the execution of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs and at least 100 others. The whole family was in exile in Geneva at this time. 'Abdu'l-Bahá was very courteous to this man who had been such an inveterate enemy of the Cause. [DJT172, AY19, GPB201] .
  • The Master sent for Juliet Thompson who had been waiting in London for His permission to join Him.
  • During His stay he had a visit from Annie Boylan, a member of the New York community that was experiencing disharmony. Unaware of Bahá'í election procedures, a group that was unhappy with the disunity and ineffectiveness of the Council had organized a vote to be rid of several of its Council members. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had written to the community a short time before recommending that the Council be expanded from 9 to 27 members so that all factions could be represented. He also recommended that women be included on the Council and that the name be changed to "the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of New York". This apparently addressed the problem of disunity because the New York community went on to contribute significantly to the progress of the Faith on a national level. [DJT181, BFA2p338]
  • Horace Holley, who lived at Quattro Torri, Siena, Italy at the time, along with his wife Bertha Herbert and baby daughter Hertha, visited 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the 29th and 30th of August. Please see his Religion for Mankind p 232-237 for a pen portrait of 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • He met with Elizabeth Stewart and Lillian Kappes who were on their way to Tehran. [find reference]
  • It would appear that He returned to Marseilles and travelled to London by sea. [SCU22-23]
Thonon-les-Bains; Lake Leman; Marseille; France; Switzerland; Italy; London; United Kingdom; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; Unity; Zillus-Sultan; Persecution; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Juliet Thompson; Horace Holley; Elizabeth Stewart; Lillian Kappes; Ships
1911. 26 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk to those gathered at the hotel on the theme of unity. Present was Annie Boylan, a New York believer who had made the journey to present her case against another New Yorker, Howard MacNutt whom she believed was unfit to serve the Cause. [ABF31-33, DJT180-184] Thonon-les-Bains; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Howard MacNutt; Annie Boylan
1911 27 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá and His party took a ferry to Vevey. a resort town on the other side of Lake Geneva (Lake Leman). Vevey was the location of the Dreyfus summer home and it was near here that Lady Blomfield and her daughters finalized the translation of Paris Talks [ABF33-44, DJT186, SoW vol 2 no 14]
  • He took a room at the Park Hôtel Mooser where He took some rest and also met Edith Sanderson and her mother. With the assembled friends He discussed immortality and divorce.
  • The party returned by ferry to Thonon-les-Bains, stopping at Évian-les-Bains. [DJT196-197]
  • In the afternoon He met with Lillian Frances Kappes and Elizabeth Harnill Stewart who had just arrived from America on their way to teach at the Tarbiyát School for girls in Iran. The school for boys had been in operation since 1897 and the school for girls was just being established in. [ABF43, SoW vol 2 no 18, SoW vol 2 no 14]
Thonon-les-Bains; Vevey; Switzerland; Evian-les-Bains; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Lady Blomfield; Edith Sanderson; Lillian Kappes; Elizabeth Harnill Stewart; Tarbiyat School; Bahai schools; Paris Talks (book)
1911 4 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in London accompanied by His secretary, Mírzá Mahmúd and Khusraw, His servant. [ABL53, AB140; GBP280; SBR22, 148, BW4p378, In the Footsteps of the Master p.5]
  • CH149 says He arrived 8 September and 3 September as per the UK Bahá'í site.
  • Those Bahá'ís who assembled to meet him were listed as: Lady Blomfield (in whose home at 97 Cadogan Gardens He stayed), Mrs Thornburg-Cropper, Miss Ethel Rosenberg, Miss Gamble, Miss Herrick, Mrs Scaramucci, Miss Elsie Lee, Mr Catanach, Mr Cuthbert, Mr and Mrs Jenner, Miss Yandell, Miss Julia Culver, Mrs Stannard, Mr and Mrs Eric Hammond, The Rev Harrold Johnston, The Rev Cooper Hunt, Miss Juliet Thompson, Mrs Louise Waite, Mrs Movius, Mrs Claudia Coles, Mr Mountfort Mills, Mr Mason Remey and Miss Drake Wright. Mr and Mrs Dreyfus-Barney provided translation. In addition there were a number of Persians who took the opportunity to meet Him. [BW4p377]
  • As described by Lady Blomfield those who came to see him were: "Ministers and missionaries, Oriental scholars and occult students practical men of affairs and mystics, Anglican-Catholics and Nonconformists, Theosophists and Hindus, Christian Scientists and doctors of medicine, Muslims, Buddhists, and Zoroastrians. There also called: politicians, Salvation Army soldiers, and other workers for human good, women suffragists, journalists, writers, poets and healers dress-makers and great ladies, artists and artisans, poor workless people and prosperous merchants, members of the dramatic and musical world, these all came; and none were too lowly nor too great to receive the sympathetic consideration of this holy Messenger, who was ever giving His life for others' good." In addition there was a representation from the Bramo-Somaj Society, a Hindu reform group. [CH150-152]
  • See BW4p377 where Lady Blomfield reports that Prince Jalalu'd-Dawlih entreated to be received by 'Abdu'l-Bahá and when in His presence fell prostrate and implored pardon for his crimes. (see 1891 19 May) [BW4p377]
  • Among the list of visitors were: Professor Edward Granville Browne, Mr Tudor-Pole, Emmeline Pankhurst, a British political activist and leader of the British suffragette movement who helped women win the right to vote. [BW4p377]
  • See BW4p381 for the story of a homeless, suicidal man who had seen a picture of 'Abdu'l-Bahá in a newspaper in a shop window.
  • See BW4p382-383 for the story of the persistent journalist who imposed upon the appointment of two ladies from Scotland who had journeyed all that day and intended to make the return voyage that same evening.
  • For details of His stay in England see AB140–58 and GPB283–5.
  • It is implied that 'Abdu'l-Bahá was attended by Dr Lutfu-lláh Hakím while in London. [BW4p380]
  • During His stay in London 'Abdu'l-Bahá received death threats by anonymous letter and he was advised to give up He planned journey to Egypt. He ignored them. [BW4p 387]
  • During His stay in London He has professional photographs of Himself taken by the Irish photographer, James Lafayette (1853-1923). "...to have a picture of oneself is to emphasise the personality, which is merely the lamp, and is quite unimportant. The light burning within the lamp has the only real significance." [SBR25, BW4p383-384, ABF84]
London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Pictures and portraits; Portraits; Abdul-Baha, Death threats to; Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper; Ethel Rosenberg; Juliet Thompson; Louise Waite; Mountfort Mills; Charles Mason Remey; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Jalalud-Din-Dawlih; Mirza Mahmud-i-Zarqani; Khusraw; Edward Granville Browne; Wellesley Tudor Pole; Emmeline Pankhurst; Lutfullah Hakim; James Lafayette
1911 21 Oct News of the Battle of Benghazi (17 October) was headline news. It was one of the opening salvos of the Turko-Italian War and began on the 17th of October when Italian invasion forces began their bombardment of the Turkish garrison. The Turks were forced to abandon the city and there were many lives lost, Italians, Turks and civilians.

His talk, "The Pitiful Causes of War, and the Duty of Everyone to Strive for Peace". [ABF96-100 PT28-30]

Paris; France; Benghazi; Lybia; Turkey; Italy Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; War (general); History (general); Peace
1912 11 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá arrives in New York. [AB172; GPB281, APD3-5]
  • One of the Persians in the Master’s suite had cabled Alice Ives Breed in New York City, about the Master’s arrival date. Thus alerted, Ali-Kuli Khan directed the Persian Consul, Topakian (an Armenian business man), to officially greet ‘Abdu’l-Bahá with full courtesies. Mr Topakian carried this out, and the Master was much pleased with his services. [AY85]
  • During His tour `Abdu'l-Bahá visits 32 cities and makes numerous addresses of which 185 are recorded. [SBBH1:110]
  • For a chronological list of talks given by `Abdu'l-Bahá while in North America see PUP473–8.
  • For details of His journey see AB171–339.
  • Ward, 239 Days; Balyuzi, `Abdu'l-Bahá; The Diary of Juliet Thompson; many editions of Star of the West and numerous biographies of Bahá'ís of the time as well as other books carry information about `Abdu'l-Bahá travels and talks.
  • Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP3]
  • He was accompanied by:

    -Sayyid Asadu'lláh Qumí,

    -Dr Fareed Amin Ullah, He was a nephew of 'Abdu'l-Bahá and served as his translator during His tour of the West. Because of his disobedience both he and his father were expelled from the Faith. See AY102-103 and AB230.

    -Mírza Mahmúd-i Zarqání. He was a member of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's entourage for both the Western and European tours. He wrote an account of the travels in a book entitled Kitáb-i Badáyi'u'l-Áthár and called "Mahmúd's Diary" in the English translation. [APD151]

    -Mirza Ahmad Sohrab. He had originally come to the West to assist Mírzá Abú'l-Fadl Gulpaygání in 1901. He remained and worked at the Iranian Consulate until 1912 and during this time he translated much of the correspondence between 'Abdu'l-Bahâ and the Western believers. After the American tour he returned to the Holy Land. After the passing of 'Abdu'l-Bahá he rejected the authority of Shoghi Effendi and was expelled. [APD155]

New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other; Ali-Kuli Khan; Edward Kinney; Topakian, Mr; Consuls; Mahmuds Diary; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
1912 12 Apr Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Howard MacNutt, 935 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, New York, [PUP4]
  • Talk at Studio of Miss Phillips, 39 West Sixty-seventh Street, New York. [PUP7, DJT239]
New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Howard MacNutt; Phillips, Miss
1912 17 Apr Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York, [PUP23] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Edward Kinney
1912 19 May In the morning He spoke at the Church of the Divine Paternity, Central Park West, New York. [PUP126]

`Abdu'l-Bahá travels to Jersey City to speak in the Unitarian Church, the Brotherhood Church, Bergen and Fairview Avenues, of which Howard Colby Ives is the pastor. [239D:70–1; AB194, PUP129] ]

Jersey City; New Jersey; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Howard Colby Ives; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches
1912 25 May Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP154] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Edward Kinney
1912 11 Jun Talk at Open Committee Meeting, Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP183]

Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP183]

Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP186]

New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Edward Kinney
1912 16 Jun Talk at Fourth Unitarian Church, Beverly Road, Flatbush, Brooklyn, New York. [PUP190]

Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Howard MacNutt, 935 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, New York. [PUP194]

Talk at Central Congregational Church, Hancock Street, Brooklyn, New York. [PUP197]

New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Churches; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Howard MacNutt
1912 18 Nov `Abdu'l-Bahá had instructed MacNutt to meet with a group of potential Covenant-breakers in Chicago and warn them of the danger. He also ordered MacNutt to break all communication with Ibrahim Kheiralla and other Covenant-breakers. He had failed to do as directed. They met in the Kenny's home for the first time since his trip, where `Abdu'l-Bahá advised him that he had violated the Covenant himself and commanded him to repent before a group of New York Bahá'ís gathered there, which he did, reluctantly. [DJT371; AY121] New York; United States Covenant-breakers; Howard MacNutt; Ibrahim George Kheiralla
1912 29 Nov Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP449] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Edward Kinney
1912 2 Dec Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP452]

Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP453]

New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Edward Kinney
1912 18 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá gives a talk at which E. G. Browne is present. He visits `Abdu'l-Bahá several more times while in London. [SoW Vol III no19 2Mar1913 p4, AB346, ABTM277-278]

Hájí Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardakání (Hájí Amín) arrives in London from Paris with three young Persian. He spoke neither English nor French and had had some difficulty in getting from Paris to London. He crossed the English Channel and then found himself back in Paris. His second attempt was successful. [SoW Vol III no19 2Mar1913 p4, AB346–7, ABTM278]

London; United Kingdom; Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Edward Granville Browne; Haji Amin (Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani)
1913. 12 Feb Date on the last of the 12 letters sent to Edward Granville Browne by 'Abdu'l-Bahá. The first of these letters was written on the 4th of August, 1890. Edward Granville Browne find reference
1913 7 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá travels to Bad Mergentheim by automobile to visit the hotel and mineral bath owned by Consul Schwarz, (Later named Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá by Shoghi Effendi). [AB383]
  • Later, in 1916 the local Bahá'í community commemorated the visit with the dedication of a monument, a life-sized likeness of the head of 'Abdu'l-Bahá on a granite stone about two metres in height. The Nazis removed it in 1937 but it was replaced in 2007. [BWNS524]
Bad Mergentheim; Germany Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Cars; Consul Schwarz; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Monuments; Abdul-Baha, Pictures and portraits; Portraits; World War II; BWNS
1913 13 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá is sick and the weather is bitterly cold. He goes to the studio of Professor Robert A. Nadler of the Royal Academy of Art to sit for a portrait. He gives him a total of three sittings during His visit to Budapest. [AB387, MRHK368-9]
  • "The portrait is remarkable not only because of its art, but also because of its later miraculous fate. Reportedly, after heavy bombing in 1945, only that part of the building in which the painting was hung remained unharmed." [Renée Szanto-Felbermann Two Portraits p3, Rebirth: Memoirs of Renée Szanto-Felbermann p159]
  • The painting is purchased and taken to the Bahá'í World Centre in 1972. [SBBR14p118]
  • In the afternoon He visits the home of Sirdar Omrah Singh. [AB387]

  • In spite of a raging blizzard a good many attend His address at the hotel in the evening. [AB387]

Budapest; Hungary Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Robert A. Nadler; Abdul-Baha, Pictures and portraits; Portraits; World War II; War (general)
1914 28 Jun The heir to the Austrian throne is assassinated in Sarajevo. Sarajevo; Serbia; Austria World War I; War (general); History (General)
1914 28 Jul The Great War (1914–18) breaks out in Europe. (28 July, 1914 to 11 November, 1918)

Austria declares war on Serbia.

Europe; Austria; Serbia World War I; War (general); History (general)
1914 4 Aug England declares war on Germany. United Kingdom; Germany; Europe World War I; War (general); History (general)
1914 1 Nov Turkey enters the war on the side of the Central Powers.
  • Palestine is blockaded and Haifa is bombarded. [GPB304]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá sends the Bahá'ís to the Druze village of Abú-Sinán for asylum. [AB411; DH124; GPB304]
  • For `Abdu'l-Bahá in war time see CH188–228.
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá had grown and stored corn in the years leading up to the war and was now able to feed not only local people but the British army. [AB415, 418; CH210; GPB304, 306]
  • See CH209–10 for other villages inhabited by Bahá'ís.
Palestine; Israel; Abu-Sinan; Haifa World War I; War (general); Druze; Abdul-Baha, Life of; British; Charity and relief work; History (General); - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
1917 Foreign troops occupy nearly all of neutral Iran. [AB416; BBRSM:87] Iran War (general); History (General); Iran, General history
1917 6 Apr The United States enters World War I.
  • See CF36 for Shoghi Effendi's opinion of its participation in the war.
Europe; United States World War I; War (general); History (general); Shoghi Effendi, Life of
1917 Nov `Abdu'l-Bahá sends a message to the Bahá'ís of the world assuring them of His safety. [AB412]
  • The Tablet is carried by an aged Arab Bahá'í, Hájí Ramadán. It takes him 45 days to walk from `Akká to Tihrán. On his return trip he brings gold and messages. [AB412; CH206-7]
  • For text of the Tablet see CH207-8.
Haifa; Tihran Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; World War I; Haji Ramadan; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
1918 8 Jan President Woodrow Wilson in a speech on war aims and peace terms to the United States Congress outlined his Fourteen Points. It was a statement of principles for peace that was to be used for peace negotiations in order to end World War I. President Wilson was influenced by the Bahá’í Teachings in formulating his Fourteen Points, at least three Bahá’í volumes were known to be in the White House. The Hidden Words appears on a 1921 listing of Wilson’s private library. Also, a compilation on peace given the President by a delegation of Washington Bahá’ís ‘turned up in general reference at the Library of Congress marked “transfer from the White House”‘. And Abdul-Baha on Divine Philosophy (Boston, 1918) is said to have much influenced his thinking. [AY155]

Commenting on the Fourteen Points laid down by the President for the world community, the Master says that twelve of them derive from principles advocated by Bahá’u’lláh fifty years before, and that these Teachings had been spread worldwide through various publications, thus becoming known to leaders in Europe and America (Persian Tablets, vol. III, p. 312). [AY156-157]

United States; Washinton DC Woodrow Wilson; Fourteen Points; History (general); Principles; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha on Divine Philosophy; Peace; World War I; War (general); United States, Presidents
1918 23 Sep "During the early years of World War I, though no longer imprisoned, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá faced repeated threats against His life by authorities who were antagonistic towards Him and the Baha’is. The Commander of the Ottoman fourth army corps had even threatened to crucify ‘Abdu’l-Bahá if the Turkish army were ever to be displaced out of Haifa." Lady Blomfield in London had learned of these threats and through her contacts in Cabinet, the British Army was instructed to protect Him and His family. [BWNS69, BWNS1202]

The British army took the city in the 1st Battle of Haifa: The battle was won due to a courageous uphill assault by the Jodhpur Lancers of the Indian Army who took the German and Turkish artillery and machine gun emplacements on top of Mount Carmel by surprise. This attack is believed to have been one of the last cavalry charge in modern military history. Each year, on this date, the Indian Army commemorates this victory as Haifa Day. [AY104; BBR335; DH148, Scroll In 68095]

  • For details of the battle see BBR335-6.
  • For letters from the British authorities stating that `Abdu'l-Bahá is safe see BBR336-7.
Mount Carmel; Haifa; Israel World War I; War (general); History (general); Jodhpur Lancers; Indian Army; Germany; Turkey; Haifa Day; Abdul-Baha, Death threats to; BWNS; Lady Blomfield
1919 28 Jun The Treaty of Versailles was concluded. The United States never signed the Treaty of Versailles, never joined the League of Nations which President Wilson's foes derisively referred to as ‘Wilson’s League’. The USA made separate treaties with Germany and the other Central Powers. Wilson died on the 3rd of February, 1924. [AY160-169] Shoghi Effendi's tribute is as follows:

"To ....President...Woodrow Wilson, must be ascribed the unique honour, among the statesmen of any nation, whether of the East or of the West, of having voiced sentiments so akin to the principles animating the Cause of Bahá’u’lláh, and of having more than any other world leader, contributed to the creation of the League of Nations—achievements which the pen of the Centre of God’s Covenant acclaimed as signalizing the dawn of the Most Great Peace, whose sun, according to that same pen, must needs arise as the direct consequence of the enforcement of the laws of the Dispensation of Bahá’u’lláh." [CoF36]

Versailles; France Treaty of Versailles; Woodrow Wilson; League of Nations; History (general); World War I; War (general)
1920 27 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá is invested with the insignia of the Knighthood of the British Empire in a ceremony in Haifa. [AB443; BBRXXX, 343-5; CH214; DH149; GPB306]
  • For the document recommending `Abdu'l-Bahá for knighthood, see BBR344.
  • The knighthood is in recognition of `Abdu'l-Bahá's humanitarian work during the war for famine relief. [AB443]
  • He accepts the honour as a gift from a `just king'. [AB443]
  • He does not use the title. [AB443]
  • For Lady Blomfield's account see AB443-4 and CH214-15.
Haifa; Abu-Sinan; Palestine; Israel Abdul-Baha, Knighthood (KBE); Abdul-Baha, Life of; World War I; British; Charity and relief work; Lady Blomfield; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
1922 in the year The publication of The Promulgation of Universal Peace: Talks Delivered by ‘Abdu’l‑Bahá during His Visit to the United States and Canada in 1912. Compiled by Howard MacNutt.
  • From the preface to the 1922 edition..."This treasury of His words is a compilation of informal talks and extemporary discourses delivered in Persian and Arabic, interpreted by proficient linguists who accompanied Him, and taken stenographically in both Oriental and Occidental tongue."
  • From the same preface is a letter from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to Howard MacNutt dated 13 April, 1919 approving his idea to publish the compilation of His talks in America and urging him to be most careful to reproduce the exact text as well as promising an "effulgent face" in the Abhá Kingdom as well as the praise and gratitude of the friends.
  • And again from the same source is a letter from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to Albert Windust written on the 20th of July, 1919 asking him to name the book The Promulgation of Universal Peace and to direct that the Introduction must be written by Howard MacNutt. Prior to His coming to America the friends were unclear about His station and their differences in understanding was a major source of disunity. On one extreme were those that believed that 'Abdu'l-Baha was a man who, through the application and complete obedience to the Faith, had earned a high station, like the Christ's disciple Peter, implying that others could do the same. In the other camp were those who insisted that He was the return of Christ. Little wonder that they were confused because never in religious history had there been someone like 'Abdu'l-Bahá, one Who held the station of "The Mystery of God". Howard's failure to understand 'Abdu'l-Bahá's station and disobedience to Him and taken him precariously close to the company of Covenant-breakers but through 'Abdu'l-Bahá's unfailing love and guidance he was able to come to a true understanding. The Introduction to the 1922 edition was his testament to the station of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [DJT369-372]
  • The Promulgation of Universal Peace, although not "scripture", could be compared to Some Answered Questions in that it is a carefully transcribed record of His talks. Unlike that publication where He answered questions, in The Promulgation of Universal Peace it was 'Abdu'l-Bahá who chose the subject. Upon arrival in New York He said, "It is my purpose to set forth in America the fundamental principles of the revelation and teachings of Bahá'u'lláh." [PUPxii]
Chicago; New York; United States Promulgation of Universal Peace (book); Howard MacNutt; Publications
1922 Apr Shoghi Effendi sends verbal messages through Consul Schwarz to Germany and Ethel Rosenberg to Britain to form local spiritual assemblies and to arrange for the election of a national spiritual assembly in each country. [CB293; ER209, 211-12; PP56]

To the United States and Canada he sends a message to transform the 'Executive Board' into a legislative institution. [CB293; CT160; ER211-12; PP56]

Germany; United Kingdom; United States; Canada Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Consuls; Albert Schwarz; Ethel Rosenberg; National Spiritual Assemblies; Local Spiritual Assemblies; Spiritual Assemblies; Executive Board
1926 26 Dec Howard MacNutt, Disciple of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, passed away in Florida after being struck by a motorcycle while walking to a meeting in a "Coloured" area. He had lost is beloved wife Mary about one month earlier.. (b. 13 July, 1858 in Philadelphia) He had been a student of Ibrahim George Kheiralla in New York and had learned both Persian and Arabic to better understand the Writings. Howard MacNutt was elected to the Bahá’í Board of Counsel for New York when it was established on December 7, 1900 and served on the body for many years. [SEBW42]
  • In 1905 Howard and his wife went on pilgrimage and attended a Nineteen Day Feast held by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, Who encouraged him to establish the practice in America. MacNutt consulted with the New York Board of Counsel after returning and a Feast was held in New York on May 23, 1905.
  • Howard wrote a booklet consisting of what he learnt while on Pilgrimage titled Unity Through Love.
  • MacNutt also edited Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl's Bahá'í Proofs before it was first published in 1902 and revised Ali Kuli Khan's manuscript translation of the Kitáb-i-Íqán for publication in 1904.
  • He held a belief that `Abdu'l-Bahá had no extraordinary spiritual station and he did not regard Him as being different in Spirit from other men, that through works and service and overcoming all He attained to His station. This opinion resulted in MacNutt failing to appreciate the Bahá'í teaching that Covenant-breaking is a spiritual disease. When `Abdu'l-Bahá came to the United States in 1912 He assigned to MacNutt the task of meeting with a group of potential Covenant-breakers in Chicago and warning them. He also ordered MacNutt to break all communication with Ibrahim Kheiralla and other Covenant-breakers. When MacNutt failed to do as directed, `Abdu'l-Bahá advised him that he had violated the Covenant himself and commanded him to repent before a group of New York Bahá'ís, which he did on 18 November 1912. The matter was not resolved; `Abdu'l-Bahá cabled Ali Kuli Khan on 16 April 1913, "MACNUTT REPENTED FROM VIOLATION OF COVENANT BUT WAS NOT AWAKENED." After several months of correspondence between MacNutt and `Abdu'l-Bahá via Ali Kuli Khan, MacNutt satisfied `Abdu'l-Bahá that he had come to understand and had repented for his earlier errors. Even though `Abdu'l-Bahá recognized MacNutt as a Bahá'í his reputation in the Bahá'í community remained tarnished. To redeem himself he took on the task of compiling `Abdu'l-Bahá's talks in the United States and Canada and editing them. It was published as The Promulgation of Universal Peace, the name chosen by 'Abdu'l-Bahá himself, in 1922. MacNutt's preface contains a long and important statement about `Abdu'l-Bahá's station. His redemption was complete. [PUPxx]
  • For further details of his life and his brush with Covenant-breaking see SEBW35–42. Also see "In Memoriam: Arthur Pillsbury Dodge, 1849-1915", SoW, Vol. 6, No. 19 (2 March 1916) p165 as well as BFA1p125, 168-17, DJT369-372, AOY111-133
  • See BW2p218 for a photo.
  • See AY321-323 for an account of his accidental death and his funeral.
Dade City; Pasco County; Florida; United States Howard MacNutt; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Promulgation of Universal Peace (book)
1931 13 Jan Consul Albert Schwarz, Disciple of Abdu’l-Bahá, ‘Germany’s outstanding Bahá’í pioneer worker’ passes away. [BW4:118–19, 264]
  • For his obituary see BW4:264–6.
Consuls; Albert Schwarz; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
1937 May All Bahá’í activities and institutions are banned in Germany by order of the Gestapo owing to the Faith’s ‘international and pacifist teachings’. [BBRSM185]
  • PP305 says this was June.
  • Bahá’í books, archives and records are confiscated and a number of Bahá’ís are later tried and imprisoned. [BBRSM185]
Germany Persecution, Germany; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Bans; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Court cases; World War II
1939 Ridván The first Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Budapest is elected. There are about 14 believers in the community, mostly of Jewish ancestry. This will cause difficulty for the community in the Nazi persecutions that are to follow. [Rebirth: Memoirs of Renée Szanto-Felbermann p108]

According to the description of Renée Szántó-Felbermann, they could not even meet in Budapest: „It was at their (the Sugárs) house in Alag (today part of Budakeszi) that we elected the first Spiritual Assembly in the history of Hungary, Ridvan 1939. When we boarded the train for Alag, in order to avoid suspicion, we Bahá’ís did not remain together, but went by twos and threes. The same procedure was repeated on our arrival to Alag. It was a memorable, unforgettable evening, that Feast of Ridván in the small house at Alag fragrant with spring flowers. We were all deeply moved. And our dear Bertha Matthiesen was radiant. … Jenő Sugár was elected chairman, Mária Kleinberger became treasurer and I continued as secretary.” [www.bahai.hu]

  • Ms Bertha Matthiesen spends a lot of time in Hungary between 1937 and 1939 when most declarations take place and the first spiritual assembly is formed. [www.bahai.hu]
  • Mr Emeric Sala (Imre Szalavetz) a Canadian Bahá'í who was born in Hungary visits Budapest in 1933 and in 1937. [www.bahai.hu]
  • Canadian travel teacher Ms Lorol Schopflocher visits Budapest in March-April 1937. [www.bahai.hu]
Budapest; Hungary First Local Spiritual Assemblies; World War II; War (general); Persecution, Hungary; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Jews
1939 3 Sep World War II begins with Britain and France declaring war on Germany after Germany invades Poland. Europe; Germany; United Kingdom; France; Poland World War II; History (general); War (general)
1940 15 May Shoghi Effendi determines to go to England; Shoghi Effendi and Rúhíyyih Khánum leave Haifa for Italy en route to London. [PP 178]
  • For the difficulties and dangers of this journey see PP178–80.
  • A few days after their arrival Rúhíyyih Khánum travels to Genoa to meet her father, Sutherland Maxwell who had arrived on the S.S. Rex from Montreal. After the passing of his wife Mr. Maxwell had been invited by Shoghi Effendi to come and live in Haifa. [PP178]
Haifa; Genoa; Italy; London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; World War II; - Basic timeline, Expanded
1940 25 May Shoghi Effendi and Rúhíyyih Khánum leave for England via Menton and Marseilles after having obtained a visa for Britain in Rome. A few days later the Italians enter the war against the Allies. [PP179] Rome; Italy; Menton; Marseilles; France; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; World War II
1940 2 Jun Shoghi Effendi and Rúhíyyih Khánum leave St Malo, France, for England one day before the city is occupied by the Nazis. Shoghi Effendi seems acutely aware of the danger to himself and to the Faith should he fall into the hands of the Nazis because the Cause had already been banned in Germany and his inveterate enemy, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, was allied with them. [PP 179–80] St Malo; France Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; World War II
1940 28 Jul Shoghi Effendi, Rúhíyyih Khánum and Sutherland Maxwell leave England for South Africa. [PP180]
  • This is the only route open back to Palestine, as Italy’s entrance into the war has closed the Mediterranean to Allied ships. [PP180]
  • The trip across Africa takes them to Stanleyville, Congo; Juba in the Sudan; down the Nile to Khartoum and back to Palestine through Cairo. [PP180–1, TG159]
United Kingdom; Africa; South Africa; Congo; Sudan; Egypt Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum, Journeys of; Sutherland Maxwell; World War II; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
1941 20 Jun The passing of Howard Colby Ives in Little Rock, AR. He was born in Brooklyn, NY in 1867. [BW9p608-613] Little Rock; AR; Brooklyn; NY Howard Colby Ives; In Memoriam
1942 Lidia Zamenhof is killed in the gas chambers at Treblinka.
  • For her obituary see BW10:533–8.
  • See also Heller, Lidia.
Treblinka; Poland Lidia Zamenhof; World War II
1945 8 May The war in Europe ends.
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s response see MA80–1, PP185 and UD175.
  • For the war’s effect on the Bahá’í community worldwide see BW17:80.
  • See CF36 for Shoghi Effendi’s opinion of the significance of the role of the United States in the war.
Europe World War II; War (general); History (general)
1945 14 Aug The German Bahá’ís, 80 per cent of whom live in the American sector of occupied Germany, obtain permission to re-organize. [BBRSM185] Germany Persecution, Germany; Persecution, Other; Persecution; World War II
1945 2 Sep The war in Japan ends. Japan World War II; War (general); History (general)
1945 24 Oct The United Nations is formally established.
  • For the relationship of the Bahá’í Faith to the United Nations see BW16:327–52.
  • See SDC64-65 for 'Abdu'l-Bahá's prophetic statement, written in 1875, "True civilization will unfurl its banner...".
San Francisco; California; United States United Nations; Secret of Divine Civilization (book); Collective security; Prophecies; World War II; War (general); Peace; History (general)
1948 War breaks out in Palestine.
  • See DH118 for the effect on the Bahá’ís.
Palestine War (general); History (general)
1948 21 - 22 Apr The 2nd Battle of Haifa: A Jewish offensive to gain control of the strategic port of Haifa. Prior to the 30-hour battle the Arab population of Haifa was estimated to be 65,000 compared to 70,000 Palestinian Jews. At the end of the operation the Arab population was reduced to about 4,000 people. [Battle of Haifa] Haifa War (general); History (general)
1949 24 Apr The passing of Montfort Mills.
He had been a believer since 1906 and by 1909 he had made two pilgrimages to 'Akká as well as a third in early 1921.
In 1922 he and Roy Wilhelm are invited to Haifa to discuss the possibility of calling for the formation of the Universal House of Justice.
He was the first chairman of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada when it first formed in 1922 and was elected to that body seven times between 1922 and 1937 and was responsible for the final draft of the Declaration of Trust and By-Laws adopted in 1927.
One of his most outstanding achievements was his rôle in the case of the appeal for possession of the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdád. He made two trips to Baghdad and had audiences with King Feisal. During one of these trips he was brutally assaulted and suffered the effects for many years.
He met with Professor E. G. Browne and, after hearing Mr. Mills explanation of the evolution of the Faith and of the Covenant, Mr. Browne realized he had been veiled by conflicting claims and disturbances following the martyrdom of The Báb and expressed a desire to translate later Bahá'í works but died before this contribution could be made. [BW11p509-511]
House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); In Memoriam; Edward Granville Browne
1949. 9 Dec The General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the Resolution entitled Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.
  • It was largely through the one-man campaign of a Polish jurist, Raphael Lemkin, someone who had lost family members in the Nazi holocaust, and who had invented the term "genocide", that the Resolution was adopted. [In Search of a Better World by Payam Akhavan p91-92]
  • The attitude at the time could be summed up in the words "Never again!" however the world would have to wait another 50 years before the International Criminal Court would be established to provide any real meaning to this Resolution.
Genocide; United Nations; Justice; Law, International; World War II; War (general); History (general)
1953 Oct Earle Render arrives in the Leeward Islands and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:453] Leeward Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
1953 13 Oct Esther Evans and Lillian Middlemast arrive in Castries, St Lucia, and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for the Windward Islands. BW13:457] Castries; St Lucia; Windward Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
1953 16 Oct Benjamin Dunham Weeden and his wife Gladys (née Anderson) arrive in Antigua and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for the Leeward Islands. [BW13:453]
  • For the story of Ben Weeden’s life see BW15:478–9.
  • For the story of Gladys Weeden’s life see BW18:692–6.
Antigua; Leeward Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
1954 Feb David Schreiber, an American, arrives in Antigua and is named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh for the Leeward Islands. [BW13:453] Antigua; Leeward Islands Knights of Bahaullah
1954 21 Feb Charles (‘Chuck’) and Mary Dayton from the United States, settle in Charlotte Amalie, on St Thomas, and are named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh for the Leeward Islands. [BW13:453] Charlotte Amalie; St Thomas; Leeward Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
1966 Florence Parry, the first to become a Bahá’í in the West Leeward Islands, enrols. West Leeward Islands Florence Parry
1967 Mr O. T. Shelton arrives on St Eustatius in the West Leeward Islands, the first pioneer to the island. West Leeward Islands First travel teachers and pioneers
1968 Dec George Howard arrives on Union Island, the first person to take the Bahá’í Faith to the Grenadine Islands. Grenadine Islands George Howard
1972 Derek and Sally Dacey, the first resident pioneers on Montserrat in the East Leeward Islands, arrive at their pioneer post. East Leeward Islands First travel teachers and pioneers
1974 The National Spiritual Assembly of the Leeward and Virgin Islands holds its first annual National Teaching Conference. [BW16:187] Leeward Islands; Virgin Islands Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Teaching; First conferences
1987 6 – 8 Feb Maori women hold the first National Women’s Hui in the tribal area of Ngati Tuwaretoa, New Zealand. [BINS163:8] Ngati Tuwaretoa; New Zealand Maoris; Firsts, Other; Indigenous people
1988 8 Mar Shirin Fozdar, ardent champion of women’s rights and influential women’s leader, is honoured for her work for equality and women’s advancement at a ceremony organized by the Singapore Council of Women, which she founded in 1952. [BINS176:7] Singapore Shirin Fozdar; Women; Awards
1989 6 May The Bahá’í World Centre receives one of six awards given by the Council for a Beautiful Israel in a ceremony in Jerusalem. [BINS199:2] Jerusalem; BWC World Centre; Awards
1991 Ridván The formation of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the West Leeward Islands (Basseterre, St. Kitts). [AWH86] [VV113] West Leeward Islands NSA
1991 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the West Leeward Islands is formed. [AWH86; BINS246:1; VV113] West Leeward Islands NSA
1992 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Poland is formed with its seat in Warsaw. [CBN Jan92 p2, BINS270:2; BW92–3:119; VV121] Warsaw; Poland NSA
1992 5 Jun The Bahá'í Vocational Institute for Rural Women, a non-profit education project based in Indore, India, is one of 74 individuals and institutions presented with the United Nations Environment Programme ‘Global 500' award in Rio de Janeiro. [BINS272:5; BW92–3:125; VV110]
  • For picture see BW92–3:183.
Rio de Janeiro; Brazil; Indore; India Bahai Vocational Institute for Rural Women; Women; Sustainable development; United Nations; Environment; Awards
2002 6 June City Montessori School in Lucknow, India wing the UNESCO Peace Education award in recognition of its efforts to promote the universal values of education for peace and tolerance and to renew the principles of secularism at a time when these values and principles are increasingly being challenged. The school was founded by Mr. Jagdish Gandhi and his wife Bharti in 1959 with only 5 students and has since earned a reputation for a high level of academic excellence — and for a distinctive program of moral and spiritual education. In 1999 the Guinness Book of World Records recognized City Montessori School as the world's largest school by enrollment. The school had some 22,000 students that year. In 2002 it had 26,000 students in grade levels ranging from pre-primary to college and in 2010-11 enrolment was 39,437. In 2014-14 it was over 47,000. Technically speaking, CMS is not so much a school as a school district, with some 20 branches spread throughout Lucknow. [CMS site, BWNS165, BWNS146, One CountryVol.14,Issue 1] Lucknow; India Awards; UNESCO; City Montessori School; Bahai schools; BWNS
2004 11 Feb A member of the British Baha'i community, Lois Hainsworth, received the award of Member of the Order of the British Empire (MBE) at Buckingham Palace.
  • The announcement of the award for services to three organizations that promote the rights of women was made in the United Kingdom's New Year's Honours List. The citation refers to Mrs. Hainsworth's services to the Women's National Commission, the Baha'i Office for the Advancement of Women, and UNIFEM UK. [BWNS273]
Buckingham Palace; London; United Kingdom Lois Hainsworth; Order of the British Empire (MBE); Women; Awards; BWNS
2009 Apr Beth McKenty, longtime pioneer to Iqaluit, Numavut, Canada receives the Caring Canadian Award from the Governor General of Canada for her work in the community. [BWNS711] Iqaluit; Numavut; Iqaluit; Canada Awards; BWNS
2016 13 - 16 Oct The public dedication of the Mother Temple of South America in Santiago, Chile. The opening ceremonies were attended by over 5,000 people from 110 countries. Live video coverage of the public opening ceremony was provided on the Baha'i World News Service website for approximately 90 minutes and the video recording has been made available at that website.

The Mashriqu’l-Adhkár (Dawning-Point of God’s Remembrance) is located outside of Santiago in Peñalolen, a commune whose name means "reunion of brothers" in the local language. [BWNS1128].

The temple was built in the foothills of the Andes, between mountains and city. The 2,415 square-metre edice (26,000-square-feet) is essentially one large room with nine doors made of bronze. The interior is surrounded by a dome that is made up of nine elements – called petals. These begin wide at the bottom of the building and then narrow upward to meet in a spiral at the top, separated by crescent-shaped windows and a round window at the top. The outer surfaces of these petals are made of 32-millimetre-thick panels of cast glass, which have a ruddy, milky quality to them; the inner surfaces are made of smooth Portuguese marble. Both layers are translucent. Each of the nine wings of the building has two surfaces – one of cast glass and one of stone both of which rest on the steel structure. Each of those two surfaces has more than 1,000 separate components in more than 150 different shapes categorized as droops, slumps, bullnoses, shoulders, elbows, or spines. Each piece, which had to be crafted in three dimensions, was shaped using digital models. [BWNS1126]

  • Canadian architect, Siamak Hariri, began work on the $20-million project in 2003. [BWNS1127] The landscape architect was Juan Grimm, one of the most well-known landscapers of Latin America.
  • The Universal House of Justice was represented by Counsellor Antonella Demonte from the International Teaching Centre.
  • Message from the Universal House of Justice.
  • Pictures
  • Day 1
  • Day 2
  • Day 3
Quick Facts
Location: Santiago, Chile
Foundation Stone:
Construction Period: 2013 – October 2016
Site Dedication:13-16 October 2016
Architect Siamak Hariri
Landscape Architect; Juan Grimm
Seating:
Dimensions: 2,415 square-metre (26,000 square-feet)
Cost: approximately $30m
Dependencies:
References: BWNS800, BWNS921, BWNS940, BWNS959, BWNS982, BWNS1123, BWNS1125, BWNS1055, BWNS1199

Since its dedication in October 2016, the Temple has been a recipient of an International Architecture Award as well as awards for structural artistry from the Institution of Structural Engineers, for innovation in architecture from the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada, for innovation from the American Institute of Architects, for design excellence from the Ontario Association of Architects, for “Best in Americas, Civil Buildings,” from World Architecture News, and for Architectural and Cultural design from American Architecture Prize. [BWNS1262]

Santiago; Chile Mashriqul-Adhkar, Santiago; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Siamak Hariri; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architecture; Awards; Architects; Juan Grimm; Counsellors; Marble; Gardens; BWNS; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Z****
2017. 3 Mar The publication of Toward Prosperity The Role of Women and Men in Building a Flourishing World Civilization, the Bahá’í International Community’s contribution to the 61st United Nations Commission on the Status of Women which took place at the United Nations Headquarters in New York from 13 to 24 March 2017 as a follow-up to the Fourth World Conference on Women and to the twenty-third special session of the General Assembly entitled “Women 2000: gender equality, development and peace for the twenty-first century”. [BIC Statements] New York; NY Toward Prosperity
2017 6 Nov - 22 Jan An exhibition of Baha’u’llah’s writings opened at the John Addis Gallery in the British Museum. One of the central themes was the power of the Word, which refers to divine revelation, a concept fundamental to the origins of all the world’s great faiths. The exhibition showed original handwriting of Baha’u’llah, as well as other archival items associated with His life such as His reed pens and examples of "revelation writing" by His scribe as he tried keep up with Bahá'u'lláh's dictation. The exhibition, timed to commemorate the period of celebration of the 200th anniversary of His birth, was open to the public until the 22nd of January. [BWNS1220] London; United Kingdom British Museum; Exhibitions of Bahai manuscripts and relics; Relics; Bahaullah, Writings of; Exhibitions; Reed pens; Reed (general); Calligraphy; Revelation writing; Mirza Aqa Jan; Tajalliyat (Effulgences); Kalimat-i-Maknunih (Hidden Words); Bahaullah, Pen portraits of; Portraits; Edward Granville Browne; Gifts

from the main catalogue

  1. `Abdu'l-Baha in Abu-Sinan: September 1914–May 1915, by Ahang Rabbani, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 13 (2005). The story of Abdu'l-Baha's relocating the Haifa/Akka Baha'i community of some 140 people to a nearby Druze village to keep them safe during World War I. [about]
  2. African American Baha'is, Race Relations and the Development of the Baha'i Community in the United States, by Richard Thomas (2005). Robert Turner, Susie Steward, Louis Gregory, and the roles played by blacks in the history of the Baha'is of the US. [about]
  3. Alleged Pro-German activities: Edward C. Getsinger, Case #317323, by Federal Bureau of Investigation (1918). Forty pages of FBI files investigating Edward C. Getsinger and possible Baha'i opposition to the war, or alleged pro-German sentiment. Includes Edward and Lua Getsinger's passport applications. [about]
  4. Báb's Epistle on the Spiritual Journey towards God, The, by Todd Lawson, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). [about]
  5. Babi Concept of Holy War, The, by Denis MacEoin, in Religion, 12:2 (1982). An influential and controversial article, one of the first academic examinations of Babi history. Discusses Islamic jihad, Babi jihad, martyrdom, and political struggles. [about]
  6. Babism, by E. G. Browne, in Religious Systems of the World: A Contribution to the Study of Comparative Religion (1890). [about]
  7. Bahá'í Faith in Turkey, The, by John Walbridge, in Essays and Notes on Babi and Bahá'í History (2002). Includes bios of individuals from Turkey who figure prominently in Baha'i history. [about]
  8. Bahá'í Fundamentalism and the Academic Study of the Babi Movement, by Denis MacEoin, in Religion, 16:1 (1986). A response to Afnan and Hatcher's "Western Islamic Scholarship and Bahá'í Origins," on the issues of faith-based approaches to religious history and textual criticism. [about]
  9. Bahá'í Tradition, The: The Return of Joseph and the Peaceable Imagination, by Todd Lawson, in Fighting Words: Religion, Violence, and the Interpretation of Sacred Texts, ed. John Renard (2012). Overview of the status of violence in the Baha'i tradition, and the historical/social conditions in which these doctrines were articulated. [about]
  10. Bahá'u'lláh's Bishárát (Glad-Tidings): A Proclamation to Scholars and Statesmen, by Christopher Buck and Youli A. Ioannesyan, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 16 (2010). Historical and textual study of the one of the major writings of Bahá'u'lláh, and new theories as to its provenance and purpose; it may have been revealed for E. G. Browne. [about]
  11. Bahai Reference Library Wiki Overlay, by Brett Zamir (2013). Firefox add-on (software) overlaying the official Bahá'í Reference Library (reference.bahai.org) with links back to collaboratively editable wikis (at bahai9.com, bahaikipedia.org, wikipedia.org, and bahaitext.org) for compiling info by work/paragraph. [about]
  12. Bábís of Persia, The: I. Sketch of Their History, and Personal Experiences amongst Them, by E. G. Browne, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 21:3 (1889). Results of Browne's investigations into the doctrines, history, and circumstances of this "most remarkable" religious phenomenon, and outline of things yet to be studied. [about]
  13. Bábís of Persia, The: II. Their Literature and Doctrines, by E. G. Browne, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 21:4 (1889). Overview of Babi literature and doctrine. [about]
  14. Beyond Death's Grey Land, by Sidney Edward Morrison, in dialogue magazine, 1:2 (1986). Reflections from a Baha'i perspective on the Vietnam War, the nature of war, dehumanizing humanity, and being a soldier. [about]
  15. Browne, Edward Granville: Babism and Bahaism, by Juan Cole, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 4 (1990). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
  16. Browne, Edward Granville: life and academic career, by Michael Wickens, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 4 (1990). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
  17. Browne, Edward Granville: Persian Constitutional movement, by Kamran Ekbal, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Volume 4 (1990). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
  18. Browne, Edward Granville, by Moojan Momen (1995). Short biography of an English orientalist and famous scholar of the Babi and Baha'i Faiths. [about]
  19. Catalogue and Description of 27 Bábí Manuscripts, by E. G. Browne, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1892). Categorization, descriptions, and excerpts of 27 manuscripts by the Bab, Baha'u'llah, Abdu'l-Baha, and Subh-i-Azal. [about]
  20. Catalogue and Description of 27 Bábí Manuscripts 2 (Continued from Page 499), by E. G. Browne, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1892). Categorization, descriptions, and excerpts of 27 manuscripts by the Bab, Baha'u'llah, Abdu'l-Baha, and Subh-i-Azal. [about]
  21. Celestial Burning, A: A Selective Study of the Writings of Shoghi Effendi, by Jack McLean (2012). Style, content, and context of World Order of Baha'u'llah and Dispensation of Baha'u'llah: part of chapter 1 of this lengthy analysis of the work of Shoghi Effendi (pages 1-71), offered as a sample. [about]
  22. Compilation of the Holy Utterances of Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá, Concerning the Most Great Peace, War and Duty of the Bahá'ís toward their Government, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá (1918). An early compilation, prepared for the Tenth Annual Convention, April 1918. [about]
  23. Dawn over Mount Hira and Other Essays, by Marzieh Gail (1976). Seven essays on various topics of interest to Baha'i studies and history. [about]
  24. Declaración de la Comunidad Internacional Bahá'í ante la Conferencia Internacional de las Naciones Unidas sobre la Relación Entre el Desarme y el Desarrollo, by Bahá'í International Community (1987). El Año Internacional de la Mujer. Nueva York, Nueva York, 24 de agosto-11 de septiembre de 1987 [about]
  25. Desarme y la Paz, El, by Bahá'í International Community. [about]
  26. Development of the Babi/Bahá'í Communities, The: Exploring Baron Rosen's Archives, by Youli A. Ioannesyan (2013). 19th-century private letters and diplomatic correspondence from a prominent Russian scholar, one of the first to study the rise of the Babis. Excerpt from book: contents and Introduction. (Offsite.) [about]
  27. Divide and Rule: The Creation of the Alawi State after World War I, by Necati Alkan, in Fikrun wa Fann ("Art and Thought") (2013). Summary of 20th-century history of the Nusayri/Alawi Shi'i movement in Syria and Turkey. (No mention of Baha'is.) [about]
  28. Dying for God: Martyrdom in the Shii and Babi Religions, by Jonah Winters (1997). Religious and cultural meanings of martyrdom/witnessing, and their role in Babi history. [about]
  29. Edward Granville Browne, by Christopher Buck, in British Writers, Supplement XXI (2014). Bio of E.G. Browne, with focus on his books and translations. [about]
  30. English Amongst the Persians During the Qajar Period 1787-1921, The, by Denis Wright (1977). Passing mentions of Baha'is seeking support or asylum from British consulates or missionaries in the 1800s; overview of E. G. Browne's time in Iran. [about]
  31. From Babism to Bahá'ísm: Problems of Militancy, Quietism, and Conflation in the Construction of a Religion, by Denis MacEoin, in Religion, 13:3 (1983). One of the first critical examinations of Babi history; a continuation of themes first examined in "The Babi Concept of Holy War." Includes examination of the numbers of Babi martyrs, the nature of Orientalism, and Western re-interpretations of the Babis. [about]
  32. Gate of the Heart: Understanding the Writings of the Báb, by Nader Saiedi: Review, by Jack McLean (2009). Review of the book, expanded into an essay on the Bab's ethics, laws, and use of symbolism. [about]
  33. Humanitarian Responses to Global Conflicts, by Universal House of Justice (2015). A letter to and response from the House about why Baha'is do not condemn the 2014 attacks on Gaza, and principles to consider when addressing conflicts. [about]
  34. In Memoriam, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 4 (1930-1932) (1932). Ethel Rosenberg, Claudia Stuart Coles, Consul Albert Schwarz. [about]
  35. Interdependence of Bahá'í Communities, The: Services of North American Bahá'í Women to Iran, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4:1 (1991). [about]
  36. International Criminal Court: A Bahá'í Perspective, by Dan Wheatley, in Associate, 33-34 (2001). Brief history of the ICC, and Baha'i support of it. [about]
  37. Introduction to the Lawh-i Haqqu'n-Nas, An, by Jean-Marc Lepain, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). Summary of the tablet Lawh-i Haqqu’n-Nas, Tablet of the "Right of the People," on the metaphorical character of this world. [about]
  38. Kitab-i-Aqdas Windows Help File software, by Peyman Talaei (1999). A hyperlinked version of the Aqdas in the Windows Help File format (for Windows 3) which can be used for easy study and reading. [about]
  39. Letter to Martha Root, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1920). A letter to believers in America. [about]
  40. Light, The, by Ian Kluge (2001). True life war story of an unexpected encounter with the miraculous in a large asylum for the incurably insane. [about]
  41. Living Purposefully in a Time of Violence, by Holly Hanson (2001). Contemplation of Baha'i responses to the global issues raised by 9/11. [about]
  42. Macnutt, Howard, by Robert Stockman (1995). [about]
  43. Martyrdom in Jihad, by Jonah Winters (1997). Unlike Judeo-Christianity, Islam does not contain a core of martyrdom. Rather, it occurs in three disparate areas: war/jihad, asceticism, and Shi'ism. I examine the relationship between jihad and martyrdom and their classical and contemporary meanings. [about]
  44. Mediation, Transformation and Consultation: A Comparative Analysis of Conflict Resolution Models, by Guy Sinclair, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). [about]
  45. Messianic Roots of Babi-Bahá'í Globalism, The, by Stephen Lambden, in Bahá'í and Globalisation (2005). Contrast of the continuity between the globalism of the Bab’s Qayyum al-asma’ and Baha’u’llah’s globalism, verses breaks between the two, e.g. the abandoning of jihad as a means of promoting a globalisation process. [about]
  46. Migrants and Refugees in Europe, by Universal House of Justice (2015). Principles to guide the response of the Bahá’í community to the dramatic social changes concerning the 2015 influx into Europe of people fleeing conflict in the Middle East, especially Syria. [about]
  47. Military Metaphor in Bahá'í Sacred Literature, The, by Jack McLean (2005). Martial symbology is common in the Baha'i Writings, especially those of Shoghi Effendi, yet the Writings are expressly pacifistic. This article examines the apparent contradiction. [about]
  48. New History (tarikh-i-jadid) of Mirza Ali-Muhammed the Bab, The, by Husayn Hamadani (1893). Detailed history of the Bab, translated into English. Also known as Tarikh-i Badi'-i Bayani. [about]
  49. "Note on Maceoin's 'Bahá'í Fundamentalism'" and "Afnán, Hatcher and an old bone", by Muhammad Afnan and William S. Hatcher, in Religion, 16:2 (1986). Two shorter follow-up essays, offering closing thoughts on a previously-published debate about issues of historical accuracy, academic neutrality, and faith-based scholarship. [about]
  50. Nuqtat al-Káf, by Kavian Sadeghzade Milani, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2008). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
  51. Nuqtat al-Kaf and the Babi Chronicle Traditions, by Juan Cole, in Research Notes in Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Studies, 2:6 (1998). History of the writing of this early Babi historical text, and some recent interpretations of its history. [about]
  52. Obligatory Prayer Reminder Script: Applescript code for Entourage 2004 (Macintosh only), by Brett Zamir. Microsoft Entourage apple script to remind one to say the obligatory prayer before sunset. Script retrieves the sunset time from the internet for your local area and uses that as a basis for the reminder. [about]
  53. Ocean: Bahá'í Writings search engine (1998). Complete search engine for Baha'i texts and books from other religions. [about]
  54. Off the Grid: Reading Iranian Memoirs in Our Time of Total War, by Negar Mottahedeh, in Middle East Research and Information Project (2004). Observations on contemporary culture and gender issues in Iran. [about]
  55. Participation in Anti-War Demonstrations, by Universal House of Justice and National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United Kingdom (2003). Two short letters from the House of Justice on avoiding political protest and anti-war demonstrations, followed by a longer letter from the NSA of the U.K. on "Responding to the Middle East Crisis." [about]
  56. Persian Revolution of 1905-1909, The, by E. G. Browne: Reviews, by Various (1996). Three reviews, published in CIRA Bulletin, International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, and Journal of Islamic Studies. [about]
  57. Picture Gallery of Early British Bahá'ís (1998). Published in honor of the UK Baha'i Centenary, 1998/99. [about]
  58. Political Non-Involvement and Obedience to Government: Compilation by Peter Khan with Cover Letter from Secretariat, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi (2003). Current world events can cause confusion and anguish among those seeking global peace. Rather than being drawn into prevailing attitudes and disputes, Baha'is must hold a broader long-term perspective. [about]
  59. Protecting the Human Family: Humanitarian Intervention, International Law, and Bahá'í Principles, by Brian D. Lepard, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 13:1-4 (2003). [about]
  60. Public Discourse on Race: Abdu'l-Bahá's 1912 Howard University Speech, by Christopher Buck (2012). Presentation at Louhelen Bahá’í School on ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and the black intelligentsia, his views of the Civil War and the Emancipation Proclamation, and his message to African Americans and the "Whites." [about]
  61. Questions and Answers on War and Related Issues (2003). Compilation of passages and commentary on the military, political activism, disarmament, pacifism, and collective security. [about]
  62. Responding to an Attack on Humanity, by Alan Bryson (2010). Reflections on the events of 9/11. [about]
  63. Revisiting Vietnam: A Case for Reading "Those War Books", by David Langness, in dialogue magazine, 1:3 (1986). Brief reviews of a dozen books about the Vietnam war. [about]
  64. Scholar Meets Prophet: Edward Granville Browne and Bahá'u'lláh (Acre, 1890), by Christopher Buck and Youli Ioannesyan, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 20 (2014). Details of E.G. Browne's handwritten notes about his meeting with Baha'u'llah, his stay in Akka in April 1890, and his correspondence with Russian academics. [about]
  65. Study of the Meaning of the Word "Al-Amr" in the Qur'án and in the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh, A, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, Book 1 (2000). [about]
  66. Tablet of Glad-Tidings: A Proclamation to Scholars and Statesmen, by Christopher Buck and Nahzy Abadi Buck (2012). The Lawh-i-Bishárát as a Proclamatory Aqdas and public announcement of principles from 'The Most Holy Book'; a proclamation to scholars and statesmen; Cambridge manuscripts from the E.G. Browne Collection; response to modernity; Persian original. [about]
  67. Time of Peril, Prospects for Peace, by Glenford Mitchell (2001). Talk at the Baha'i Unity Center in Atlanta. [about]
  68. War, Governance, and Conscience in This Age of Transition, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States, in The Bahá'í National Review, 20 (1969). A whitepaper on issues of Baha'i involvement in the military services. [about]
  69. Western Islamic Scholarship and Bahá'í Origins, by Muhammad Afnan and William S. Hatcher, in Religion, 15:1 (1985). A critique of articles by Denis MacEoin, and a defense of Baha'i interpretations of history vis-à-vis academic criticism. [about]
  70. What is a Content Management System?, by Jonah Winters (2003). A brief overview of the technology underlying the Baha'i Library Online, and why this technology represents the next step in the Internet's evolution [since this was written, the term "Web 2.0" has been coined for the "next step" I described]. [about]
  71. Yahyá, Mírzá, by Moojan Momen, in The Bahá'í Encyclopedia (2009). On the younger half-brother of Bahá’u’lláh, later his opponent, known as Subh-i-Azal, described by Shoghi Effendi as "the arch-breaker of the Covenant of the Báb." [about]
  72. Year Amongst the Persians, A, by E. G. Browne (1893). [about]
 
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