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Abstract:
List of dissertations, as taken from the ProQuest database. Needs to be updated.
Notes:
If you have access to ProQuest or a similar database and can help, please email me. See also this list of theses to 2003.

Theses and dissertations on the Bahá'í Faith:
1954-1994/2003

1995/2003
See a newer list, current to 2003, at library.bahai.org/gc/dissm.html [archive.org]
 Order No:    AAC 9400603  ProQuest - Dissertation Abstracts
 Title:       BAHA'I YEAR OF SERVICE PROGRAM:  ANATOMY OF A YOUTH
              SERVICE PROGRAM
 Author:      TERRILL, THANE BENNETT
 School:      COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY TEACHERS COLLEGE (0055)  Degree: EDD
              Date: 1993  pp: 139
 Advisor:     SAYRES, WILLIAM
 Source:      DAI-A 54/08, p. 3072, Feb 1994
 Subject:     RELIGION, GENERAL (0318); EDUCATION, INTERCULTURAL (0282);
              EDUCATION, SOCIOLOGY OF (0340)

 Abstract:    The Bahá'í Year of Service Program (BYSP) is a new concept
   in youth service. The program provides opportunities for young people
   between the ages of twelve and twenty-five to serve in a wide range
   of activities both domestically and abroad. This dissertation focuses
   on the BYSP in the United States because of the approximately dozen
   Bahá'í Year of Service programs around the world, it is the oldest
   and most experienced.
       This dissertation examines the history of the BYSP from its
   beginnings in the early 1980s to the present. Emphasis is given to
   identifying the underlying principles on which the program is based.
   These principles are, when possible, contrasted with the principles
   underlying other youth service programs, like the Peace Corps.
       This study was conducted by interviews with both staff and
   participants of the BYSP. Participants were interviewed before,
   after, and during their periods of service. Also, the BYSP archives
   were opened for this study.
       The BYSP is still a new and growing program. Future studies will
   be required to determine BYSP's long term effects.


 Order No:    AAC MM77379  ProQuest - Dissertation Abstracts
 Title:       THE BAHA'I FAITH IN ALBERTA, 1942-1992: THE ETHIC OF
              DISPERSION
 Author:      PEMBERTON-PIGOTT, ANDREW
 School:      UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA (CANADA) (0351)  Degree: MA
              Date: 1992  pp: 126
 Source:      MAI 31/04, p. 1555, Winter 1993
 Subject:     HISTORY, CANADIAN (0334); RELIGION, HISTORY OF (0320)
 ISBN:        0-315-77379-0

 Abstract:    This thesis examines the arrival and subsequent expansion
   of the Bahá'í faith in the province of Alberta, Canada. In the last
   fifty years their membership has grown from a few isolated
   individuals to approximately 3,000 Bahá'ís in more than 170 different
   locations. The conclusion of the thesis is that the presence and
   distribution of the Bahá'ís has been determined primarily by their
   strong commitment to propagation and diffusion.
       The initial presence and subsequent dispersion of Bahá'ís in the
   province was the result of concerted continental efforts to establish
   the first local elected councils, to carry the religion into
   unfamiliar cultures, and to deliberately move to cities, towns,
   villages and outlying districts all across the province. These
   efforts resulted in two sizable waves of new native and youth
   members. A similar achievement was obtained through an influx of
   Iranian Bahá'í refugees in the 1980s.
       Youth and Iranians were quickly integrated into the overriding
   ethic of dispersion, but native members were not. Although Indians
   make up approximately one third of the provincial membership, there
   is often little contact today between natives and non-natives. The
   reserve system acts as a block to the usual Bahá'í technique of
   "pioneering" to form new localities and establish stable
   administrative units. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)


 Order No:    AAC 9223751  ProQuest - Dissertation Abstracts
 Title:       QURRATU'L-AYN TAHIRIH: A STUDY IN TRANSFORMATIONAL
              LEADERSHIP (TAHIRIH QURRATU'L AYN, IRAN)
 Author:      ANDERSON, EILEEN LITTRELL
 School:      UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY (0239)  Degree: PHD
              Date: 1992  pp: 265
 Source:      DAI-B 53/07, p. 3833, Jan 1993
 Subject:     PSYCHOLOGY, SOCIAL (0451); HISTORY, MIDDLE EASTERN (0333);
              WOMEN'S STUDIES (0453)

 Abstract:    The problem. The major intent of this study was to
   demonstrate how Tahirih's activities as an agent for change in
   mid-nineteenth century Iran qualify her for historical recognition as
   a transformational leader.
       Method. A working theoretical model of transformational
   leadership consisting of the following four constructs was
   synthesized out of a systematic review of the literature: (1) moral
   reasoning that is revolutionary in nature; (2) embodies conflict with
   courage and integrity; (3) inspirational and educational in nature;
   (4) followers carry on the work until desired vision is
   institutionalized. A review of the literature on the life of
   Qurratu'l-Ayn Tahirih was conducted, including an assessment of
   source credibility. Then an integrative qualitative content analysis
   of the published materials was conducted to show a "goodness of fit"
   between the life of Tahirih and the above mentioned characteristics
   of the transformational leader.
       Results. A major impact of Tahirih's efforts was the awakening of
   people to the needs for wider social justice for women. She promoted
   the right to intellectual moral reasoning--the right to independently
   investigate truth. Tahirih gained legendary fame in her own time for
   her revolutionary interpretation and eloquent exposition of the
   religious thought prevailing at the time in parts of Iran and Iraq.
       In course of time Tahirih's fame spread across national and
   religious boundaries. Tahirih initiated and embraced conflicts using
   techniques of intellectual moral reasoning, inspirational leadership,
   and spiritual purpose, which were intended to cause radical shifts in
   socio-cultural and religious practices. Women's rights movements in
   several countries have directly benefitted because of her efforts.
   She spoke of her vision of the coming of a new age of human
   development, and aligned herself with the Babi/Bahá'í Religious
   Movement.
       It was demonstrated that Tahirih was an agent for significant
   socio-cultural change and that she deserves recognition as a
   transformational leader. This study concludes that a fifth construct
   of spirituality be added to the above mentioned four constructs for
   analysis so that the transformational qualities exemplified by
   Tahirih and some other transformational leaders may be more
   adequately evaluated.


 Order No:    NOT AVAILABLE FROM UMI  ProQuest - Dissertation Abstracts
 Title:       PERSECUTION, EXILE AND INTEGRATION OF A RELIGIOUS
              MINORITY: THE INTEGRATION OF IRANIAN BAHA'I REFUGEES IN
              SWISS EXILE
              [VERFOLGUNG, EXIL UND INTEGRATION EINER RELIGIOESEN
              MINDERHEIT: DIE INTEGRATION IRANISCHER BAHA'I-FLUECHTLINGE
              IM SCHWEIZERISCHEN EXIL]
 Author:      KERSCHBAUMER, MANDANA FATIMAH
 School:      UNIVERSITAET WIEN (AUSTRIA) (0671)  Degree: DRPHIL
              Date: 1991  pp: 347
 Source:      DAI-C 54/03, p. 722, Fall 1993
 Language:    GERMAN
 Subject:     SOCIOLOGY, ETHNIC AND RACIAL STUDIES (0631)
              Location:  UNIVERSITAT WIEN, WIEN, AUSTRIA

 Abstract:    The present thesis offers a migration sociology-oriented
   contribution to refugee and exile research. It attempts to describe
   and analyse a specific example of persecution, flight and exile. The
   subject of this work is the religious persecution (of a group) of
   Iranian Bahá'í refugees in Iran, their flight from Iran and the
   consequences of their circumstances in exile in Switzerland. The
   present work is based on a theoretical confrontation with the subject
   and on an empirically qualitative investigation. This investigation
   is based on interviews with the Bahá'í refugees and with those active
   in two integration instances for Bahá'í refugees in their Swiss
   exile. This work attempts to provide a description and an analysis
   based on the example of the most elementary fundamentals on the
   Bahá'í religion and on examples of the circumstances suffered by the
   Bahá'í refugees since the Islamic revolution (persecution, flight,
   first country of exile, Swiss exile): Primarily, with the
   post-revolutionary, political, religious, structural and social
   outline conditions which led up to the illegal flight; secondly the
   flight; thirdly the living conditions in the first country of exile
   (Pakistan and Turkey) and fourthly on the structural and social
   outline conditions for the Bahá'í refugees in exile in Switzerland.


 Order No:    AAC 9214946  ProQuest - Dissertation Abstracts
 Title:       ACROSS THE BRIDGE: PENN SCHOOL AND PENN CENTER (SOUTH
              CAROLINA, CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT)
 Author:      JORDAN, FRANCIS HAROLD
 School:      UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA (0202)  Degree: EDD
              Date: 1991  pp: 238
 Source:      DAI-A 53/01, p. 269, Jul 1992
 Subject:     HISTORY, BLACK (0328); SOCIOLOGY, SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND
              DEVELOPMENT (0700)

 Abstract:    Early in the Civil War of the United States, federal
   forces took control of the sea islands at the southern tip of South
   Carolina, thus effectively liberating thousands of slaves. At the
   invitation of the federal government, northern abolitionists came to
   the Department of the South, as the area was called, and established
   schools to educate these freedmen. This occurred in 1862.
       One of the schools, Penn School on St. Helena Island, became the
   dominant Black educational institution of the area. In the early
   1900's, Penn School became a proving-ground for the Industrial
   Education Movement ideas and practices espoused by Booker T.
   Washington and Hollis B. Frissell of the Hampton Institute in
   Virginia. This dissertation contains transcripts of five interviews
   with graduates of Penn School, presenting their memories of Penn and
   its community.
       In 1948 Penn School became a community development institution
   called Penn Community Services, Inc. It acquired a reputation as a
   conference center for racially-mixed groups. During the 1960's it
   served as a meeting-place for numerous civil rights workers,
   including Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Other racially mixed groups,
   such as the Bahá'ís, used the Center as a refuge for their meetings.
       During the 1970's Penn pioneered in the field of community
   development, helping local African-Americans retain their endangered
   land, helping minority businesses, providing child-care services, and
   providing educational programs for the Low Country community.
       By 1991, Penn Center, as it is called, is badly in need of
   renovation. A massive fund-raising campaign seeks to raise three
   million dollars. At the same time, it appears that Penn is in need of
   a new purpose to give it, once again, an important role to play on
   the national scene. Five interviews included in this dissertation are
   concerned with Penn's importance and future possibilities, and
   present an encouraging view of the Center's future.


 Order No:    AAC MM66879  ProQuest - Dissertation Abstracts
 Title:       SYMBOLIC QURANIC EXEGESIS IN BAHA'U'LLAH'S BOOK OF
              CERTITUDE: THE EXEGETICAL CREATION OF THE BAHA'I FAITH
              (PERSIAN)
 Author:      BUCK, CHRISTOPHER
 School:      UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY (CANADA) (0026)  Degree: MA
              Date: 1991  pp: 330
 Advisor:     RIPPIN, ANDREW
 Source:      MAI 30/04, p. 1058, Winter 1992
 Subject:     RELIGION, HISTORY OF (0320); RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY OF
              (0322)

 Abstract:    This thesis will take particular interest in how
   Bahá'u'lláh overcomes theoretical obstacles to a realized eschaton,
   the most formidable of which is Islam's doctrine of revelatory
   finality founded on the Quranic designation of Muhammad as the "Seal
   of the Prophets" (Q. 33/40). Bahá'u'lláh sought to disenchant popular
   as well as clerical speculations on the eschaton, the impossibility
   of literal fulfillment of which effectively preempted its
   realization. This thesis will argue that Bahá'u'lláh advanced
   rhetorical-style arguments to establish that figuration underlies
   eschatological symbolism in the Gospels and the Qur'an.
       Classical Islamic approaches to symbolism will be critically
   assessed as to precedent, leaving aside questions of dependence.
       As to Bahá'u'lláh's own hermeneutic, this thesis will take
   Wansbrough's observations on the interdynamics of rhetorical and
   allegorical exegesis as a theoretical point of departure.
   Bahá'u'lláh's exegeses will be analyzed within what Wansbrough terms
   "procedural devices" employed across the spectrum of the classical
   exegetical tradition. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)


 Order No:    AAC 9033588  ProQuest - Dissertation Abstracts
 Title:       THE QUEST FOR GLOBAL EDUCATION (WHOLISTIC EDUCATION,
              EDUCATION, MORAL EDUCATION, MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION)
 Author:      JOHNSON, BARBARA KAY VINCENT
 School:      THE UNION INSTITUTE (1033)  Degree: PHD  Date: 1990
              pp: 307
 Source:      DAI-A 51/11, p. 3665, May 1991
 Subject:     EDUCATION, PHILOSOPHY OF (0998); EDUCATION, INTERCULTURAL
              (0282); EDUCATION, RELIGIOUS (0527)

 Abstract:    Global education addresses the unprecedented challenges
   and opportunities of this global age. It views reality as a single
   system of interlocking systems. Hence, it finds that unilateral
   solutions to intertwined, interwoven, highly complex, and problematic
   circumstances simply fail to exist. Today's learners must learn to
   think in a whole way about whole situations. To do that they must be
   guided by principles that support life on the global scale:
   recognition of the oneness and wholeness of the human race, that this
   wholeness is supported by complexity and diversity, and that change
   is not only inevitable, it is the very warp and woof of life.
       These simple principles have profound implications for classroom
   learning and for "schools without walls;" for teaching methods and
   for classroom organization; for curriculum design and for response to
   the needs, aspirations, and resources of learners and of learning
   groups. Global education involves more that learning about peoples
   and places: it embraces aspects of basic education, multicultural
   education, cooperative education, wholistic education, transformative
   education, community-based education, and education for peace. It is
   one aspect of a comprehensive effort to serve the long-term learning
   needs of society in transition to global civilization.
       This inquiry into global education seeks to explain the unity
   that comprises life's natural diversity at all levels, from the
   person to the planet. It examines the implications of brain research
   for education; the need for a global perspective on all learning; and
   the value of multicultural and cooperative learning groups for
   integrating process and content learning goals. It discusses the
   concepts of care and justice as links between the person, the group,
   and the whole. It considers each aspect of global education in the
   light of illustrative experiences at the Maxwell International Bahá'í
   School, Shawnigan Lake, British Columbia, during its 1988-1989
   inaugural year.


 Order No:    AAC 9029091  ProQuest - Dissertation Abstracts
 Title:       RELIGION AND NATION-STATE FORMATION IN MELANESIA: 1945 TO
              INDEPENDENCE (PAPUA NEW GUINEA, SOLOMON ISLANDS, NEW
              HEBRIDES, MISSIONARIES)
 Author:      HASSALL, GRAHAM HUME
 School:      AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL UNIVERSITY (AUSTRALIA) (0433)
              Degree: PHD  Date: 1990  pp: 400
 Source:      DAI-A 51/05, p. 1652, Nov 1990
 Subject:     RELIGION, HISTORY OF (0320); LITERATURE, SLAVIC AND EAST
              EUROPEAN (0314)

 Abstract:    This thesis argues that Christian missions saw in the
   Melanesian colonies--Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, and the New
   Hebrides--their last chance to establish "Christian nations". They
   contributed significantly to the emergence of independent states in
   the South Pacific during the period 1945-1980. Yet most missionaries
   sought to direct the nature of change without a clearly articulated
   concept of "the state". In the face of growing secularism most
   missions sought to maintain their "sectarian autonomy" by
   concentrating resources on their networks of schools, and clerical
   training institutions; and sought to influence both society and the
   state through educating personnel for public service and political
   offices. The effect of numerous missions placing themselves among
   newly contacted tribes for evangelistic purposes, paradoxically,
   contributed to the consolidation of colonial authority in those
   areas.
       The extent of continuing mission influence in Melanesian
   societies, from village to government level, is attributed partly to
   the effective development of a Melanesian "clerisy", and was also due
   in part to the involvement of missions as the (defacto) welfare
   branch of the secular state. Missions were consulted by colonial
   administrations in formulating new policies, and received funds to
   implement certain areas of governmental development and welfare
   programs, particularly education and health services. Such
   involvements led to an emphasis on the role of Christianity in
   attaining material development.
       The extension of missionary patronage to some areas of social and
   economic development, and missionary opposition to politico-religous
   movements, cargo-cults and separatist aspirations, amounted to both
   intentional and unintentional support for the emergent secular
   states. It is concluded that the "Christian nations" of Melanesia
   bear the marked influences of missionisation, but also face some
   unresolved dilemmas in sorting the religious content of Christianity
   from the European culture in which it was received.
       The major Roman Catholic orders and Protestant missions, as well
   as such smaller missions and religions as Bahá'í and Seventh Day
   Adventism are considered. As a regional study, the intention has not
   been to examine all facets of the missionary presence and
   relationship with colonialism, but to identify regional similarities
   in the course of church-state relations.


 Order No:    AAC 9022365  ProQuest - Dissertation Abstracts
 Title:       THE BAHA'I FAITH AND AMERICAN PROTESTANTISM
 Author:      STOCKMAN, ROBERT HAROLD
 School:      HARVARD UNIVERSITY (0084)  Degree: THD  Date: 1990
              pp: 312
 Source:      DAI-A 51/03, p. 896, Sep 1990
 Subject:     RELIGION, HISTORY OF (0320); HISTORY, UNITED STATES (0337)

 Abstract:    The Bahá'í Faith is a religion that arose in the Islamic
   milieu of mid nineteenth century Iran and entered the United States
   in 1894, after its basic teachings had been defined and the writings
   of its prophet had been completed. The number of American Bahá'ís
   quickly rose to about fifteen hundred by 1899 and then remained
   roughly constant until the mid 1920s, when establishment of an
   organizational system allowed steady growth. During the years 1894 to
   1921, the members were predominantly (seventy-five percent or more)
   of Protestant background. Women constituted sixty-five to seventy
   percent of the converts, who were generally of Northern European,
   middle class backgrounds. Unlike many former Protestants, the
   American Bahá'ís sought to emphasize their continuities with
   Protestantism, and generally avoided strong criticism of it.
       American Bahá'ís understood their new religion very much through
   the lens of their Protestant heritage. They tended to interpret the
   Bible according to the traditional, common-sense hermeneutic of folk
   evangelicalism, and not through the hermeneutic of the Bahá'í
   scriptures. Bahá'í ideas of social reform were understood in a
   variety of ways resembling the spectrum of Protestant attitudes
   toward the social gospel, and were put into effect using the
   traditional form of the American voluntary association. Resistance to
   systematic organization of the Bahá'í religion can be traced to the
   antimodernist attitudes and intense individualism that characterized
   many converts. The American Bahá'ís utilized the historic events and
   basic principles of their new religion to define a new myth of
   America, one that contained much of the confidence and optimism of
   the traditional Protestant view of America as a "redeemer nation."
   American Bahá'ís expressed their new beliefs at Sunday Bahá'í worship
   services, where they sang Bahá'í hymns composed in traditional
   Christian form, or sang Protestant hymns whose theology was
   compatible with Bahá'í belief.
       The American Bahá'ís offer a good example of a people who have
   borrowed strongly from American Protestant culture to supplement or
   express their beliefs, but have done so within the theological
   guidelines of their religion. The Bahá'í Faith has remained small and
   comparatively obscure in America because of its emphasis on tolerance
   and non-confrontation, its persistent avoidance of socially deviant
   behavior, and because its teachings constitute a self-contained world
   view, separate from the western intellectual tradition.


 Order No:    AAC MM57550  ProQuest - Dissertation Abstracts
 Title:       INTEGRATION CULTURELLE DES BAHA'IS IRANIENS AU QUEBEC
              (FRENCH TEXT)
 Author:      ROBERT, MONIQUE
 School:      UNIVERSITE LAVAL (CANADA) (0726)  Degree: MA  Date: 1989
              pp: 233
 Source:      MAI 30/02, p. 253, Summer 1992
 Subject:     SOCIOLOGY, ETHNIC AND RACIAL STUDIES (0631)

 Abstract:    Cette recherche avait pour objectif de cerner
   l'Integration culturelle des baha'is iraniens ayant emigre au Quebec,
   soit avant, soit apres le debut de la Revolution islamique en Iran
   (1978). Selon l'hypothese retenue, la participation a la communaute
   baha'ie quebecoise devait leur faciliter la vie et les aider a
   assumer, mieux et plus rapidement, un processus d'acculturation
   enrichissant. Aucune evidence ne soutient toutefois cette hypothese.
   Il ressort, a la suite de l'enquete effectuee (questionnaires et
   entrevues) que les baha'is iraniens ont a faire face aux memes
   difficultes que l'ensemble des immigrants venant de cultures tres
   differentes (orientales) de la culture quebecoise (occidentale). On
   constate que l'integration a la societe quebecoise est plus rapide en
   region et dans les petits centres que dans la grande region
   montrealaise. La question du rapport a l'enfant, de l'education a lui
   donner, des valeurs a lui transmettre, semble un point
   particulierement sensible. Les parents baha'is iraniens jugent
   necessaire d'accentuer l'education spirituelle qu'ils donnent a leurs
   enfants, afin de contrebalancer les effets de la societe materialiste
   dans laquelle ils evoluent maintenant.


 Order No:    AAC 8919511  ProQuest - Dissertation Abstracts
 Title:       EMILY CARR: CANADIAN MODERNIST
 Author:      APPELHOF, RUTH ANN STEVENS
 School:      SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY (0659)  Degree: PHD  Date: 1988
              pp: 207
 Advisor:     TATHAM, DAVID
 Source:      DAI-A 50/09, p. 2681, Mar 1990
 Subject:     FINE ARTS (0357); BIOGRAPHY (0304)

 Abstract:    The Canadian artist Emily Carr (1871-1945), has previously
   been examined in terms of her relationships to the Toronto based
   Group of Seven and to the land and forests of British Columbia. The
   present study examines her artistic development in terms of her
   documented and probable knowledge of modernism outside the confines
   of Canada.
       The study considers Carr's work in the context of her early
   education in Los Angeles, England and France. It takes into account
   her fascination, similar to that of other modern artists of her time,
   with primitive culture, in her case the Northwest Coast Indians. The
   important influences of Mark Tobey and Lawren Harris are discussed.
       The study proposes that perhaps the single greatest sustained
   influence on her work in terms of modernist style and thought, was
   her trip to New York City in 1930, when she was 58. It examines her
   exposure to, and in some cases meetings with, Charles Burchfield,
   Georgia O'Keeffe, Arthur Dove, and Katherine Dreier. Her attraction
   to Theosophy and Bahá'í are also discussed. An appreciation of Carr's
   late paintings concludes the study, showing that the renaissance of
   her artistic vision came from sources in the United States as well as
   from the Canadian forest.


 Order No:    AAC 8819915  ProQuest - Dissertation Abstracts
 Title:       THE HIDDEN WORDS OF BAHA'U'LLAH: TRANSLATION NORMS
              EMPLOYED BY SHOGHI EFFENDI
 Author:      MALOUF, DIANA LORICE
 School:      STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK AT BINGHAMTON (0792)
              Degree: PHD  Date: 1988  pp: 299
 Source:      DAI-A 49/08, p. 2211, Feb 1989
 Subject:     LITERATURE, COMPARATIVE (0295); LITERATURE, ENGLISH
              (0593); LITERATURE, MIDDLE EASTERN (0315)

 Abstract:    The study investigated the literary norms used by Shoghi
   Effendi in his translation into English of Bahá'u'lláh's Arabic
   Hidden Words. An analysis of his education and language acquistion
   was undertaken along with an in-depth examination of The Hidden
   Words, its structure, literary influences and place in the
   Arabo-Persian literary system.
       It was determined that Shoghi Effendi's objectives in translating
   the work into English affected his English rendition. The Hidden
   Words is considered a scriptural work and he, therefore, sought to
   have it accorded the reverent attitude reserved for such texts by
   employing the following four major norms: (1) Interpretation (in his
   capacity as Guardian of the Bahá'í Faith); (2) Elevation (couching
   the translation in language associated with scripture in the English
   literary polysystem; (3) Beautification (traditionally considered a
   necessary attribute of sacred literature, and (4) Euphonization of
   the text (to enhance its impact in recitation). The translator's
   overriding goals or purposes find expression in the textual goals,
   the actual objectives of the specific translation. The major norms
   are implemented by subordinate norms. Thus, two levels of goals and
   of norms have been isolated and analyzed.


 Order No:    AAC 8712577  ProQuest - Dissertation Abstracts
 Title:       CURRICULUM THEORY AND THE BAHA'I FAITH:  RELATIONSHIPS
              BETWEEN THE PHENOMENAL WORLD AND THE SPIRITUAL REALITY
 Author:      SABET, BEHROOZ
 School:      STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK AT BUFFALO (0656)
              Degree: EDD  Date: 1987  pp: 231
 Source:      DAI-A 48/03, p. 553, Sep 1987
 Subject:     EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION (0727); EDUCATION,
              PHILOSOPHY OF (0998); RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY OF (0322)

 Abstract:    This dissertation examines the Bahá'í approach to the
   fundamental dimensions of educational goals and curriculum aims,
   which are concerned with values, purposes, and broad questions about
   the meaning of life, the nature of man, and the ideal state of social
   being.
       Critical considerations are:  (1) A Cultural Analysis of
   Education. The underlying assumption embodies the idea that the
   problem of finding a unifying frame of reference for curriculum is
   intertwined with the fragmentation of cultural patterns of thinking,
   feeling, and acting. For this reason, the study alleges that
   education, as a social institution, if considered apart from the
   process of cultural change, does not offer a significant alternative
   to the growing complexity of human problems. The foregoing argument
   suggests that a philosophy about cultural change is logically prior
   to an inclusive theory of education. It is further argued that the
   necessary and desirable educational dispositions are the ones which
   have been derived from the aims, principles, and methods of such a
   unifying philosophy. (2) A Methodical Presentation of the
   Philosophical Assumptions, and Fundamental Principles of the Bahá'í
   Faith. This section includes a study of the Bahá'í paradigm as a
   reference for organizing elements of an emerging world culture which
   is based on organic oneness of mankind, peace, and justice. The
   latter characteristics are used to generate curriculum aims. (3)
   Identification of Curriculum Aims. Two desirable curriculum aims,
   drawn upon principles from the Bahá'í Faith, are formulated and
   identified as "the spiritual aim" and "the social aim". "The
   spiritual aim" is derived from the Bahá'í premise concerning the
   perennial purpose of religion which focuses upon the processes of
   human perfection and individual transformation. "The social aim" of
   curriculum, on the other hand, is concerned with a second premise of
   the Bahá'í Faith, the social purpose of religion, which focuses upon
   the processes of cultural change and social reconstruction.
       In conclusion, it is argued that since the full and harmonious
   development of man's spiritual nature requires an appropriate social
   environment, the curriculum, in order to be comprehensive, must
   address the processes of both individual transformation and social
   change. These two aims are then considered mutually interactive and
   together provide a matrix for the development of a comprehensive
   curriculum theory.


 Order No:    AAC 8715639  ProQuest - Dissertation Abstracts
 Title:       THE HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF BAHA'I EDUCATION IN THE
              UNITED STATES, 1892-1986
 Author:      MOWZOON, FARIDEH
 School:      THE GEORGE WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY (0075)  Degree: EDD
              Date: 1987  pp: 299
 Source:      DAI-A 48/04, p. 851, Oct 1987
 Subject:     EDUCATION, HISTORY OF (0520)

 Abstract:    This study investigates the history and development of
   Bahá'í education in the United States, beginning with Ibrahim
   Kheirallah's arrival in Chicago in 1892 and the inauguration of his
   classes on an informal basis. Many people were attracted to the new
   teachings, and within a few years, Bahá'í classes were held in many
   states.
       After communication was established between American believers
   and  Abdu'l-Bahá (the Interpreter and Examplar of the Faith), the
   first group of American Bahá'ís visited Him in the Holy Land in 1898
   and learned principles of Bahá'í education. Some remained in the Holy
   Land to study the teachings in depth and learn Persian and Arabic. On
   their return, they translated and printed books and guidelines and
   held more classes for children and adults.
       In April 1912,  Abdu'l-Bahá came to the United States. During his
   eight-month stay, he visited a number of educational institutions and
   individuals associated with education. He presented discourses at
   many universities, including Columbia, Howard, and Stanford. He
   revealed many tablets on the subject of education and constantly
   encouraged developments in that field.
       After  Abdu'l-Bahá's death, Shoghi Effendi (the Guardian of the
   Faith) took a keen interest in the advancement of Bahá'í schools and
   encouraged their development toward the ideal Bahá'í universities of
   the future.
       Fifty-two Bahá'í schools have been established in the United
   States, the first in 1929 in Green Acre, Maine. In 1984, Louhelen was
   the first Bahá'í school to be approved for development as a college.
   Louhelen is a two-year college with a special educational program and
   is affiliated with Mott Community College and the University of
   Michigan-Flint. The Louhelen Council has adopted a ten-year plan to
   establish the groundwork for an eventual Bahá'í university. Bahá'í
   education identifies three kinds of education--material, human, and
   spiritual. Spiritual education and character training are integral
   parts of the curriculum in Bahá'í education.


 Order No:    NOT AVAILABLE FROM UMI  ProQuest - Dissertation Abstracts
 Title:       THE CHICAGO BAHA'I COMMUNITY, 1921-1939.
 Author:      PERRY, MARK LLOYD
 School:      THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO (0330)  Degree: PHD  Date: 1986
 Source:      ADD X1986
 Subject:     HISTORY, MODERN (0582)



 Order No:    AAC 8526959  ProQuest - Dissertation Abstracts
 Title:       BECOMING A BAHA'I:  DISCOURSE AND SOCIAL NETWORKS IN AN
              AMERICAN RELIGIOUS MOVEMENT
 Author:      WYMAN, JUNE R.
 School:      THE CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY OF AMERICA (0043)  Degree: PHD
              Date: 1985  pp: 205
 Source:      DAI-A 46/11, p. 3401, May 1986
 Subject:     ANTHROPOLOGY, CULTURAL (0326)

 Abstract:    American Bahá'ís belong to an international religious
   movement whose 2 million members follow the teachings of Bahá'u'lláh,
   a 19th century Persian religious teacher. The aim of this study was
   to examine how American Bahá'ís interpret their religion and how
   those understandings shape their social interactions.
       Data were gathered in 15 months of ethnographic research among
   Bahá'ís in central Pennsylvania and Washington, D.C. I conducted
   intensive, open-ended interviews with 55 American Bahá'ís including
   "new believers" (recent converts), "old believers," and people raised
   as Bahá'ís; informants were questioned about their religious
   backgrounds, about how they became Bahá'ís, and about their
   experiences as Bahá'ís. I also collected Bahá'í written accounts and
   took field notes at American Bahá'í meetings, lectures, classes, and
   other events.
       A cultural analysis of these materials showed that American
   Bahá'ís interpret the Bahá'í religion primarily as a narrative for
   culturally constituting the individual. This finding supports
   evidence, from other analyses of American culture, that Americans
   tend to privatize their concepts of social forms. The American Bahá'í
   concept of religion as an aid in search of the self contrasts with
   Bahá'í doctrine, which holds individuals to be important mainly as
   instruments of God's plan to transform society.
       Further analysis revealed that the conversations in which these
   self-shapings are developed generate the social networks of American
   Bahá'í life. Potential converts become Bahá'ís by being drawn into
   dialogues where their past lives are recast, in an American Bahá'í
   framework, as paths leading them to the Bahá'í faith. After "seekers"
   convert, these networks are reproduced in ongoing conversations about
   the self--for example, about "tests" that Bahá'u'lláh sends believers
   to advance their spiritual progress.
       In sum, a cultural analysis of the Bahá'í faith in an American
   context shows how religious discourse can be appropriated for other
   purposes in particular settings--in the American setting I studied,
   as a tool for defining the self. This finding offers an alternative
   to prevailing social science models that see conversion to "cults"
   and "sects" as something exotic to be explained by social function or
   psychological need, rather than as a reproduction of a fundamental
   American cultural concept: the individual.


 Order No:    AAC 8509585  ProQuest - Dissertation Abstracts
 Title:       SPIRITUAL IDEALS IN NON-FORMAL RURAL DEVELOPMENT:
              RATIONALE AND STRATEGIES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF
              ANALOGICAL PICTOGRAPHS (BAHA'I)
 Author:      OLDZIEY, PETER ADAM
 School:      UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS (0118)  Degree: EDD
              Date: 1985  pp: 313
 Source:      DAI-A 46/03, p. 583, Sep 1985
 Subject:     EDUCATION, ADULT AND CONTINUING (0516)

 Abstract:    The purpose of this dissertation is twofold. First, it
   seeks to substantiate the inclusion of spiritual ideals within the
   planning and development of non-formal education programs. As such,
   the review of the literature will also develop a rationale. This
   rationale is a philosophical and historical investigation of the
   central premises of formal education and the development of an
   alternative philosophical foundation more relevant to the problems of
   rural development. It proposes that the central dilemma of the modern
   epoch is a confusion of first principles; that human affairs and the
   systems designed to serve them have been impoverished by the
   wholesale application of a reductionist paradigm. This paradigm works
   extremely well for the physical sciences, but is wholly inadequate
   when applied to human affairs. The humanitarian ideal as enunciated
   by Socrates and Plato is suggested as a much more appropriate
   paradigm for human service systems.
       The second purpose of the dissertation is the development of some
   initial educational materials and strategies that could symbolize
   spiritual concepts in a way which would permit dialogue with a
   non-literate population. A developmental project operationalizing the
   theoretical premises outlined in the rationale is initiated. This
   project involves the selection of a rural, non-literate population
   and develops symbolical vehicles and educational strategies designed
   to disseminate these concepts to this population. This will primarily
   involve the development of a booklet of visual analogies. The target
   populations are selected communities in South Carolina and Georgia
   comprised of members of the Baha'(')i Faith, a worldwide, independent
   religion.
       The planned methodology is described in Chapter III. However,
   what emerges from the project's development is something quite
   different from what was anticipated at the outset. The "emergent
   outcomes" enable the author to critique the value of empirical models
   of evaluation within non-formal settings. This critique and the
   results of the evaluation are contained within Chapter V. The
   dissertation concludes by suggesting possible approaches to
   evaluation and program structure which are more consonant with the
   philosophical premises enshrined in the humanitarian ideal.


 Order No:    AAC 8600876  ProQuest - Dissertation Abstracts
 Title:       COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION IN RADIO FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT:
              RADIO BAHA'I, OTAVALO, ECUADOR (MEDIA)
 Author:      HEIN, KURT JOHN
 School:      NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY (0163)  Degree: PHD  Date: 1985
              pp: 436
 Source:      DAI-A 46/11, p. 3182, May 1986
 Subject:     MASS COMMUNICATIONS (0708)

 Abstract:    The dominant paradigm of communication, specifically
   traditional theories of communication and the institutional models
   derived from those theories, has proved inadequate to promote the
   social and economic development of "marginalized" people,
   particularly the rural poor in developing countries. This study
   suggests that James Carey's "ritual" theory of communication offers a
   more adequate theoretical description of the communication process
   and that the "ritual" theory finds its practical corollary in the
   notion of "community participation"--peoples' access to,
   participation in and, ultimately, self-management of the social
   institutions that affect their lives.
       Few attempts have been made to apply principles of participation
   to development-oriented media messages and institutions. The primary
   purpose of this historical-analytical study is to examine the
   principles and practices of Radio Bahá'í in Otavalo, Ecuador, perhaps
   the first media institution in the world dedicated to
   institutionalizing "participation" in all aspects of its operations.
   Through document research, interviews, and participant-observation
   techniques, the study examines the philosophy, administrative
   structure, management practices, operational procedures, program
   content, production and training methodologies of Radio Bahá'í. In
   addition, two surveys assessed audience response to the station and
   its programming.
       The study found that Radio Bahá'í was very popular and played a
   significant role in promoting the social and economic development of
   its primary audience--rural, indigenous peasants. This success is
   attributable in part to methods of operation based on principles of
   participation derived from a "ritual" paradigm--in this case, the
   Bahá'í teachings. As a result, virtually all of the elements deemed
   essential to a participatory institution are found in Radio Bahá'í.
       The findings suggest that a "ritual" theory of communication
   holds great promise for the advancement of the field of communication
   and that the model of a participatory media institution developed by
   the station is a significant innovation worthy of replication and
   adaptation in both agrarian and industrialized societies.


 Order No:    AAC 8422734  ProQuest - Dissertation Abstracts
 Title:       BAHA'I WORLD FAITH:  A CASE STUDY IN ADULT SOCIALIZATION
              (RELIGION, CONVERSION)
 Author:      BARTLETT, JEAN ELEANOR
 School:      UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, RIVERSIDE (0032)  Degree: PHD
              Date: 1984  pp: 183
 Source:      DAI-A 45/07, p. 2159, Jan 1985
 Subject:     ANTHROPOLOGY, CULTURAL (0326)

 Abstract:    This study of adult conversion to the Bahá'í Faith was
   undertaken in order to empirically verify two theoretical models that
   seek to explain religious conversion. The models proposed by Lofland
   and Stark (1965) and Snow, Zucker and Ekland-Olson (1980) are
   examined using interview data from twenty-three informants. The
   findings indicate that neither model is adequate to account for
   conversion in this group. Certain characteristics of the Bahá'í
   belief system seem to best account for the failure of both models to
   adequately account for religious conversion to the Bahá'í Faith.
       In order to understand these beliefs and how they affect
   recruitment into the Bahá'í, the basic principles of the Faith, as
   they are usually first encountered by potential recruits, are
   presented in Chapter I. The origins of the Bahá'í Faith are then
   traced. Chapter II compares the ideas of evil and the concept of a
   good man in the Bahá'í and Zoroastrian belief systems. The concepts
   of the Mihdi and the Iman as they affected the emergence of the Bab
   and the Babi religion under Shiih Islam in Iran are examined in
   Chapter III. The development of the Bahai Faith under its prophet
   Bahá'u'lláh and its next two leaders, 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi
   are covered in Chapter IV. The passing of power from an individual
   leader to the Universal House of Justice and the Bahá'í
   administrative system are presented in Chapter V. Chapter VI deals
   with the Local Spiritual Assembly in Rio Vista. Material on religious
   mobility drawn from the literature is set forth in Chapter VII, while
   Chapter VIII is a detailed summary of the conversion experience of
   the twenty-three informants. The last chapter examines the two models
   using the material from the interviews. Conclusions are offered as to
   why the two models fail to account for conversion among the Bahá'í
   and a model is proposed that more adequately explains the process in
   this community.


 Order No:    AAC 8417798  ProQuest - Dissertation Abstracts
 Title:       A PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY OF MARTYRDOM:  A CONTENT ANALYSIS
              OF PERSONAL DOCUMENTS OF BAHA'I MARTYRS OF IRAN WRITTEN
              BETWEEN 1979 AND 1982 (BELIEFS, RESPONSE, SEVERE SOCIAL
              STRESSOR)
 Author:      BETHEL, FERESHTEH TAHERI
 School:      UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY (0239)  Degree: PHD
              Date: 1984  pp: 277
 Source:      DAI-B 45/05, p. 1573, Nov 1984
 Subject:     PSYCHOLOGY, GENERAL (0621)

 Abstract:    The Problem. The purpose of the study was the formulation
   of a psychological theory on martyrdom, based upon a content analysis
   of last available personal documents of Bahá'í martyrs of Iran
   written between 1979 and 1982.
       Method. A content analysis research design and methodology was
   employed. Written communications were analyzed in order to test 2
   general hypotheses and 14 subhypotheses and make inferences about the
   psychological characteristics of the communicators to assess their
   beliefs and responses.
       Results. The first hypothesis, which proposed that the personal
   documents of the Bahá'í martyrs reveal that their internalized
   beliefs, in the face of severe social stressors, follow an
   unconventionally positive stress-belief pattern, was supported.
   Analysis of the data using frequency distribution and percentage
   distribution on seven belief components yielded a significant mean
   percentage of occurrence of 95.2 percent. The second hypothesis,
   which predicted that the personal documents of the Bahá'í martyrs
   reveal that their responses to severe social stressors follow an
   unconventionally positive stress-response pattern, was supported.
   Frequency distribution and percentage distribution on seven response
   components yielded a significant mean percentage of occurrence of
   91.9 percent.
       Results of the study supported the premises that in individuals
   undergoing persecution and imminent execution, faith and belief in a
   cause--spiritual in this case--gives them a new and unique meaning to
   suffering which transforms fear and anxiety into joy. It also creates
   a sense of acceptance, an enlightenment which arouses courage, and a
   perceived transcendental opportunity to affirm the truth of their
   belief and their love for mankind. Pain and suffering were converted
   into a responsibility and commitment to their faith. Without
   neglecting, and with full attention to, their biological world, the
   world of relationships, and their own unique personal realm, they
   acknowledged their tragic situation and transformed it into a source
   of tranquility and certitude in the meaning and purpose of their
   lives.


 Order No:    AAC 8414395  ProQuest - Dissertation Abstracts
 Title:       MARK TOBEY AND THE BAHA'I FAITH:  NEW PERSPECTIVES ON THE
              ARTIST AND HIS PAINTINGS
 Author:      KELLEY, EDWARD RULIEF
 School:      THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN (0227)  Degree: PHD
              Date: 1983  pp: 252
 Source:      DAI-A 45/04, p. 978, Oct 1984
 Subject:     FINE ARTS (0357); BIOGRAPHY (0304)

 Abstract:    This dissertation is primarily an examination of the
   impact of Mark Tobey's adherence to the Baha'(')i religion upon the
   content of his paintings. Tobey was firmly committed to this religion
   from 1918 until his death in 1976. His philosophy and attitudes about
   the meaning of life, the course of history, the prospects for the
   future of civilization, and the importance of artistic expression,
   were in conformity with the tenets of the Baha'(')i Faith.
       After a brief introduction, chapter one discusses the artistic
   environment within which Tobey developed. Associated with the New
   York avant-garde before 1920, Tobey was subsequently in contact with
   other major modern artistic movements of this century during their
   early stages of development in America. The summary of his artistic
   biography is followed by a chapter describing Tobey's early contacts
   with the Baha'(')i Faith, and a brief discussion of the Faith's
   history and basic principles. This chapter also includes the
   highlights of Tobey's Baha'(')i activities and his statements about
   his beliefs.
       Chapter four examines Tobey's early attempts at religious
   expression using representational means. His development of modes of
   expressing concepts beyond external appearances is the topic of the
   fifth chapter. The integration of his non-objective pictorial
   solutions with the use of Arabic and Persian calligraphy as religious
   iconography is explored next. Chapter seven reevaluates the influence
   of Asian art upon Tobey's paintings, distinguishing between the
   "calligraphic impulse" he received from Chinese and Japanese art and
   the use of Middle Eastern calligraphy as content.
       Light, time and space, and Revelation are three recurrent themes
   in Tobey's work. In chapter eight these themes are examined in
   relation to Baha'(')i teachings, especially as expressed in books
   owned by Tobey and in statements he made about these subjects. The
   impact of the Baha'(')i Faith upon Tobey's formal development, as
   well as upon the content of his paintings, is summarized in the
   conclusion. A coda assesses the status of Mark Tobey in twentieth
   century art.


 Order No:    AAC 1321402  ProQuest - Dissertation Abstracts
 Title:       ZOROASTRIAN CONVERSIONS TO THE BAHA'I FAITH IN YAZD, IRAN.
 Author:      STILES, SUSAN JUDITH
 School:      THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA (0009)  Degree: MA  Date: 1983
              pp: 114
 Source:      MAI 22/02, p. 194, Summer 1984
 Subject:     RELIGION, HISTORY OF (0320)


 Order No:    AAC 8220927  ProQuest - Dissertation Abstracts
 Title:       NEEDS ASSESSMENT SURVEY TO DETERMINE THE TRAINING
              REQUIREMENTS OF INTERNATIONAL BAHA'I TRAVELING TEACHERS
 Author:      GOTTLIEB, RANDIE SHEVIN
 School:      BOSTON UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF EDUCATION (0851)  Degree: EDD
              Date: 1982  pp: 307
 Source:      DAI-A 43/04, p. 1118, Oct 1982
 Subject:     EDUCATION, TEACHER TRAINING (0530)

 Abstract:    The Baha'(')i Faith is a worldwide religious faith with
   approximately 4 million adherents in 363 countries, including 100,000
   members in the United States. An international Baha'(')i traveling
   teacher is one who travels overseas on a temporary assignment to
   assist the host-country Baha'(')i institutions with their plans and
   programs. The purpose of this investigation was to determine
   selection criteria and training needs for international Baha'(')i
   traveling teachers.
       Following a literature review of the fields of cross-cultural
   communication and international training design, and a content
   analysis of traveling teacher reports, a questionnaire was developed,
   tested, and mailed to 200 returned teachers, and to Baha'(')i
   institutions in the 81 countries they had visited.
       Responses reflect the diversity of the travel-teaching
   experience. Field conditions encountered by teachers are described,
   activities performed and resources used are ranked by importance and
   need for instruction, desirable teacher characteristics are
   specified, critical incidents are discussed, and major influences on
   performance are determined. A correlational analysis indicates that
   travel-teaching success is largely related to careful planning and
   regular assistance from the host Baha'(')i community. A factor
   analysis shows Team Composition, Trip Purpose, Types of Co-workers,
   and Planning and Supervision, to be the four main components
   underlying success.
       Based on the findings, selection criteria are recommended, and a
   four-level orientation and training program is outlined. The program
   emphasizes job competence, language fluency, cross-cultural
   communication, area studies, and overseas living and travel skills.


 Order No:    NOT AVAILABLE FROM UMI  ProQuest - Dissertation Abstracts
 Title:       EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF BAHA'I PHILOSOPHY WITH A
              SPECIAL CONSIDERATION OF THE CONCEPT OF UNITY
 Author:      ZAERPOOR, MAHYAD
 School:      UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA (0208)  Degree: PHD
              Date: 1981
 Source:      DAI-A 42/08, p. 3495, Feb 1982
 Subject:     EDUCATION, PHILOSOPHY OF (0998)

 Abstract:    The purpose was to derive the educational implications of
   the Bahá'í philosophy with special consideration of the concept of
   unity as an underlying structure of both Bahá'í philosophy and Bahá'í
   education. The Bahá'í Faith is a new, independent, universal religion
   founded by Bahá'u'lláh in the middle of the nineteenth century in
   Iran. Although a religion, the Bahá'í Faith shows clear outlooks of
   metaphysical, epistemological, and ethical issues wherein the concept
   of unity plays an absolutely essential role. In the three key
   elements of Bahá'í metaphysics (God, the Manifestations, the created
   world) unity is embodied in various principles. When the world of God
   is concerned, the three most important principles are:  (a) absolute
   unity of the essence and the attributes of God; (b) unity of God and
   His Manifestations; and (c) the world of creation as an echo of the
   unity of God. In the world of the Manifestations the two essential
   tenets are:  (a) the unity underlying the reality of the
   Manifestations and (b) the unity of the Manifestations' Missions to
   advance mankind toward world unity. Unity is also shown in at least
   two principles when the human being is concerned:  (a) the essential
   unity of the spiritual, intellectual, and physical dimensions of man
   and (b) the necessity for unity of mankind. In the Bahá'í
   epistemological system the concept of unity is emphasized when the
   teachings show that there must be a harmonious utilization of all
   modes of knowing. The Bahá'í belief in essentiality of both relative
   and absolute values is based upon the significance of unity in the
   Bahá'í ethical system.
       Metaphysical, epistemological, and ethical foundations of the
   Bahá'í Faith are the major sources for deriving a Bahá'í approach to
   education. Bahá'í metaphysics implies that not only must there be a
   unity of the elements involved in the educative processes, education
   must function as a unifying force, helping to unite both the diverse
   factors in human existence as well as the members of the human race.
   The basic principle of unity of all epistemological modes directly
   implies that different instructional methodologies be considered
   complementary and be utilized harmoniously. In brief, the concept of
   unity is embodied in and dominates almost all the elements of
   education, including the nature of curriculum, the role of the
   teacher, and the function of administrative bodies. All of these
   elements must function as integrated and united wholes in order to
   serve effectively the two most fundamental goals of Bahá'í education:
   the harmonious development of the individual and the advancement of
   human societies towards world unity.

 Order No:    AAC 8213272  ProQuest - Dissertation Abstracts
 Title:       THE IMPACT OF RELIGION, SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS, AND DEGREE
              OF RELIGIOSITY ON FAMILY PLANNING AMONG MOSLEMS AND
              BAHA'IS IN IRAN:  A PILOT SURVEY RESEARCH
 Author:      JENSEN, MEHRI SAMANDARI
 School:      UNIVERSITY OF NORTHERN COLORADO (0161)  Degree: EDD
              Date: 1981  pp: 108
 Source:      DAI-A 43/01, p. 273, Jul 1982
 Subject:     SOCIOLOGY, DEMOGRAPHY (0938)

 Abstract:    The purpose of this investigation was to point out two
   methodological deficiencies in the area of differential fertility
   research in the Middle East and to propose possible refinements in
   the method to correct the deficiencies. (1) To control for the
   possible contaminating effects of the non-Iranian national origins of
   the Christians previously studied, this research investigated and
   compared another religious minority in Iran, namely Bahá'ís, who are
   an indigenous population and who comprise the largest religious
   minority group. (2) To correct the second methodological shortcoming,
   it was proposed that religious affiliation per se should not weigh as
   heavily in determining individual behavior as should the degree of
   religiosity: the feelings, beliefs, practices, and knowledge of their
   respective religions.
       The following hypothesis was formulated and tested: Bahá'ís and
   Moslems differ in family planning because specific religious factors
   present in Islam tend to impede its practice. Among these are:  (1)
   the absence of equal rights and statuses between men and women, a
   fact which tends to discourage women from pursuing formal education,
   making decisions about their social and personal lives such as number
   of children, and (2) a high level of fatalism which discourages
   planning, rational decision making, and the utilization of modern
   medical and health measures.
       A scale of socio-economic status was devised to measure this
   independent variable. Another scale was developed to measure the
   intervening variable of degree of religiosity of Moslems and Bahá'ís.
       The result indicated that in the Moslem village, the birthrate
   was higher, the number of desired children was higher than the number
   of pregnancies, the number of children who were born was lower than
   the number of pregnancies, the number of children who lived was the
   lowest of all. Furthermore, the number of accidents and losses for
   baby girls among the Areteh villagers (Moslem) was more than that for
   baby boys. This reflects the desirability and preferences for male
   offspring among Moslems.
       The findings in the present investigation confirmed that Bahá'ís
   and Moslems in Iran indeed differ in their pattern of family planning
   desires, attitudes, and practicies in all categories of
   socio-economic status, residential and religious commitment.


 Order No:    AAC 8022655  ProQuest - Dissertation Abstracts
 Title:       THE GROWTH AND SPREAD OF THE BAHA'I FAITH
 Author:      HAMPSON, ARTHUR
 School:      UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII (0085)  Degree: PHD  Date: 1980
              pp: 523
 Source:      DAI-A 41/04, p. 1769, Oct 1980
 Subject:     GEOGRAPHY (0366)

 Abstract:    Since its beginning in 1844, the Bahá'í Faith has spread
   to all parts of the non-Communist world. At first, the religion was
   confined to Persia and Iraq where Shi'ah Islam is dominant, but after
   Bahá'u'lláh (Prophet-founder of the religion) was banished to distant
   parts of the Ottoman Empire the movement was able to penetrate many
   areas of the Sunni world as well. In 1893 the religion was
   transmitted to North America from where, over a period of six
   decades, a vigorous campaign of global dissemination was undertaken.
   By 1953, the religion was well established on all continents;
   thereafter, global diffusion proceeded from a number of widely
   distributed centers of the religion rather than from just the two
   older core areas (Persia and North America).
       The Bahá'í Faith has always pursued an expansionist policy
   consisting of three main strategies: numerical increase, geographical
   dispersion, and compositional diversity of the membership. In the
   early years, growth was generally encouraged by the charismatic
   leaders of the religion, but from 1919 on expansion was directed by
   definitive and authoritative plans embodying the three main
   strategies for growth. These plans have become broader and more
   detailed in the past few decades so that today Bahá'í expansion is
   guided by very precise objectives for increasing the numbers and
   kinds of believers and for insuring that they are widely dispersed.
       The objective of this research has been to describe and account
   for the growth and spread of the Bahá'í Faith. The religion has been
   considered as an innovation, and its dissemination has been viewed as
   a consequence of its internal structure and decision-making patterns.
   It was found that a strong and centralized leadership has facilitated
   diffusion, that religious beliefs have favored dissemination efforts,
   and that policy and planning have successfully directed Bahá'í
   expansion.
       At the same time, the staging and direction of Bahá'í expansion
   frequently has been influenced by attitudes, conditions, and events
   lying outside the direct control of the Bahá'í movement. For example,
   in its early years the religion was geographically confined by its
   cultural context and religious roots while later on political
   conditions frequently influenced where the movement could and could
   not become established. In general, physical, social, and economic
   distance have inhibited diffusion, but aggressive dissemination
   policies and ambitious growth plans have greatly weakened the force
   of these traditional resistors to diffusion.
       Between 1893 and 1953 North America was the main geographic
   source of Bahá'í expansion. Within this area, growth was substantial
   but not constant. In the first few decades there were alternating
   periods of growth and decline and only after the 1920s did the
   religion begin to increase its membership at a steadily accelerating
   rate. The capacity of the movement to enlarge appears to have
   depended on unanimous acceptance of religious authority; growth
   proceeded regularly whenever the leadership and the administrative
   order were recognized by all Bahá'ís, but diffusion was curtailed
   whenever these repositories of religious authority were questioned by
   a part of the religion's membership.
       Throughout the twentieth century, Bahá'í growth in North America
   has been dependent on conversions; natural increase has always been a
   minor source of expansion. Continent-wide dissemination of the
   religion has relied heavily on migration of believers, usually from
   large urban centers containing Bahá'í concentrations to other
   locations where believers have been few or absent. This pattern has
   been strongly encouraged and has resulted in a highly dispersed
   Bahá'í community, a condition which also exists at the global level.


 Order No:    AAC 8015115  ProQuest - Dissertation Abstracts
 Title:       A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE POETRY OF ROBERT HAYDEN THROUGH
              HIS MIDDLE YEARS
 Author:      WILLIAMS, PONTHEOLLA TAYLOR
 School:      COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY TEACHERS COLLEGE (0055)  Degree: EDD
              Date: 1978  pp: 215
 Source:      DAI-A 41/01, p. 256, Jul 1980
 Subject:     LITERATURE, AMERICAN (0591)

 Abstract:    The purpose of this dissertation is to present a critical
   study of Robert Hayden's poetry from nineteen forty to nineteen
   sixty-six: from his early to his middle period. A product of
   Afro-American and white American literary traditions, he was once a
   member of the Wright Protest School. At the core of Hayden's poetry
   is his conviction that poetry is a means by which he can correct
   racial stereotypes and distortion of Afro-American history. His
   interest in Afro-American and other oppressed groups aligns him with
   humanistic writers who have championed the cause of the dignity and
   human rights of man. Hayden is a symbolist poet writing in the modern
   romantic tradition, but his fidelity to facts relates him to the
   realists. "The deep immortal wish / the timeless will" to be free,
   and the positive force of Divine love are central themes in his
   poetry.
       Notwithstanding his recent national honors, Hayden is still a
   relatively unknown American poet. Therefore, this dissertation
   includes a brief biography which serves both to introduce the poet to
   the audience and provide insight into his shaping influences,
   motivating factors, and resources.
       The Great Depression provides the perspective through which
   Hayden handled the material of his first volume, and it motivated the
   humanistic concern in much of his subsequent poetry. Heart Shape in
   the Dust (1940) reveals Hayden's early leftist sympathies and, more
   importantly, it initiates his Afro-American history themes. Poems of
   didactic statement characterize this apprentice work, but it
   demonstrates some regard for style and non-topical American Marxist
   content that foreshadows Hayden's later achievement.
       Hayden's poems, free of leftist preaching and rhetorical style,
   form the first half of The Lion and the Archer (1948) (co-author
   Myron O'Higgins' poems comprise the second half). Hayden's pivotal
   style in this volume marks the beginning of his twenty-three-year
   pilgrimage to the South. Mastery of modern prosody distinguishes the
   dominant theme, the historically dehumanizing relationship between
   Black and white Southerners.
       Figure of Time (1955), Hayden's third work, introduces his
   religious and ghetto verse. The Bahá'í concept of the oneness of
   mankind in Divine love replaces the rejected political promise of
   Communism. His ghetto verses in this volume evoke the sense of
   displacement, alienation, desperation, and joy ghetto people know.
       A Ballad of Remembrance (1962) is dominated by Hayden's
   Afro-American history and Mexican poems. "Veracruz," one of his
   Mexican poems, extends his humanistic concern for the poor to include
   consideration of international groups, and "Middle Passage" is the
   signal Afro-American history poem. The volume is largely responsible
   for gaining Hayden the international recognition accorded him in his
   Grand Prix de Poesie award received at the First International
   Festival of Negro Arts held at Dakar, Senegal, 1966.
       Selected Poems (1966), is Hayden's second major American
   publication, and won for him limited but substantial national
   recognition and, in his view, really began his poetic career. It
   consists largely of the Ballad of Remembrance collection, carefully
   and characteristically revised and rearranged, as well as thirteen
   miscellaneous works of which "The Diver," a symbolic, private poem,
   is signal.
       Hayden's poetry at this point of his development transcends the
   limitations of mere social protest. A more mature craftsman, he was
   beginning to get the critical acclaim that he deserved, and had
   become a powerful poet who shaped his verse with probing insight into
   his characters and their place in the historical continuum. By
   depicting the way society has brutalized and dehumanized the
   Afro-American, Hayden tried to make a dent in his reader's
   conscience. He demands that Afro-Americans be recognized as human
   beings. If America does not know who its dispossessed are, Hayden
   insists, America does not really know itself, an indictment
   vindicated by events in the violent 'sixties.


 Order No:    AAC 1310763  ProQuest - Dissertation Abstracts
 Title:       GLOBAL COMMUNITY:  CASE STUDY OF THE HOUSTON BAHA'IS.
 Author:      ARCHER, MARY ELIZABETH
 School:      UNIVERSITY OF HOUSTON (0087)  Degree: MA  Date: 1977
              pp: 303
 Source:      MAI 16/02, p. 126, Summer 1978
 Subject:     SOCIOLOGY, GENERAL (0626)


 Order No:    AAC 7520564  ProQuest - Dissertation Abstracts
 Title:       AN HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF CRITICAL TRANSFORMATIONS IN THE
              EVOLUTION OF THE BAHA'I WORLD FAITH.
 Author:      JOHNSON, VERNON ELVIN
 School:      BAYLOR UNIVERSITY (0014)  Degree: PHD  Date: 1974  pp: 458
 Source:      DAI-A 36/03, p. 1600, Sep 1975
 Subject:     RELIGION, HISTORY OF (0320)



 Order No:    AAC 6920616  ProQuest - Dissertation Abstracts
 Title:       THE POSSIBLE NATURE AND ESTABLISHMENT OF BAHA'I
              UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES BASED UPON A STUDY OF BAHA'I
              LITERATURE
 Author:      ROST, HARRY TIMBRELL DYSON
 School:      UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH DAKOTA (0203)  Degree: EDD  Date: 1969
              pp: 432
 Source:      DAI-A 30/10, p. 4290, Apr 1970
 Subject:     EDUCATION, RELIGIOUS (0527)


 Order No:    AAC 6609397  ProQuest - Dissertation Abstracts
 Title:       A SOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE BAHA'I MOVEMENT
 Author:      MAHMOUDI, JALIL
 School:      THE UNIVERSITY OF UTAH (0240)  Degree: PHD  Date: 1966
              pp: 156
 Source:      DAI-A 27/04, p. 1121, Oct 1966
 Subject:     SOCIOLOGY, GENERAL (0626)


 Order No:    NOT AVAILABLE FROM UMI  ProQuest - Dissertation Abstracts
 Title:       FROM SECT TO CHURCH:  A SOCIOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION OF THE
              BAHA'I MOVEMENT
 Author:      BERGER, PETER L.
 School:      NEW SCHOOL FOR SOCIAL RESEARCH (0145)  Degree: PHD
              Date: 1954
 Source:      ADD W1954
 Subject:     SOCIOLOGY, GENERAL (0626)
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