Bahá'í Library Online
. . . .
>>   Bibliographies Study Guides
Annotated list of historical references to Baha'u'llah's "Adrianople period".

Bibliography for the Tablets of Baha'u'llah:
List of citations and resources for Tablets revealed 1863-1868

compiled by Jonah Winters.


This bibliography gives all of the relevant primary and secondary citations I could find for each of the Tablets discussed by Adib Taherzadeh, The Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh vol. 2, the Adrianople period. I went through every potentially relevant book, journal, and website I could find that's been written in English—about 400—to find all mentions of each Tablet. About 1/3 of these mentions contained no significant information and weren't included in this list. The other 2/3 have been included. Most citations that contained extensive information have been annotated, i.e. I've included a short sentence describing the topic of the treatment in question. Citations without annotation just feature brief but useful information.


  1. There is no need to use the Leiden List to the Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh for these Tablets for this course, because all information it contains has been provided below. I am indebted to Sen McGlinn and its other contributors for the information they have provided.
  2. I arranged the Secondary Sources first by key texts, then supplementary ones. The key texts are in the order of (1) definitions, (2) authoritative writings, (3) authoritative histories. The specific order is as follows: Basic Bahá'í Dictionary and Chronology; writings of Shoghi Effendi; letters from the Universal House of Justice; descriptive books by Taherzadeh; and official histories by Balyuzi. The supplementary ones following are first journal articles and then other secondary books, in no particular order.
  3. The only notable items which have not been consulted for citations are Moojan Momen's The Babi and Bahá'í Religions 1844-1944: Some Contemporary Western Accounts and all Bahá'í Worlds prior to 1979. As well, the Internet has not been searched, nor even this site, so there are doubtless numerous other materials online only that have not been included.

Name of tablet Brief notes Primary Sources (translations) Secondary sources: first key
texts, then supplementary texts
Overviews of this period     notes on Adrianople Momen Basic Bahá'í Dictionary 10; mentions of period Bahá'u'lláh ESW 68-9, 106-8, 123-5, 132, 137; mentions of Adrianople Bahá'u'lláh Aqdas K37, Q100, n33, n63, n190; mentions of Constantinople Aqdas 15, K89, 164, n107, n119-20, n178; mentions of and addresses to Kings Aqdas K78-93, 163; anecdotes from period Furutan Stories of Bahá'u'lláh 31-41; anecdotes from period Muhammad Aliy-i Salmani My Memories 25-70 passim, 93-105; overview of period Abdu'l-Bahá SAQ 31-4; mentions of period and tablets to kings PUP 12, 27, 202-3, 223-4, 301, 372, 388, 398; eyewitness discussion of the Adrianople period Mirza Haydar-Ali Stories Delight of Hearts 21-8; GPB 171-7, PDC paragraphs 12, 22, 41-61, 68-119, 152-62, 170-5, 210; Balyuzi BKoG 196-260; Revelation vol.3 108-10

brief overview of letters to the Kings Hatcher Ocean of His Words 126-31; discussion of Bahá'u'lláh's self disclosure in these tablets Buck Paradise and Paradigm 139-41; notes on the duties of the kings Peter Smith The Babi and Bahá'í Religions 74-7; many mentions of period and of themes of Bahá'u'lláhs revelation during in Juan Cole Modernity and the Millennium passim; some discussions of period Cole "Redating the Surah of God," in BSB 6:4-7:2 (October 1992); passing mentions Stephen Lambden "Some Notes on Bahá'u'lláh's Gradually-Evolving Claims of the Adrianople/Edirne Period," in BSB 5:3-6:1 (June 1991), 75-83; overview of regional politics in the period in Moojan Momen "The Bahá'í Influence on the Reform Movements of the Islamic World in the 1860s and 1870s," in BSB 2:2 (September 1983), 47-65
("The Wondrous Book," "the Unique Book")

Note: tablet bears no relation to the person surnamed Badi'

Mainly Persian. Apologia to Azalis. Addressee is Mirza Mihdiy-i Gilani or Mirza Mihdiy-i Rashti (not to be confused with Bahá'u'lláh's son Mirza Mihdi, surnamed "the purest Branch"], in the form of the words of Aqa Muhammad-'Ali Tambaku-Furush of Isfahan (the recipient of the tablet Subhánika-Yá-Hú, also known as the Lawh-i Naqus, Tablet of the Bell)
Two sentences trans. GPB 28 mentioned GPB 172; mentioned Balyuzi BKoG 124, 245 footnote, 257; brief discussion Taherzadeh Revelation vol.1 102, 250, 279; described Revelation vol.2 370-387

description Hatcher Ocean of His Words 84-86; analysis of one passage Buck Paradise and Paradigm 327
Lawh-i-Ahmad Arabic
(Tablet to Ahmad)
Edirne, about 1865.

Addressee Ahmad-i Yazdi.
Tasbih va Tahlil 215-218; Rosen3 t4; Ad'iyyih-i H.Mahbub 193-9; Nafahat-i Fadl 1; INBA 30. Ms in the hand of Bahá'u'lláh. Mss also in hand of 'Abdu'l- Bahá.

Trans. 1924 by Shoghi Effendi with the assistance of Dr. Esslemont and printed in many prayerbooks, from 1933 on, including Bahá'í Prayers, US 1991 209; MacEoin Rituals 121-2 (abridged one para.). Earlier translations appear in early prayerbooks.
definition/bio notes Momen Basic Bahá'í Dictionary 11; brief mention Balyuzi BKoG 217; discussed Taherzadeh Revelation vol.2 107-36; mention of recipient Revelation vol.3 257; discussion of meaning of sincerity in tablet Revelation vol.4 141

paper by Omid Furutan presented at the 7th Annual Grand Canyon Bahá'í Conference December 1991; extensive description and analysis Hatcher Ocean of His Words 340-378; discussion of historical relevance of recipient to tablet John Hatcher "The Validity and Value of an Historical-Critical Approach" in BS3 42-6; analysis of the name "Ahmad" (though no mention of this tablet) Stephen Lambden "Prophecy in the Johannine Farewell Discourse" in BS3 76-89; meanings of tablet Seena Fazel "Understanding Exclusivist Texts" in BS3 269-70
Lawh-i-Ahmad Persian
(Tablet to Ahmad)

Addressee is Haji Mirza Ahmad of Kashan.
Majmu'ih-yi Alvah-i Mubarakih 315-330; Darya-i Danish 114-130. One of the tablets of Ahmad is in INBA30.

Almost two thirds has been trans. Gleanings CLII (=Majmu'ih-yi Alvah-i Mubarakih 317-9/Darya-i Danish 116-8) and Gleanings CLIII (=Majmu'ih-yi Alvah-i Mubarakih 315-6, 320-22, 324-7, 328-9 / Darya-i Danish 114-5, 119-21, 123-6, 128-9).
definition/bio notes Momen Basic Bahá'í Dictionary 11-12; anecdotes of tablet and recipient Salmani My Memories 46-50 and elsewhere, passim; mentions of tablet and discussion of recipient Balyuzi BKoG 157, 179, 202, 220-3, 227, 231, 253, 261, 323, illustration 200; tablet mentioned Taherzadeh Covenant 82 and footnote; discussed Taherzadeh Revelation vol.2 137-151, mention of recipient 67, 118, 127, 137, 159

description Hatcher Ocean of His Words 361-5
(Tablet for Ashraf [the Noble])
Edirne, after separation.

Arabic. Addressee is Siyyid Ashraf Zanjani, also known as Aqa Siyyid Ashraf (not to be confused with Mulla Ashraf, mentioned in Haydar-Ali Stories Delight of Hearts 113-116, or Aqa Mirza Ashraf-i-Abadi'i who was martyred in Isfahan, and concerning whom Bahá'u'lláh writes these words in the Epistle to the Son of the Wolf, p. 72: 'Before them one named Kazim ...
and after them, his honour Ashraf, all quaffed the draught of martyrdom...'
Majmu'ih-yi Alvah-i Mubarakih 211-219. Section trans. Gleanings LII (Majmu'ih-yi Alvah-i Mubarakih 212-4). mention of recipient Bahá'u'lláh ESW 73-4; GPB 199-200; anecdotes of recipient Muhammad Aliy-i Salmani My Memories 71-2; discussion of recipient Balyuzi BKoG 236, bio note 470; recipient and tablet discussed Taherzadeh Revelation vol.2 223-232, quoted 120

brief mention Stephen Lambden "Sinaitic mysteries" in SBBR5 136-7
(Tablet of Glory)
Edirne, prior to separation.

Arabic, with parts trans. to Persian by Bahá'u'lláh. Addressee is Khatun-Jan.
Ganj-i Shayigan 40-42 (incomp.). mention of recipient Abdu'l-Bahá Memorials 200 (199 in old ed.); mention of period (though no mention of tablet) GPB 166-8, Balyuzi BKoG 230-1, and Taherzadeh Covenant 84-5; period and tablet discussed Taherzadeh Revelation vol.2 162-3, 171, 179-80
Lawh-i-Hawdaj, Suriy-i Hawdaj, Lawh-i Samsun
(Tablet of the Howdah, Tablet from Samsun)
Istanbul (actually at Samsun, en route from Baghdad to Istanbul).

Arabic, 1863.
Ganj-i Shayigan 67 (incomp.); La'alyiu'l-Hikmat Vol.1 4. Translation Stephen Lambden BSB 3:4, 84-97. definition of howdah Momen Basic Bahá'í Dictionary 111; description of context GPB 156-7; anecdote of location and tablet Muhammad Aliy-i Salmani My Memories 34-5; description of howdah My Memories 127, illustration of howdah 24; discussion of context Balyuzi BKoG 175-97, illustration 177; overview of period Taherzadeh Revelation vol.1 283-92; discussed Revelation vol.2 6-7, 16 (with summary of contents)

complete annotated translation Stephen Lambden BSB 3:4 (December 1985), 84-97; brief mention Hatcher Ocean of His Words 92; discussion Buck Paradise and Paradigm 224; E. G. Browne Materials for the Study of the Babi Religion 17 (online at
(Tablet to Jinab-i Khalil [the friend])
Edirne, after separation (March 1866?)

Not to be confused with Lawh-i Khalil II (possibly trans. Gleanings CXXVII) or Lawh-i Khalil III (trans. Gleanings CXXXVI)

Addressee is Haji Muhammad Ibrahim-i Qazvini, not to be confused (?) with the Haji Muhammad Ibrahim mentioned in Revelation vol.4 153 and footnote.
Athar-i Qalam-i A'la Vol.1 65-68 (incomplete). Phrase trans. GPB 242; page quoted Taherzadeh Covenant 10; trans. Stephen Lambden BSB 4:1, 33-79.

There are a number of other tablets addressed to Haji Muhammad Ibrahim-i Qazvini, one of which (tentatively numbered II although no date is available) appears to be trans. at Gleanings CXXVII. The Lawh-i Ibrahim may be one of these tablets (Gleanings XXXIII, XXXVIII), and Gleanings LXXVII may also be related..
Mention of a "tablet addressed to Haji Muhammad Ibrahim-i-Khalil," which might or might not be this one, in GPB 242; Taherzadeh Covenant 10, 127-8; discussed Taherzadeh Revelation vol.2 259-262; mention of unspecified tablets to recipient Revelation vol.4 153 footnote, 405
Lawh-i- Laylatu'l- Quds
(Tablet of the Sacred Night I)
Edirne, possibly earlier.

Addressee Darvish Sidq-'Ali, also referred to as Gul-i Mawla, "The Master's Rose" (Muhammad Aliy-i Salmani My Memories 34)
Iqtidarat va chand lawh-i Digar 216-8, Majmu'ih-yi Alvah-i Mubarakih 230-1.

Extracts in Gleanings CXLVII.
biography of recipient Abdu'l-Bahá Memorials 36-8; Haydar-Ali Stories Delight of Hearts 71-2; Muhammad Aliy-i Salmani My Memories 34, 58-61, 93, 96-7; mentions of recipient Balyuzi BKoG 132, 156, 178, 231, 250-2, 279, 331, bio note 482; Balyuzi Eminent Bahá'ís 316-7; mentioned Taherzadeh Revelation vol.1 289; Revelation vol.2 164-5, discussed 188-90, mention of recipient 329-30, 402, 409
Lawh-i-Napulyun I (First Tablet to Napoleon III) Not to be confused with the much more well-known Second tablet to Napoleon III, from 1869. Edirne, after separation. Unpublished. mentioned Bahá'u'lláh ESW 51, other (?) tablet to Napoleon also quoted in ESW passim; mention of recipient Bahá'u'lláh Tablets 210; Aqdas 15, K86, 164, notes 117-8; discussion of recipient Abdu'l-Bahá SAQ 32-3; discussion of France in the 1870s Secret Divine Civilization 62-3, PUP 27-8, 203, 211, 223, 398, 432; mention of Napoleon I 67-8; GPB 173, 207-8, 225-6; mentions of tablet and recipient PDC paragraphs 39, 69-70, 83, 116, 118, 120-6, 140; Balyuzi Eminent Bahá'ís 208-9, illustration 208; mentions of recipient and tablets to him Balyuzi BKoG 245, 320, 352, 392, 426; quoted Taherzadeh Covenant 22-3; discussion of tablet Taherzadeh Revelation vol.2 368-9; mention of tablet Revelation vol.3 109-10, mention of recipient 81, 109-15, 149, 201; mention of recipient Revelation vol.4 95, 249, 388, 434; account of grandson of Shah converting to the Bahá'í Faith in the presence of Abdu'l-Bahá in Honnold Vignettes 51-2

discussion of literary style John Hatcher Ocean of His Words 126-9; mention Stephen Lambden "Prophecy in the Johannine Farewell Discourse" in BS3 91
Lawh-i-Nasír, Lawh-i Nasir Qazvini
(Tablet of Nasir [the defender] of Qazvini)
Not to be confused with the Lawh-i Nasir Hajji, ca. 1869, which begins "He is the Helper. I bear witness that thou hast helped thy Lord, and art one of the helpers."

Edirne, after separation.

Mainly Persian.

Addressee is Haji Muhammad-Nasir of Qazvin.

Begins: Huwa al-Bahá'í al-abha. Bi-nam-i khodavand etc (see Momen, Selections 310, 256)
Majmu'ih-yi Alvah-i Mubarakih 166-202.

Sections trans. Gleanings LIII (Majmu'ih-yi Alvah-i Mubarakih 170), LXXV (Majmu'ih-yi Alvah-i Mubarakih 186-8). Sentence(s?) quoted GPB 169.
discussed Taherzadeh Revelation vol.2 39, 245-259

complete discussion Moojan Momen, ed., Selections from the Writings of E.G. Browne 255-9
Lawh-i-Rúh, Lawh ar-Ruh
(Tablet of the Spirit)
Edirne, at about the time of the separation (March-May 1866).

Athar-i Qalam-i A'la Vol.4(i) 123-154; Athar-i Qalam-i A'la Vol.4(rev) 150-200. mentioned GPB 171; discussed Taherzadeh Revelation vol.2 181-8 passim, mentioned 260

brief mention Stephen Lambden "Sinaitic mysteries" in SBBR5 136
Lawh-i-Salmán I
(first Tablet to Salman)
Not to be confused with the Lawh-i Salman II, from the early 'Akka period (Gleanings XXI, Gleanings CXLVIII, and Gleanings CLIV, para. trans. PDC 70); the Lawh-i Salman III (date?); or the Lawh-i Madinatu't tawhid (The City of Unity, partially trans. Gleanings XXIV), which is addressed to the same person and is sometimes referred to as the tablet of Salman.


Mainly Persian.

Addressee Shaykh Salman
Majmu'ih-yi Matbu'ih 128-160.

Paragraphs trans. Gleanings XXI (Majmu'ih-yi Alvah-i Mubarakih 144-5), Gleanings CXLVIII (=Majmu'ih-yi Alvah-i Mubarakih 143-4), Gleanings CLIV (Majmu'ih-yi Alvah-i Mubarakih 153-4); PDC paragraph 175. Trans. J. Cole posted on H-Bahá'í 3/97. The paragraph trans. at PDC 70 is also trans. by Cole Modernism 60 and see n39. Partially trans. Taherzadeh Revelation vol.1 111-3.
mention of Muhammad's companion Ruz-Bih (Salman) Bahá'u'lláh Tablets 65; biography of recipient Abdu'l-Bahá Memorials of the Faithful 13-16, mentions 109, 113-19 passim; mention of recipient Stories Delight of Hearts 133; Balyuzi 'Abdul-Bahá: Centre of the Covenant 96; Balyuzi BKoG 226, 233, 237, 344-7, 441-4; illustration Balyuzi Eminent Bahá'ís 231; Taherzadeh Revelation vol.1 109-13, 255-56; discussed Revelation vol.2 283-90, mentioned 67, 168, 208, 263-4, 384, 400; mentioned Revelation vol.3 25-6, 174-75 and footnote, quoted 89-90; vol.4 172; Taherzadeh Covenant 87, mention of recipient 63-64, quoted 160-1

subject of a paper by Juan Cole, Second Irfan Mysticism Conference, February 1997; brief mention of tablet Cole Modernity and the Millennium 73
(Tablet of Sayyah [the Traveller])
Edirne, following separation (? Feb-June 1867?)

Addressee is Mulla Adi-Guzal, entitled Sayyah (Mirza 'Aliy-i-Sayyah) by the Bab.
Ganj-i Shayigan 80-81 (incomp.).

Sentence trans. GPB 184.
mention of recipient Abdu'l-Bahá Memorials 99; mentioned GPB 184; Muhammad Aliy-i Salmani My Memories 57; mentions of recipient Balyuzi BKoG 62-3, 243, 247-8, 269, bio note 468, illustration 242; discussed Taherzadeh Revelation vol.2 213-215, mentioned 210, quoted Revelation vol.3 13
(Tablet for Siraj, or Sarraj)

Persian, a long tablet (Balyuzi BKoG says "it has the proportions of a book" (237).

According to MacEoin Rituals 86 (n108) the tablet refers to several Hajj tablets.

Addressee is 'Ali-Muhammad-i Siraj (Sarraj) of Isfahan.
INBA 76 (?); Ma'iydih-i Asmani vol.7 14-97(c).

Sections trans. Gleanings L (Ma'iydih-i Asmani vol.7 57-8), Gleanings XCVII (Ma'iydih-i Asmani vol.7 18). Two sentences trans. GPB 169 (etext).
mentioned Balyuzi BKoG 237; discussed Taherzadeh Revelation vol.2 262-3, 268-9, mentioned Revelation vol.3 89

mention Stephen Lambden "Sinaitic mysteries" in SBBR5 173-4 n192; sections are mentioned in Denis MacEoin Sources for Early Babi Doctrine and History 40, 89, 106
(Tablet to the King of Persia, [Nasiri'd-Din Shah])
Edirne, after separation.

According to a letter from Mirza Sa'id Khan to Mirza Husayn Khan, the original of this tablet was sent to the latter, so it may be in Ottoman archives.

Arabic and Persian, long.

'Abdu'l-Bahá says the tablet especially recommended justice for the Jews, but this is not borne out by Browne's translation.

Begining and ending words see Momen Selections Browne 310.

Addressed to Nasiri'd-Din Shah
Mss: Leiden Ms Or 4970 item 7; British Museum Or. 3115 (and another in Browne's collection, with some variant readings).

Published sources: Athar-i Qalam-i A'la Vol.1 66-96; Alvah/Brazil 145-201; Rosen2 195-216 (with numerous glosses); Lawh-i Mubarak-i Sultan-i Iran (with notes by Azizullah Sulaymani), 132 BE, and repr. India, 158 pages; Mubin/Bombay 98-102(c). Another edition not sighted publ. Egypt 1940.

Sections trans. PB 57-60; PDC 39-41, 44, 72; self-citations in ESW 11, 39. Full text trans. Browne in Traveller's Narrative (TN) 112ff and in the appendix beginning 390. The appendix translates the portions of the tablet which are not cited by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in the version of TN which Browne had. But in the Persian (printed) edition of TN 'Abdu'l-Bahá cites the whole tablet (?). Browne indicates variant readings, but the Sulaymani edition has significant phrases missing in TN. Rosen2 192 also gives Bahá'u'lláh's instructions to Badi', and describes the Mss (part of Ms247) in St Petersburg. These instructions and the excordium not cited in TN are produced in Browne's edition of TN 390f, with the Persian of the instructions. Browne's translation of the tablet is reprinted in Bahá'í World Vol.4 p. 102-4, with some sections omitted and changes for clarity or doctrinal purposes. For example, Browne's opening "I [Bahá'u'lláh] am a man" becomes "I am a servant", Browne's "O King" becomes "O Shah". Browne's translation is also the basis of the translation in Bahá'í Scriptures 1923 68-81.

Browne's translation of the instructions is reprinted in Balyuzi King of Glory 299 and Taherzadeh Revelation vol.3 176. Part of the Arabic exordium also trans. ESW 11, 39, and PB 57f, with only minor differences in translation. Cited in PDC 42-3, POB 60. A composite of these translations with Browne's notes at A section of Browne's translation (p. 395) is printed in Star of the West 2:6 3, with stylistic amendments only, except that Browne's 'will persecute him' becomes 'will contradict Him'.
recipient mentioned Bahá'u'lláh ESW 11, 39, 124-5; PUP 27-8, 203, 211, 223-4, 372, 398-9; discussed 'Abdu'l-Bahá Star of the West 3:11 9-10 and PUP 223-4; brief mentions of tablet or recipient by Abdu'l-Bahá in Mahmud's Diary 182; Memorials 3, 50, 136, 173; SAQ 33, 85 (footnote); Secret Divine Civilization 5-6, 11-2, 105; Shoghi Effendi GPB 26, 173-4, 186, 143-44, 173-4, 185-6; mentions of recipient GPB 197-8, 225, 232, 296; mentions of tablet and recipient PDC paragraphs 97-102, 110, 164, 182, 210, 215 and elsewhere, passim; mention of death of Shah Aqdas n177; Balyuzi Eminent Bahá'ís passim; Balyuzi BKoG 20, 147, 247, 298, 309-10; other mentions and illustrations of recipient Balyuzi BKoG passim; discussed Taherzadeh Revelation vol.2 337-40, 346-57, mention of recipient 246, 304, 326; mentioned Revelation vol.3 21, 38, 109, 133, 182-191, 199-200, 209-10, quoted 232; many mentions of subject Revelation vol.4 passim

discussion in E. G. Browne, A Traveller's Narrative 102-8, 151, with annotated partial translation 390-400 (online at; discussion Browne,The Babis of Persia, their Literature and Doctrines, JRAS XXI 958-60 (online at; mention Stephen Lambden "Prophecy in the Johannine Farewell Discourse" in BS3 91; discussion of literary style John Hatcher Ocean of His Words 126-8; discussion of political teachings in tablet Juan Cole Modernity and the Millennium 32-4, 76; mentioned Denis MacEoin "Babism to Bahá'ísm" 225-6

discussion Moojan Momen, ed., Selections from the Writings of E.G. Browne 260-6
Mathnavíy-i- Mubárak, Mathnavi Istanbul.

Persian, 300 couplets.

Not to be confused with the abbreviated title "Mathnavi" both used in non-Bahá'í books and often quoted by the Central Figures, which usually refers to Rumi's Mathnavi
Athar-i Qalam-i A'la Vol.3 160-192; Ma'iydih-i Asmani vol.4; INBA30.

Partial trans. Moojan Khadem presented Irfan Colloquium August 1997.
mentioned in unpublished portion of Nabil's history (Dawnbreakers)--see Balyuzi BKoG 265-6; anecdote of Bahá'u'lláh quoting Rumi's Mathnavi Furutan Stories of Bahá'u'lláh 34; mentioned Taherzadeh Covenant 219; discussed Taherzadeh Revelation vol.2 29-54 passim

Mosaic symbolism of tablet Stephen Lambden "Sinaitic Mysteries" in SBBR5 127-8
Subhánika- Yá-Hú
(lit. "Praised be Thou, O He!")

also known as the Lawh-i Naqus (Tablet of the Bell),
Istanbul. 18 Oct 1863.


Composed in a style that lends itself to collective chanting. MacEoin Rituals 64 and Faizi Stories 43 say this is intended for the anniversary of the declaration of the Bab.

Addressee is Aqa Muhammad-'Aliy-i Tambaku-Furush-i Isfahani; see Kitab-i Badi.
Risalih Ayam Tis'ih 100-106; Ad'iyyih-i H.Mahbub 141-53; various mss.

Trans. MacEoin Rituals 169-172, online at; section trans. BW vol14 632; unpublished trans. 'Ali Kuli Khan and Gail; a provisional trans. Stephen Lambden was posted on H-Bahá'í in September 1998 (forthcoming with commentary, BSB).
story of chanting tablet Mirza Haydar-Ali Stories Delight of Hearts 43 (on this, see also R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram, Music, Devotions, and the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar 4-5); brief mention Balyuzi BKoG 206; mention of recipient Balyuzi BKoG 245 footnote; discussed Taherzadeh Revelation vol.2 18-24 passim, 441
(Surih of the Companions, Surih of the Servants)
Edirne, before separation (Cole: about Winter 1866; Lambden: circa 1864).


Principal addressee is 'Habib': early editions of Taherzadeh Revelation vol.1 identified recipient as Mirza Habib-i Maraghi'i (286), but for current editions and in Revelation vol.2 this is corrected. Actual addressee is Mirza Aqay-i-Kashani, also known as Mirza Aqay-i Munir and Jinab-i-Munir, surnamed Ismu'llahu'l-Munib or simply "Munib." Many other Persian Babis are addressed.
Athar-i Qalam-i A'la Vol.1 149-154; Athar-i Qalam-i A'la Vol.4(i) 1-22; Athar-i Qalam-i A'la Vol.4(rev) 205-239.

Short passage trans. WOB 108-9; introduction and trans. Juan Cole BSB 5:3-6:1, 4-74, short passage posted Talisman 1/97;
biography Abdu'l-Bahá Memorials 145-7, mention 123; mentioned GPB 169, 182; mention of recipient (referred to as "Munir") and tablet Haydar-Ali Stories Delight of Hearts 13-4; mention of Munir Balyuzi BKoG 33 footnote, 157, 176-8, 204, 264-5, bio note 479; discussion of recipient and tablet Taherzadeh Revelation vol.1 283-7; discussed Revelation vol.1 283-7; Revelation vol.2 59, 65-106 passim, esp. 72-7, 84-7, 114; Revelation vol.3 425

complete annotated translation Juan Cole "Baháh'u'llah's 'Surah of the Companions'" in BSB 5:3-6:1 (June 1991) 4-74; brief mention Stephen Lambden "Sinaitic mysteries" in SBBR5 135-6
Súriy-i-Damm, Surat ad-damm
(Tablet of Blood)
Not to be confused with other tablets to Nabil-i-A'zam, such as that in Gleanings CXXXIX.

Edirne, before separation (late 1865, early 1866).


Addressee Nabil-i A'zam of Zarand (Nabil-i Zarandi, Mulla Muhammad-i Zarandi, author of Dawnbreakers).
Athar-i Qalam-i A'la Vol.4(i) 59-67; Athar-i Qalam-i A'la Vol.4(rev) 1-15.

Sections trans. Gleanings XXXIX (Athar-i Qalam-i A'la Vol.4(i) 64-5); trans. and literary analysis of passages by Juan Cole publ. Poetics Today; trans. Cole with commentary posted Talisman Jan 96 and at Cole's web page; sentence trans. WOB 139.
mention of recipient Bahá'u'lláh Tablets 73; biography of recipient Abdu'l-Bahá Memorials 32-6; mentioned GPB 169, mention of recipient GPB 130, 176; brief bio of recipient Unfolding Destiny 406, 427; mentions of recipient Muhammad Aliy-i Salmani My Memories 37-8, 57, 85; illustration Balyuzi Eminent Bahá'ís 262, bio note 268-70, and passim; numerous mentions of recipient Balyuzi BKoG passim; many mentions of recipient Taherzadeh Revelation vol.1 passim, esp. bio notes 202-6; discussed Revelation vol.2 236-240, mentions of recipient 59, 114, 140, 166, 276; mention of other tablets to recipient Revelation vol.3 7, 26-7, mention of recipient 5-10, 56-7, 60, 74, 176-7, 209, 240, 254-5, 419; many mentions of subject Revelation vol.4 passim

brief mention Stephen Lambden "Sinaitic mysteries" in SBBR5 136
(Tablet of the Branch)
Edirne, after separation.


Addressee is Mirza 'Ali-Riday-i Mustawfi (Ali Kuli Khan has: Mirza Ali Riza).

WOB 135-6 (1980 edn) mentions and translates extracts from at least 5 other tablets and prayers of Bahá'u'lláh for 'Abdu'l-Bahá. Of these, the tablet written while 'Abdu'l-Bahá was in Beirut is the Lawh-i Ard-i Ba. GPB 242 mentions another tablet written in Edirne regarding 'Abdu'l-Bahá, but addressed to Haji Muhammad Ibrahim-i Khalil.
Athar-i Qalam-i A'la Vol.4(i) 331-335; Athar-i Qalam-i A'la Vol.4(rev) 424-430; Ma'iydih-i Asmani vol.4 115-119.

Extracts trans. WOB 134-135; phrases trans. GPB 177, 242. A 1918 trans. Ali Kuli Khan is published in Three Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh (Collins 1.139) and in Bahá'í World Faith 204-7 (the latter without Khan's explanations). Said to have been poorly trans. to English (Light of Divine Guidance vol.1, pages 65-66), which may refer to the anonymous translation of 190? (Collins 1.127).
definition Momen Basic Bahá'í Dictionary 2, 218; mention of the "Most Great Branch" Bahá'u'lláh Tablets 221-2, 227; some verses explained by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in tablet to Haji Mirza Haydar-'Ali, part of which is trans. WOB 238; PUP 323, mentioned GPB 177, 242; Messages from the UHJ 1963-86 para. 330.2; definition of "aghsan" and "ghusn" Aqdas n66; Balyuzi Abdu'l-Bahá 22-3, 220, 270; Balyuzi BKoG 250, mention of "ghusn" 420; discussed Eminent Bahá'ís 52-3; Taherzadeh Covenant 104, 136, 219, 267, 430; discussed Taherzadeh Revelation vol.2 388-96

full discussion of the meaning of the Bahá'í covenant, with coverage of this tablet, in Moojan Momen "The Covenant," online at; coverage of a variety of covenantal issues in Heller "Covenant and the Foundations of Civil Society," in BW 1995-96, 185-222; brief discussion of covenantal symbolism in Lambden "Sinaitic Mysteries..." in SBBR5 122; discussion of the style of Writings on the Covenant, including this tablet, in Hatcher Ocean of His Words 153-64
Súriy-i-Hajj, Lawh-i Hajj I and II
(Tablets of Pilgrimage)
Suriy-i Hajj I refers to pilgrimage to Shiraz; Suriy-i-Hajj II refers to pilgrimage to Baghdad.

Both tablets revealed in Edirne, the first before the Most Great Separation (see GPB 169) and the second after.

Suriy-i Hajj I:

Athar-i Qalam-i A'la Vol.4(i) 75-100; Amr va Khalq 4 120-134 part; Ganj-i Shayigan 82-3 part.

Section trans. MacEoin Rituals 154-163.

Suriy-i Hajj II:

Gleanings LVII; Athar-i Qalam-i A'la Vol.4(i) 192-215; Amr va Khalq 4 109-120; Ganj-i Shayigan 83-4 part.

Section trans. MacEoin Rituals 163-168; Rituals 86 (n116) notes textual variants between Athar-i Qalam-i A'la Vol.4 204f and Amr va Khalq 4, without specifying.
Both tablets mentioned in GPB 176-7; mentioned Balyuzi BKoG 250; discussed Taherzadeh Revelation vol.2 240

described Denis MacEoin Rituals in Babism and Bahá'ísm 52-3, sections translated ibid. 154-68; discussion of tablets and pilgrimage in the Bahá'í Faith Walbridge Sacred Acts 105-119
Súriy-i- 'Ibád
(Tablet of the Servants)
Not to be confused with a later "Lawh-i-Siyyid Mihdiy-i-Dahaji" (see Revelation vol.4 236-7); Siyyih Mihdiy-i Dahaji received many tablets from Bahá'u'lláh.

early Edirne, circa 1864.

Addressee is Siyyid Mihdiy-i Dahaji.
AQ4(i) 23-34.

Partial translation in Gleanings XXXI (AQ4 24-25).
~mentions of recipient Muhammad Aliy-i Salmani My Memories 76 and footnote; Balyuzi BKoG 33 (footnote), 132, 158, 242-3, 247, 344, 348; discussed Taherzadeh Revelation vol.2 272-5, mention of recipient 118-9, 290; mention of recipient Revelation vol.3 209, 226-7, 234; mention of recipient Revelation vol.4 236-7, 287 footnote

brief mention Stephen Lambden "Sinaitic Mysteries" in SBBR5 130; mention of recipient Juan Cole Modernity and the Millennium 94
Súriy-i-Mulúk, Surat al-Muluk
(Tablet to the Kings, Surih of the Kings)
Edirne, after separation (late 1867).


Sections are addressed to the Kings collectively PDC 20-24, Gleanings CXVI (same as PDC 23-24), CXVIII (same as PDC 21-22 except that the phrase "that the burden of your expenditures may be lightened" is omitted on PDC 21); to Sultan 'Abdu'l-'Aziz Gleanings CXIV (GPB 159; 161; PB 5-14); to his ministers Gleanings LXV (GPB 172); to the people of Istanbul Gleanings LXVI (GPB 173); to the divines and philosophers of Istanbul (PB 102-3; GPB 172-3); to the French ambassador (GPB 172); to the Persian Ambassador Haji Mirza Husayn Khan (surnamed Mushiru'd-Dawlih); Gleanings CXIII (GPB 172-3); to the Kings of Christendom (PDC 26-27); to the people of Persia (GPB 173); to the philosophers of the world (GPB 173).
Alvah/Brazil 3-70; partially in Rosen2 p. 147-8; INBA34 Alvah-i Nazilih (Tehran: MMMA, 1968); Athar-i Qalam-i A'la vol.1; Alvah/Bombay.

Sections trans. Gleanings LXV, LXVI, CXIII, CXIV, CXVI (same as PDC 23-24), CXVIII (mostly the same as PDC 21-22), PB 5-14, and PDC 20-24.
~mentions of Mushiru'd-Dawlih by Bahá'u'lláh ESW 68-70; definition/bio notes Momen Basic Bahá'í Dictionary 2, 217; mentions of and addresses to Kings Aqdas 78-84, 163; brief mention of recipient Mirza Husayn Khan by Abdu'l-Bahá in Mahmud's Diary 167, bio note 443; mention of tablet and/or recipient(s) GPB 159, 161, 171-5, 179, 190, 207, 225, 227-8, 316; PDC paragraphs 24-5, 39-50, 86-96, 119, 149-62 passim, 170, 173-7, 195, 224; mention of tablet and Abdu'l-Aziz World Order 173-4, 176; Turkey in Bahá'í history Bahá'í Administration 151-2, 167-9; Messages from the UHJ 1963-86 paras. 14.5, 20.10, 24.15-16, 41, 45.1, 128.8; tablet quoted Balyuzi BKoG 207-11, discussed 212-3; mentions of recipient Abdu'l-Aziz BKoG 139, 199, 206-7, 245, 253-4, 261-3, 283-5, 307, 337, 352, 359-61, 379, 412, 425-6; mentions of recipient Mirza Husayn Khan BKoG 137, 154, 191, 199, 203, 212-4 (quotes from ESW and another tablet to Husayn Khan), 248, 257, 286-7, 300, 441-8, 446, bio note 472-3, and briefly elsewhere passim; mentions of Mirza Husayn Khan Balyuzi Abdu'l-Bahá 18; mentions of Abdu'l-Aziz 18-22, 34, 319; mentions of recipient Abdu'l-Aziz Balyuzi Eminent Bahá'ís 183, 208; mention of Mirza Husayn Khan Eminent Bahá'ís 240; mentions of Abdu'l-Aziz Taherzadeh The Covenant 86, 94; discussion of tablet and recipients Taherzadeh Revelation vol.2 301-36 passim, mentioned 1, 55-9, 61-2, 278, 301, 320-1, 325-8, 332, 337, 370-1, 398-401, 418; mentioned Revelation vol.3 109, 147, 238, 242, 251, quoted 156; mentions of Abdu'l-Aziz Revelation vol.3 14, 18-9, 37-8, 52, 69, 87, 91, 99-102, 123, 151-4, 191, 252, 410, 413-9, mentions of Mirza Husayn Khan 218-9; mentions of Abdu'l-Aziz Revelation vol.4 27, 95, 104-5, 240-2, 421, mentions of Mirza Husayn Khan 434

political teachings contained in tablet in John Esslemont, Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era, 31, 135-6, 235, 246discussion of literary style John Hatcher Ocean of His Words 126-8, 131; social teachings in tablet Juan Cole "Bahá'u'lláh and Liberation Theology" in SBBR8 88-9; Mosaic symbolism Stephen Lambden "Sinaitic Mysteries" in SBBR5 137; discussion of Bahá'u'lláh's social and political teachings in tablet Cole Modernity and the Millennium 32, 53-6, 89, 125-9; prophecies contained in tablet Gary Matthews Challenge of Bahá'u'lláh 58-9, 155; complete discussion Moojan Momen, ed., Selections from the Writings of E.G. Browne 260-4 (as Rosen's "tablet to the Shah of Persia"; see note to p.264)
Súriy-i-Ra'ís I, Surat-ar-Rais I, Lawh-i Ra'is I

(Tablet of the Premier, Tablet to Ottoman first minister Mehmet Emin 'Ali Pasha)
Not to be confused with either the later Lawh-i-Ra'is (see note below) or the tablet to Dhabih included in Bahá'u'lláh Gleanings CXV.

Edirne period (Rabi'u'th-Thani 1285/August 1868, at Kashanih en route to Gallipoli).


The formal addressee is 'Ali Pasha, but it was revealed for Dhabih (full name Haji Muhammad-Isma'il-i Dhabih of Kashan, known as Anis, the Friend). Recipient not to be confused with Siyyid Isma'il of Zavarih, who was also surnamed Dhabih (see Revelation vol.1 101-3).

Opening and closing words are given in Momen Selections Browne 311-2.
Majmu'ih-yi Alvah-i Mubarakih 87-102; Rosen2 224-231. Substantial parts are trans. Momen Selections Browne 266-9, and Browne's translation is used as a basis for a more complete trans. in Bahá'í Scriptures 88-94, which however omits the last part of the tablet dealing with the nature and progress of the soul (Revelation vol.2 417). This part of the tablet is apparently untrans. Gleanings LXXXII, might be worth investigating in this regard, but note the reference in that passage to the large number of tablets covering these subjects. Sentences from the first part, covered in Bahá'í Scriptures, are also trans. PDC 60, 72-3; GPB 172, 177-8 (twice); WOB 94-5; 164. The passages in GPB 172 indicate familiarity with both previous translations but sometimes differ from both. Part of this tablet is trans. PUP 398-399, where it is called the "Epistle to the Sultan of Turkey." In a number of instances the passages trans. Shoghi Effendi (above) agree with PUP where it differs from the Bahá'í Scriptures version. A passage concerning the officer 'Umar cited in GPB 171 and said to be from this tablet is in fact from the Lawh-i Ra'is III. definition/bio notes Momen Basic Bahá'í Dictionary 15; mention of recipient Bahá'u'lláh Tablets 210; mention of tablet Bahá'u'lláh Gleanings 39 (same tablet?); mentions of tablet to Sultan of Turkey (same tablet?) PUP 27-8, 203, 224, 372, 398-9, 432; described GPB 174, 180-1, 187; mention of Ali Pasha PDC paragraphs 158, 163; mentions of Ali Pasha Balyuzi BKoG 13, 154, 206-7, 262, 458, 471, bio note 469; mentions of Dhabih Balyuzi BKoG 132, 157, 253, 260-1, 264; mention of Ali Pasha Taherzadeh Revelation vol.1 225, 227, 244; discussed Revelation vol.2 411-7, mention of Ali Pasha 55, 57, 312, 398, 401; mention of Ali Pasha Revelation vol.3 34, 36, 91, 99 footnote, 100 footnote, 109, 419, quoted 151; mentioned Revelation vol.4 34 and footnote, 87

E. G. Browne, Materials for the Study of the Babi Religion 29-31 (online at; discussion Moojan Momen, ed., Selections from the Writings of E.G. Browne 266-9; Juan Cole Modernity and the Millennium 57-75; prophecies contained in tablet Gary Matthews Challenge of Bahá'u'lláh 58-9

(Note: Rev. of Bahá'u'lláh vol.3 34 footnote, writes that "Shoghi Effendi generally referred to [the two tablets to Ali Pasha] in this order [as "Suriy-i-Ra'is and Lawh-i-Ra'is"], although occasionally he used the designation Surih for Lawh and vice versa"; hence, some of the sources listed here might actually refer to the later tablet.)

Taherzadeh, in Revelation vol.3 99n, adds: "The[re] were the Lawh-i-Ra'is and the Lawh-i-Fu'ad addressed to 'Ali Pasha and Fu'ad Pasha respectively and not to the Sultan, although references are made to the Sultan in these tablets"
Back to:   Bibliographies Study Guides
Home Site Map Forum Links Copyright About Contact
. .