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Articles / papers, published
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Published academic articles. See also unpublished articles, essays and blog posts, and Reviews.
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  1. Disinvestment: Is It a Bahá'í Issue?, by Marjan Nirou, in dialogue magazine, 1:1 (1986). Economic sanctions as a response to apartheid, the background of South Africa, Bahá'í approaches to preventing racism, and imprisoned children. Includes replies by Steven Scholl, Jihmye Collins, Paul Caprez, Lawrence Miller, and Drew Remignanti. [about]
  2. Divide and Rule: The Creation of the Alawi State after World War I, by Necati Alkan, in Fikrun wa Fann ("Art and Thought") (2013). Summary of 20th-century history of the Nusayri/Alawi Shi'i movement in Syria and Turkey. (No mention of Bahá'ís.) [about]
  3. Divine Qualities of Spiritual Dialogue, by Piya Tan, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 6 (2001). The Buddhist basis for dialogue is found in its four virtues: love (the world as an extended family), compassion (listening to others), altruistic joy (learning from their success and beliefs) and equanimity (courage to accept the spirituality of others). [about]
  4. Divine Revelation: The Basis of All Civilization, by Anton Haddad (1902). Commentary on the influence of the Prophets on human society. [about]
  5. Divisions and Authority Claims in Babism (1850-1866), by Denis MacEoin, in Studia Iranica, 18:1 (1989). Factors leading to the division of Babism into the Azalís and the Bahá'ís, and the question of succession and the claims of Mírzá Yahyá, Dayyán, and Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
  6. Doctrine of Progressive Revelation in the Baha'i Faith, by Daniil V. Pivovarov, in Journal of Siberian Federal University, 4:1 (2011). On the ideological basis of progressive revelation, views of Bahá'u'lláh and his followers on the nature of a prophet, and the mission of great prophets. [about]
  7. Doing Bahá'í Scholarship in the 1990s: A Religious Studies Perspective, by Stephen Lambden, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3:2 (1993). Argues that Bahá'í studies must address contemporary world issues, dialogues in pluralism, the New Age movement, and secular ideologies. [about]
  8. Domestic Temporalities: Sensual Patterning in Persian Migratory Landscapes, by Simone Dennis and Megan Warin, in Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology, 7:2 (2007). Embodied paths of patterning, memory and emotion amongst Persian immigrant women in Adelaide, especially the Bahá'í expatriate community. Link to document (offsite). [about]
  9. Dr. MacEoin's "Problems of Scholarship...": Some Thoughts, by Stephen Lambden, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 1:3 (1982). The nature of faith-based approaches to studying religion, authoritarianism, supernatural vs. human knowledge, Bahá'í "review", and examination of some sources. [about]
  10. Dreams and their Interpretation in the Bahá'í Religion: Some Preliminary Remarks, by Necati Alkan, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). Outline of the importance of dreams and their interpretation in the Bahá'í Religion; dream interpretation in Islam; statements on dreams by Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'l-Bahá; a dream interpretation by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Ottoman Turkish. [about]
  11. Duty of Kindness and Sympathy Towards Strangers, The, by Julio Savi, in Lights of Irfan, 12 (2011). Integrating immigrants into the culture of their new country is becoming a focus in some Western states. In 2007 the Italian government issued a “Charter on the Values and Significance of Citizenship and Integration,” which reflects such Bahá'í ideals. [about]
  12. Early Zoroastrian Conversions to the Baha'i Faith in Yazd, Iran, by Susan Maneck, in Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, vol. 2 (1984). A history of the gradual process of conversion among some Zoroastrians to the Bahá'í Faith in Iran from the 1880s to 1921, based on heretofore unstudied biographical materials. [about]
  13. Ecological Stewardship as Applied Spirituality: A Bahá'í Perspective, by John Thelen Steere, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 15:1-4 (2005). The significance and dimensions of environmental stewardship — the name given to the emerging practice of habitation restoration, land conservation, resource management, and parks and recreation — and its relationship to the Bahá’í teachings. [about]
  14. Economic Justice and the Creation of a New International Economic Order, by Keith Suter, in 75 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Australasia (1996). The "New Right," history of economic philosophy and the role of the Church in Europe, challenges of the global economy, the failure of the UN to deal with the problems of the globalized economy, and how NGOs and individuals can work for economic justice. [about]
  15. Economic Prosperity: A Global Imperative, by Mary Fish, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:3 (1997). Economic growth does not necessarily enhance human welfare. The Prosperity of Humankind recognizes the role of economics in igniting the capacity of humankind. The Bahá'í concept of human nature opens a dialogue between religion and economists. [about]
  16. Education and Moral Development in Children, by Susan Clay Stoddart, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1:1 (1988). We are caught between the imperative to function as a world culture and a belief that we need to maintain separate racial, cultural, and ethnic identities; strategies that parents and teachers can use to help children develop an identity with all peoples. [about]
  17. Education for Interdependence: The University and the Global Citizen, by Michael Karlberg, in Global Studies Journal, 3:1 (2010). This paper advocates the value of an outcomes-based approach to global citizenship education and suggests a framework of core learning outcomes that can guide and inform the development of global citizenship curricula in universities. [about]
  18. Education of women and socio-economic development, by Geeta Gandhi Kingdon, in Reason and Revelation: Studies in the Babi and Baha'i Religions, volume 13 (2002). The findings of recent research on the social and the economic benefits of female education, which provides insights as to why Bahá'u'lláh stressed its importance. [about]
  19. Effect of Philosophical and Linguistic Gender Biases on the Degradation of Women's Status in Religion, The, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:1 (1997). Women’s rights have been undermined for centuries; philosophical and linguistic gender-related biases and their effect on the degradation of women’s status in religion; suggestions for eradicating the causes of inequality in order to hasten world unity. [about]
  20. Effect of Revelation on Artistic Expression, The, by Otto Donald Rogers, in Bahá'í Studies, 10 (1982). The themes and processes of visual art are the same as those of constructive evolution: man as an instrument, desire for order and beauty, use of materials, element of light, principle of unity, balance of polarities, and mobility through faith. [about]
  21. Effects of addiction/alcoholism, acculturation, physical, emotional and sexual violence on the education of aboriginal children, The, by Tjanara Goreng-Goreng, in The Family: Our Hopes and Challenges (1995). The social problems facing many Australian aboriginal children; the need to involve indigenous peoples themselves in responding to these problems. [about]
  22. Efforts to preserve the remains of the Bab: Four historical accounts, by Ahang Rabbani, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 11 (2003). Accounts by Mirza Hasan Adib Taliqani, Fadil Mazandarani, ‘Abdu’l-Husayn Avarih, and Aqa Husayn ‘Ali Nur. [about]
  23. El proyecto educacional Bahá'í hacia un sistema universal de educacion, by Keith Bookwalter, in Principios para una educación del siglo XXI (2000). Las principales tareas que enfrentan hoy los educadores baha'is y que constituyen lo que he denominado como "El proyecto educacional baha'i", y los obstaculos como las oportunidades frente a la generación actual de escolares y educadores baha'is. [about]
  24. Emblems of Faithfulness: Pluralism in Meaning and Beauty in the Ordinary, by Helen Cheng and Catherine Nash, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 25:3 (2015). Memorials of the Faithful is notable for the diversity of personalities described, and the sheer ordinariness of many of those remembered lives. These two aspects of the text highlight some of the broader questions raised by the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
  25. Emergence and Organization of Chinese Religions, The, by Phyllis Ghim-Lian Chew, in Lights of Irfan, 15 (2014). The nature of leadership and succession in Chinese religious organisations and society, home temples, village temples, and monasteries. [about]
  26. Emergence from Obscurity: The Journey of Sociology in the Bahá'í Community, by Will C. van den Hoonaard, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 18:1-4 (2008). The field of sociology and the Bahá’í Faith share important principles and both challenge widely-held beliefs, yet there has sometimes been a wall of silence separating them. This paper explores how the Faith informs the sociology of Bahá'í scholars. [about]
  27. Emergence of the Bahá'í Faith in Singapore (1950-1972), The, by Phyllis Ghim-Lian Chew, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 1 (1996). The first two decades of the Faith in Singapore, from the arrival of pioneers in 1950 to the formation of the NSA in 1972; the activities of the LSA of Singapore; strategies used to proclaim the existence of the Faith; features of the early community. [about]
  28. Emergence of World Civilization, The: An Exposition on Excerpts from the Writings of Shoghi Effendi, by James B. Thomas, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). A study of the Guardian's "The Unfoldment of World Civilization" (1936); humanity's coming of age; the process of integration; pangs of death and birth during an age of transition; collapse of Islam; breakdown of political and economic structures. [about]
  29. Emergence, Enchantment, Entanglement and Excellence of the Cosmos, by Wolfgang A. Klebel, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). Science is gradually revealing Bahá'u'lláh's vision that the universe is God’s creation and every created thing in this world is leading to God -- as illustrated by developments in neuroscience, neurocardiology, and quantum physics. [about]
  30. Empire for the Faithful, A Colony for the Dispossessed, An, by Robert D. Crews, in Cahiers d'Asie centrale, 17/18 (2009). History of the establishment of Tsarist power in Turkestan and the goal of earning support from their Muslim territories. Includes discussion of the Bahá'í Faith in Ashkabad and Russian/Bahá'í mutual political interests in Persia and Turkey. (Offsite.) [about]
  31. Enacting Thought: Divine Will, Human Agency, and the Possibility of Justice, by Holly Hanson, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 19:1-4 (2009). Societies evolve through generations of human decision making. Using the examples of 300 years of politics in Uganda vis à vis England, processes that create injustice can be seen as gradual and unintentional, while implementing justice is deliberate. [about]
  32. End of Days, by Moshe Sharon, in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). On the word “messiah”, the anointed, which describes the redeemer like a priest, consecrated by being anointed with holy oil; prophecies about the last days and the final coming; predictions about the time of the "end," which Bahá'ís interpret as 1863. [about]
  33. End of the World: Whatever Happened?, The: Or Leftover Time to Kill, by Ross Woodman, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3:3 (1991). If we contrast the eschatology of Bahá’u’lláh with that of Hegel and Nietzsche, we can locate and explore the spiritual origins of the planetary consciousness (the Divine Springtime) upon which the survival of humankind and the globe itself now depends. [about]
  34. Enslaved African Women in Nineteenth-Century Iran: The Life of Fezzeh Khanom of Shiraz, by Anthony Lee, in Iranian Studies, 45:3 (2012). Through an examination of the life of this servant of The Bab, this paper addresses the enormous gap in our knowledge of the experience of enslaved women in Iran. [about]
  35. Episode in the Childhood of the Bab, An, by Stephen Lambden, in In Iran: Studies in Babi and Bahá'í History vol. 3, ed. Peter Smith (1986). Parallels legends of the Bab's early childhood with those of Jesus. [about]
  36. Epistemological Implications of the Gradated Claims to Divine Authority in the Bahá'í Writings: Reflections on Infallibility, by William S. Hatcher, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 17:1-4 (2007). There are different levels of infallibility, from the greater (the Manifestations who are "omniscient at will") to the lesser (like the Guardian, who has conferred freedom-from-error). [about]
  37. Epistle of Sayyid 'Alí Muhammad 'the Báb' to Sultan Abdulmecid, by Necati Alkan, in Lights of Irfan, 4 (2003). The Bab's Tablet to Sultan Abdulmecid and some notes on early Bábís in the Ottoman Empire. [about]
  38. Equality and Baha'i Principles in Northern Ireland, by Edwin Graham, in Solas, 1 (2001). A paper in two parts: (1) the development of equality legislation in Northern Ireland, and (2) the Bahá’í Teachings in relation to equality and the extent to which Northern Irish legislation applies or does not apply them. [about]
  39. Equality of Women, The: The Bahá'í Principle of Complementarity, by John S. Hatcher, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:3 (1990). The Bahá’í teachings simultaneously assert the equality of men and women whilst advocating in some cases distinct duties according to gender. This seems paradoxical, but there can be gender distinction without inequality in status or function.  [about]
  40. Ernst Bloch's Philosophy of Hope and the Bahá'í Writings, by Ian Kluge, in Studies in Bahá'í Philosophy, vol. 1 (2012). This Marxist thinker, like the Bahá'í perspective, adheres to an evolutionary worldview: reality is a teleological process in which all things strive to actualize their inherent potentials and complete themselves in their highest possible condition. [about]
  41. Eschatology of Globalization, The: The Multiple Messiahship of Bahá'u'lláh Revisited, by Christopher Buck, in Numen Book Series: Studies in Modern Religions, Religious Movements and the Babi-Bahá'í Faiths, ed. Moshe Sharon (2004). This paper argues that Bahá'u'lláh's signal contribution to globalization was to ethicize and sacralize it. [about]
  42. Essence of Man, The: Towards a Bahá'í Understanding of Human Nature and Psychology, by Wolfgang A. Klebel, in Lights of Irfan, 12 (2011). Commentary on a section from Bahá'u'lláh's Tablet to Mírzá Hádí, about "the essence of man." This paper attempts to provide an understanding of what is expressed in these Words and understand "Who is Man." [about]
  43. 'The Eternal enemy of Islam': Abdullah Cevdet and the Bahá'í religion, by Necati Alkan, in Bulletin of SOAS, 68:1 (2005). Cevdet, a member of the Young Turk Committee of Union and Progress, in 1922 published an article on the Bahá'ís, for which he was politically attacked. (Offsite.) [about]
  44. Ether, Quantum Physics and the Bahá'í Writings, by Robin Mihrshahi, in Australian Bahá'í Studies, vol. 4 (2002). Analysis of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá's use of the term “ether”, correlated to His definition of this term as a medium not only for the propagation of electromagnetic radiation, but also for the communication of spiritual impulses to the physical world. [about]
  45. Ethics and Entrepreneurship, An Oxymoron?: A Transition to a Free Market Economy in Eastern Europe, by George Starcher (1997). The process of entrepreneurship and the importance of business ethics to entrepreneurial success, and the concept of stages of ethical consciousness and some of the reasons business ethics makes good business sense. Does not mention the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
  46. Ethics Based on Science Alone?, by Ian Kluge, in Studies in Bahá'í Philosophy, vol. 4 (2015). A critique of the idea that ethics can be based on science alone; questions of legitimacy and authority in ethics; reflections on Sam Harris' book The Moral Landscape: How Science Can Determine Human Values. [about]
  47. Ethics for a Global Society, by Udo Schaefer, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). Addresses the collapse of moral order and value systems in the contemporary world, advocating in response a global ethic based on the Kitáb-i-Aqdas. [about]
  48. Ethique Baha'i, by Udo Schaefer, in Recueil de Conferences (2008). [about]
  49. Evolution and Baha'i Belief, by Keven Brown and Eberhard von Kitzing: Review and Commentary, by Eamonn Moane, in Solas, 4 (2004). Lengthy overview of the Bahá'í response to Darwinism and the concepts of parallel evolution and species change. [about]
  50. Evolution of Reality, The, by George Land, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3:1 (1990). Entropy maintains that all structures eventually decay. Humanity's challenge is to understand that nature's creative process changes systems, including organizations and civilization; this can lead to new connections, ideas, resources, and opportunities. [about]
  51. Evolving Role of Bahá'í Scholarship, The, by Vahid Rafati, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 25:1-2 (2015). Lecture on the evolution of Bahá’í scholarship; ulamás and the Faith; role of the ulamás in Islam; changes instituted by Bahá'u'lláh; abolition of clerical authority; historical legacy of some scholars; present challenges and future scholarship. [about]
  52. Evolving toward a Bahá'í Economic System, by Gregory C. Dahl, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4:3 (1991). Ideals are fruitless if not implemented. There needs to be a balance and an interplay between goals and actions. A "Bahá’í economic system" suggests a number of topics for further research. [about]
  53. Examination of the Cultural Relativity of Human Rights, An, by Jonathan Patrick, in Associate, 36 (2001). On the discourse between proponents of the universality of human rights, and those of their cultural and religious relativity. Are human rights inherent in the individual, or imposed by a neo-imperialist West? [about]
  54. Execution of the Jews of Banu Quraida and the Conquest of Persia, The: The Dilemma of Early Islam, by Kamran Ekbal, in Iran Nameh (2014). Abdu'l-Bahá's views on the mass execution of the Banu Qurayza Jews in Medina in 627 A.D. [article in Persian]. [about]
  55. Exile from El Salvador: A Conversation with Antonio, by Eileen Estes and Richard Hollinger, in dialogue magazine, 1:4 (1987). Interview with a former member of the Salvadorean Bahá'í community about his history, and about threats to the Central American refugee community in Los Angeles. Includes report "Human Rights Workers in El Salvador Suppressed," by Steven Hall-Williams. [about]
  56. Experience of Iranian Bahá'í Refugees in Atlantic Canada, by Deborah K. van den Hoonaard, in Our Diverse Cities, 5 (2008). Short article exploring what it was like for refuges from Iran in the 1980s. [about]
  57. Explanation of the Symbol of the Greatest Name, by Abu'l-Qasim Faizi, in Conqueror of Hearts (1968). Calligraphy, numerology, and theology of Baha and the ringstone symbol. [about]
  58. Exploration into the Political Economy of Global Prosperity, An, by Farhad Sabetan, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:4 (1997). Concepts of prosperity and well-being from an economic and global perspective; concept of global destitution; current assumptions about human nature and human relationships with the physical world and society are inadequate; ethical first principles. [about]
  59. Exploring Male Oppression from a Family Systems Perspective, by Janet Huggins, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3:2 (1990). On sexual inequality; parallels between adolescent sex role development and the evolutionary stage of our society; examples of how both men and women are oppressed; implications of achieving equality for both world peace and individual intrapsychic unity. [about]
  60. Exploring the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, by Sen McGlinn, in Vizier, 35:6-36:3 (1997). Four topics: Entry by troops and the institution of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar; the House of Worship and the House of Justice; the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar as a Meeting, and the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar as a Building. [about]
  61. Exploring Universes of Discourse: The Meeting of the Bahá'í Faith and Traditional Society, by Moojan Momen, in dialogue magazine, 1:4 (1987). To communicate, people need to share not just a common language; there must also be a common framework for understanding, a "universe of discourse." Bahá'í pioneers must bridge cultural and linguistic divides when imparting the teachings of the Faith. [about]
  62. Exposition of the Tablet of the World (Lawh-i-Dunyá), An, by James B. Thomas, in Lights of Irfan, 4 (2003). To fully appreciate the historical significance of the Tablet of the World, this essay first portrays the developing conditions in Persia and in the world that preceded this Tablet, then discusses its salient points. [about]
  63. Exposition on the Fire Tablet by Bahá'u'lláh, An, by James B. Thomas, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). A description of Bahá'u'lláh's Fire Tablet, a dialogue between himself and God on suffering and sacrifice, and an account of its historical context; mystical intercourse between the twin stations of Bahá'u'lláh, human and divine. [about]
  64. Eyewitness Account of the Massacre of Bahá'ís in Nayriz, 1909, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Lights of Irfan, 14 (2013). Shaykh Dhakariyya's rebellion in Nayriz culminated in the martyrdom of nineteen Bahá'ís on Naw Ruz, 1909, the same day Abdu'l-Bahá interred the remains of the Bab in the mausoleum on Mount Carmel. This is a history of both events. [about]
  65. Fact and Fiction: Interrelationships between History and Imagination, by Bahiyyih Nakhjavani, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 10:3-4 (2000). On the tension between "fact" and "fiction," between objective history and our relative and subjective stories, between art as the representation of reality and faith based on the Word of God. We inherited a responsibility to resolve this tension. [about]
  66. Failure of the Tommy Kabu Movement, The: A Reassessment of the Evidence, by Graham Hassall, in Pacific Studies, 14:2 (1991). The rise and fall of Koivi-Aua, better known as Tom Kabu (1922?-1969), an influential local innovator and "proto-nationalist" leader in colonial Papua New Guinea and the first Papuan Bahá'í. [about]
  67. Faith in Action: Reflections on Constructive Resilience from Nicaragua, by Bradley Wilson, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 30:3 (2020). Poverty and hunger among farmworkers; faith and social action; observations on the discourse of constructive resilience; social movements seeking to overcome oppression; the practice of "accompaniment" — long-term immersive participation and observation. [about]
  68. Faith of Science and the Method of Religion, The, by Brian Aull, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1:2 (1988). A fundamental teaching of the Bahá’í Faith is that science and religion are harmonious and complementary: religious faith should be shaped by a process of critical inquiry and the limitations of science acknowledged. [about]
  69. Faith, Protest, and Progress, by H. Elsie Austin, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:2 (1998). Protest is occasionally necessary and justified; it does not have to mean violence, but rather the courage to reject the false and unjust. Protest based on faith can have a transforming effect on both the individual and society and racial unity. [about]
  70. Family and Early Life of Tahirih Qurrat al-`Ayn, The, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 11 (2003). Summary of information about the ancestry and background of Tahirih available in Persian and Arabic; tensions in her paternal family, which must have affected her as she grew up. [about]
  71. Female Representations of the Holy Spirit in Bahá'í and Christian writings and their implications for gender roles, by Lil Osborn, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). A response to feminist theologian Mary Daly's argument that a male representation of God reinforces patriarchy with the suggestion that sexual equality is independent of, and unrelated to, gender images of the Divine. [about]
  72. Feminine Forms of the Divine in Bahá'í Scriptures, by Paula A. Drewek, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:1 (1992). Examples of the interaction between male and female principles in the writings. Complementarity of masculine and feminine images of divinity enriches our understanding of the divine–human encounter, but does not supplant the unity or unknowability of God. [about]
  73. Feminism, Men and the Bahá'í Faith, by Morgan Wilson, in 75 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Australasia (1996). Separate reflections on feminism and on men and the Bahá'í Faith. The challenges faced by each are acknowledged and the need for a balance between the two asserted. [about]
  74. Fifteen Years of Failed Prophecy: Coping with cognitive dissonance in a Bahá'í sect, by Robert W. Balch and John Domitrovich, in Millennium, Messiahs, and Mayhem: Contemporary Apocalyptic Movements, ed. Thomas Robbins and Susan J. Palmer (1997). An academic article about the prophetic expectations of a covenant-breaker group, Baha’is Under the Provisions of the Covenant. Followed by "The End is Nearish," Chase's predictions satirized by Harper's. [about]
  75. Fiftieth Anniversary of the Passing of Bahiyyih Khanum, The Greatest Holy Leaf, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Includes compilations about Bahiyyih Khanum, a selection of her letters, the 50th anniversary commemoration (1982), a bibliography, and tributes by Ruhiyyih Khanum, Ali Nakhjavani, and Bahiyyih Nakhjavani. [about]
  76. Fifty Bahá'í Principles of Unity: A Paradigm of Social Salvation, by Christopher Buck, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 18 (2014). World religions are systems of salvation, liberation, or harmony, in direct response to the perceived human predicament. To Baha’is, this predicament is profound estrangement and the solution is world unity, from family to international relations. [about]
  77. Fighting for the Nuṣayrī Soul: State, Protestant Missionaries and the ʿAlawīs in the Late Ottoman Empire, by Necati Alkan, in Die Welt des Islams, 52 (2012). Overview of the Alawites/Nusayris (Syrian Shi'is) in the start of the 19th century, political attitudes in Syria and Istanbul, and the influence of Protestant missionaries. [about]
  78. Finding a Trace of the Traceless Friend: Reflection on Bahá'í Scholarship as a Journey in the Valley of Search, by Wolfgang A. Klebel, in Lights of Irfan, 15 (2014). Prerequisites of search; independent investigation and the role of the heart, culture and tradition; dealing with distractions; exclusivity of search and sacrificing; seeking truth in every soul; and the standard of Majnún — seek her everywhere. [about]
  79. Firm Cord of Servitude, The, by Theo A. Cope, in Lights of Irfan, Book 2 (2001). A call for a revisioning of mysticism's claims of "union with God" in light of the Bahá'í Teachings as well as Jungian psychology. [about]
  80. Firmness in the Covenant and Protection of the Cause of God, by Charles Mason Remey (1914). Two versions of an essay written in response to "certain conditions of violation" of the Covenant in London and other European assemblies: a 5-page essay from 1914, and a 28-page (unpublished?) article from 1918. [about]
  81. First Four Caliphs of Islam, The, by Betsy Omidvaran, in Solas, 1 (2001). Many Bahá’ís know little about Islam, and most of what they do know is based on minority Shi’ism. This overview of the first four caliphs, the "Rightly Guided," will help introduce Sunni Islam. [about]
  82. First and Finest: John Henry and Clara Hyde Dunn in Australia, by Graham Hassall, in Herald of the South (1985). Introduction of the Bahá'í Faith to Australia and New Zealand. [about]
  83. First Obligation, The: Lady Blomfield and the Save the Children Fund, by Robert Weinberg (1998). Bio prepared for the UK Bahá'í Centenary (1998-99). [about]
  84. First Recorded Bahá'í Fireside, The, by Christopher Buck, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 21 (2019). An episode from Browne's A Year Amongst the Persians which can be regarded as a first "fireside" — a meeting with Bahá'ís in Shiraz in March 1888. [about]
  85. “First we speak of logical proofs': Discourse of knowledge in the Bahá'í writings, by Frank Lewis, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 10 (2001). Recovering the intellectual context of particular discourses in the Bahá'í writings can help to evaluate whether a given statement is meant to convey a propositional fact or a rhetorical truth. [about]
  86. Fixing the Gaze: Reflections on "The Order of Bahá'u'lláh" in the Báb's Persian Bayan, by Ismael Velasco, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 18:1 (2006). On the word nazm, "order," and how Bahá'u'lláh and then Shoghi Effendi extended used this as a foundation to build the concept of a Bahá'í World Order, a sacred socio-political entity. Includes translation of Bayan 3:16. [about]
  87. Flow of Divine Authority, by Brent Poirier, in Deepen, 3.4:9 (1996). Scriptural authority for the Universal House of Justice to function infallibly without the presence of a living Guardian. [about]
  88. For the Betterment of the World, to the Glory of God: The Emergence of Bahá'í Houses of Worship, by Ann Boyles, in Bahá'í World (2019). Overiew of the concept and history of the Bahá'í House of Worship. [about]
  89. Foreword: Time and the Badí` Calendar, by Udo Schaefer, in Time and the Bahá'í Era: A Study of the Badí' Calendar, ed. Gerald Keil (2008). An investigation of ‘time’ and the ‘Badí‘ calendar’ and its inherent symbolism. [about]
  90. Forging More Perfect Unions, by William Barnes, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:1 (1992). Social advances toward inclusive political structures must be accompanied by a moral advance toward universal values; three stages of global political unification as described in the Bahá’í writings are confederation, federation, and commonwealth. [about]
  91. Formation de la Secte des Babi, by Carla Serena, in Hommes et Choses en Perse (1883). Also sections "Les Exploits de la Secte de Babi," "Mort du Point," "Complot des Bábí contre Nasser-Eddin," and "Attentat." Historical overview from a traveller to Persia in 1877-1878, who says she met with a witness to events. [about]
  92. Forum Concerning St. Paul, by Christopher Buck and Juan Cole, in World Order, 13:4 (1979). Responses to Hatcher's review (World Order, 1978) of Schaefer's Light Shineth in Darkness, by Buck, Hatcher, Gregory Shaw, Willibald Duerschmid, and Marzieh Gail (World Order, 13:4) and by Cole (World Order 13:2, Winter 1978). [about]
  93. Foundations of Mathematics: An Overview at the Close of the Second Millennium, by William S. Hatcher, in Converging Realities, 1:1 (2000). Article posits that the foundational study of mathematics has only emerged in this century, and discusses its evolutionary growth. [about]
  94. Four Levels of Detachment in Doris Lessing's Shikasta,, The, by Phyllis Sternberg Perrakis, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 14:3-4 (2004). The concept of detachment in Bahá’u’lláh’s Writings and its application to Doris Lessing’s Sufi-inspired novel, Shikasta; the reciprocal relation between detachment and attachment and service to the new prophet. [about]
  95. Four Talks Redefining Democracy, Education, and World Citizenship, by Alain Locke, in World Order, 38:3 (2008). The Preservation of the Democratic Ideal; Stretching Our Social Mind; On Becoming World Citizens; Creative Democracy. Includes introduction by Buck and Fisher. [about]
  96. Fragility of Goodness, The: Hexis and Praxis in the Historical Figure of 'Abdu'l-Baha, by Shahbaz Fatheazam, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). How personal character and activity can survive negative pressures from the external world, and what can be learned from the example of Abdu'l-Bahá's social action. [about]
  97. Freedom and the Bahá'í Writings, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). Bahá'í philosophy is based on principles of reason and non-contradiction. It is coherent because its teachings are interdependent and mutually supportive. The Writings cover a spectrum of issues about freedom and the metaphysical basis of free will. [about]
  98. Freud's Transference and the Four States of Bahá'u'lláh, by Wolfgang A. Klebel, in Lights of Irfan, 16 (2015). On the tetrarchic structure of Bahá'u'lláh's "Firstness and lastness, outwardness and inwardness" and Freud's concept of transferences, which are impulses from the past that the patient experiences as present and mistakenly relates back to the therapist. [about]
  99. From Adam to Bahá'u'lláh: The Idea of a Chain of Prophecy, by Zaid Lundberg, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). Whilst the modern period has seen a series of scientific paradigm shifts which have radically altered the scientific understanding of man and nature, no theory of religion has had similar success; the potential of the Bahá’í perspective. [about]
  100. From Babism to Bahá'ísm: Problems of Militancy, Quietism, and Conflation in the Construction of a Religion, by Denis MacEoin, in Religion, 13:3 (1983). One of the first critical examinations of Bábí history; a continuation of themes first examined in "The Bábí Concept of Holy War." Includes examination of the numbers of Bábí martyrs, the nature of Orientalism, and Western re-interpretations of the Babis. [about]
  101. From Moorish Cordova to the Bahá'ís of Iran: Islamic Tolerance and Intolerance, by Boris Handal, in IDEA: A Journal of Social Issues, 12:1 (2007). Though Bahá'ís are persecuted in Iran, Muhammad taught understanding and respect towards religious minorities. Cordova, Spain is an example of historical tolerance where Muslims, Christians and Jews co-existed harmoniously under Islamic rule. [about]
  102. From Oppression to Empowerment, by Nader Saiedi, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 26:1-2 (2016). On four contemporary types of oppression: in the international political order, forms of the state, economic structures, and forms of cultural identity; Bahá’u’lláh’s personal response to oppression; and a Bahá’í approach to empowerment and liberation. [about]
  103. From Oppression to Equality: The Emergence of the Feminist Perspective, by Hoda Mahmoudi, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1:3 (1989). The Bahá’í principle of the equality between women and men; history of the obstructions and prejudices toward women as promoted by religious institutions; what it means to be a liberated woman in the eye of the Bahá'í writings. [about]
  104. Frommer's Guide to Israel: The Golden Coast (includes Akka and Bahji), by Robert Ullian (1998). Travel guide; now out-of-date. [about]
  105. Fundamentalism and Liberalism: Towards an Understanding of the Dichotomy, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 2:1 (1992). Explores extremes of religious belief in an attempt to understand their distinctions and commonalities. [about]
  106. Fundamentalism and Liberalism: Towards an Understanding of the Dichotomy, by Moojan Momen, in Reason and Revelation: Studies in the Babi and Bahá'í Religions, 13 (2002). Explores extremes of religious belief an attempt to understand their distinctions and commonalities. (Updated version.) [about]
  107. Further Comments on a Passage of the Lawh-i-Hikmat, by Amin E. Egea, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 10 (2009). A study of Pre-Islamic sources on the relation of Greek Philosophers and Jewish sages. [about]
  108. Future of Confucianism, The, by Yeo Yew Hock, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 5 (2000). The history of Confucianism, its teachings, a critique of its place in the modern world, its future, and its survival into the 21st century. [about]
  109. Future of Mankind and the Most Holy Book, The, by Fazel Naghdy, in The Kitáb-i-Aqdas: Studies from the First National Conference on the Holy Book, vol. 1 (1996). At present the world models depicted by the past religions and leaders of the materialistic ideologies have failed to solve the contemporary problems facing humanity. Bahá'u'lláh has revealed a new world model and provided the means of achieving it. [about]
  110. Genesis in King Lear: Joseph's Many-Colored Coat Suits Shakespeare, by Tom Lysaght, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 29:3 (2019). Creative comparison of the biblical figure of Joseph and the character of Edgar in Shakespeare's King Lear, in light of the Báb’s and Bahá'u'lláh's Writings. [about]
  111. Glimpses into the Life of Laura Dreyfus-Barney, A, by Mona Khademi, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 10 (2009). The life of Laura Dreyfus-Barney (1879-1974), a prominent early American Bahá’í, compiler of Some Answered Questions, and wife of the French Bahá'í writer Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney. [about]
  112. Global Citizenship and Humanities Scholarship: Toward a Twenty-First Century Agenda, by Michael Karlberg and Cheshmak Farhoumand-Sims, in International Journal of the Humanities, 2:3 (2006). In this age of global interdependence, the critique of anachronistic social constructs is necessary but insufficient. Scholars must articulate new approaches to globalization. The international Bahá'í community illustrates a constructive, humane approach. [about]
  113. Global Claims, Global Aims: An Analysis of Shoghi Effendi's The World Order of Bahá'u'lláh, by Zaid Lundberg, in Bahá'í and Globalisation (2005). What is Shoghi Effendi’s discourse on 'globalization' and 'globality', and what are the global claims and aims in World Order? [about]
  114. Global Scholars as Ambassadors of Knowledge, by Boris Handal, in Academic Migration, Discipline Knowledge and Pedagogical Practice: Voices from the Asia Pacific, eds. F. Rawling and C. Mason (2013). Global scholars can face challenges interacting with peers and with the community of their destination cultures, but can become agents of social change due to their unique overseas positions, and teach global citizenship, moral leadership, and unity. [about]
  115. Globalization and Religion, by David Skinner, in International Business & Economics Research Journal, 2:5 (2003). An empirical examination of globalization's religious dimension. Publicly available databases show that much of globalization, or lack of it, can be predicted from data on the religions practiced in a nation. Includes passing mentions of Bahá'ís. [about]
  116. Globalization and the Hidden Words, by Todd Lawson, in Bahá'í and Globalisation, ed. Margit Warburg (2005). A philological analysis of Baha’u’llah’s Hidden Words, elucidating the development of the global orientation of the Babi-Baha’i religion in the cosmopolitan atmosphere of Baghdad. [about]
  117. Globalization of the Bahá'í Community: 1892-1921, The, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í and Globalisation (2005). On the connection between Abdu’l-Baha’s thinking and his practical directives in the global expansion of the Baha’i religion, considered in light of Jan Aart Scholte's globalization categories: normative, psychological, economic, and institutional. [about]
  118. God of Bahá'u'lláh, The, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Faith and the World's Religions (2005). A close look at the view of God presented in the Writings of Bahá’u’lláh and analysis of the consequences of a number of His statements. [about]
  119. Good of the World and the Happiness of the Nations, The: A Study of Modern Utopian and Dystopian Literature, by Elham Afnan, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1:4 (1989). The Bahá'í Writings, with their new understanding of human destiny, can bridge the gap between utopian visions of progress from 19th-century literature and dystopian visions of 20th-century fiction, disillusioned by war and social and economic disasters. [about]
  120. Grammar of the Divine, A: Translation, Notes, and Semi-Critical Edition of the Bāb's Risāla fī al-naḥw wa al-ṣarf, by William F. McCants, in A Most Noble Pattern: Collected Essays on the Writings of the Báb (2012). A critical edition of the Bāb’s "Treatise on Grammar" including the Arabic original, English translation, and notes; Shaykh Ahmad’s metaphysical grammar; the operation of God's will in the created world. [about]
  121. Grand Narratives and the Bahá'í Writings, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, 18 (2017). Exploration of Bahá'í teachings, inspired by the Guardian's call to "analyse the principles of the Faith and to correlate them with the modern aspects of philosophy and science," and on the thought of Oswald Spengler, Arnold Toynbee and Pitirim Sorokin. [about]
  122. Great Safari of Hand of the Cause Rúhíyyih Khánum, The, by Violette Nakhjavani, in Bahá'í News, 468-513 (1970). A diary of Ruhiyyih Khanum's travels through Africa. Serialized in Bahá'í News in 26 issues, from 1970 through 1973. [about]
  123. Great Tao, The, by Phyllis Ghim-Lian Chew, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4:2 (1991). On a philosophy of the ancient Chinese people, a Tao whose eternal spirit has seeped into the very heart of Chinese tradition, culture, and way of life for centuries; similarities with other religions and the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
  124. Greatest Holy Leaf's Unparalleled Role in Religious History and the Significance of the Arc, the Site of Her Resting Place, The, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Lights of Irfan, 15 (2014). Biography of Abdu'l-Bahá's sister, who acted as his "deputy, His representative and vicegerent, with none to equal her." Her burial place on Mount Carmel determined the location of the Arc and the later buildings of the World Centre. [about]
  125. Greenacre on the Piscataqua, by Anna Josephine Ingersoll (1900). An early history of Greenacre and some of its notable visitors and presentations. [about]
  126. Growth of the Cause in the British Isles, The, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the British Isles, in The Centenary of a World Faith: The History of the Bahá'í Faith and Its Development in the British Isles (1944). Historical overview, starting with E. G. Browne and Comte de Gobineau, to pilgrims in the time of Abdu'l-Bahá, up to the late 1930s. [about]
  127. Guarantees of Religious Freedom in Australia, by Graham Nicholson, in 75 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Australasia (1996). The development of religious freedom in Australia, and relevant constitutional and legal pronouncements. [about]
  128. Guardianship and the Universal House of Justice, The, by Ian C. Semple, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). Reflections on the Guardianship and Universal House of Justice by a former House member. Includes an interesting Q&A on topics including women on the House, Shoghi Effendi's personality, infallibility, Bahá'í scholarship, fundamentalism, etc. [about]
  129. Hagiography: The Art of Setting Inspirational Examples for a Religious Community, by Iscander Micael Tinto, in Lights of Irfan, 17 (2016). The life of Jesus was the example against which saints were measured, and the lives of saints were the examples against which the general population measured itself. Comparison of Attar's "Muslim Saints and Mystics" with Abdu'l-Bahá's "Memorials." [about]
  130. Half the Household Was African: Recovering the Histories of Two African Slaves in Iran, by Anthony Lee, in UCLA Historical Journal, 26:1 (2015). Biographies of two enslaved Africans in Iran, Haji Mubarak and Fezzeh Khanum, the servants of The Bab. A history of slavery in Iran can be written, not only at the level of statistics, laws, and politics, but also at the level of individual lives. [about]
  131. Hands of the Cause of God, by Universal House of Justice and Lilian Ala'i, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Six documents from Bahá'í World 18 part four section 2: The Hands of the Cause of God and their functions, their work and travels 1979-1983, Boards of Counsellors and the International Teaching Centre, and tributes by Lilian Ala'i and Ray Hudson. [about]
  132. Harmony of Science and Religion: A Complementarity Perspective, by Gilbert Bartholomew, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1:3 (1989). The principle of complementarity, which can account for certain phenom­ena in quantum mechanics, can also be an aid in understanding the nature of the harmony between science and religion, the unity of mankind, and the oneness of religion. [about]
  133. Hearing "The Divinity in the Music": Dizzy Gillespie Remembered at 100, by Bahá'í World News Service, in Bahá'í World (2017). Reflections on the life of Gillespie and how his Baha’i beliefs seemed to inspire and drive his work. Includes photographs. [about]
  134. Heaven in China without "Religion" and Manifestation, by Theo A. Cope, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 5 (2000). Some believe there never was a time when humanity was without a Prophet to guide it, but as none is known in Chinese history, a Bahá'í-Chinese dialogue needs a different starting point — one more inclusivist and with a different concept of "religion." [about]
  135. Heaven, Hell and the Afterlife, by Lynette Thomas, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 3 (1998). Judeo-Christian and Muslim views of life after death are often seen literally as bodily resurrection and a judgement day, vs. the Bahá'í perspective of the nature of the soul and its existence after the death of the body, heaven/hell, and the afterlife. [about]
  136. Hermes Trismegistus and Apollonius of Tyana in the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh, by Keven Brown, in Revisioning the Sacred: New Perspectives on a Bahá'í Theology, Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions vol. 8 (1997). History of alchemy, magic, and the hermetic arts, and their reflection in the later teachings of Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
  137. Hidden Words of Bahá'u'lláh, The, by Amin Banani, in Religious Texts in Iranian Languages, ed. Fereydoun Vahman and Claus V. Pedersen (2007). The Persian verses of The Hidden Words contain, in compressed form, the seeds of Bahá'u'lláh's principles for regeneration of the individual and society, and the mystical vision of the human soul attaining its ultimate goal of transcendence. [about]
  138. Hierarchy Authority and Eschatology in Early Babi Thought, by Denis MacEoin, in In Iran: Studies in Babi and Bahá'í History vol. 3, ed. Peter Smith (1986). Evolution of the Bab's theology and prophetology. [about]
  139. Hijaz-Palestine Railway and the Development of Haifa, The, by Johnny Mansour, in Jerusalem Quarterly, 28 (2006). A history of Haifa and Akka during the period of Bahá'í immigration. Contains no mention of the Faith. [about]
  140. Hilda Brooks and the Australian Bahá'í Community, by Graham Hassall, in The Role of Women in an Advancing Civilization, ed. Sitarih 'Ala'í & Colleen Daws (1989). The role played by Hilda Margaret Brooks (1896-1969) in the development of the Australian Bahá'í Community. [about]
  141. Hindu Concept of God, The: Unity in Diversity, by Anjam Khursheed, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 2 (1997). The fundamental unity behind Hindu concepts of God and those found in the Semitic traditions, and the principle of unity in diversity, allow Hindu and Bahá'í beliefs to come together and further their common goal of uniting the world's religions. [about]
  142. 'His Eminence Mírzá ‘Abbás Effendi Has Reached the Shores of Alexandria': Abdu'l-Baha in Egypt, by Betsy Omidvaran, in Solas, 4 (2004). Contacts ‘Abdu’l-Bahá had with influential people in Egypt, the impressions he made on them, and the description of his journey there as contained in Century of Light and many other Bahá'í texts and histories. [about]
  143. Historical Background of the Panama Temple, by Ruth Pringle, in Bahá'í News (1972). A history of the Bahá’í Faith in Panama during the first and second U.S. Seven Year Plans, from the arrival of the first pioneers in 1939 to the formation of the first Regional Assembly in 1951. [about]
  144. Historical methodology and the development of Bahá'í scholarship: toward dispelling a false dichotomy, by Sholeh A. Quinn, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 9 (1999). 'Bahá'í Studies' is multi-faceted and can include various non-exclusive approaches, including academic history and historical research -- the nature of both of which is outlined here; scholastic methodology; "professional" history and Bahá'í scholarship. [about]
  145. History and Provenance of an Early Manuscript of the Nuqtat al-kaf dated 1268 (1851-52), The, by William F. McCants and Kavian Sadeghzade Milani, in Iranian Studies, 37:3 (2004). Much controversy has surrounded the early Bábí MSS, the Nuqtat al-kaf. Some of these are resolved by study of a copy discovered in Princeton’s collection of Bábí works, which confirms its value as an important source for understanding early Bábí history. [about]
  146. History of EBBF, The: Twenty-Five Years of Contributing to the Discourse of Ethics in Business, by François Couillard, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 25:3 (2015). The European Bahá’í Business Forum, a small network of individuals dedicated to promoting ethical behavior and other Bahá’í values in the workplace, has had significant influence at the local, national, and international levels. [about]
  147. History of Persia from the Beginning of the Nineteenth Century to the Year 1858, A, by Robert Grant Watson (1866). A review of the events that led to the establishment of the Qajar dynasty, with discussion of the Babis. [about]
  148. History of the Kenosha Bahá'í Community 1897-1980, A, by Roger M. Dahl, in Community Histories: Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, Volume 6 (1992). Overview of the long history of the Bahá'ís of Kenosha, Wisconsin, visited by Abdul-Baha in 1912. [about]
  149. History of the Sacramento Bahá'í Community, 1912-1991, A, by Peggy Caton, in Community Histories: Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, Volume 6 (1992). History of the Bahá'í community of Sacramento, including a detailed account of Abdul-Baha's visit to California, and the later rapid expansion of the community during the 1960s and 1970s. [about]
  150. Holy Grail of Objectivity, The: Some Considerations for Balancing Sacred and Secular in Bahá'í Scholarship, by Rick Harmsen, in Deepen, No 8 Vol. 3.3 (1995). Discussion of an apologetic nature about an interpretive or hermeneutic principle relating to Bahá'í scholarship articulated by Shoghi Effendi. [about]
  151. Homoculture: Principles of Baha'i Education, by Stanwood Cobb, in World Order, 1:1 (1935). With its teachings of universal civilization the Bahá'í Faith contains a wealth of directions regarding pedagogy, and exerts a revolutionary effect upon cultural and spiritual education. [about]
  152. Houses as Perfect as Is Possible, by Duane L. Herrmann, in World Order (1994). A survey of the evolution in design of the Bahá'í Houses of Worship around the world through the twentieth century. [about]
  153. How Bahá'ís Should Vote, by Arash Abizadeh, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 18:1-4 (2008). When voting, Bahá'ís should consider the qualifications of individual Assembly members, the collective makeup of the Assembly as a whole, changes in the individual Assembly members over time, and changes in the collective makeup of the Assembly over time. [about]
  154. How Baha'ism Travelled from the East to the West: Ideological Evolution of the Neo-universalist Religious Doctrine, by Leyla Melikova, in The Caucasus & Globalization, 7:3-4 (2013). On the ideological evolution of the Bahá'í Faith in the context of social and cultural trends of Western neoliberal ideology and globalism, Bahá'í religious identity, and relations with the environment, society, and the state. [about]
  155. Human Intellect, The: A Bahá'í-Inspired Perspective, by Adrian John Davis, in Lights of Irfan, Book 2 (2001). A study of some of the analogies and differences between the Sufi concept of the "Perfect Man" and the Bahá'í notion of the Manifestation of God; theologies of at-Tirmidhí, Ibn al-'Arabí, Dáwud-al-Qaysarí, Haydar Amulí, et al.; the "Muhammadan Essence." [about]
  156. Human Knowledge and the Advancement of Society, by Hoda Mahmoudi, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 22:1-4 (2012). Knowledge is the means toward realizing a global civilization. The current Five Year Plan focuses the Bahá'í community’s consultation, reflection, and global growth, and the individual’s applying spiritual and secular knowledge to help this process. [about]
  157. Human Nature and Human Society: A Bahá'í Viewpoint, by William S. Hatcher, in The Bahá'í Faith and Marxism (1987). Introduction to the Bahá'í understanding of human beings and social structures. [about]
  158. Human Nature and Mental Health: A Bahá'í-Inspired Perspective, by Michael L. Penn, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 25:1-2 (2015). Overview of one research-practitioner’s understanding of the nature of mind from the perspective of the Bahá’í teachings, and implications of this view for understanding mental health and mental illness. [about]
  159. Human Nature and World Religion: Toward a Bahá'í-Inspired Philosophical Anthropology, by Harold Rosen, in Studies in Bahá'í Philosophy, vol. 1 (2012). On how the major religions depict human nature, philosophical anthropology, the shared metaphysical concept of four levels of reality, and the nature of divine reality across religions. [about]
  160. Human Responses to Life Stress and Suffering, by Abdu'l-Missagh Ghadirian, in Bahá'í Studies Notebook, 3:1-2 (1983). The human response to stressful events; coping mechanisms, including those of Bahá'í martyrs; responses to social stressors. [about]
  161. Human Rights: Reflections from a Bahá'í Viewpoint, by Michael Curtotti, in Human Rights, Faith, and Culture (2001). Born in modern times, the Bahá’í Faith addresses human rights in the language of modernity but also in traditional religious terminology; journey of the soul; duties of rulers; the Kitáb-i-Aqdas. [about]
  162. Human Rights and Multiculturalism, by Kiser Barnes, in Bahá'í-Inspired Perspectives on Human Rights, Tahereh Tahririha-Danesh (2001). The concept of human rights must be enriched by spiritual principles. They rest on universal principles of morality and justice, and are a philosophical source for political and social reform. [about]
  163. Human Rights and the Bahá'í Faith: The Human Right to Education for Religious Understanding, by Stanley W. Johnston, in 75 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Australasia (1996). Human rights should be viewed globally and should include freedom of choice in religion via liberal schooling; development goals; the 1981 UN Declaration to Eliminate Discrimination and Intolerance Based on Religion or Belief. [about]
  164. Human Rights and the Rights of the Child: Implications for Children's Participation in the Bahá'í Community, by Greg Duly, in Bahá'í-Inspired Perspectives on Human Rights (2001). Are human rights universal? Do rights have spiritual or religious influences? What is the relevance of child rights and prospects of children’s participation in the Bahá’í community? [about]
  165. Human Soul and its Immortality, The, by Ali-Akbar Furutan (1970). On the three kinds of spirit — human, animal, vegetable; 9 proofs for the existence of the soul; 13 proofs for the immortality of souls; miscellaneous matters relating to the human soul. [about]
  166. Human Spirit in Moral Education, The, by Kuek Yi Hsing, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 4 (1999). Historical perspectives that have led to the immanence of secular models of moral education in Europe and the U.S., how Singapore has taught moral education, secular models from the U.S. and their inadequacies, and what the Bahá'í Faith can offer. [about]
  167. Hymn to Love (Sáqí, bi-dih ábí), A, by Julio Savi, in Lights of Irfan, 16 (2015). A ghazal, a mystical song of love about The Beloved, meaning God or a Manifestation. One of eight Persian poems Bahá'u'lláh signed "Dervish" and revealed in Kurdistan, circa 1854-1856. [about]
  168. I am all the Prophets": The Poetics of Pluralism in Bahá'í Texts, by Juan Cole, in Poetics Today, 14:3 (1993). Literary analysis of a passage from Tablet of Blood (Súriy-i-Damm) in which Bahá'u'lláh identifies Himself with all the past Prophets and their sufferings, depicting himself mortally wounded on the field of battle, like Imám Husayn. [about]
  169. I know Not How to Sing Thy Praise: Reflections on a Prayer of Bahá'u'llah, by Wolfgang A. Klebel, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Theology and the language of revelation vs. atheism and scientific discourse, and apophatic "not-knowing" vs. the impossibility of knowing god. [about]
  170. "I Never Understood Any of This from 'Abbás Effendi": Muhammad 'Abduh's Knowledge of the Bahá'í Teachings and His Friendship with 'Abdu'l-Bahá, by William F. McCants, in Studies in Modern Religions, Religious Movements and the Bābī-Bahā'ī Faiths, ed. Moshe Sharon (2004). Muhammad Abduh (1849–1905) was a journalist, revolutionary, professor, and later Grand Mufti of Egypt, who befriended and corresponded with the Master; the role of Muhammad Rashíd Ridá; Abdu’l-Bahá's 1885 letter to Abduh. [about]
  171. Ibrahim George Kheiralla and the Bahá'í Faith in America, by Richard Hollinger, in Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions, Volume 2 (1984). A study of the Lebanese Bahá'í who first spread the Faith to the United States but later renounced his allegiance to Abdu'l-Bahá, based on many primary source materials the author unearthed in public and private archives. [about]
  172. Identidad y Paz, by Quentin Farrand, in Derecho y Cambio Social, 19:6 (2009). Estimular la apreciación de la diversidad de caracteres, talentos, y personalidades que encontramos en todos los grupos étnicos, de clase, nacionales, y de creencias, y desalentar el adoctrinamiento de aversión y contienda entre estos segmentos. [about]
  173. Identity of the Sabi'un, The: An Historical Quest, by Christopher Buck, in The Muslim World, 74.3–4 (1984). This article solves two problems that have long puzzled Islamicists: (1) How can the conflicting identifications of Sabians be explained? and (2) What was the Qur'an's original identification of the Sabians? [about]
  174. Identity Politics and Public Disputation: A Baha'i Missionary as a Muslim Modernist in South Africa, by Shamil Jeppie, in Journal for Islamic Studies, 27 (2007). On the "Arabic Study Circle" of South Africa (ca. 1950) and the role of its most influential member, Joseph Perdu; the question of public performances of identity and their relations to private pursuits of identity. [about]
  175. Identity, Discourse, and Policy: Reconstructing the Public Sphere, by Matthew Weinberg, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 21:1-4 (2011). Through interchange, individuals and their communities define their identities and goals. Life has a fundamentally dialogical character. Giving consideration to the multiple dimensions of human experience leads to new, greater social meanings. [about]
  176. Ideology, Ethics, and Philosophical Discourse in Eighteenth-Century Iran, by Juan Cole, in Iranian Studies, 22:1 (1989). Intellectual biography as a discipline assumes that the life and thought of an individual can shed light on an epoch. This paper examines 1700s Iran via the Shi'i scholar Mohammad Mehdi Niraq (d. 1794). No mention of the Bábí or Bahá'í Faiths. [about]
  177. Ihsan'u'llah Khan Dustdar, die Kaukasischen Revolutionare und die Grundung der Sozialistischen Sowjetrepublik Iran 1920-1921, by Kamran Ekbal, in Osmanismus, Nationalismus und der Kaukasus: Muslime und Christen, Turken und Armenier im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert (2005). Dustdar was a Bahai commander of the Persian Red Army who in 1920-1921 landed with his revolutionary Persian Forces on the southern shores of the Caspian to establish the Socialist Soviet Republic of Iran. [about]
  178. Image of the Mystic Flower, The: Exploring the Lotus Symbolism in the Bahá'í House of Worship, by Julie Badiee, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 10:1-2 (2000). The design of the temple in India creates the visual effect of a large, white lotus blossom emerging from the pools of water around it. Besides many other deep and old cultural meanings, flower imagery symbolizes the appearance of the new Manifestation. [about]
  179. Images of a 'New Creation' in Twentieth-Century Art, Some, by Julie Badiee, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:1 (1995). A look at the works of some 20th-century artists to show that, whether they were aware of the Baha’i revelation or not, many of these artists have been compelled to express the quiet, yet unmistakable theme of a "new creation." [about]
  180. Images of Christ in the writings of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, The, by Maryam Afshar, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 5 (2004). 'Abdu'l-Bahá addressed Christian subjects in his talks with Bahá'ís of Christian background and his public talks in the West. He elucidated the meaning of Christian texts and doctrines, and referred to Christ's role and nature. [about]
  181. Imam Absconditus and the Beginnings of a Theology of Occultation: Imami Shiʿism Circa 280-290 A. H./900 A. D., by Said Amir Arjomand, in Journal of the American Oriental Society, 117:1 (1997). Examination of the end of the 9th century and events following the death of the eleventh Imam, and the formal beginnings of the doctrine of the "hidden" twelfth Imam. Contains no mention of the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
  182. Immanence and Transcendence in Theophanic Symbolism, by Michael W. Sours, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:2 (1992). Bahá'u'lláh uses symbols to depict theophanies — the appearance of God and the divine in the realm of creation — such as "angel," "fire," and the prophets' claims to be incarnating the "face" or "voice" of God; these convey the transcendence of God. [about]
  183. Importance of Leadership and Participation in Ensuring the Success of a Teaching Plan, by Kian Erfanian and Mehran Derakhshandegan, in 75 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Australasia (1996). The relationship between leadership and participation of institutions and individuals in the organic unfolding of the Cause, and a practical plan of action for a local Bahá'í community. [about]
  184. Improved Access to Intelligent Responses Using the Bahá'í Model of Consultation: Two Exploratory Small-Sample Studies, by John E. Kolstoe, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 7:4 (1997). Studies using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale show that people consulting together can access intelligent responses superior to that attained through individual effort, and suggest several areas of inquiry for further investigation. [about]
  185. In All the Ways that Matter, Women Don't Count, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). The Bahá'í goal of achieving sexual equality cannot be achieved merely by trying to advance the position of women in society, but rather society itself must be "feminized." [about]
  186. In Memoriam, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). 95 biographies from Bahá'í World 18. Includes detailed bios of H.M. Balyuzi, A.Q. Faizi, Robert Hayden, Bernard Leach, Stanwood Cobb, Rahmatu'llah Muhajir, Adelbert Muhlschlegel, Doris Holley, Paul Haney, Enoch Olinga, Muhammad Labib, etc. [about]
  187. In Memoriam: Hushmand Fatheazam (1924-2013), by Shahbaz Fatheazam, in Lights of Irfan, 15 (2014). Born into a prominent Iranian Bahá'í family, he pioneered to India where he was later elected to the National Spiritual Assembly, serving as its secretary until 1963, when he was elected to the Universal House of Justice, serving on that body until 2003. [about]
  188. In Memoriam: Amin Banani (1926-2013), in Lights of Irfan, 15 (2014). Bio of an Iranian-American Bahá'í and prominent academic who authored The Modernization of Iran, and pioneered the Iranian Studies program at UCLA; he and his wife Shiela also served as Bahá'í pioneers to Greece during the Ten Year Crusade. [about]
  189. In Memoriam: Hugh McKinley, by Ismael Velasco, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). McKinley (1924-1999) was a British Bahá'í pioneer to Cyprus during the Ten Year Crusade (1953-1963). [about]
  190. In praise of Individuation, by Sen McGlinn, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). On the critique of western society. Includes commentary by Roshan Danesh and Gordon Dicks. [about]
  191. In Pursuit of Harmony between Science and Religion, by Paul Lample, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 26:4 (2016). The capacity to unite in the investigation of truth for the advancement of civilization requires the harmony of science and religion, in which science is freed from materialism and religion from superstition. [about]
  192. "In the Beginning Was the Word": Apocalypse and the Education of the Soul, by Ross Woodman, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:4 (1993). Hidden meanings in scripture and the soul are metaphorically identified with the huris, or brides. The bridegroom, Bahá'ulláh, enters union as the marriage of the Manifestation with the Maid of Heaven, who releases the Logos and the newly created soul. [about]
  193. In the Heart of All That Is: "Heart" in Bahá'í Writings and Science, by Wolfgang A. Klebel, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 10 (2009). The “Heart,” and the “City of the Heart,” are central concepts in the Bahá’í Writings. The idea of the heart being the site where the spiritual and the physical meet. [about]
  194. In the Presence of the Beloved: Bahá'u'lláh's Lawh-i-Liqá': A Revised Provisional Translation and Notes, by Nima Rafiei, in Lights of Irfan, 18 (2017). In Arabic, liqá’ indicates the promise of meeting the Lord. Bahá’u’lláh has transformed the concept of attainment unto the divine presence. Comparison of Shí'ih and Bábí-Bahá’í interpretations of liqá', including the practice of service. [about]
  195. In the Pure Soil of Thy Heart: "Heart" in Bahá'í Writings and Neurocardiology, by Wolfgang A. Klebel, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 10 (2009). How the physical heart in its new discovered properties can actually be the seat of knowledge and right decisions. [about]
  196. 'Indian Money' and the Shi'i Shrine Cities of Iraq, 1786-1850, by Juan Cole, in Middle Eastern Studies, 22:4 (1986). On the political economy of the Shi'i shrine cities of Iraq, theological and pilgrimage centers which grew around the tombs of the Imams, in the 18th and 19th centuries. Connections from India proved lucrative for the Usuli clerics in these cities. [about]
  197. Indigenous Messengers of God, by Christopher Buck and Kevin Locke (2014). 68 essays on Native American theology and history from the perspective of Bahá'í teachings. [about]
  198. Indispensability of Consultation for Ordering Human Affairs, The, by Ian C. Semple, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 11 (2010). Consultation is not just another word for discussion. It is not just a technique to be learned, but requires a development of the character of the individuals who are involved in it. [about]
  199. Individual Bahá'í Perspective on Spiritual Aspects of Cultural Diversity and Sustainable Development: Towards a Second Enlightenment, by Chris Jones Kavelin, in The International Journal of Diversity in Organizations, Communities, and Nations, 8:1 (2008). This paper discusses the spiritual value of cultural diversity and explores how such reflection impacts development policy on the local, national and international levels. [about]
  200. Individualism and the Spiritual Path in Shaykh Ahmad al-Ahsa'i, by Juan Cole, in Occasional Papers in Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Studies, 4 (1997). On Shaykh Ahmad al-Ahsa'i's criticisms of aspects of Sufism, and whether he could be considered a "mystic" despite his anathemas against Sufism. [about]
  201. Inebriation of His Enrapturing Call (mast-and bulbulán), The, by Julio Savi, in Lights of Irfan, 15 (2014). Translation of the early mystical Tablet "Nightingales Are Inebriated" and an analysis of its themes of ecstasy, Mount Sinai, eschatology, dhikr, sama, and fana`. [about]
  202. Infallible Institutions?, by Udo Schaefer, in Reason and Revelation: Studies in the Babi and Bahá'í Religions, 13 (2002). Historical and Bahá'í interpretations of infallibility. [about]
  203. Influence of Bábí Teachings on Ling Ming Tang and Nineteenth-century China, The, by Jianping Wang, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). A possible historical linkage between the followers of Bábí and Bahá'i Movements in Iran and the believers of a Qadiriyya Order (the Ling Ming Tang) in China. [about]
  204. Inheritance Laws of Bahá'í Community: A Gendered Analysis of Inheritance Under the Kitab-i-Aqdas and the Indian Succession Act, by Ishita Kohli, in Indian Journal of Law and Legal Research, 3:1 (2021). Bahá'í laws create a symmetrical equality between sexes, via the principle of mutatis mutandis; the concept of private property and its effect on testamentary succession seen through a progressive and gender-neutral lens. [about]
  205. Inheritance Laws of the Baha'i Community and Gender Equality, by Sarthak Sharma, in International Journal of Legal Science and Innovation, 3:6 (2021). Examination of whether the Bahá'í Faith's teachings on gender-justice and equality are reflected in its inheritance laws and the Kitab-i-Aqdas; scholarly articles on this subject; comparison with Islamic provisions and law. [about]
  206. Inquiry on the Role of Religion in Wealth and Poverty, An, by Hooshmand Badee, in Lights of Irfan, 18 (2017). There are areas where religion has contributed to the debate on wealth creation and poverty eradication. Partnership of two disciplines — religion as a spiritual realm and economics as a social science — fosters human well-being. [about]
  207. Insider and Outsider Scholarship in Bahá'í Studies, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). 'Insider' and 'outsider' scholars can both use academic methodolology in the study of religion with productive results. [about]
  208. Insights from the First Century of the Formative Age, Some, by Paul Lample, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 23:1-4 (2013). On the Covenant from a historical perspective; authority and powers of the UHJ; learning within an evolving framework for action; organic growth and development; relationships among individuals, communities, and institutions; and society-building power. [about]
  209. Institution of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, The, by Universal House of Justice and Horace Holley, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Five documents from Bahá'í World 18 part four section 5: Institution of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkar, its spiritual significance, the temple on the Indian sub-continent, the Lotus of Bahapur, and the first Mashriqu'l-Adhkar of the Pacific Islands. [about]
  210. Institutionalization of Religion, The: A Sociological Analysis of Religion and Conflict, by Jalil Mahmoudi, in World Order (1967). The life cycle of a religion can be classified into different phases or stages, such as "cult, sect, denomination, church." Does the Bahá'í Faith fit this schema? [about]
  211. Integrative Approach to Knowledge and Action: A Baha'i Perspective, by Behrooz Sabet, in Converging Realities, 1:1 (2000). A conceptual base for the development of an integrative approach to the study of the Bahá'í Faith, based largely on the harmony of science and religion. [about]
  212. Intellectual Life of the Bahá'í Community, The, by Farzam Arbab, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 26:4 (2016). The 34th Hasan M. Balyuzi Memorial Lecture at the ABS conference in Montreal, on the need for us to have intellectual courage, a lack of elitism, and the harmony of science and religion. Includes video, published version, and an outline of the talk. [about]
  213. Interdependence of Bahá'í Communities, The: Services of North American Bahá'í Women to Iran, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4:1 (1991). Some early American Bahá’í women’s contribution to the development of the Iranian Bahá’í community. [about]
  214. Interfaith and the Future, by John Hick, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). The development of the interfaith movement over the past 100 years and its possible futures. [about]
  215. International Bahá'í Council, by Duane L. Herrmann, in Bahá'í News (1990). History of the formation of the IBC. [about]
  216. Internationalism and Divine Law: A Baha'i Perspective, by Roshan Danesh, in Journal of Law and Religion, 19:2 (2004). On the internationalism motif in Bahá'í political and legal thought; the place of divine legal claims in contemporary debates about models of world order; religion as a unifying force; concept of divine law in both Persian and Islamic history. [about]
  217. Interpretation and the Guardianship, by Ian C. Semple, in Lights of Irfan, 6 (2005). Two versions of a talk presented at a seminar in Haifa, 1984, on differences between personal interpretation, authoritative interpretation, divinely guided legislation, and the role of the Guardian as interpreter [about]
  218. Interpretation as Revelation: The Qur'an Commentary of the Báb, by Todd Lawson, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:4 (1990). Overview and context of two of the Bab's earliest writings and their relevance to Shaykh Ahmad al-Ahsá’í and Siyyid Kázim Rashtí: a commentary on the Qur'an's Chapter of the Cow, and his famous Qayyúm al-Asmá, Commentary on the Chapter of Joseph. [about]
  219. Interpretation in the Bahá'í Faith, by Juan Cole, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 5:1 (1995). The Bahá'í writings contain a complex and nuanced set of prescriptions for the interpretation of scripture. Before examining them, the very idea of "interpretation" must be clarified. [about]
  220. Interpretive Principles in the Bahá'í Writings, Some, by Khazeh Fananapazir and Seena Fazel, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 2:1 (1992). Aspects of hermeneutics and authorized interpretation. [about]
  221. Interracial "Bahá'í Movement" and the Black Intelligentsia, The: The Case of W. E. B. Du Bois, by Christopher Buck, in Journal of Religious History, 36:4 (2012). Du Bois’s encounters with the Baha’i religion from 1910 to 1953, his connection to the New York Baha’i community, and discussion of segregated Baha’i meetings in Tennessee in 1937. [about]
  222. Interreligious Dialogue and the Bahá'í Faith: Some Preliminary Observations, by Seena Fazel, in Revisioning the Sacred: New Perspectives on a Bahá'í Theology, Studies in the Babi and Baha'i Religions vol. 8 (1997). An overview of pluralistic approaches and their relevance to Bahá'í studies. [about]
  223. Intimate Diversity: The Presentation of Multiculturalism and Multiracialism in a High-Boundary Religious Movement, by Kathleen Jenkins, in Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 42:3 (2003). On the construction and maintenance of multiracial/ethnic networks in religious movements, through a comparative analysis of International Churches of Christ, The People's Temple, and the U.S. Bahá'í community. [about]
  224. Introduction to Nuqtat-al-Kaf, and Index and Concordance to the Persian Bayán, by E. G. Browne, in Kitab-i Nuqtat al-Kaf: Being the Earliest History of the Babis (1910). Browne's English-language introduction to the earliest Bábí history Kitab-i Nuqtat al-Kaf, plus his detailed, annotated "Index of Chief Contents" of the Persian Bayán. [about]
  225. Introduction to Abdu'l-Baha's The Secret of Divine Civilization, An, by Nader Saiedi, in Converging Realities, 1:1 (2000). 'Abdu'l-Bahá's The Secret of Divine Civilization in the context of the Iranian social and political situation of the day, and comments on its contribution to ongoing debates on certain religious, social, and political debates. [about]
  226. Introduction to Bahá'í Law, An: Doctrinal Foundations, Principles and Structures, by Udo Schaefer, in Journal of Law and Religion, 18:2 (2003). A pioneering look at Bahá'í law both in general and in detail, the foundations and principles of which can only be understood within their theological context. [about]
  227. Introduction to the Kitáb-i-Iqán, An, by Nasser Sabet, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3:4 (1991). The importance, style, and contents of the Book of Certitude, and its five major themes: the true seeker and independent investigation of truth, rebirth of spirituality, Christianity and Islam, the Bábí dispensation, and the process of revelation. [about]
  228. Introduction to the Baha'i Faith, by Peter Smith (2019). A look at the central features of the Baha’i Faith, including its history, and the key beliefs, organisation and world-view of the Baha’i community. (Link to document, offsite.) [about]
  229. Introduction to the Baháʼí Religiolect, An, by Adib Masumian, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 21 (2015). Religious dialects are cultural crossover phenomena, like "Judeo-Arabic" and "Christianese". A religiolect can be considered a dialect of a language that’s specific to a particular religious group. The Bahá'í Faith, too, has a nascent religiolect. [about]
  230. Introduction to the Doctrines of Soul and Enlightenment in Mahayana Buddhism and the Bahá'í Faith, An, by Yeo Yew Hock, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 3 (1998). The development of Mahayana and how the Chinese people adopted and adapted it; non-self/enlightenment vs. the "True Poverty and Absolute Nothingness" of the Seven Valleys; sunyata/emptiness and Buddhist monism vs. the Valley of Unity's nonduality. [about]
  231. Introduction to the Lawh-i Haqqu'n-Nas, An, by Jean-Marc Lepain, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). Summary of the tablet Lawh-i Haqqu’n-Nas, Tablet of the "Right of the People," on the metaphorical character of this world. [about]
  232. Introduction to the Súratu'l-Haykal (Discourse of The Temple), An, by Mohamad Ghasem Bayat, in Lights of Irfan, Book 2 (2001). One of Bahá’u’lláh's major writings. It includes references to the manifold stations of the Manifestation of God; God's promise to create a race of men to support His Cause; and the power of this revelation. [about]
  233. Invisible Occidentalism: Eighteenth-Century Indo-Persian Constructions of the West, by Juan Cole, in Iranian Studies, 25:3-4 (1992). Iranian attitudes toward Western culture, science, and philosophers in the colonial era. (No mention of Babis or Bahá'ís.) [about]
  234. Iqbál and the Bábí-Bahá'í Faith, by Annemarie Schimmel, in The Bahá'í Faith and Islam (1990). One of the more influential Muslim thinkers of the first half of the 20th century, Iqbal expressed views on the the Bábí and Bahá'í religions in his dissertation "The Development of Metaphysics in Persia" and his poetical magnum opus the Javidnama. [about]
  235. Iran: Suppression of religious freedom and persecution of religious minorities: case studies, by Thomas Schirrmacher, in International Journal of Religious Freedom, 2:1 (2009). The legal status of non-Shiite Muslims, Bahá'ís, and various Christian confessions in Iran. [about]
  236. Iran, Democracy, and International Law, by Abteen Karimi, in Maryland Journal of International Law, 27:1 (2013). Passing mentions of Bahá'í persecution in Iran (see pages 318-319). [about]
  237. Iranian Millenarianism and Democratic Thought in the Nineteenth Century, by Juan Cole, in International Journal of Middle East Studies, 24:1 (1992). The growth of belief in representative government within the Bahá'í faith in the last third of the 19th century as an example of how popular opinion in Iran was changing prior to the Constitutional Revolution. [about]
  238. Iranian Refugees in America: A Cross-Cultural Perspective, by Frank Lewis and Puran Stevens (1986). Introduction to Persian culture, history, and customs, designed as an aid in cultural understanding for Americans interacting with Iranian emigrants. [about]
  239. Ireland's Multi-Ethnic Immigration Challenge: An Irish Bahá'í View, by Eamonn Moane, in Solas, 2 (2002). After centuries of population loss, Ireland’s economic success in the 1990s led to a surge of immigration, but its reaction to a multi-ethnic influx has been disappointing. It needs Bahá'í approaches like consultation, tolerance, fairness, and morality. [about]
  240. Is Economic Justice Possible?: Toward a New Conception of the Equitable Distribution of Wealth and Income, by Navid Sabet, in Bahá'í World (2020). Survey of the world's current economic condition, and on the implications of Bahá'í principles on the enormous challenge of building an economic system that is just, benefiting all of humanity. [about]
  241. Is It Unethical to Evade Taxes in an Evil or Corrupt State?: A Look at Jewish, Christian, Muslim, Mormon and Bahá'í Perspectives, by Robert W. McGee, in Journal of Accounting, Ethics & Public Policy, 2:1 (1999). The ethics of tax evasion has been a neglected topic in both the accounting and ethical literature. This article reviews the recent literature, focusing on the question of whether tax evasion is ethical in a corrupt country. [about]
  242. Is Spirituality Effective in Addiction Recovery and Prevention?, by Abdu'l-Missagh Ghadirian and Shadi Salehian, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 28:4 (2018). Substance abuse has become a global health crisis, the leading cause of death and disability worldwide; various theories have emerged about the positive influence of spirituality; how an effective approach to prevention and treatment might be realized. [about]
  243. Is the Baha'i Faith a World Religion?, by Moojan Momen, in Soundings: Essays in Bahá'í Theology, ed. Sen McGlinn (1989). The Bahá'í Faith has the potential to become a world religion, but whilst it has achieved a global distribution, it is still limited by the cultural presuppositions of some of its adherents, and so does not reach all types of people. [about]
  244. Is the Bahá'í Faith a World Religion?, by Seena Fazel, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 6:1 (1994). Examination of the terms "world religion" and "new religious movement" to demonstrate that the Bahá'í Faith is best categorized as a "world religion." [about]
  245. Islám: The First 138 Years, by Nosratollah Rassekh, in World Order (1980). Overview of the start of Islam, the life of Muhammad, the Qur'an, succession, early splits and philosophical disagreements, and expansion across the Middle East. [about]
  246. Islam and Minorities: The Case of the Baha'is, by Christopher Buck, in Studies in Contemporary Islam, 5.1–2 (2003). "The Bahá'í question" is really a test case for whether Islam can legitimately claim to respect human rights today. Includes a Persian translation of the original article. [about]
  247. Islam and the Bahá'í Faith: A Brief Guide, by Duane Troxel, in Deepen, 3:2:2 (1994). An overview of some facts and resources about Islam Bahá'ís should know when conversing with Muslims. Includes chronology of Islam. [about]
  248. Islam in the History of Religions, by Alessandro Bausani, in Problems and Methods in the History of Religions (1972). Methodological reflection on the question: how much does the study of so-called "superior" religions fit into the history of religions as a unitary discipline? [about]
  249. Islam, Muhammad, and the Qur'an: Some Introductory Notes, by Stephen Lambden, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 1:1 (1991). Islamic contributions to Western culture and science and discusses the place of Islamic Studies in the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
  250. Islamische Grundlagen des Kitáb-i Aqdas: Mit neuen Erkenntnissen zu seiner Datierung, by Kamran Ekbal, in Iran im 19. Jahrhundert und die Entstehung der Bahá'í Religion, eds. Johann Christoph Bürgel and Isabel Schayani (1998). [about]
  251. Jamal Effendi and Sayyid Mustafa Rumi in Celebes: The Context of Early Bahá'í Missionary Activity in Indonesia, by Jelle de Vries, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 14 (2007). Details of an early Bahá'í missionary journey to the the island of Celebes (now Sulawesi) in what was then to the Dutch East Indies, including the conversion of the king and queen of Boné. [about]
  252. Jamál Effendi and the early history of the Bahá'í Faith in South Asia, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 9 (1999). Includes maps on Jamal Effendi's journeys in India, and journeys in Southeast Asia. [about]
  253. Jesus Christ in the Bahá'í Writings, by Robert Stockman, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 2:1 (1992). While Christians traditionally believe the Gospels to be substantially accurate, little is known about Jesus and what he actually taught; the Bahá'í writings fill in many of these gaps. [about]
  254. Jesus the Son of God and the Incarnation Doctrine, by Antonella Khursheed and Anjam Khursheed, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 1 (1996). The Bahá'í approach to the sonship and divinity of Christ is consistent with Old and New Testament usage. It examines the Incarnation Doctrine, the roots of which can be traced to pagan influences coloring Christian belief in its early centuries. [about]
  255. Journey Motif in the Bahá'í Faith, The: From Doubt to Certitude, by Roshan Danesh, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 22:1-4 (2012). The process of individual spiritual growth lies at the heart of human purpose. Bahá’u’lláh speaks about the collective spiritualization of humanity — creating new patterns of community and social relations — as the "journey" of the human body politic. [about]
  256. Journey through the Seven Valleys, A, by Ghasem Bayat, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). An epistle revealed in an eloquent language and composed in a masterful style, with beauty and brevity, its poems, traditions, words of wisdom, and stories that can be traced throughout the writings of mystics. [about]
  257. Joycean Modernism in a Nineteenth-Century Qur'an Commentary?: A Comparison of The Báb's Qayyūm Al-Asmā' with Joyce's Ulysses, by Todd Lawson, in Erin and Iran: Cultural Encounters between the Irish and the Iranians, ed. H. E. Chehabi and Grace Neville (2015). Comparison of the formal structure of the two works and themes such as time; oppositions and their resolution; relation between form and content; prominence of epiphany; manifestation, advent and apocalypse; and the theme of heroism, reading and identity. [about]
  258. Just System of Government: The Third Dimension to World Peace, by John Huddleston, in The Bahá'í Faith and Marxism (1987). Highlights a few points in the Bahá'í approach to government and collective action. [about]
  259. Justice et Miséricorde?: Une théologie du pardon selon la foi Bahá'íe, by Udo Schaefer (2001). [about]
  260. Kafka's spiritual dimension, by Greg Massiah, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 6 (1996). The metaphysical significance of Franz Kafka's work is often overlooked. An exploration of religion and spirituality in three of his best-known short stories: The Judgment, In the Penal Colony, and Before the Law. [about]
  261. Kahlil Gibran, by Christopher Buck, in American Writers Supplement XX, ed. Jay Parini (2010). A detailed study of the life and work of the Arab-American author and artist Gibran (1883—1931), who achieved fame in the West through his book The Prophet; a Maronite Christian by birth, he was influenced by Sufi ideas and admired 'Abdu'l-Bahá'. [about]
  262. Kaleidoscope: Some Aspects of Angelology, Light, the Divine Throne and Color Mysticism in Bábí and Bahá'í Scripture, by Stephen Lambden, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 5 (2004). Miscellaneous notes relating to religious cosmology, angelology, color and “throne” symbolism in select Abrahamic, Bábí, Bahá’í, and religious and mystical texts. It will be seen that colours are related to the theology of the celestial Throne. [about]
  263. Keys to the Proper Understanding of Islam in "The Dispensation of Baha'u'llah", by Brian Wittman, in Lights of Irfan, 2 (2001). Some references to Islam in Shoghi Effendi's English-language writings. [about]
  264. Khúshih-Há'í Az Kharman-i-Adab va Honar ( خوشه هایی از خرمن ادب و هنر ) (1989). Twenty volumes of scholarship in Persian, based on proceedings and papers from the Society of Persian Arts and Letters conferences (Khoosh-i-Ha'i Az Kharman-i-Adab va Honar = "from the rich harvest of Persian culture and literature"). [about]
  265. Kitáb-i Aqdas of Mírzá Husain `Alí Núrí, Bahá'u'lláh, The: Redating its Beginnings, by Kamran Ekbal, in Proceedings of the Third European Conference of Iranian Studies, Part 2: Mediaeval and Modern Persian Studies (1999). The exact date when the Aqdas was written is unclear. It may have been composed over a period of about five years and in different locations. [about]
  266. Kitáb-i-Aqdas and the Process of Transformation, The, by John A. Davidson, in The Kitáb-i-Aqdas: Studies from the First National Conference on the Holy Book, vol. 1 (1996). The Kitáb-i-Aqdas is the source and inspiration for the process of transformation initiated by the Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh. It defines the goals and provides the means. Its various dimensions (social, mystical, ethical, cultural). [about]
  267. Kitáb-i-Aqdas as a Lens with which to Examine some of the Dilemmas of Modernity, The, by Betsy Omidvaran, in Solas, 2 (2002). Contrast between the Aqdas - the source of laws of future society - and issues of the modern world as it had evolved up to the 19th century. Discussion of Houses of Worship, universal language, financial principles, justice, the Covenant, and unity. [about]
  268. Kitáb-i-Aqdas as Described and Glorified by Shoghi Effendi, by Cyrus Ala'i, in Lights of Irfan, Book 1 (2000). Basic facts about the Kitáb-i-Aqdas. Shoghi Effendi's analysis of the book in his God Passes By. [about]
  269. Kitab-i-Aqdas, The: Bahá'í Law, Legitimacy, and World Order, by Martha L. Schweitz, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 6:1 (1994). On the Kitáb-i-Aqdas from the perspective of contemporary secular national and international law; its institution-building provisions as a Charter for future world civilization; relationship between law and principle; transformation of international law. [about]
  270. Kitab-i-Iqan: An Introduction to Bahá'u'lláh's Book of Certitude with Two Digital Reprints of Early Lithographs, by Christopher Buck (1998). The significance, context, style, exegical devices, background, contents, manuscripts, and printing history of the Kitab-i Iqan. [about]
  271. Kitáb-i-Iqán, The: Revolutionizing the Concepts of Religion, Eschatology and Theology, by Sohrab Kourosh, in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). The Kitáb-i-Íqán resolves and removes eschatological barriers and establishes the fundamentals of a universal religion and a universal theology, that integrates and harmonizes other contending ideologies. [about]
  272. Knowledge and Civilization: Implications for the Community and the Individual, by Farzam Arbab, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 26 (1997-1998) (1999). Exploration of the relationship between science and religion as two great systems of knowledge that have a vital social role to play in the building of a world civilization. [about]
  273. Knowledge and the Covenant of Bahá'u'lláh: Invited Commentary, by Ian C. Semple, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 9 (1999). On the apparent contradiction between following infallible divine guidance while pursuing an unfettered search after truth, and the culture of academic writing. [about]
  274. Knowledge into Action: The Bahá'í Imperative to Serve Humanity, by Layli Miller-Muro, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 24:1-2 (2014). On the history of experience and evolution in thinking regarding social action in the Bahá’í community; the Tahirih Justice Center’s experience as one example of such learning; the culture of service we must embody. [about]
  275. Knowledge of God, The: An Essay on Bahá'í Epistemology, by Jack McLean, in World Order (1978). Knowledge of the divine is the beginning of all things. This can come through the investigative faculty, the path of reason, or through intuition and mysticism, the path of the heart. [about]
  276. Knowledge, Certitude and the Mystical Heart: The Hidden Essence of God's Word, by LeRoy Jones, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). Bahá'u'lláh equates Truth with divine knowledge and requires that we must first be cleansed of worldly things if we are to attain divine knowledge and true understanding. The elusive and transcendent nature of divine knowledge. [about]
  277. L'islam, religion éternelle?: une approche bahá'íe de la revendication à la complétude, by Seena Fazel and Khazeh Fananapazir (1993). French translation of "A Bahá'í Approach to the Claim of Finality in Islam." [about]
  278. La Cultura Hispano Árabe en Latino América, by Boris Handal, in Polis, 3:9 (2004). The influence of the Hispano-Arab culture in Latin American history, from a linguistic point of view, and through the development of the humanities and sciences such as mathematics, astronomy, and medicine. [about]
  279. La Raison dans les Ecrits baha'is: Son importance, sa fonction, son usage, by Ian Kluge (2013). French translation of "Reason and the Bahá'í Writings." [about]
  280. Language and Universalization: A 'Linguistic Ecology' Reading of Bahá'í Writings, by Gregory Paul P. Meyjes, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 9:1 (1999). How the promotion of linguistic minority rights may coincide with promotion of an International Auxiliary Language, opposing trends toward increased globalization and growing nationalism, and the unregulated global spread of English. [about]
  281. Language and Worldview, by Alvino E. Fantini, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:2 (1989). Languages are paradigms of a view of the world. Knowledge of more than one language holds promise for an expanded worldview, for understanding other people on their own terms. [about]
  282. Language of the Heart, The: From Dream Language towards Understanding the Language of the Heart, by Wolfgang A. Klebel, in Lights of Irfan, 17 (2016). On the form and style of the language of the heart; ways this language differs from our normal language and thinking as it is developed in the human brain; the language and logic of dreams; effects of heart transplants. [about]
  283. Language of the Heart, The: Parallels between Chinese and Bahá'í Approaches to the Spiritual Self, by Sim Tze Hong, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 4 (1999). Parallels between Chinese and Confucian thought vs. Bahá'í teachings about the spiritual self, the nature of the heart, the pathway to perfection, the knowledge of oneself, and symbolism in language like "open heart" and "use heart." [about]
  284. Laozi: A Lost Prophet?, by Roland Faber, in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). On the Tao Te Ching, or Dao De Jing; the uniqueness of Toaism/Daoism; resonances with and differences from the Bahá’í universe; should Doaism be considered a genuine dispensation of a divine Manifestation. [about]
  285. Late Ottoman Sunni Missionary Project, The, by Necati Alkan, in Missions and Preaching: Connected and Decompartmentalised Perspectives from the Middle East and North Africa (2022). Excerpts from the author's book Non-Sunni Muslims in the Late Ottoman Empire: State and Missionary Perceptions of the Alawis. Contains only passing mentions of the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
  286. Laura Barney's Discipleship to 'Abdu'l-Bahá: Tracing a Theological Flow from the Middle East to the United States, 1900-1916, by Layli Maria Miron, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 28:1-2 (2018). How Laura Barney employed ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s teachings to influence social discourse as she taught the Bahá'í Faith in Europe and the United States. [about]
  287. Lawh-i-Hikmat: The Two Agents and the Two Patients, by Vahid Rafati, in Andalib, 5:19 (2002). Discussion of the two terms fa`ilayn (the active force / "the generating influence") and munfa`ilayn (its recipient / "such as receive its impact") in Islamic philosophy, and their later use in Shaykhi and Bahá'í texts. [about]
  288. Lawh-i-Hikmat, Bahá'u'lláh's Tablet of Wisdom: Towards a Progressive Bahá'í Theology, by Wolfgang A. Klebel, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). The primary focus of Bahá'í studies must by on the Writings of the Faith, and the philosophical understanding and interpretation need to follow and be enlightened by the Revelation. We must look at modern philosophy critically in that light. [about]
  289. Lawh-i-Maryam (Tablet to Maryam) Revealed by Bahá'u'lláh: A Provisional Translation and Commentary, by Julio Savi and Faezeh Mardani Mazzoli, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). Bahá’u’lláh’s Tablet to Maryam is both a source of historical information and of doctrinal and ethical hints, as well as an example of his refined literary style. [about]
  290. Lawh-i-Tibb (Tablet to the Physician), The: Beyond Health Maxims, by Misagh Ziaei, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 29:3 (2019). On the tablet's historical context, as well as some of its guidance regarding the study and practice of medicine, including attributes its practitioners must acquire and maintain. [about]
  291. Le Coran et l'imaginaire apocalyptique, by Todd Lawson, in Religions et Histoire, 34 (2010). [about]
  292. Learning from History, by Moojan Momen, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:2 (1989). The challenges caused by the influx of Third World villagers into the Bahá’í world community. The value of a study of the history of the Bahá’í Faith in understanding this development and in helping us towards appropriate presentations of the Faith. [about]
  293. Learning to Read Social Reality in the Light of the Revelation: Twenty-Five Years of Contributing to the Discourse of Ethics in Business, by Haleh Arbab, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 25:3 (2015). The Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity works to learn how to advance the capacity of individuals and groups to participate in some of the prevalent discourses of society, for the betterment of the world and the growth of civilization. [about]
  294. Les Bahá'ís: Un chapitre de l'histoire religieuse récente, by Udo Schaefer, in La Pensées Bahá'í (Bulletin trimestriel), 107 (1989). [about]
  295. Les Béhahis et le Bâb, by A.L.M. Nicolas, in Journal Asiatique, vol. 222 (April-June) (1933). [about]
  296. Les Paradigmes cachés de l'histoire: Comparaison de l'histoire des premiers siècles du christianisme et de la foi bahà'ie, by Jean-Marc Lepain, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 6:2 (1994). Exploration of some lessons from history relevant to our era and our near future, from the perspective of philosophy of history; paradigms of Christian history which illuminate Bahá'í history; the rise and decline of civilizations; role of the Zeitgeist. [about]
  297. Les Valeurs economiques et les valeurs morales, by William S. Hatcher, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1:4 (1989). [about]
  298. Lesser Peace and the Most Great Peace, The, by Ali Nakhjavani, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). The writings of Shoghi Effendi in English give us a comprehensive description and an all-embracing analysis of the state of the world today and an understanding of the various developments which have taken place. [about]
  299. Lessons in Leadership, by May Khadem, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 28:4 (2018). A personal journey of learning about leadership; widely shared false assumptions have led many off-course in addressing the challenges in the fight against blindness, and other public health concerns. [about]
  300. Letters from a 19th-century Kansas Baha'i, by Duane L. Herrmann, in World Order (1996). An examination of two letters written by Barbara Ehrsam in Enterprise, Kansas in 1899. [about]
  301. Letters to Bahá'í princesses: Tablets revealed in honour of the women of Ibn-i Asdaq's household, by Dominic Parvis Brookshaw, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 5 (2004). A study and translation of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's tablets to the daughters of Hand of the Cause of God, Ibn-i Asdaq: Laqá'iyya, Huviyya, Rúhá and Talí`a. Includes various biographies and other tablets. [about]
  302. Lev Tolstoi and the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions: A Bibliography, by William P. Collins and Jan T. Jasion, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3:3 (1991). The great spiritual crisis of Tolstoi’s life led him to a search for a pure faith. Late in life, this search led to his examination of the Bábí–Bahá’í religions. A bibliography of material on Tolstoi’s association with the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
  303. Liberal Democracy and the Bahá'í Administrative Order: An Analysis, by Arash Abizadeh, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:3 (1990). Comparison of the Bahá'í political system with two dominant types of liberal democracy, namely Responsible Government and Separation of Powers, as potential models for global government. (Link to PDF, offsite.) [about]
  304. Liberation Theology and its Potential for Guidance Towards Peace on Earth: A Bahá'í Perspective, by Fleur Fallon, in 75 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Australasia (1996). Bahá'u'lláh prescribed both a moral code for individuals based on knowing God and a design for a system of world government. These offer the most holistic answer for liberation theologians today. [about]
  305. Life and Times of August Forel, The, by Sheila Banani, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 6 (2005). A review of Forel's scientific accomplishments, philosophical/religious perplexities, and social concerns which led him to embrace the Bahá'i teachings as he understood them during the last decade of his life. [about]
  306. Life as Metaphor, by John S. Hatcher, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). What is the moral rationale for physical reality? What is the proper relationship of human beings to physical reality? There are metaphorical reminders of our true nature and essential reality (e.g. the ageing process). [about]
  307. Life Crises among the Religiously Committed: Do Sectarian Differences Matter?, by Helen Rose Fuchs Ebaugh and Kathe Richman, in Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 23:1 (1984). Study of Catholic Charismatics, Christian Scientists, and Bahá'ís, in terms of their perceptions of the number, types and reactions to crises they had experienced. Sectarian differences exert a consistent effect. [about]
  308. Life of Hugh McKinley, Knight of Bahá'u'lláh, by Olive McKinley, in Solas, 4 (2004). History of Hugh McKinley, correspondent of Shoghi Effendi, and his father, David McKinley — lives of interest not only to Bahá'ís but to the Irish in general. [about]
  309. Life of Shoghi Effendi, The, by Helen Danesh and John Danesh, in Studying the Writings of Shoghi Effendi, ed. M. Bergsmo (1991). Chapter length biography, and overview of the Guardian's life's work. [about]
  310. Life, Death and Immortality: The Taoist Religion in Singapore and the Bahá'í Faith, by Phyllis Ghim-Lian Chew, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 2 (1997). Main features of Taoist practices in Singapore compared with Bahá'í which, at first glance, could not be more disparate; whether unity may be found behind the apparent dichotomy; spanning the gulf between these two distinct religions from different times. [about]
  311. Light in the Lantern, The, by E. S. (Ethel Stefana) Stevens, in Everybody's Magazine (1911). Sympathetic outsider's overview of Bahá'í history and its spread through the Western world. Includes the author's impressions of Abdu'l-Bahá, whom she calls "The Effendi." [about]
  312. Light Was in the Darkness, The: Reflections on the Growth that Hides in the Pain of Suffering, by Michael L. Penn, in Bahá'í World (2020). Existential stress and its relationship to individual growth and development, drawing on the rich spiritual and philosophical heritage of humanity. [about]
  313. Literature of Interpretation, The: Notes on the English Writings of Shoghi Effendi, by Glenford Mitchell, in World Order, 7:2 (1972). The influence of the writings of Shoghi Effendi on the Bahá'í Faith is analogous to that of St. Augustine on Christianity, but infinitely more so. Includes discussion of the nature of exegesis, the Guardianship, and the scope of history. [about]
  314. Long, Withdrawing Roar, The: The Crisis of Faith and Nineteenth-Century English Poetry, by Edwin McCloughan, in Solas, 2 (2002). A Bahá'í response to the argument that the crisis of faith in the late 19th century was conditioned by historical circumstances and has therefore little relevance for a contemporary reader. [about]
  315. Look at Harmony and Unity as Common Principles in the Confucian System and the Bahá'í Faith, A, by Benjamin Olshin, in Studies in Bahá'í Philosophy, vols. 2-3 (2014). Confucianism and the Bahá'í Faith represent complex and multi-faceted systems of philosophy, practice, and belief that resonate strongly with each other. The goal of both is for human beings to live in a society characterized by harmony and ethics. [about]
  316. Lotus in Concrete, by S. Naharoy and Fariborz Sahba, in ECC Concord, special edition (2011). A special-edition journal with photos of the temple in India, with essays "Bahá'í House of Worship," "Taj Mahal of the 20th Century," "Design and Construction," "Lotus and Other Design Highlights," "Shaping a Dream in Concrete." [about]
  317. Louise Dixon Boyle and Maria Montessori, by Janet A. Khan, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 16:1-4 (2006). American Louise Dixon Boyle (1875–1953) was an active Bahá'í who engaged with wider social issues. Here the focus is on her involvement in the field of education, particularly the work of the Italian physician and educator Dr. Maria Montessori. [about]
  318. Love of Iran, A, by Iraj Ghanooni (2022). Philosophical reflections on how fundamentally our homeland shapes our reality, and how ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s deep love of His own homeland of Iran went far beyond a particularistic sentiment of nationalism and was in fact one of "universal patriotism." [about]
  319. Love Relationship between God and Humanity: Reflections on Baha'u'llah's Hidden Words, by Julio Savi, in Scripture and Revelation (1997). An overview of God and man's relationship as expressed in Bahá'u'lláh's Hidden Words. [about]
  320. Love, Power, and Justice, by William S. Hatcher, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 9:3 (1999). The pursuit and abuse of power are moral choices for which there is no moral justification. [about]
  321. Macrocriticism: A Comparison of Nicolai Berdyaev and Shoghi Effendi, by Zaid Lundberg, in Studies in Bahá'í Philosophy, vol. 1 (2012). Comparison of "the most widely read of the Russian religious philosophers" with the background and style of Shoghi Effendi's religious, ethical, and social writings. [about]
  322. Mafia, Mob and Shiism in Iraq: The Rebellion of Ottoman Karbala 1824-1843, by Juan Cole and Moojan Momen, in Past and Present, 112 (1986). On the role of gangs in urban social history of the 19-century Ottoman empire; with a decline in government control, gangs ran protection rackets and acted as a parallel government, making alliances and becoming popular leaders against an alien threat. [about]
  323. Maharishi Ayurveda: A Bahá'í Exploration, by Felicity Rawlings, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4:3 (1992). Some of the therapeutic strategies of Maharishi Ayurveda and how they correspond to the Bahá’í writings on healing. [about]
  324. Mahdist Movements, by Samuel Graham Wilson, in Modern Movements among Moslems (1916). An unsympathetic Christian missionary's early history of the Faith. [about]
  325. Maid of Heaven, the Image of Sophia, and the Logos, The: Personification of the Spirit of God in Scripture and Sacred Literature, by Michael W. Sours, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4:1 (1991). The Logos in Christianity and the Maiden for Bahá'u'lláh can be equated as one and the same eternal reality; the divine image of wisdom in Proverbs; Sophia and Logos are combined in the feminine personification of the Most Great Spirit. [about]
  326. Making of Central America, The: Intervention, Dictatorship, and Revolution, by Phillip Berryman, in dialogue magazine, 1:4 (1986). History of Western and Christian involvement in Latin America. (No mention of the Bahá'í Faith.) [about]
  327. Man Is Man: `Abdu'l-Bahá on Human Evolution, by Ramin Neshati, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 10 (2009). Bahá’ís believe in the essential harmony of science and religion, yet they reject Darwinian evolutionary theories which are strongly supported by the scientific community. How can we resolve this seeming impasse? [about]
  328. Manifestation of God in the View of Process Theology, The, by Roland Faber, in Lights of Irfan, 20 (2019). On how God can be all-present in the world and at the same time be manifest in the form of human figures, such as Christ or the Hindu Avatars. The philosophy of Whitehead can translate the concept of Manifestation to a multireligious context. [about]
  329. Manifestations of God and Their Function in Human History, The, by Iscander Micael Tinto, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 5 (2004). The terminology, purpose and mission, sufferings, functions, and the threefold reality of the Manifestations of God. [about]
  330. Margaret Danner, the Black Arts Movement, and the Bahá'í Faith, by Richard Hollinger, in elixir-journal.org, vol. 3 (2016). Short overview of the life of a black Bahá’í poet of some renown in the 1960s and 1970s. Includes one sample poem. [about]
  331. Marginality and Apostasy in the Bahá'í Community, by Moojan Momen, in Religion, 37:3 (2007). Study of a particular type of articulate and well-educated ex-Bahá'ís, here termed "marginal" and "apostates," who first appeared in the West about 25 years ago and reached the peak of their activity in the last decade. [about]
  332. Mark Tobey's City Paintings: Meditations on an Age of Transition, by Julie Badiee, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1:4 (1989). On the evolutionary character of Tobey's "City Paintings" during the decades of the 1930s-50s: they may be understood as modern reinterpretations of the traditional themes of the Apocalypse, Hell, the Day of Judgment, and New Jerusalem — the Bahá'í age. [about]
  333. Marriage and the Nuclear Family: A Bahá'í Perspective, by Khalil A. Khavari, in Bahá'í Studies Notebook, 3:1-2 (1983). Bahá'í concepts of the purposes of marriage, courtship and dating, family communication, and children. [about]
  334. Marriage Breakdown in North America: A Psychosocial Perspective, by Kerry Mothersill, in Bahá'í Studies Notebook, 3:1-2 (1983). What are the effects of marital breakdown, what are its causes, and what can be done to enhance marital and family stability? [about]
  335. Marriage: the Eternal Principle, by Ruth Eyford and Helgi Eyford, in Bahá'í Studies Notebook, 3:1-2 (1983). The role marriage plays in our ultimate purpose to know and worship God. The practical implications of marriage from a Bahá'í perspective. To what extent can we accept modern secular answers and therapists' techniques to marital problems? [about]
  336. Martha Root: "Herald of the Kingdom", by Barbara Casterline, in Bahá'í News, 496-497 (1972). Two-part overview of Root's life and a concise history of her travels. [about]
  337. Martyrdom and Servanthood in the Bábí and Bahá'í Faiths: A Struggle to Defend a Cosmic Order, by Per-Olof Akerdahl, in Martyrdom in the Modern Middle East, ed. Sasha Dehghani and Silvia Horsch (2014). From mystical Islam stems the ideal of servanthood, which is preferred over a concept of martyrdom that includes physical death; on ideological motivations for the persecution of Bahá'ís in different socio-historical circumstances. [about]
  338. Marxism Yesterday and Today, by Colin Leys, in The Bahá'í Faith and Marxism (1987). Marxist movements today and the prospects for change. No mention of the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
  339. Marxism, Human Nature, and Society, by Laurie E. Adkin, in The Bahá'í Faith and Marxism (1987). On Marxism, human nature, alienatation and emancipation, and feminism. No mention of the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
  340. Massacres de Babis en Perse, by A.L.M. Nicolas (1936). On events in 1903 in Rasht, Isfahan, Yazd, and Tehran, written by a French consul in Iran. [about]
  341. Master Humorist, The, by Robert Ballenger, in dialogue magazine, 2:2-3 (1988). Examples of the humor of Abdu'l-Bahá, jokes he told, and how this aspect of the Master's personality has been downplayed in biographies and portrayals of him which cast him in a more serious light. [about]
  342. Mathnaví by Rúhu'lláh Varqá, the Martyr, The: A Few Notes on Its Historical Context and Poetical Content, by Julio Savi and Faezeh Mardani, in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). On the motifs of the cup-bearer and the cup, springtime, and love. Includes translation of "The Mathnaví of Rúhu'lláh, the Martyr." [about]
  343. May Knowledge Grow in our Hearts: Applying Spiritual Principles to Development Practice, by Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity (2010). On how an organization can employ the methods of science and the principles of religion together while working for a more humane and just world, via the case of India's Seva Mandir (Temple of Service). [Link to PDF, offsite.] [about]
  344. Mayflowers in the Ville Lumière: The Dawning of Bahá'í History in the European Continent, by Julio Savi, in Lights of Irfan, 12 (2011). In intellectual and artistic Paris of the fin de siècle, a young American becomes the catalyst for the spiritual awakening of a group of early believers. The paper examines the mysterious ways through which they came to recognize the dawn of the new era. [about]
  345. Meaning of Life, The, by Stanwood Cobb (1932). The sole purpose of life, so far as the individual is concerned, is growth through struggle. Not to be active is to stagnate and atrophy; movement and change is the sign of life. [about]
  346. Mediation, Transformation and Consultation: A Comparative Analysis of Conflict Resolution Models, by Guy Sinclair, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). The Bahá'í principle of consultation as a framework for mediation, transformation, and the process of conflict resolution. The need for dialogue between all those concerned with such goals. [about]
  347. Medieval Islam: The Influence of Islam on Judaism and Christianity, by Anjam Khursheed, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 2 (1997). Prior to the Renaissance, Islam inspired revivals in the cultural traditions of Christianity and Judaism, indicating a harmony between the three religions. The reforms inspired by Islam were a prelude to the modern scientific revolution. [about]
  348. Memorials of the Faithful: The Democratization of Sainthood, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 17 (2016). Hagiography in Judaism, Christianity and Islam; the precedent of Faridu'd-Din's "Memorials of the Saints"; Abdu'l-Bahá innovations in this traditional literary format. [about]
  349. Memorials of the Faithful: Virtues of Inner and Outer Transformation, by Marlene Koswan, in Lights of Irfan, 17 (2016). A study of the virtues identified for the faithful individuals mentioned in "Memorials of the Faithful" and how they exemplified character, manners and conduct, using the "Seven Valleys" as a guide for human conduct. [about]
  350. Memories of My Life: Translation of Mírzá Habíbu'lláh Afnán's Khátirát-i-Hayát, by Ahang Rabbani, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). Bio of the life of Habíbu'lláh Afnán-i-A`lá'í, born 1875, especially his years with the family of the wife of the Báb, Khadijih Bagum, and her sister, Zahrá Bagum. [about]
  351. Messengers of God in North America, Revisited: An Exegesis of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Tablet to Amír Khán, by Christopher Buck and Donald Addison, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). The indigenous peoples of the Americas have their own claim to wisdom tradition, which derive from Messengers of God to First Nations. This principle is anchored in the Tablet to Amír Khán Áhan. [about]
  352. Messianic Concealment and Theophanic Disclosure, by Moojan Momen, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). The argument about exactly when Bahá'u'lláh became aware of his mission. Relevant issues and rival perspectives.  [about]
  353. Messianic Roots of Babi-Bahá'í Globalism, The, by Stephen Lambden, in Bahá'í and Globalisation (2005). Contrast of the continuity between the globalism of the Bab’s Qayyum al-asma’ and Baha’u’llah’s globalism, verses breaks between the two, e.g. the abandoning of jihad as a means of promoting a globalisation process. [about]
  354. Meta-Narrative of Peasant Religious Conversion, The: A Case Study of the Baha'i Community In Thailand, by Amanah Nurish, in En Arche: Indonesian Journal of Inter-Religious Studies, 4:1 (2015). A study of why the peasant peoples of Yasothon, Thailand have turned to the Bahá'í Faith instead of the more common Buddhism; how local political movements and resistance develop among the poor working-class in agricultural areas. [about]
  355. Metaphor and the Language of Revelation, by Ross Woodman, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:1 (1997). To enter the realm of metaphor as the language of the soul is to come into direct contact with the Word as the originating power of creation. [about]
  356. Methodology and Bahá'í Studies: The Bridge between Realities, by John S. Hatcher, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 10 (2001). The role of Bahá'í academics to bring to light aspects of the dual physical and spiritual aspects of reality. [about]
  357. Methodology in Bahá'í studies, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 10 (2001). How Bahá'í scholars can interact with secular academia. Bahá’í scholarship can develop in two ways: interior (scholarship that develops within the Bahá’í community, based on faith) and exterior (academic scholarship based on rationalistic methodology). [about]
  358. Methods and qualities of the seekers of Reality in Some Answered Questions in the light of Bahá'í Scriptures, by Julio Savi, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 10 (2009). The criteria and qualities of the seekers of Reality. The senses, reason, and reliance on scriptural texts are inadequate means but can be usefully combined. It is only the bounty of the Holy Spirit which bestows enlightenment and certitude, however. [about]
  359. Midhat Pasha and 'Abdu'l-Baha in 'Akka: The Historical Background of the Tablet of the Land of Bá, by Necati Alkan, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 13 (2005). Background of the tablet Lawh-i-Ard-i-Bá, revealed by Bahá'u'lláh on occasion of Abdu'l-Bahá travelling to Beirut to meet the governor of Syria. Includes an account by Mirza Haydar Ali of the Pasha's visit. [about]
  360. Millennialism and Violence: The Attempted Assassination of Nasir al-Din Shah of Iran by the Babis in 1852, by Moojan Momen, in Nova Religio, 12:1 (2008). Events leading up to the assassination attempt, and political and social factors leading to the violence. [about]
  361. Millennialism in Modern Iranian History, by Juan Cole, in Imagining the End: Visions of Apocalypse from the Ancient Middle East to Modern America, eds. Abbas Amanat and Magnus Bernhardsson (2002). Religions in Iran have been volatile and evolving, from a tool of the establishment to representing the voice of the oppressed, from passive to revolutionary. Bahá'u'lláh adapted these motifs to create a vehicle for socially-liberal and democratic ideals. [about]
  362. Millennialist Narrative and Apocalyptic Violence: The Case of the Babis of Iran, by Moojan Momen, in Journal of the British Association for the Study of Religions, 20 (2018). How apocalyptic narratives played out in events of 1848-50, stages in the escalation of the conflict, factors that increased the likelihood of violence, and developments after 1852 that moved the focus of the religion from pre- to post-millennialism. [about]
  363. Minimalism from a Bahá'í Perspective, by Mahyad Zaerpoor Rahnamaie, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). Minimalism accepts the objective reality outside human perception but may go beyond the reductionism of scientific objectivity. This is relevant to the Bahá’ís, as they favour a perspective in which reality is treated as a unified whole. [about]
  364. Missing Dimension in the Built Environment, The: A Challenge for the 21st Century, by Leo R. Zrudlo, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3:1 (1990). There is a missing dimension in the built environment -- architecture is unable to satisfy the emotional and aesthetic needs of people. But architects disagree about how to rectify the situation. A spiritual aspect is needed. [about]
  365. Missing Moral Dimension, The, by Suresh Sahadevan, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 4 (1999). Today's social and economic policies are materially efficient and technically sound, but something vital is missing: graciousness within and between individuals. It may not directly result in revenue or productivity, but is crucial in the long run. [about]
  366. Mission of the Báb, The: Retrospective 1844-1994, by Douglas Martin, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 23 (1994-1995) (1996). The revelation of the Báb in the context of its impact on the Western writers of the period and its subsequent influence. [about]
  367. Models and Idols: Towards a Philosophy of the Community of Mind, by Shahbaz Fatheazam, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 6 (2005). It is the coexistence of action and learning that modifies community and its traditions, and this coexistence needs systematic study. Community building is a dynamic process amongst the Bahá’ís. The danger of Bacon's 'idols of the mind'. [about]
  368. Modes and Intentions of Biography, The, by Graham Hassall, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 14 (2008). A look at the individual in the context of the community, through the different lenses of documentary, hagiological, and critical modes of biography. [about]
  369. Monotheistic Religion in Africa: The Example of the Swazi People, by Margaret Pemberton-Pigott and Crispin Pemberton-Pigott, in Bahá'í Faith and the World's Religions (2005). Similarities between the Bahá'í Faith and the ancient traditional beliefs of the Swazi people of Southern Africa. [about]
  370. Montessori and the Bahá'í Faith, by Barbara Hacker, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1:2 (1988). The work of the educationalist Maria Montessori was attuned to the spirit of the Bahá’í Era. Her view that children are key to the development of human society and ultimately world peace are presented in relation to Bahá’í writings on these subjects. [about]
  371. More Constructive Encounter, A: A Bahá’í View of Religion and Human Rights, by Barney Leith, in Does God Believe in Human Rights? Essays on Religion and Human Rights, ed. Nazila Ghanea et al. (2007). Relationship between religion and human rights, and the work of the Bahá’í community in wholeheartedly supporting the theory and practice of universal rights. [about]
  372. Mormonism and the Bahá'í Faith, by William P. Collins, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3:2 (1990). Historical contacts between Bahá’ís and Mormons; Mormon views of the Bahá’í Faith; Bahá’í views of Mormonism; literature on Mormons and Bahá’ís. [about]
  373. Most Dramatic Chapter in the Spiritual History of Humankind, A: A Pictorial Essay, by Julio Savi, in Bahá'í World (2020). Introduction to the life of the Báb, with historical photo-realistic illustrations by Romanian artist Simina Boicu Rahmatian. [about]
  374. Muhammad as Educator, Islam as Enlightenment, and the Quran as Sacred Epic, by Todd Lawson, in Knowledge and Education in Classical Islam, ed. Sebastian Gunther (2020). To Islam, civilization in prosperity and harmony is sacred; education is pivotal in the journey from ignorance to enlightenment; overview of the "heroic" theme and "epic" structure of the Qur'an. Contains no mention of the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
  375. Muhammad Musaddiq and the Bahá'ís, by Bahram Choubine (2010). Two essays: "Dr. Mohammad Mosaddegh and the Baha’is" (2009) and "Suppression of the Baha’is of Iran in 1955" (2008). [about]
  376. Muhammad `Abduh and Rashid Rida: A Dialogue on the Bahá'í Faith, by Juan Cole, in World Order, 15:3-4 (1981). Translation of a dialogue between two influential Sunni thinkers of the early Twentieth Century; contains much of historical interest. [about]
  377. Mutilated Body of the Modern Nation: Qurrat al-'Ayn's Unveiling and the Persian Massacre of the Bábís, by Negar Mottahedeh, in Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, 18:2 (1998). A Freudian interpretation of the extreme antipathy underlying common Iranian opposition to the Babis/Bahá'ís as being disruptive symbols of destabilizing modernism, with the stories of Qurratu'l-'Ayn's public unveiling a central element.    [about]
  378. Mysteries of Alast: The Realm of Subtle Entities and the Primordial Covenant in the Babi-Bahá'í Writings, by Farshid Kazemi, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 15 (2009). One of the more esoteric concepts in Shi'i and Shaykhi thought is the "realm of subtle entities," 'ālam-i dharr, a sort of pre-existence for the archetype of humanity, which is relevant to free will and the seven stages of creation. [about]
  379. Mystery of Consciousness, The: Learning from Neuroscience and Insights from Bahá'í Sacred Writings, by Jena Khadem Khodadad, in Lights of Irfan, 20 (2019). On the neural basis of consciousness; the concepts of mind and soul as presented in the Bahá’í writings; whether consciousness may continue after the death of the brain; and if explanations lie in quantum mechanics. [about]
  380. Mystery of Divinity, The: A Comparison of Traditional Views of Divinity to Those in Some Answered Questions, by James B. Thomas, in Lights of Irfan, 12 (2011). A new paradigm of spiritual evolution, and a possible platform for philosophical dissertation regarding religious influence on secular matters in the modern world. [about]
  381. Mystic Cup, The: Essential Mystical Nature of the Bahá'í Faith, by LeRoy Jones, in Lights of Irfan, Book 2 (2001). Although the Bahá’í Faith is fundamentally mystic in character, American Bahá’ís often do not even understand what  mysticism is. Heart-centered mystic oneness is crucial in individual, societal, and adminstrative spiritual transformation. [about]
  382. Mystic Journey of the Soul, The, by Gul Afroz Zaman, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 3 (1998). On the journey a soul must make to attain union with the Eternal from the confines of material life on earth; Christian and Sufi esoteric traditions vs. Bahá'í mysticism; the central theme of attaining a "Heavenly Homeland" and closeness with the Creator. [about]
  383. Mystical Dimensions of the Bahá'í Administrative Order, The, by Kavian Sadeghzade Milani, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). The Bahá'i Administrative Order can be seen as a mystical entity, and there are some parallels between it and Sufism. For Bahá'is the encounter with the Administrative Order is critical to the mystical path. [about]
  384. Mysticism and the Bahá'í Community, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). The five characteristic features common to mystical orders in Buddhism, Christianity or Islam. Bahá'u'lláh's attitude to these characteristic features. Bahá'u'lláh turns the whole of the Bahá'í community into a mystical fellowship. [about]
  385. Mysticism and the Bahá'í Faith, by Farnaz Ma'sumian, in Deepen, 6:3 (1995). An examination of the Bahá'í Faith's relation to mysticism and mystic themes and ideas present in the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
  386. Mysticism East and West, by Fargang Jahanpour, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 8 (2007). The meaning and nature of mysticism and some of the leading ideas in Hindu, Buddhist, Jewish, Christian, and Bahá'í mysticism, exploring some of their similarities and differences. [about]
  387. Mysticism in African Traditional Religion and in the Bahá'í Faith: Classification of Concepts and Practices, by Enoch Tanyi, in Lights of Irfan, Book 3 (2002). Both African Traditional Religion and the Bahá'í Faith originate from God, but at different times in the evolution of humankind. Owing to this common origin, the two have much in common. Both are essentially mystic in nature. [about]
  388. Native Messengers of God in Canada?: A Test Case for Bahá'í Universalism, by Christopher Buck, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 6 (1996). Explores the possibility of including other great religious figures in the Bahá'í category of "Manifestations of God" using the Iroquois prophet Deganawida as an example. [about]
  389. Natural Stirrings at the Grassroots: Development, Doctrine, and the Dignity Principle, by Anna C. Vakil, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 11:1-2 (2001). Grassroots-led initiatives are central to the development efforts in the global Bahá’í community. Modernization, Marxian, and civil society paradigms seek to explain these “stirrings at the grassroots”, to which is here added "development with dignity". [about]
  390. Navajo Tradition, The: Transition to the Bahá'í Faith, by Linda S. Covey, in Images, imaginations, and beyond: proceedings of the 8th Native American Symposium, November 2009, ed. Mark B. Spencer (2010). Examines three reasons behind the conversion of some Navajo to Bahá'í in the early 1960s: fulfillment of prophecy, cultural empowerment and autonomy, and protection of traditional practices. [about]
  391. Necessary History, A: Teaching On and Off The Reservations, by Linda S. Covey, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 26:3 (2016). On the early Bahá’í literature directed toward Native Americans; history of Bahá’í conversion activities with Indigenous populations; and the work conducted by the Central States Regional American Indian Teaching. [about]
  392. Need for an Integrative Conceptual Framework for Addressing Mental Health Challenges During the COVID-19 Pandemic, The, by Bayan Jalalizadeh, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 31:1-2 (2022). Overview of the state of mental health and illness in the world during the Covid pandemic, summary of the prevailing frameworks and practices, and a potential framework which could guide a response to current mental health challenges. [about]
  393. Negahi-bi-Tarikh, by Ali-Akbar Furutan (1985). This book, "Examination of history," is about the word history. It talks about history in general and its relation to events, including the history of a country, of a person, and the philosophy of history. [about]
  394. Neoplatonism and the Bahá'í Writings, Part 1, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 11 (2010). An examination of the Enneads of Plotinus and Proclus’ The Elements of Theology in Bahá'í terms, and as an aid in understanding the nature of the philosophy embedded in the Bahá'í Writings. Part 1. [about]
  395. Neoplatonism and the Bahá'í Writings, Part 2, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, 12 (2011). An examination of the Enneads of Plotinus and Proclus’ The Elements of Theology in Bahá'í terms, and as an aid in understanding the nature of the philosophy embedded in the Bahá'í Writings. Part 2. [about]
  396. 'Never Again': Kevin Gover's Apology for the Bureau of Indian Affairs, by Christopher Buck, in Wicazo Sa Review: A Journal of Native American Studies, 21.1 (2006). This article does not mention the Bahá'í Faith, but was published in a social justice and human rights journal and written by a Bahá'í. [about]
  397. New Age Movement and the Bahá'í Faith, by Zaid Lundberg, in Lights of Irfan, Book 1 (2000). How to define the New Age Movement, its similarities to and differences from the Bahá'í Faith, and how it may be defined in relation to the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
  398. New Black Power: Constructive Resilience and the Efforts of African American Bahá'ís, by Derik Smith, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 30:3 (2020). The Bahá’í approach to social transformation expands our conceptions of power; we need to develop new images of Black Power especially; individuals, institutions, and communities can use constructive resilience to transform society and counter oppression. [about]
  399. New Creation, A: The Power of the Covenant in the Life of Louis Gregory, by Gayle Morrison, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 9:4 (1999). Louis Gregory's achievements, focussing on his promotion of the oneness of humankind, teaching the Bahá’í Faith, and administering its affairs. Gregory became both a herald of the Covenant and an enduring example of its transforming power. [about]
  400. New Cycle of Human Power, A: Abdu'l-Bahá's Encounters with Modernist Writers and Artists, by Robert Weinberg, in Bahá'í World (2021). On the impact of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá on a number of individuals who were at the cultural vanguard of a society undergoing rapid, radical change. [about]
  401. New Directions for Economics, by Gregory C. Dahl, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 28:1-2 (2018). How spiritual principles can be applied to economic life; Bahá'ís are called to concern themselves with the inequalities in the world and bring their personal lives and the actions of their communities more in line with principles of compassion. [about]
  402. New morality, The: An outline, by Udo Schaefer, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 5:1 (1995). Proposal that Bahá'u'lláh's ethical teachings rest on metaphysical premises about God and humankind, specifically the teleological and the deontological. [about]
  403. New Religion, Babism, A, by Paul Carus, in The Open Court, 18:6-18:7 (1904). Overview of early Bahá'í history, the Faith in Chicago, a review of Myron Phelps' book Life and Teachings of Abbas Effendi (1903), and a review of Ibrahim Kheiralla's book Beha Ullah (1900). [about]
  404. New Religions and Religious Movements: The Common Heritage, by Moshe Sharon, in Studies in Modern Religions and Religious Movements and the Bábí Bahá'í Faiths (2004). The 19th Century; Croce’s religion of liberty; modern religious activity; the Qur'an and classical heritage; nature of revelation; magic and the names of God; mysticism of names and letters for the Bab; the letter bá'; Tafsir Basmalah. [about]
  405. New Religious System for Contemporary Society, by Peter Beyer, in Global Religious Vision, 1:4 (2001). On scholarship and categories of religions in the global society, religion as a function system, and unity in differences. Contains only one passing mention of the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
  406. New Skin For An Old Drum, A: Changing Contexts of Yukon Aboriginal Bahá'í Storytelling, by Lynn Echevarria-Howe, in Northern Review, 29 (2008). On the construction of the religious self through the storytelling processes of Yukon Aboriginal Bahá’ís: how do people put together stories to construct their contemporary Bahá’í identity? [about]
  407. "Newly born babe of that Day", The: Mysticism in the Age of the Maturity of Humankind, by Julio Savi, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). The dynamic historical processes impacting mysticism. As the Bahá'í Revelation is the revelation of the maturity of humankind, it is free from certain flaws that in the past implied an early development of certain spiritually unacceptable behaviors. [about]
  408. Next Stage, The, by Douglas Martin, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 23:1-4 (2013). Bahá'í scholars find themselves at a stage in the Faith’s development where they must construct a discourse that is free of "haughty intellectualism." The Association for Bahá’í Studies can help promote the Bahá'í cause to institutions of higher learning. [about]
  409. Nietzsche and the Bahá'í Writings: A First Look, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, 17 (2016). First version, missing footnotes. See update. [about]
  410. Nietzsche and the Bahá'í Writings: A First Look (reprint, with footnotes), by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, 18 (2017). Bahá'í Writings and Nietzsche’s philosophy share a surprising number of features in common that allow us to re-vision Nietzsche from a new perspective. Both analyze reality in Aristotelian terms: actuality/potential; essence/attribute, matter/form, etc. [about]
  411. Nietzsche et les écrits bahá'ís: Une première approche, by Ian Kluge (2017). Translation of "Nietzsche and the Bahá'í Writings: A First Look." [about]
  412. Night as Frontier: Some Implications for the Bahá'í Community, by Will C. van den Hoonaard, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 7 (1997). Sociological effects of night-shift employment and the nocturnal populace. [about]
  413. Not Just for Consumers: An Argument for Depicting Diverse Beliefs on U.S. Television, by Deborah Clark Vance, in Diversity and Mass Communication: Evidence of Impact, ed. Amber Reetz Narro and Alice C. Ferguson (2007). Globally, with few exceptions, television is a conduit for reaffirming hegemonic beliefs. How can we respond to the pressure towards standardization and homogenization? An increased awareness of one’s own cultural assumptions is needed.  [about]
  414. Notes on Persian Love Poems, by Marzieh Gail, in World Order (1968). A short history of Persian poetry. Includes a selection of poems by Hafiz, Rumi, Ali-Kuli Khan, and others, many related to the Bahá'í Faith or quoted by Bahá'u'lláh or Abdu'l-Bahá, and one written for Abdu'l-Bahá. [about]
  415. Notes on the Babi and Bahá'í Religions in Russia and its territories, by Graham Hassall, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 5:3 (1993). Overview of the history of Bábí and Bahá'í communities in Russia and Russian territories. [about]
  416. O Pen!: Reflections on Suriy al-Qalam (Surih of the Pen), by Sandra Lynn Hutchison, in elixir-journal.org, vol. 6 (2017). On the background and themes of Bahá'u'lláh's tablet about the inception of his revelation and the assumption of his prophetic mission. Essay published in online art magazine e*lix*ir. [about]
  417. Obedience: Liberation through Love of God in Practice, by Roxanne Lalonde, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 8:4 (1998). The virtue of obedience in light of the Covenant, contemporary secular notions of obedience, attitudes and behavior of Bahá'ís in the West, and some incidents of expulsion or resignation from the Faith. [about]
  418. On Existence and Qualities of the Human Soul, by Farjam Majd, in Lights of Irfan, 16 (2015). On the existence, nature, and necessity of a human soul vs. the souls of animals. Is the concept of a soul needed to explain something, such as continuation of life after physical death? [about]
  419. On Human Origins: A Bahá'í Perspective, by Craig Loehle, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 2:4 (1990). The science of evolution is difficult for those who demand a literal interpretation of scripture and believe in a special origin for humanity. The Bahá’í writings view evolution and individual spiritual growth as one fundamental developmental process. [about]
  420. On the Nature of Bahá'í Communities, by Check Woo Foo, in Singapore Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 1 (1996). Reflections on the development of Bahá'í communities in urban societies, especially the relationship between the individual believer, the local community, and the Institutions, in the context of achieving an advance in the process of entry by troops. [about]
  421. Opening of the Academic Mind, The: The Challenges Facing a Culture in Crisis, by Suheil Badi Bushrui, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 14:1-2 (2004). Perspective on the state of the academy: reforms essential to the progress and development of society: the central place of teaching in the curriculum; humility in place of intellectual arrogance; abrogating the practice of "publish or perish." [about]
  422. Organic Order, An: An Approach to the Philosophy of Baha'u'llah through the Writings of Shoghi Effendi, by Roger Coe, in The Vision of Shoghi Effendi (1993). The structure of the Administrative Order as outlined by the writings of the Guardian, and the principles of the Anisa model of education. Available also as an audiobook. [about]
  423. Origins of Creation, by Farjam Majd, in Lights of Irfan, 15 (2014). Some classical proofs of the existence of God; the meaning of proof, types of proof, and conditions of the existence of a proof; and contemporary reasons why some people believe God is not needed to explain the universe. [about]
  424. Origins of the Bahá'í Concept of Unity and Causality: A Brief Survey of Greek, Neoplatonic, and Islamic Underpinnings, by Babak Rod Khadem, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). The Bahá’í conception of unity has historical and intellectual precedents. On the history of this concept (and the concept of causality) as it developed in ancient Greek thought, Neoplatonism, and, subsequently, in Islamic philosophy and mysticism. [about]
  425. Origins of the Bahá'í Faith in the Pacific Islands: The Case of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands, by Graham Hassall, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 16:1-4 (2006). The introduction of the Bahá’í Teachings to the Gilbert and Ellice Islands in the 1950s and the consequent disturbance of the delicate church-state relationship operating at that time. Similar interactions may have occurred in other colonial environments. [about]
  426. Ottoman Reform Movements and the Bahá'í Faith, 1860s-1920s, by Necati Alkan, in Studies in Modern Religions: Religious Movements and the Babi-Bahá'í Faiths, ed. Moshe Sharon (2004). The relationship between the Young Ottoman and Young Turk reform movements and the Bahá'ís from the 1860s onwards; the nature of these contacts and the impressions of the Young Ottomans and Young Turks of the Babis and Bahá'ís; the convergence of ideas. [about]
  427. Out of Jewish Roots: Studies of Prayer Patterns in Jewish, Christian, Muslim and Bahá'í Worship, by Ted Brownstein, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). An exploration of the development of liturgy and personal prayer patterns from its roots in Judaism and subsequent development in Christianity, Islam and the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
  428. Outpost of a World Religion: The Bahá'í Faith in Australia 1920-1947, by Graham Hassall, in Journal of Religious History, 16:3 (1991). An updated version of a paper published in two places. [about]
  429. Overcoming Barriers to Unity: An Essay on Group Harmony, by Steven E. Ellis (1996). Different perspectives on unity and disunity; red flags of disunity including anger, advising, perfectionism, excessive speech; group decision-making; and the role of the institutions. Includes compilation on the subject of unity. [about]
  430. Overview of Bahá'í Social and Economic Development, by Holly Hanson, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 21 (1992-1993) (1993). Evolution of Bahá'í involvement in social and economic development, and some current projects. [about]
  431. Pacific Bahá'í Communities 1950-1964, by Graham Hassall, in Pacific History: Papers from the 8th Pacific History Association Conference, Donald H. Rubinstein, ed. (1992). Detailed overview of the history of Bahá'ís in Pacific island states. [about]
  432. Paradox of Protest in a Culture of Contest, The, by Michael Karlberg, in Peace and Change, 28:3 (2003). In our culture, political and legal institutions are structured as contests and reform is characterized as protest. This leads to injustice and unsustainability. Bahá'í models of elections and decision-making offer a practical alternative. [about]
  433. Parallels in the Ministries of Táhirih and Paul, by JoAnn M. Borovicka, in Lights of Irfan, 17 (2016). Stories of early believers of the Bahá’í Faith as presented in "Memorials of the Faithful" compared with the lives of early believers in Christianity as recorded in the New Testament; Táhirih and Paul represent a similar type of early convert. [about]
  434. Paranoid Style in Iranian Politics, The, by Ervand Abrahamian, in Khomeinism: Essays on the Islamic Republic (1993). A seminal essay which mentions contemporary Iranian attitudes toward the Bahá'ís. Includes three other mentions of the Bahá'í Faith elsewhere in the book in which this essay was first published. [about]
  435. Passing Comments on the Long Obligatory Prayer of Bahá'u'lláh, Some, by Bill Washington, in Bahá'í Studies in Australasia vol. 3 (1996). The purpose of prayer to "cast out" from within our heart our attachment to the things of this material world. A detailed description of the Long Obligatory Prayer. [about]
  436. Path of Beauty, The: The Literary Life of Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, by Sandra Lynn Hutchison, in World Order, 31:2 (1999). An extensive review of the varied literary works of Ruhiyyih Khanum – poems, plays, ethical guidance, practical guidelines for Baha’i pioneering and teaching, inspirational essays, literary and scriptural commentary, biography, and even a film script. [about]
  437. Path of God, The, by Wolfgang A. Klebel, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 11 (2010). A comparison of the 'Global Ethic' (Hans Küng) with the Bahá'í Faith. The core ethical principles found in all religions are the most likely first step towards the unification of all religions: an inspiration for Unity in Diversity. [about]
  438. Pause to Reflect on Dustbins, A: Records of [A.L.M. Nicolas] Found amongst a Pile of Thrown-Away Writings, by Mahmoud Rouh-ol-Amini, in Ganjineh Asnad, 3:39/4:40 (2001). Brief discussion in Persian of papers of Nicolas found in the trash in Paris, with reflections on things discarded, written by Mahmoud Rouholamini. Includes background by Yves Monteil, who discovered the papers (1998) and scanned the later article (2001). [about]
  439. Paying Special Regard to Agriculture: Collective Action-Research in Africa, by Sanem Kavrul, in Bahá'í World (2021). On Bahá’í-inspired agricultural social action initiatives in Africa. Includes photo gallery of development and agricultural projects. [about]
  440. Peace and Prosperity, by Louis Damore (2001). The major threats facing the world (social inequity; environmental decline; unchecked arms proliferation) and the potential contribution of the world tourist indstry in resolving them. [about]
  441. Perceiving Differences: A Look at Gender and Equality, by Mark Brush, in dialogue magazine, 2:2-3 (1988). Observations on what Richard DeNovellis' "Personality Type Preference Indicator" tests show about ages and genders; laws of nature vs. laws of God. [about]
  442. Perception Into Faith: A Radical Discontinuity Within Unity, by William Barnes, in Lights of Irfan, Book 2 (2001). Entering into eternal life is both a change of being and of perception; the two natures of man; faith versus good deeds as means for attaining eternal life; the Bahá’í 'spirit of faith'. [about]
  443. Perfection and Refinement: Towards an Aesthetics of the Bab, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 12 (2011). The writings of the Bab have implications for the "plastic" arts; significance for native traditions; relevance to the performing arts; and the concept of refinement which comes across in both the person and the writings of the Báb. [about]
  444. Permanence of Change, The: Contemporary Sociological and Bahá'í Perspectives, by Hoda Mahmoudi, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 18:1-4 (2008). Sociohistorical changes of the Axial Age and the Renaissance, sociological views on modernity and its contemporary challenges, and key features of modernity as identified in the Bahá’í writings as "the universal awakening of historical consciousness." [about]
  445. Persecution of the Bahá'í Community of Iran: 1983-1986, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 19 (1983-1986) (1994). Lengthy survey of events, and life stories of participants. [about]
  446. Persecution of the Bahá'í Community of Iran Under the Islamic Republic: Twenty Years of Intolerance, by Tahirih Tahririha-Danesh, in Converging Realities, 1:1 (2000). Description of some of the persecutions of the Bahá'í community in Iran over the past twenty years. [about]
  447. Persecution of the Bahá'ís of Iran 1844-1984, by Douglas Martin, in Bahá'í Studies, 12/13 (1984). Treatment of the Bahá'ís in Iran by the state and by the Shi'ism under the Qájárs (1844-1925), Pahlavis (1925-1979), and under the Islamic Republic (1979-); responses by the Bahá'í Community. [about]
  448. Persecutions of Babis in 1888-1891 at Isfahan and Yazd, by Various, in Materials for the Study of the Babi Religion (1918). Eyewitness or historical accounts of specific events, uprisings, and attacks, as collected by E.G. Browne. [about]
  449. Persia and the Regeneration of Islam, by Bernard Temple, in Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, 58:3001 (1910). An argument to a British business audience that Persia is becoming more civilized and is experiencing its own version of the Reformation, as shown by the example of the Bahá'ís. [about]
  450. Persian Bahá'ís in Australia, by Graham Hassall, in Religion and Ethnic Identity, An Australian Study, Abe Ata, ed. (1989). Overview of the history and modern activities (ca. 1989) of the Persian Bahá'í community in Australia. [about]
  451. Persian Bayan and the Shaping of the Babi Renewal, The, by Abbas Amanat, in Religious Texts in Iranian Languages, ed. Fereydoun Vahman and Claus V. Pedersen (2007). On the Bábí Faith as a product of the religious environment of Shi'i Iran, including its esoteric culture and apocalyptic vision; the Bayán as a form of discourse; and how the Bayán marked a break with Islam. [about]
  452. Persian Language in the Literature of Baha'i Worship, by Shapour Rassekh, in Religious Texts in Iranian Languages, ed. Fereydoun Vahman and Claus V. Pedersen (2007). Brief article on the literary sources of Bahá'í prayer, their diversity and varied style, and Persian as a language of prayer. [about]
  453. Persian Rival to Jesus, and His American Disciples, The, by Robert P. Richardson, in The Open Court, 29:8 (1915). History and teachings of the Bábi and Bahá'í religions and contemporary American disagreements, from an unsympathetic outsider's perspective. Followed by three letters-to-the-editor from three subsequent issues. Needs a second proofreading. [about]
  454. Personal Consideration of the Four Year Plan and its Legacy from an Irish Bahá'í Perspective, A, by Brian Corvin, in Solas, 1 (2001). A frank and detailed assessment and retrospective of the response to the Four Year Plan (1996-2000) in the Republic of Ireland. Though highly personal and at times polemical, the author offers the paper as a socio-historical analysis with suggestions. [about]
  455. Personal Journey toward Reconciliation, A, by Patricia Verge, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 26:3 (2016). On the author's spiritual journey and how it has been entwined with First Nations people; tensions between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Bahá'ís; pioneering to the Nakoda community; and the importance of learning, listening, and personal transformation. [about]
  456. Personal Reminiscences of the Bábí Insurrection at Zanjan in 1850, by E. G. Browne, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 29 (1897). The testimony of Áqá 'Abdu'l-Ahad Zanjani. [about]
  457. Perspectives on the Global Economy at the Dawn of the 21st Century: An Irish Bahá'í View, by Eamonn Moane, in Solas, 1 (2001). The state and issues of the global economy, including Ireland, at the start of the 21st century. Though not intended to be a general Bahá’í critique of the world economy, the paper concludes with a Bahá’í contribution to the issues raised. [about]
  458. Perspectives on the Inseparable Twin Duties Prescribed in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, by Eamonn Moane, in Solas, 3 (2003). Religions differ in the balance of faith versus good works, the grace of God versus human strivings, and the scheme of salvation. To Bahá'ís, recognizing the Prophet and obedience to his laws are equal duties. For salvation, faith surpasses deeds. [about]
  459. Philosophy of Bahá'í Education, The, by Boris Handal, in Religion & Education, 34:1 (2007). On a philosophy of education encompassing the individual and the society, the state of education and the child in the 19th century in the light of those principles, and a review of Bahá'í-inspired enterprises to implement those ideals around the world. [about]
  460. Philosophy of Spirituality, The: A Bahá'í Viewpoint, by William S. Hatcher, in Dialogue and Universalism, vol. 11-12 (1996). Views of human nature and the concept of spirituality; the Bahá'í concept of spirituality; the crucial role of philosophy in the process of human spiritual growth and development. [about]
  461. "Phoenix Schedule" for the Dewey '200s', Suggested in particular for Bahá'í Libraries, A, by Paul Gerard, in Australian Bahá'í Studies, vol. 2 (2000). On the structure and limitations of the Dewey Decimal Scheme, with a detailed expanded subset for Bahá'í material. [about]
  462. Pilgrimage and Religious Identity in the Bahá'í Faith, by Per-Olof Akerdahl, in Lights of Irfan, Book 1 (2000). Pilgrimage has been an important part in the creation of a religious identity. The meaning of pilgrimage in the Bahá’í Faith, and in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. [about]
  463. Place of Poetry in Religion and Society, The: An Interview of Robert E. Hayden with Douglas Ruhe, by Robert E. Hayden and Douglas Ruhe, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 24:3-4 (2014). Introduction by Hatcher to the life of Hayden (2014); transcript of a talk between Hayden and Douglas Ruhe in 1975 on the future of poetry, transcendence, American destiny, important American poets, the Library of Congress, and Bahá'í spirituality. [about]
  464. Poetry and Self-Transformation, by Roger White, in The Creative Circle, ed. Michael Fitzgerald (1989). Poetry is no longer very accessible to the average reader or widely read; serious poets are often in conflict with their times; the Bahá'í Writings provide a foundation for poetic expression and a renewed spiritual aesthetics. [about]
  465. Poetry and the Arts in Rebuilding Society, by Duane L. Herrmann, in The Creative Circle, ed. Michael Fitzgerald (1989). The status of poetry is exalted in the Bahá’í Revelation, starting from the writings of the Bab to the hymns of the contemporary community; even God is described as a poet. The arts allow us to arise to our divine nature. [about]
  466. Poetry and Transformation, by Peter E. Murphy, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 24:3-4 (2014). A personal story of how the evolving attraction to and love of poetry transformed the author's life. Poetry, faith, and the revealed Word can have a dramatic effect on one's struggle for personal transformation in the midst of crisis and turmoil. [about]
  467. Poetry as Revelation: Introduction to Bahá'u'lláh's 'Mathnavíy-i Mubárak', by Frank Lewis, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 9 (1999). On Bahá'u'lláh and the poetic tradition, Sufism, Sufi poetry, and Rumi; rhetorical orientation; date of the poem and history of the text; and interpretation and the translation process. Includes a provisional translation. [about]
  468. Poetry in 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Writings and Utterances, by Julio Savi and Faezeh Mardani, in Lights of Irfan, 18 (2017). 'Abdu'l-Bahá mentions at least seven aspects of poetry: inspiration, beauty, eloquence, versified language, novelty, expressivity, depth, and loftiness. He also sets forth clear concepts on the purposes of poetry, which benefit any aspiring poet. [about]
  469. Poetry of Loving: Family Therapy and the Bahá'í Faith, by Michael Bruwer, in Bahá'í Studies Notebook, 3:1-2 (1983). Psychotherapy and the family; the Bahá'í concept of the family; the role of models of the world. [about]
  470. "Point" and "Letter" in the Writings of the Báb, by Muhammad Afnan, in Lights of Irfan, Book 2 (2001). In the Báb’s writings, the Point of Truth is the source of all existence in both the spiritual and the material world, and letters and words are given spiritual meaning. His system is distinctively different from that of the Hurúfís and Nuqtavís, however. [about]
  471. Politics, Text, and Context: In Search of the Bahá'í Revolution, by R. Jackson Armstrong-Ingram, in dialogue magazine, 1:3 (1986). The rationale for Shoghi Effendi requiring Bahá'ís to disassociate themselves from other churches and political movements; the role of political science in Bahá'í theology; how best to work with non-Bahá'í groups to better society. [about]
  472. Portraits and Career of Mohammed Ali, Son of Kazem-Beg, The: Scottish Missionaries and Russian Orientalism, by A. D. H. Bivar, in Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 57:2 (1994). Kazem-Beg has a place in Bahá'í history because of his early book The Bab and the Babis (St. Petersburg, 1865). Article contains no mention of the Bábí or Bahá'í Faiths. [about]
  473. Positions of the Austrian Churches and Religious Communities regarding bio- and medico-ethical Issues, The, by Udo Schaefer, in Churches, Religions, Bioethics (Kirchen, Religionen, Bioethik), Jurgen Wallner, ed. (2002). On the Bahá'í view of bioethical and biomedical questions, and Bahá'í authoritative sources, image of human beings, health and sickness, liberty and responsibility, and specific bioethical questions.  [about]
  474. Posledneye Slovo Bekha-Ully [Baha'u'llah's Last Word], by Aleksandr Grigor’evich Tumanski, in Zapiski Vostochnago Otdeleniya Imperatorskago Russkago Arkheologicheskago Obshestva [Memoirs of the Oriental Branch of the Russian Archaeological Society], 7:6 (1892). Russian translation of, and commentary on, Bahá'u'lláh's "Kitab-i 'Ahdi" ("Book of My Covenant"). [about]
  475. Possibilities of Existential Theism for Bahá'í Theology, The, by Jack McLean, in Revisioning the Sacred: New Perspectives on a Bahá'í Theology, Studies in the Bábí and Bahá'í Religions vol. 8 (1997). The perspective of existential theology can benefit Bahá'í studies of religion, as applied to issues such as scholarship, spiritual transformation, and sacred history. [about]
  476. Post-Quranic Religion Between Apostasy and Public Order, A: Egyptian Muftis and Courts on the Legal Status of the Baha'i Faith, by Johanna Pink, in Islamic Law and Society, 10:3 (2003). On how Egypt has adapted and responded to the Bahá'í Faith; legal issues for Muslim jurists and the courts; personal and employment status of Bahá'ís in Egypt; issues raised by a post-Quranic religious minority. [about]
  477. Postmodernism and the Bahá'í Writings, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). Whilst the Bahá'í Writings and postmodernism share a variety of ideas at a superficial level, on fundamental issues of ontology, epistemology, philosophical anthropology (theory of man), ethics and cultural theory, they are incompatible. [about]
  478. Postsecular Look at the Reading Motif in Bahiyyih Nakhjavani's The Woman Who Read Too Much, A, by Mary A. Sobhani, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 25:1-2 (2015). Nakhjavani’s historical novel includes metaphors that underscore a link between the secular and the sacred through the material and metaphysical act of reading; cf. McClure’s Partial Faiths: Postsecular Fiction in the Age of Pynchon and Morrison. [about]
  479. Potential of the Bahá'í Faith to Grow in Scope and Influence, The, by Annette Prosterman, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 4:3 (1992). A sociological perspective says that, to grow and develop, a religion must have ideological and structural elements that foster its effective growth, maintain its cohesion as a collective unit, and enable it to mobilize its members toward social change. [about]
  480. Power and the Bahá'í community, by Moojan Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). While Bahá'í social teachings may have sounded new and exciting a century ago, that is no longer the case today. The problem the world faces is not in the principles that would lead to a better society, but in their application. [about]
  481. Power of Discourse and the Discourse of Power, The: Peace as Discourse Intervention, by Michael Karlberg, in International Journal of Peace Studies, 10:1 (2005). Western discourses of power are inadequate for creating a peaceful and just society. Alternate models can be proposed through "discourse intervention." The Bahá'í community offers a non-adversarial, alternative social practice. [about]
  482. Power of Reflection, The: Advancing Governance and Dispute Resolution Systems through Devolved Reflection and Shared Knowledge Generation, by Shahla Ali, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 28:4 (2018). Reflection is the "source of crafts, sciences and arts," with the capacity to produce "pearls of wisdom and utterance as will promote the well-being and harmony of all the kindreds of the earth." It can improve institutions and community governance. [about]
  483. Prayers and rituals in the Bahá'í Faith: Introduction to A Tablet to Jináb-i-Mullá 'Alí-Akbar fí Ardi'l-Álif, by Julio Savi and Faezeh Mardani, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 9 (2008). A tablet of Bahá'u'lláh to one of the Bábís to renew his faith before He had revealed his mission; its recipient and circumstances of composition; a prayer of 'reunion' and its attendant rituals. [about]
  484. Prayers of Bahá'u'lláh, The, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 9 (1940–1944) (1945). Essay about various prayers and meditations of Bahá'u'lláh. [about]
  485. Precursor, the Prophet, and the Pope, The: Contributions to the History of the Bahá'í Movement (Conclusion), by Robert P. Richardson, in The Open Court, 30:11 (1916). Part 2 of a critique of Bahá'í practice and thought from a (somewhat hostile) Christian perspective. [about]
  486. Precursor, the Prophet, and the Pope, The: Contributions to the History of the Bahá'í Movement (part 1), by Robert P. Richardson, in The Open Court, 30:10 (1916). A critical overview of Bábí history, contemporary American Bahá'í issues and disagreements (e.g. Kheiralla), and Bahá'í objections to the author's previous writings. Not yet proofread. [about]
  487. Preliminary Bibliography of works in French making mention of the Babí or Bahá'í religions (1945–2000), by Thomas Linard, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). [about]
  488. Preliminary History of the Bahá'í Community of Samarkand, Uzbekistan, by Duane L. Herrmann and Hasan T. Shodiev, in Bahá'í Vizier (2004). Since repression of religion ended in the USSR, Bahá'ís in former Soviet territories resumed practice of their faith and become curious about their history, most of which had been destroyed. This article is an early step at rediscovering this history. [about]
  489. Preliminary Survey of Hermeneutical Principles Found within the Baha'i Writings, A, by Dann J. May, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1:3 (1989). The multiple meanings contained within religious texts; symbolic and mythological nature of religious language; the role of science in interpreting sources; progressive and relative nature of truth; essential aspects of all religions; personal biases. [about]
  490. Preliminary Survey of the Bahá'í Community of Iran during the Nineteenth Century, A, by Moojan Momen, in Iran im 19. Jahrhundert und die Enstehung der Bahá'í Religion, ed. Christoph Burgel and Isabel Schayani (1998). On the early growth and consolidation of the Bahá'í community in Iran; its membership and social and geographical composition; persecution; institutional developments; communications with Bahá'u'lláh; the conversion of Jews and Zoroastrians; women. [about]
  491. Preparing Bahá'í Communities in the East and West to Embrace Gender Equality, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Lights of Irfan, 12 (2011). The way Abdu'l-Bahá dealt with the matter of gender equality, some of his writings revealed in honor of the Bahá’í women in Iran and North America, and the practical ways he educated Bahá'í men to accept women as their equals. [about]
  492. Press as a Consultative Forum, The: A Contribution to Normative Press Theory, by Michael Karlberg, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 16 (2010). A model of the press derived from Bahá'í teachings as a contribution to normative press theory centring on the principles and objectives of consultation. [about]
  493. Preuves bahá'íes basées sur le Coran, by Pierre Spierckel (2015). Expose la compréhension bahá'íe des versets du Coran qui traitent de Sceau des prophètes, de Jour du Jugement et du Jour de Dieu. [about]
  494. Primum Non Nocere: Reflections of a Bahá'í Oncologist about Treating the Dying Patient, by Aaron Alizadeh, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 25:3 (2015). Doctors must learn how to bring the topic of death into the physician-patient conversation. The Bahá’í Faith can help to address how death is perceived and discussed in the medical community. [about]
  495. Principles of Consultation Applied to the Process of Innovation in a Corporate Environment, by Robert B. Rosenfeld and Michael H. Winger-Bearskin, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 3:1 (1990). Innovation is essential for industrial growth, but is obstructed when creative employees are unable to communicate ideas and the organization is unresponsive. The Bahá’í process of consultation can enhance communication to promote innovation.  [about]
  496. Problems of Chronology in Baha'u'llah's Tablet of Wisdom, by Juan Cole, in World Order, 13:3 (1979). On the biographical section of the Lawh-i-Hikmat and its background in Islamic models. [about]
  497. Problems of Scholarship in a Bahá'í Context, by Denis MacEoin, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 1:3 (1982). Thoughts on "anti-intellectualism" and faith-based interpretations of history, by a self-described outsider scholar. [about]
  498. Process of Social Transformation, The, by Farzam Arbab, in The Baha'i Faith and Marxism (1987). Bahá'í concepts of social change contrasted with other common paradigms. [about]
  499. Process Philosophy and the Bahá'í Writings: An Initial Exploration, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 5 (2004). An examination of the Bahá'í Writings in relationship to modern process philosophy (e.g. Whitehead, Hartshorne, Cobb, and de Chardin), and some of the issues related to the formulation a unique Bahá'í version of process thought; some relevant topics. [about]
  500. Procrustes' Bed: The Insufficiency of Secular Humanism, by Ian Kluge, in Lights of Irfan, 16 (2015). Secular humanism’s inability to accommodate the universal presence of religion in human nature undermines its claim to be a viable world-view for mankind and diminishes its internal coherence. [about]
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