Chapter 4     Chapter 6

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Bahaism and Christianity (Continued)

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Mrs. Goodall :--" Is it necessary to arise to say the midnight prayers and to make ablution before them?"
Abdul Baha :--" Ablution is only for obligatory prayers three times a day."--" Daily Lessons," p. 74.

Abdul Baha restores man to his state a little lower than the angels. . . . On this occasion we newcomers were presented with a Bahai stone marked with Baha Ullah's name. Such objects contain a spiritual influence . . . actually retain and set free something of the holy man's personality. . . . At my request, Abdul Baba graciously took back the stone I had received and returned it with a blessing for my baby girl, who thus, as it were, accompanied us on our pilgrimage and received its benefit. -- Horace Holey at Thonon. His "The Modern Social Religion," p. 216.

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VII.       BAHAISM teaches another way of salvation. Man's origin and destiny were formerly points of doubt in Bahai teaching, but the muddy mixture has settled enough to give us a clearer view, at least as regards Western Bahaism, though pantheistic notions still prevail. Abdul Baha teaches that matter is eternal, self-existent, and fills all space. [1] "God always had a creation; the universe has neither beginning nor end." [2] "Creation out of nothing is unthinkable. Separate entities come into being through the operation of God -- are the perceptible manifestations of Him." "There are four degrees of spirit concerned with evolutionary growth: The mineral spirit, the vegetable, the animal, and the human. The mineral spirit contains the latent principle of life." [3] Yet man's origin is not from the animals." [4] "Species is fixed; man was developed gradually as a distinct species." [5] The spirit of man emanates from God as

1. Phelps "Life of Abbas Effendi," p. 69.
2. " Answered Questions," pp. 209, 238, 317; S. W, June 5 1913, p. 90.
3. Phelps, p. 116.
4. 'Answered Questions," p. 209.      
5. Ibid., p. 213.

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an action from an actor, a writing from a writer--a manifestation of the Divine but not a division from it. Sin arises from the physical qualities, from the physical nature which we derive from Adam. Evil is really non-existent; it is simply lack of good qualities. There is no Satan. [1] The "Genii" (jins) of the Koran are evil passions in man; demons are the spirits of bad men.

      As to the doctrine of personal immortality, there has been much confusion of thought. Some have understood the doctrine of "rijat" or "Return" as teaching transmigration of souls. Others have understood their allegorizing about heaven as a rejection of the future life. Others, as Phelps, [2] affirm the absorption of the soul in the Infinite. My language teacher in Persia, a fervent Behai, said: "We believe in a future state so unthinkably ecstatic that if its joys were now revealed to men, they would commit suicide to hasten their entrance into it." Baha Ullah wrote a "Tablet of the Spiritual World," of which it is said: [3] "All who read it are filled with an anxious desire to leave this world and enter the next condition, so wonderful are the glories of the spiritual kingdom. In Persia one man who read the tablet killed himself. He could not wait for the happiness it promised him. Another, a youth of Ispahan, could not stand it and lost his reason."

      Mrs. Grundy [4] and Mr. Phelps [5] understood Abdul Baha to teach the annihilation of the wicked, but

1. Phelps, p. 137.      
2. Page 573.
3. 'Mrs. Grundy, p. 6.
4. "Ten Days in the Light of Acca," p. 23.
5. Pages 121--127, 173.

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he denied this [1] and affirms their conscious existence. [2] Heaven and hell are affirmed in some places, denied in others.

      Sin is little dwelt upon in Bahai literature, and the word repentance is seldom used. In the "New History" and "Traveller's Narrative" sin, transgression, forgiveness, expiation and such words find no place in the indexes. The Moslem appeal for mercy is rarely made. In the chapter on prayer, in the "Sacred Mysteries," there are no directions for the confession of sins, no petition like, "forgive us our trespasses," no cry of the prodigal -- "Father, I have sinned." There is no atonement. The daily sacrifice of the Book of Numbers is explained to mean "Divine bounty." "The blood of Christ cleanses us" is interpreted "His spiritual teaching and love which saved His disciples from the ruin of ignorance and heedlessness." The stages of travel to God, the "Seven Valleys," are (1) research, (2) love, (3) knowledge, (4) union, (5) content, (6) perplexity or astonishment, (7) poverty and annihilation. There is no mention of hatred of sin, turning from it and apprehending the mercy of God. The plan of salvation has neither the Christian idea of atonement by a mediator, nor the Mohammedan one of expiation by works of merit or an equivalent. Its plan of salvation is simple, viz., to believe in and follow Mirza Husain Ali, Baha Ullah, as the supreme and final manifestation in this universal cycle which

1. "Tablets of Abdul Baha," Vol. I, p.iv.
2. S.W., March 2, 1914, p. 321.

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began in Adam and culminated in Baha Ullah, who was God the Father in the flesh. Later Bahais put Abdul Baha in the place of Christ as Son of God and Divine Mediator. Remey's chapter on Eternal Life [1] is orthodoxy with Baha as "Word of God." The doctrines of faith, regeneration, and sanctification are Christian with the historic Christ eliminated. Error has clothed itself as in garments of light. Antichrist would steal the livery of Heaven and lead Christians to forget that there is no other name under Heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved (Acts iv. 12), and that if Abdul Baha or an angel from Heaven pervert the Gospel of Christ or preach any other Gospel, he is to be rejected (Gal. i.7--9).

      VIII.       Bahaism abrogates the New Testament.

      It is indeed honoured, but as the Revelation of a past dispensation. Abdul Baha wrote in the Bible in the City Temple, London: "This book is the Holy Book of God, of celestial inspiration. It is the Bible of salvation, the noble Gospel. It is the mystery of the Kingdom of God and its light. It is the Divine bounty, sign of the guidance of God." But Harold Johnson, a friend of Bahaism, wrote, with true discernment: [2] "In the same spirit he would have written the same words upon the Koran or the Vedas." Baha certifies the Koran times without number in the "Ikan." He wrote [3] "Whoso hath not acknowledged the Koran hath not in

1. "The Bahai Movement," p. 80.
2. 'Contemporary Review, March,1912.      
3. Page 145, Chicago Edition.

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reality accepted the books which preceded it." By the same reasoning, whoso does not acknowledge Baha's writings as "revealed" rejects the former books also.

      Bahais, even Persian Bahais, are familiar with the Bible. They quote largely from the prophets, the Gospels, and the Book of Revelation. They use them for apologetic purposes, to dispute with Christians and to find proofs for their perverted teachings. As the real Scriptures for the present age, they present the writings of Baha Ullah and Abdul Baha. These are read at their meetings and in their devotions and are chanted at their shrines. These only are to be read in the Mashrak-ul-Azhar, the Bahai Temples. [1] The authority of all other Scriptures is abrogated, even the "Bayan" of the Bab. [2] The "Kitab-ul-Akdas," the Most Holy Book, consists of laws, exhortations, and warnings. The "Ikan," written by Baha before he set up his own claim, is an attempt to show from previous books the truth of the Bab's claims. The "Hidden Words," "Surat al Haykal" (The human temple), the "Seven Valleys," the "Effulgences," the "Glad Tidings," etc., contain principles, precepts, and rhapsodies. There are also the Epistles to the Kings and numerous tablets (letters) to individual believers. Besides all these, the discourses and letters of Abdul Baha, containing interpretations and commands, are regarded as revealed and inspired Words of God. These are

1. Goodall, "Daily Lessons," p. 17.
2. Dreyfus, "The Bahai Revelation," p. 59.

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collected in "Tablets of Abdul Baha," "Addresses in Paris," "Addresses in London," "Some Answered Questions," and in the Star of the West, newspaper.

      IX.       Bahaism abolishes the Christian institutions -- the Church, its sacraments, and its polity.

      The Church must soon cease to have any meaning for those who look for grace and strength to another than "the head, even Christ" (Eph. iv. 15). Bahais in America have already organized separate meetings for worship in all places where they have a score or more members. In Chicago, which is the chief seat of the sect in America, they have 150 or more members. I attended their regular Sunday service, in a room which they have rented in the Masonic Temple. About sixty were present, one-half of whom were visitors like myself. The service was modelled somewhat after the Protestant week-day meeting, but without any prayer. Several hymns were sung in praise and worship of Baha, from a book specially written for his adoration. The leader, a woman, read selections from the "Tablets of Abdul Baha" and gave an exposition of Bahai teachings and an invitation to faith in Baha and Abdul Baha, as specially the fulfillment of the prophecies of the Bible. Another woman read from the "Hidden Words." The editor of the Star, one of six Bahai men present, gave the announcements and said that the meetings during the summer would be on the ground, at Wilmette, where they expect to build the temple (Mashrak-ul-Azkar). This temple is a darling project of Abdul Baha. He dedicated the ground

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when he was in America and urges all believers to build it quickly. He says: "The temple is the greatest matter to-day for the upbuilding of the cause." [1] It will fulfill prophecy!

      The government of Bahaism is to be by "Houses of Justice." Each will be composed of nine or more Bahai men elected by the people. Bahaism will be the state religion Kings will exist, but the politico-religious hierarchy will perform many of the functions of the state, even to settling international disputes. Churches, assemblies, and conferences, bishops and popes -- all will be dispensed with. The Bahai "houses" will conduct and control religion for the world. The first universal vicegerent of God is Abdul Baha. After him the supreme power will be vested in the "house." Already signs of Bahai tyranny are manifest. Abdul Baha declared that no believer "must vary one hair's breadth from his word." No Bahai may publish anything on religion without first submitting it to him for censorship. Such a command is made applicable to all Bahais. [2] In the good time coming there will be a graduated hierarchy -- local, national, universal -- who will bring "all secular affairs under spiritual guidance."

      With the Church and its ministry the "new revelation" abolishes also the sacraments. Baptism is no longer necessary, for "baptism by water," says

1. "Table Talks," by True, p. 21; "Tablets of Abdul Baha," Vol I, p. 17.
2. Star, July 13, 1913, p. 121; "Tablets of Abdul Baha," Vol. I, pp. 118, 124.

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Abdul Baha, "was a symbol of repentance and of seeking forgiveness of sins. In the cycle of Baha there is no longer need of this symbol, for its reality, which is to be baptized with the Spirit and love of God, is established." [1] Yet a substitute is at hand: [2] "Thou hast asked regarding the naming of children. Prepare a meeting, chant verses, supplicate guidance for the babe; then give the, narne and enjoy beverages and sweetmeats. This is spiritual baptism." So Remey did. "I will make mention of a Bahai christening (?) in Ferouzay (Persia). We were asked to name the baby. On the fifth day after the child's birth a feast was spread. The baby was brought out. Mr. Sprague gave the name Ruhullah; prayers, tablets, and a hymn in praise of Baha Ullah were chanted." [3] Such is the substitute for baptism in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.

      The Lord's Supper as a remembrance of the sacrifice of Christ is abolished. Instead of it there is introduced an imitation, called the Unity Feast, with traces of the Lord's Supper and of the Agape. Of it Abdul Baha [4] says: "It must be inaugurated in such a way as to resurrect the feast of the ancients, namely, the Lord's Supper." We have descriptions of it as celebrated by Abdul Baha in America and at Acca. [5] Sprague says: "The Master [at Acca] did

1. "Answered Questions," p. 106.
2. Tablets of Abdul Baha," Vol. I, pp. 149, 150.
3. Observations of a Bahai Traveller," p. 40.
4. "Tablets," p. 149.
5. Daily Lessons," Goodall, p. 18; Sprague's "A Year Among Bahais," p. 8; Star, 1913, pp. 121, 159, 203.

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not sit down with us, but served us, going from one to another, heaping rice on our plates, bringing home to us the words: 'Let him that is greatest among you be your servant. The Orientals could hardly bear that their Master should wait on them. They felt as Peter did when Christ washed his feet. After the supper a tablet of Baha was chanted in Persian. The supper was truly the Lord's Supper in all its spiritual significance." Abdul Baha said that the prophecy was fulfilled which said, "They shall come from the east and the west and sit down in the kingdom of God." In America Abdul Baha celebrated the supper with each group of his followers. In his absence a vacant seat is left at the head of the table for the "master" and passages from the "Hidden Words" are read as food is passed.

      Other imitations of Christ's works and words are repeated to keep up the pretense that He is the Saviour. In Chicago and other places "the children were on hand to receive the spiritual blessing of Abdul Baha. He called each child to him and took him in his lap. He blessed them all, laying his hand in blessing on each little head." At a Unity Feast he said: "Abdul Baha is standing and waiting upon you." What is this but a copying of the words: "I am among you as one that doth serve." Palpable imitations of Christ's words abound in the so-called Revelations. In the "Lawh-ul-Akdas" there is a series of beatitudes as: "Blessed is the lowly one who holds to the rope of my might. Blessed is the hungry one who hastens away from desire, Blessed

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is the thirsty one who seeks the nectar of my benediction. Blessed is the spirit who was stirred by my breath. Blessed is he who has suffered tribulation for my name's sake," etc. Baha Ullah doubles the number of Christ's Beatitudes! In the "Kitab-ul-Akdas," written many years before his death, Baha imitates the parting words of Christ:

Christ in the Gospel says:

"Let not your hearts be troubled."
"Let not your heart be troubled; neither let it be afraid."
"I am with you always."
"If any man love me, he will keep my words."
"It is expedient for you that I go away."
"I will see you again."
Baha Ullah says:

"Be not troubled."
"Let not your trouble take possession of you."
"We are with you under all conditions."
"Whoso knoweth me, will rise up to serve me."
"Verily there is in my occultation a reason."
"We shall see you."

What palpable imitations of words so dear to the Christian heart! Words which were in the mouth of Christ Jesus the expression of deep and sincere emotion are used for effect!

      X.       Bahaism is antichristian in its rites and ceremonies.

These regulations are, for the most part, copied from the Moslem law and are prescribed in the "Kitab-ul-Akdas." Ablution is commanded as a religious rite, to be followed by sitting with one's face towards the Kibla (Acca) and repeating Alla hu Abha [sic] ninety-five times (5x1'9). As a Fast, Bahaism

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substitutes the last month of their year, named Ala for Ramazan. As Christians have Carnival week before Lent, followed by Easter rejoicings, and as Moslems have the Oruj Bayram, so Bahais have five days of feasting before the Fast. This extends through a Bahai month of nineteen days, March 2 -- 20, and is followed by the Noruz or Vernal Equinox. Noruz is consecrated and its ceremonies prescribed with religious sanctions as among the Nusaireyah. The ordinance of fasting says: "Thus ordaineth the Lord of men; abstain from eating and drinking from dawn to sundown." This abstinence includes smoking as among Moslems. The same exceptions are made as in the Koran -- that the traveller, the sick, and pregnant and nursing women are excused. Fasting is obligatory after the age of fifteen. The Bab put the age limit at forty-two, but Baha enjoined it as long as strength permits. [1] The question naturally arises if obligatory fasting is good, why reduce the time from thirty to nineteen days: if reform is the watchword, why not have the liberty of the Gospel?

As in fasting, so in prayer Bahaism follows the Moslem ceremonial law. Baha laid down a ritual on the same lines. There are modifications, but no essential difference, from Islam. In Islam devotion is a strong point, formalism is its weakness. Bahaism lessens the amount of devotion, without getting rid of the prescribed formalism. Ablutions are a necessary preliminary to the obligatory prayers,

1. Star, Feb. 7, 1914, p. 306.

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at least three times a day, but if one wishes to make other prayers at night, he need not get out of bed to perform the ablutions. [1] "He who doth not find water, must say five times, 'In the name of God, " etc. ("Akdas "). During the ablutions certain petitions are prescribed as "while washing the hands, say," etc.; "while washing the face, say," etc. Then the worshipper must "stand facing the Holy Place (Acca) and say a portion of the prayers; then "bowing down with hands on knees," say another portion; then "standing with hands outstretched forward and upward," another; then "sitting down," another portion. Each prayer has three prostrations (rika). Prayer times are morning, afternoon, and evening. Congregational prayer or at funerals was abolished by Baha, but Abdul Baha permits it for Americans. [2] Prayer is directed to Baha Ullah. When the terms "God," "Lord," "Thy Greatest Name" are used, Mirza Husain Ali is intended: "He, Baha," says Abdul Baha [3] "is the dawning place of Divinity and the manifestation of Divinity. He is the ultimate goal, the adored one of all, and the worshipped one of all." The editors add (the capitals are theirs): "Further than this MAN HAS NO OTHER POINT FOR CONCENTRATION. HE (BAHA) IS GOD, the worshipped one of all." Prayer, therefore, is no longer to be in the name nor for the sake of Jesus Christ but in the "Greatest Name," i.e., Baha Ullah's, "at the mention of which the people

1. "Daily Lessons," Goodall, p. 74.
2. "Tablets," Vol. I, p. 15.
3. Star, Feb. 7, 1914, p. 304.

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before the Houris fall down," "the Name of Him who is Ruler over what was and is." This name is graven on the breastpins of Bahais, and as a monogram on rings, with two stars alongside it, one of which represents the Bab and the other Abdul Baha. This charm is to be buried with the body. A rosary of ninety-five beads is used daily by the worshipper in saying the "Greatest name" 5x19 times. Allahu Abha is also to be said at the beginning of a meal or of any business, or as a greeting, just as the Moslems say. "Bism ullah" (In the name of God) or "Peace be to you." The figure 9, the sum of the letters of Baha is also a talisman.

      Pilgrimage is considered meritorious and has been popular among American as well as Persian Bahais, though Baha says: [2] "Visiting the tombs of the dead is not necessary, it is better to give the money to the House of Justice." The chief shrine is the tomb of Baha Ullah and of the Bab [3] at Acca. There

1. Star Feb. 7, 1914, p. 298.
2. "Glad Tidings," Tablets, p. 90.
3. The Bab's body, at the time of his martyrdom at Tabriz, was thrown to the dogs. It was rescued, taken to Teheran and interred. After many years it was secretly transferred to Acca. The Bab's house in Shiraz was first of all a shrine, and pilgrimage to it is enjoined in the "Akdas." Another is the mausoleum over the grave of the martyrs at Teheran. Similarly at Ispahan ("A Year Among the Persians," p. 13). Abdul Baba seems to desire to increase reverence for shrines and inculcates such honour for the martyrs as will soon develop into superstition. In the "Visiting Tablets for Martyrs," he says (pp. 9--52): "Blessed is the one who attains to visit thy grave. Blessed is the forehead that is set against thy tomb. Blessed is the person who lights a lamp at thy" "I beg God to make thy sepulchre a mine of mercy, a depository of gifts, and to encompass it with manifold signs." A chant for the pilgrim begins: "0 peerless martyr! Verily I salute thy pure dust and thy holy blessed tomb. The everlasting abode is for such as visit thy tomb."

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have been published accounts of a score of American women and of some men who have obtained permission and entered, as it were, through "the gate of heaven" and "paid their vows unto the Most High." But not the least attraction was Abdul Baha, "the king in his beauty." The pilgrim first does obeisance to him. This is an ecstatic, hysteric event. Mrs. True, "perfectly intoxicated with the realization," kissed his hand. [1] Another lady sat at his feet with her head on his knee. Another, when she entered his presence, held out her arms, crying: "My Lord, my Lord," [2] and rushing forward, fell on her knees, sobbing. [3] Another narrative says that Abbas greeted them, "clasped each one in a loving embrace," anointed each one with the attar of roses. "Some of the believers kissed his hand." Of her good-bye this lady says, "I held his hand a long time." Even Mr. Horace Holley, author of "The Modern Social Religion," writes, [5] "This was he. My whole body underwent a shock. My heart

1. "Table Talks," pp. 13, 17.
2. Rev. H. H. Jessup, D. D., refers to this incident as published in the Literary Digest (Outlook, Ibid., and "Fifty-three Years in Syria," p. 687). He said to Abbas Effendi, "An American woman has stated that she came to Haifa and when she entered your room she felt that she was in the presence of the very Son of God, the Christ, and that she held out her arms, crying, 'My Lord, my Lord, and rushed to you, kneeling at your blessed feet sobbing like a child. Can this be right to accept worship?" "I left Abbas Effendi with the painful feeling that he was accepting divine honour from simple-minded women from America and receiving their gifts of gold without protest or rebuke."
3. 'New York Outlook, June, 1901, pp. 45, 46.
4. Mrs. Grundy, Ibid., p. 73.      
6. Page 212.

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leaped, my knees weakened, a thrill of acute receptive feeling flowed from head to foot. . . From sheer happiness I wanted to cry." Another man, L. G. Gregory, a negro, writes: "My knee bent reverently before him." When Abdul Baha says: "I am glad to see you," the pilgrims thrill at such wondrous words! "His heavenly smile" gives them happiness! His trite platitudes are written down beside the midnight lamp, for the delectation of similar dupes.

      Next the pilgrims visit the Palace of Bahja and the beautiful pleasure grounds where Baha resided during most of his confinement at Acca, enjoying much freedom and even luxury as a "prisoner." The tomb of the Bab draws them, but more sacred do they deem the tomb of Baha Ullah, "the culmination of our pilgrimage." This shrine is in the Garden of Bahja. Its outer court is adorned with beautiful rugs, vases, chandeliers, and flowers. Here they chant verses from the Tablets. Each pilgrim, taking off his shoes, enters the "holy precincts" alone. In this "holy of holies," "the heavenly silence of that centre of peace," he "kneels and prays at the throne of grace for pardon and help," "remembering the friends far away before the presence. He counts it a "glorious experience at once solemn and joyful." Coming out he is "served with tea and given some beautiful roses which are carefully preserved." Mrs. Grundy says that "they remained all night at the tomb, chanting and praying without intermission, and standing throughout

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the ceremonies . . . communing with the glorified spirit of Baha Ullah." Under the arbour was a chair where Baha Ullah used to sit. No one sits in it any longer. She knelt at the foot of the chair whilst one of the daughters of Baha chanted a prayer. [1]

      A shrine, deemed even more sacred, yet remains. The pilgrims are conducted to it in an inner room of the residence of Abdul Baha. Here are the images "of the Glorious Ones of God." "We were all impelled to remove our shoes before crossing the threshold. Approaching in reverent awe, we were anointed with a fragrant perfume, and as we knelt before the majestic likeness [2] of the Blessed Perfection, Baha Ullah and that of the Bab, we were unable to speak." [3] "Here is seen the expression of gentleness, meekness, wisdom, light, love majesty, power, holiness, in short, every attribute of God." [4]

      How far from the Christian position the Bahais have wandered is seen in the narratives of these pilgrims who take little interest

1. See "Ten Days in the Light at Acca," pp. 71--73; "My Visit to Acca," p. 25; "In Galilee," p. 69; "Heavenly Vista," p. 22; "Daily Lessons," p. 80; "Flowers from Acca," p. 36; "Table Talks," p. 14.
2. Baha, in the "Akdas," forbids women from going on pilgrimage, the adoration of pictures and the kissing of hands. Why does Abdul Baha encourage them? Ignorant devotion has so soon degenerated into superstition and iconolatry. Others are trading on the superstitious. Abdul Baha writes: " I have received news that some one in Persia has imitated the picture of the Manifestation and sold it for $200 to a believer. The real picture is not in the possession of any one but me."
3. "Flowers from Acca," p. 34.
4. 'A Heavenly Vista," p. 22; and above references.

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      In those holy fields,
      Over whose acres walked those blessed feet
      Which, nineteen hundred years ago, were nail'd
      For our advantage to the blessed cross.

To them not Jerusalem but Acca is the Holy City. Not Nazareth and the Sea of Galilee, but Haifa and its bay, not the Garden of Gethsemane but the Rizwan, not Calvary but the Turkish prison barracks, not Mount Olivet but Mount Carmel, attract their interest and engage their love.

      XI.       Bahaism in its festivals abandons the Christian year. In the "Akdas," besides Noruz, New Year, there are two sacred days: (1) The anniversary of the declaration of the Bab, May 23, 1844.; and (2) the birthday of Baha Ullah, November 12, 1817. To these have been added: (3) The feast of Rizwan, April 21--May 2, commemorating the declaration of Baha Ullah in Bagdad; (4) the death of Baha Ullah, May 28, 1892, at Acca; and still later (5) the birthday of Abdul Baha, May 24, 1844; and (6) his appointment as "Centre of the Covenant," November 26. The four or five intercalary days, February 26 -- March 2, corresponding in a measure to Carnival, are a feasting time before the annual fast.

      The weekly holy days of the three monotheistic religions are abolished. Instead of a Sabbath, every nineteenth day, the first of each month, is a sacred day; even the week is abolished. The ninth day of each month has been made sacred by Abdul Baha.

The era is also changed. The world and its events are to be reckoned from the Bahai cycle.

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Just what this is seems to be doubtful, for some date from the Declaration of the Bab and write 1914 as the year 70. The Star of the West is so dated. Some date from the birth of Baha Ullah and count this as the year 97, as on the title page of "The Bahai Movement," by Remey. Even the year of Abdul Baha's accession (1892) is used as a date. [1] Thus Bahaism has no Christian era, no Christian Sabbath, no Easter, no Christmas, no Trinitarian formula in benediction, doxology, or sacrament, no symbol of the cross, no hymns to Christ, no Apostles Creed, no Lord's Prayer. Yet it claims to be Christian!

      XII.       In conclusion, Bahaism is antichristian in its aim and propaganda. Whenever it comes in contact with Christian missions, in Persia, Syria, Egypt, India, or Burmah, it is the opposer of the messenger of Christ and His Gospel. A hope cherished thirty years ago, by some missionaries and others, that it might be a stepping stone for Moslems to Christ) has not been fulfilled; albeit some of the best converts from Islam have first sought the broken cisterns of Bahaism. [2] Bahaism is plainly antichristian. It is a new and a different, an inferior and a false

1. Star, March 2, 1914, p. 321.
2. Doctor Jessup, Outlook, Ibid., says, "An old Persian Sheikh, in 1897, came to the American Press in Beirut, with a large sheet of paste board on which was written the motto 'Ya Baha ul Abha' and wished to have a map mounted on the face of it. In reply to inquiry why he thus would use it, he said: 'I have bad it hanging on my wall for twelve years and prayed to it, and found it to be vanity and worthless. I now prefer to read the Bible."

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Religion. Its claims are contradictory to the claims of Christ. It would draw men's allegiance to another person, to other Scriptures, to a system of doctrine and way of salvation inconsistent with the Gospel, to forms of worship, ceremonies, and festivals at variance with those of Christianity. It declares that Christianity is abrogated and superseded. Its erroneous dictum is that "the revelation of Jesus is no longer the point of guidance for the world." Why cannot Christian people see that its claims annul faith and loyalty to Christ? Surely giving Bahaism countenance, assistance, and encouragement or opportunity for its propaganda is to wound Christ in the house of His friends.

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