Aba: Cloak or mantle.
Adhan: Muslim call to prayer.
A.H.: "After Hijirah. "Date of Muhammad's
migration from Mecca to
Medina, and basis of Muhammadan chronology.
Amir: "Lord," "prince," "commander," "governor."
Aqa: Title given by Baha'u'llah to Abdu'l-Baha.
A'zam: "The greatest."
bab: "Gate." Title assumed by Mirza Ali-Muhammad after
the declaration of His Mission in Shiraz in May, 1844, A.D.
Baha: "Glory," "splendour," "light." Title by which
Baha'u'llah (Mirza Husayn-'Ali) is designated.
Baqiyyatu'llah: "Remnant of God." Title applied
both to the Bab and to Baha'u'llah.
Bayan: "Utterance," "explanation." Title given by the
Bab to His Revelation, particularly to His Books.
Big: Honorary title; lower title than Khan
Caravanserai: An inn for caravans.
Darughih: "High constable."
Dawlih: "State," "government."
Farman: "Order," "command," "royal decree."
Farrash: "Footman," "lictor," "attendant."
Farrash-Bashi: The head farrash.
Farsakh: Unit of measurement. Its length differs in
different parts of the country according to the nature of the ground, the local
interpretation of the term being the distance which a laden mule will
walk in the hour, which varies from three to four miles. Arabicised
from the old Persian "parsang," and supposed to be derived from pieces
of stone (sang) placed on the roadside.
Haji: A Muhammadan who has performed the pilgrimage to
Howdah: A litter carried by a camel, mule, horse, or
elephant for travelling purposes.
Imam: Title of the twelve shi'ah successors of Muhammad.
Also applied to Muslim religious leaders.
Imam-Jum'ih: The leading imam in a town or city;
chief of the mullas.
Imam-Zadih: Descendant of an imam, or his shrine.
Jubbih: An upper coat.
Ka'bih: Ancient shrine at Mecca. Now recognised as the
most holy shrine of Islam.
Kad-Khuda: Chief of a ward or parish in a town;
headman of a village.
Kalim: "One who discourses."
Karbila'i: A Muhammadan who has performed the
pilgrimage to Karbila.
Khan: "Prince," "lord," "nobleman," "chieftain."
Kulah: The Persian lambskin hat worn by government
employees and civilians.
Madrisih: Religious college.
Man-Yuzhiruhu'llah: "He whom God will make
manifest." Title given by the Bab to the promised One.
Mashhadi: A Muhammadan who has performed the
pilgrimage to Mashhad.
Masjid: Mosque, temple, place of worship.
Maydan: A subdivision of a farsakh. A square or open
Mihdi: Title of the Manifestation expected by Islam.
Mihrab: The principal place in a mosque, where the imam
prays with his face turned towards Mecca.
Mi'raj: "Ascent"; used with reference to Muhammad's
ascension to heaven.
Mirza: A contraction of Amir-Zadih, meaning son of Amir.
When affixed to a name, it signifies prince; when prefixed, simply Mr.
Mu'adhdhin: The one who sounds the Adhan, the
Muhammadan call to prayer.
Mujtahid: Muhammadan doctor of law. Most of the
mujtahids of Persia have received their diplomas from the most eminent
jurists of Karbila and Najaf.
Mulla: Muhammadan priest.
Mustaghath: "He who is invoked"; the numerical
value of which has
been assigned by the Bab as the limit of the time fixed for the advent
of the promised Manifestation.
Nabil: "Learned," "noble."
Naw-Ruz: "New Day." Name applied to the Baha'i New
Year's Day; according to the Persian calendar, the day on which the sun
Pahlavan: "Athlete," "champion." Term applied to
brave and muscular men.
Qadi: Judge: civil, criminal, and ecclesiastical
Qa'im: "He who shall arise." Title designating the
promised One of Islam.
Qalyan: A pipe for smoking through water.
Qiblih: The direction to which people turn in prayer;
especially Mecca, the Qiblih of all Muhammadans.
Sahibu'z-Zaman: "Lord of the Age." One of the
titles of the promised Qa'im.
Shahid: "Martyr." The plural of martyr is "Shuhada."
Shaykhu'l-Islam: Head of religious court,
appointed to every large city by the Shah.
Siyyid: Descendant of the Prophet Muhammad.
Surih: Name of the chapters of the Qur'an.
Tuman: A sum of money equivalent to a dollar.
Vali-'Ahd: "Heir to the throne."