Photos of Robert Cameron
(provided by author's four children)
"....everything have we computed and written down."
ABS Ottawa, 1982, "John Robarts Award" winners; Robert Cameron is on the far left.
ABS Plenary Session audience; Cameron is in the crowd in the middle. — click for larger picture
Unlike the Bible which was written by a great number of people, the
was the work of one man.[*]
It stands unchallenged
as the most influential Book of one individual person. This is even more
remarkable from a man who could neither read nor write. It is the first work of
prose literature of Arabia and ranks uncontested as the best. Reading the
Qur'an is done much more than reading from any other book including the Bible
since it is used in public worship, in schools, in individual worship, private
study and reading. Because of this fact alone it is a sufficient claim on our
attention. It is the most widely-read Book in existence. The Qur'an and its
Revealer are the foundation of Islam. It is the sacred Book of hundreds of
millions of people who regard it as the Word of God spoken through the mouth of
His Prophet. It affords many insights into the spiritual development of a most
backward people and the creation of religious personalities (i.e. saints,
scholars, poets, etc.). Westerners often get a first impression of chaotic
confusion which can only be modified by the application of a critical analysis
along with a study of Arabian and Persian tradition. Knowledge of these
traditions is unfortunately lacking in western education. Bahá'u'lláh says,
"...the unfailing testimony of God to both the East and the West is none other
than the Qur'an"
He summons His followers to, "Hearken
unto that which the Merciful hath revealed in the
and calls this Book the "mighty
Shoghi Effendi says the Qur'an, apart from the
sacred scriptures of the Babi and Bahá'í Revelations, constitutes the only Book
which can be regarded as an absolutely authenticated Repository of the Word of
Bahá'u'lláh refers to Muhammad as "God's
and writes, "If ye cherish the desire to
slay Muhammad, the Apostle of God, seize Me and put an end to My life, for I am
He, and My Self is His Self."
To Bahá'ís Islam is
another succeeding step in progressive revelation,
following Christianity. The Bahá'ís accept without reservation the Divine
origin of Islam, the Prophetic function of Muhammad and the legitimacy of the
institution of the Imamate. Every follower of Bahá'u'lláh recognizes the
exalted position the Prophet Muhammad occupies and would readily give their
life before denying that faith as they would their faith in Jesus Christ and in
Bahá'u'lláh. This is part of the bedrock of Bahá'í belief which its teachers
and scholars are proud to proclaim in public meetings, Bahá'í schools and in
Bahá'í literature. The Qur'an is accepted as authentic by historians and
scholars while they do not accept all of the Gospel text. It is a Book the text
of which they describe as being preserved with unparalleled purity, reverential
care and that it is the genuine and unaltered work of Muhammad.
Regarding the age-long accusations made against Muhammad that He copied
Biblical descriptions, Maurice Bucaille, a French surgeon, who meticulously
examines the Qur'an in the light of modern scientific knowledge, says they are
completely unfounded. This is very clear when data concerning the Creation is
considered: Although not all the questions raised by the descriptions in the
Qur'an have been completely confirmed by scientific data, there is in any case
absolutely no opposition between the data in the Qur'an on the Creation and
modern knowledge on the formation of the Universe....it is very obvious indeed
that the present-day text of the Old Testament provides data on the same events
that are unacceptable from a scientific point of view.... How could a man
living fourteen hundred years ago have made corrections to the existing
description to such an extent that he eliminated scientifically inaccurate
material and, on his own initiative, made statements that science has been able
to verify only in the present day?
accuracy of the Qur'an is a realization of recent times. It is this same
accuracy that is one of the leading and major proofs of its authenticity and
How could a man, from being illiterate, become the most important author, in
terms of literary merit, in the whole of Arabic literature? How could he then
pronounce truths of a scientific nature that no other human being could
possibly have developed at the time, and all this without once making the
slightest error in his pronouncements on the subject?...it inconceivable for a
human being living in the Seventh century A.D. to have made statements in the
Qur'an on a great variety of subjects that do not belong to his period and for
them to be in keeping with what was to be known only centuries later. For me,
there can be no human explanation to the Qur'an.
These are not vague references to natural phenomenon. The statements in the
Qur'an are in agreement with precise scientific concepts which have only been
discovered in recent times. The source of the constituents of milk and the role
of blood in bringing nutrition to the mammary glands was not known at the time
of Muhammad but is a part of present-day discoveries in the chemistry and
physiology of the digestive system. The discovery of the circulation of blood
was centuries after the writing of the Qur'an. The water cycle mentioned in the
Qur'an did not agree with the concepts current at the time of Muhammad but it
does compare with modern data on hydrology. It wasn't until 1570 that Bernard
Palissy gave a correct interpretation of the water cycle. "What initially
strikes the reader...is the sheer abundance of subjects discussed: the
Creation, astronomy, the explanation of certain matters concerning the earth,
and the animal and vegetable kingdoms, human reproduction. Whereas monumental
errors are to be found in the Bible, I could not find a single error in the
Maurice Bucaille translates surih 51, verse 47
of the Qur'an in this way: The heaven, We have built it with power. Verily. We
are expanding it. He says that, a 'Heaven' is the translation of the word sama'
and this is exactly the extra-terrestrial world that is meant."
He also states, "'We are expanding it' is the translation of the plural present
participle musi'una of the verb ausa'a meaning 'to make wider, more spacious,
to extend, to expand'."
Some translators who were unable to grasp the meaning of the latter provide
translations that appear to me to be mistaken, e.g. "we give generously" (R.
Blachere). Others sense the meaning, but are afraid to commit themselves:
Hamidullah in his translation of the Qur'an talks of the widening of the
heavens and space, but he includes a question mark. Finally, there are those
who arm themselves with authorized scientific opinion in their commentaries and
give the meaning stated here. This is true in the case of the Muntakab, a book
of commentaries edited by the Supreme Council for Islamic Affairs, Cairo. It
refers to the expansion of the Universe in totally unambiguous
According to Muhammad the substance of the Qur'an is "...uncreated and
eternal; subsisting in the essence of the Deity, and inscribed with a pen of
light on the table of his everlasting decrees. A paper copy, in a volume of
silk and gems, was brought down to the lowest heaven by the angel Gabriel,
who...successively revealed the chapters and verses..."
to Muhammad. It was a period of over twenty years, from age forty to His
passing in 632 A.D. that Muhammad revealed the Qur'an. It was a holy and
profound experience for anyone and anything present. There were times when the
revelation was silent like the ocean when calm and at other times it was so
intense that a vein would swell on His forehead and He would sweat profusely.
There was a time when He was mounted on a camel when the overpowering effect of
revelation forced the animal to its knees. These were the physical effects of
those nearby during revelation. The spiritual effects of love, of might, of awe
and astonishment had powerful effects on one's being. The experience could not
be described in words nor could it be forgotten. Qur'an means "reading". The
verses were dictated by Muhammad and written down at the moment of revelation
or soon after. It was written down on palm leaves, parchment, leather,
shoulder-blades of sheep, bones, camels' scapula,
wooden tablets, "from date leaves, tablets of white stone, and the breasts of
men." The "breasts of men" means the memories of men. There were well developed
memories and memory skills in a society that loved and recited poetry so
extensively. No collection of the fragments was made during Muhammad's
lifetime. Many of the qurra or reciters of the Qur'an were killed in battle.
These "living texts" were not being replaced so the task to "search out the
Qur'an and bring it together" was given to Zayd ibn Thabit, the Prophet's chief
amanuensis. Zayd completed the entire Qur'an and several copies were made from
it. Since it contained no vowels it was found that variations had crept into
many copies. The third caliph Uthman had Zayd and three Quraysh scholars
compare all the versions with Zayd's original. Copies of this official text
were sent to Damascus and other cities and those unapproved versions were
destroyed. The official text has remained unquestioned for almost fourteen
centuries. There was never any question as to the accuracy of Zayd's original
manuscript. 'Ali was there along with many who knew it by heart. Parts of the
Qur'an had been in daily use and it was only two or three years from the
passing of Muhammad that Zayd made his first compilation. 'Ali was very
knowledgeable on every aspect of the Qur'an besides having a clear and
retentive memory. He said, "There is not a verse in the Qur'an of which I do
not know the matter, the parties to whom it refers, and the place and time of
its revelation, whether by night or by day, whether in the plains or upon the
Professor Hamidullah describes the
situation that existed in writing the Qur'an in his French translation of the
The sources all agree in stating that whenever a fragment of the Qur'an was
revealed, the Prophet called one of his literate companions and dictated it to
him, indicating at the same time the exact position of the new fragment in the
fabric of what had already been received...Descriptions note that Muhammad
asked the scribe to reread to him what had been dictated so that he could
correct any deficiencies.....Another famous story tells how every year in the
month of Ramadan, the Prophet
would recite the whole of the Qur'an (so far revealed) to Gabriel...,that in
the Ramadan preceding Muhammad's death, Gabriel had made him recite it
twice...It is known how since the Prophet's time, Muslims acquired the habit of
keeping vigil during Ramadan, and of reciting the whole of the Qur'an in
addition to the usual prayers expected of them.
The chronological sequence of Revelation was not followed. The 114 surihs were
arranged, with some exceptions, according to their decreasing order of length.
This order of surihs was that order followed by Muhammad when he recited the
Qur'an during Ramadan.
Regarding the question of succession, Muhammad did not leave a written will
and testament. The Qur'an does not mention anything regarding who was to
succeed Muhammad. This gave rise to some claims where it was said there were
verses in the Qur'an which pointed to Ali and that these were suppressed by
'Uthman when he collected and destroyed those unapproved versions keeping only
an official text. "This assertion is manifestly untenable. There is no
indication at all that either 'Ali, or any other of the Imams, ever contested,
by a single word, the authenticity of the text which 'Uthman
Muhammad did unmistakably appoint His
successor but it was verbal and not written. It is said that Muhammad,
returning home from His last pilgrimage, gathered His followers together and
had specifically and emphatically designated 'Ali. With 'Ali at His side He
said, "Whoever hath Me as his Master, hath 'Ali as his Master... I have been
summoned to the gate of God, and I shall soon depart... to be concealed from
He said He would leave two treasures: "The
greatest treasure is the Book of God... Hold fast to it and do not lose it and
do not change it. The other treasure is the line of My
When Muhammad lay dying He asked for pen
and paper to dictate something that would keep unity among the believers. 'Umar
said, "Pain is deluding Him, We have God's Book, which is
"These words were to cause a disastrous
schism in the religion of God that remained irreparable and continually widened
as the years went on."
It was at the death of the
Prophet that one of the greatest turning points in history took place. 'Ali
began to prepare the body of the Prophet and to make arrangements for burial.
'Ali was left alone to do this while those who were the closest and most
stalwart followers of Muhammad were in the mosque to choose a successor. These
were the same supporters who heard, with their own ears, the Prophet designate
'Ali as His successor. The extremely critical error is that they did not decide
to follow the words of Muhammad but instead followed the rules of the
"Heedless of this event, which is recorded by
almost all the chroniclers of the birth of Islam, many outstanding historians,
even those who are Muslims, have disregarded this critical point, creating so
many doubts with their own interpretations that the mirror of historical fact
has become obscured and darkened."
The Disconnected Letters of the Qur'an
What do the disconnected letters which preface many surihs of the Qur'an mean?
Bahá'u'lláh says, "In the disconnected letters of the Qur'an the mysteries of
the divine Essence are enshrined, and within their shells the pearls of His
Unity are treasured."
He also states, "Outwardly they
signify Muhammad Himself."
If anyone knew the meanings
of these disconnected letters they would have no doubt or uncertainty about the
Divinity of Muhammad or the divine origin of His Book. They are,"...the supreme
instrument of guidance for attainment unto the loftiest summits of
Down through the centuries opinions have
been divided as to the meaning of these letters. There has been extensive
controversy and effort made to understand the meaning of these letters but
nothing of significance has been forthcoming. The only thing there has been
general agreement on is that they are mysteries. Believers have had to satisfy
themselves that God will, in His own time, reveal their meaning. To the
believer and to the serious student of Islam these letters prefixed to the
surihs have profound meanings and he has been certain that in time these
meanings will become known. This is the nature of certitude and faith. It is
one of the ways the intentions of good or evil in the heart of man come to the
surface. To the biased observer they look strange and for him it is an
opportunity for malicious criticism. Some would foolishly prejudge the
situation and say a person would have to be mad or to be not in his right mind
to put letters isolated at the beginning of a chapter with no apparent reason
and no explanation. This has been an interesting test for man where a mystery
has remained almost completely unsolved until fourteen centuries have passed.
solutions and keys to solutions are discovered. It is confirming to man to have
such strong reassurance that every act of a Manifestation of God has specific
purposes. In such a process it is also delightful to know that there is humor
here and that humor is expressed in all the worlds of God. Let us examine the
of the surihs which have disconnected
letters between the first surih and up to and including the thirteenth. Other
surihs have disconnected letters but for the purposes of this explanation we
will go only as far at the thirteenth. We will use the numerical value of the
letters according to the abjad reckoning.
Baqara (The Cow).
+ 30 + 40 = 71|
(The Family of 'Imran).
+ 30 + 40 = 71|
A'raf (The Heights).
+ 30 + 40 + 90 = 161|
+ 30 + 200 = 231|
Hud (The Prophet Hud).
+ 30 + 200 = 231|
+ 30 + 200 = 231|
+ 30 + 40 + 200 = 271|
It is recorded in the hadith that the fifth Imam Muhammad-Baqir said
that each of these surihs with the disconnected letters means a specific period
of time when something will happen to a great, high-ranking, outstanding person
in Islam who is descended from Ban-Hashim.
It was exactly 71 years after Muhammad's Divine Summons that the Imam Husayn
was brutally killed.
In another 71 years, exactly 142
years after Muhammad's Divine Summons Abu'l-'Abbas 'Abdu'llah as- Saffah became
Caliph. This ended forever the yoke of the House of Umayyah who
were the persecutors of Muhammad, who usurped the inheritance of His family and
who ruled with treacherous, unscrupulous and murderous
Note that these are lunar years. See the
computations in footnote thirty. These years would obviously be from the year
of the Divine Summons, the first intimations of the Holy Spirit personated by
the Angel Gabriel, that moment in time which some historians refer to as
Muhammad's "vision" in the year 610 A.D. Husayn was martyred on the 10th day of
Muharram (October, 680 A.D.) this year on the Muslim calendar was 61 A.H. It
was as-Saffah who shattered the power and brought down the rule of the Umayyads
in the year 132 of Hijrah (750 A.D.). He was of the House of 'Abbas, a
descendant of Hashim. He condemned the corruption and evil doings of the
Umayyads and said the House of Hashim, the House of the Prophet had come to
free religion and let its light shine and that the earth would be covered with
justice. So 71 years from a most significant happening to Muhammad, Husayn, a
descendant of Hashim, was killed. In another 71 years the oppression of the
House of Umayyah was ended by "a great, outstanding, high ranking descendant of
Bani-Hashim." Perhaps the most astonishing prophecy hidden in these
disconnected letters is that they reveal the exact year of the appearance of
the Promised One of Islam. Mirza Abu'l-Fadl of Gulpaygan has explained that the
disconnected letters from the first to the thirteenth surihs total
In that year 1260 A.H. (1844 A.D.), a Youth from
Siyyid 'Ali-Muhammad, the Bab[,] made His
momentous declaration. Mirza Abu'l-Fadl indicates that this span of time does
not start with the Hijrat but with the declaration of Muhammad seven years
before. Note that this span of time does not start with Muhammad's Divine
Summons or the first year of the Muslim calendar. The Hijrat is the departure
of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina which was
established as the first year (622 A.D.) of the Muslim era. It was seven years
before the Hijrat that Muhammad made the public declaration of His mission to
First this was to the descendants of
Hasjim, the House of Hashim, His clan and then at a second gathering to the
Meccans at large. Therefore the period of 1267 years was from the public
declaration of Muhammad to the public declaration of the Bab. It has been said
the 36th Surih of the Qur'an was called by Muhammad "The Heart of the Qur'an."
It concerns the central figure of Islam, His Revelation and the Hereafter. It
is named Ya-Sin from the disconnected letters at its opening (y and s). Since
it makes reference to the Hereafter it is recited to the dying, read in solemn
ceremonies after death and at the tombs of saints. Here Muhammad foreshadowed
the coming of Bahá'u'lláh as "that of the 'third' Messenger, sent down to
'strengthen' the two who preceded Him."
Sacred Writings of the Faith there is the Law-i-Ayiy-i-Nur (Tablet of the Verse
of Light), also known as Tafsir-i-Hurufat-i-Muqatta'ih (Interpretation of the
Isolated Letters), which was revealed in Arabic and has not yet been translated
into English. One of the martyrs, Mirza Aqa'y-i-Rikab-Saz asked Bahá'u'lláh to
reveal the significance, inner meanings and reasons for the isolated, broken or
disconnected letters which are found at the beginning of some of the surihs of
the Qur'an. Bahá'u'lláh's Tablet explains in great detail many mysteries which
had remained hidden for thirteen centuries. The only important interpretation
down through the ages was that of the fifth Imam which has been explained
earlier. The light that Bahá'u'lláh puts on this subject and the depth to which
he examines these letters has prompted Adib Taherzadeh to say, "His
explanations are so profound as to overwhelm the
The Qur'an says that the disconnected
letters are ayihs (sometimes spelled
ayats) which is an Arabic word for any revealed verse, sign, symbol or miracle
of the Prophet of God. It says these disconnected letters are the ayihs which
make things clear.
are the Ayats |
the Book of Wisdom.
Symbols (or Verses)
the Perspicuous Book.
Ayats of Revelation
makes things clear.
are The Signs (or Verses) |
the Book: that which
been revealed unto thee
thy Lord is the Truth;
most men believe not.
The Number Nineteen Examined As a Mathematical Entity
Nineteen is a prime number
which is very unusual and
interesting. On one hand it is the sum of the first powers of 9 and 10 (9' +
10' = 19) and the difference between the second powers of 9 and 10 (10
[squared] - 9 [squared] = 100 - 81 = 19). When you use the multiples of 19 and
add their elements to get the numerical values the result is an interesting
pattern from 1 to 9 which goes on repeatedly infinitely.
+ 9 = 10 = 1|
+ 8 = 11 = 2 |
+ 7 = 12 = 3 |
+ 6 = 13 = 4 |
+ 5 = 14 = 5 |
+ 1 + 4 = 6 = 6 |
+ 3 + 3 = 7 = 7 |
+ 5 + 2 = 8 = 8 |
+ 7 + 1 = 9 = 9 |
+ 9 + 0 = 10 = 1 |
+ 0 + 9 = 11 = 2 |
+ 2 + 8 = 12 = 3 |
+ 4 + 7 = 13 = 4 |
+ 6 + 6 = 14 = 5 |
+ 8 + 5 = 15 = 6 |
+ 0 + 4 = 7 = 7 |
+ 2 + 3 = 8 = 8 |
+ 4 + 2 = 9 = 9 |
+ 6 + 1 = 10 = 1 |
[and so on infinitely]
There is a 19 year lunar cycle. Meton, a Greek astronomer, 433 B.C.,
discovered that the phases of the moon recur after nineteen years on the same
day of the month. This 19 year cycle is known as the Metonic
There seems to be some possibility that the 19
year cycle of the moon was known centuries before Meton. At Stonehenge, during
the third major phase of construction about 2000 B.C., thirty stones were
erected in a circle. One of these was smaller than the others which may have
meant that the ring of stones stood for the twenty-nine and a half days of the
lunar month. "Inside the circle, nineteen bluestones were later arranged in a
horseshoe, possibly standing for the nineteen-year cycle of the moon, after
which the moon's phases start to recur on the same days of the
The early Christians wanted Easter to always
fall on a Sunday because they felt it should always fall on a sacred day. The
dating of Easter became a dispute which lasted until the fourth century when
the Golden Number Rule was accepted as the official procedure. The basis for it
was the work of Meton. The date of Easter is determined by dividing the year by
the number 19, discarding the quotient and adding 1 to the
In the ancient Roman and Alexandrian
calendars the Golden Number was marked in gold. It is from that gold mark that
the term Golden Number originated.
1 is added to 6 making 7 which is the Golden Number. Then you turn to the
table of Golden Numbers and discover that the number 7 gives you April 8. April
8 is the date of the first full moon which follows March 21, the beginning of
spring in 1982. April 8 falls on Thursday. Therefore Easter falls on the
following Sunday April 11. Easter falls on the first Sunday after the first
full moon after the vernal equinox.
|Table of Golden Numbers|
of the Full Moon|
Another method which is basically the same is found in the Book of Common
Add one to the Year of our Lord and then divide by 19; the Remainder, if any,
is the Golden Number; but if nothing remaineth, then 19 is the Golden
Book of Common Prayer
(Table to find Easter Day).
19 : 1983
For the year 1982 you add one year which equals 1983. The remainder 7 is the
This method is also used to determine the epact. There is a perfect
correlation between the Julian (solar) and lunar calendars. 235 lunar months is
equal to exactly 19 Julian years of 365 1/4 days. Another unusual phenomenon is
the fact that, "The tide-raising force of the moon is about 1/9,000,000 that of
the earth's gravity, and the tide-raising force of the sun is only 1/19,000,000
that of earth's gravity...."
In one of the earliest
mathematical documents known there is an algebra problem which reads, "Aha, its
whole, its seventh, it makes 19." It was discovered in an Egyptian papyrus
3,600 years old and is one of the first known to have been solved by man. "Aha"
means "a heap" or "quantity." We use the expression today "Let x equal....":
The papyrus of "Aha" came to the notice of Western scholars a century ago.
Henry Rhind, a tuberculosis-ridden Scottish antiquary, bought it in 1858 in a
shop in the Nile village of Luxor, where he was wintering for his health.
Called the Rhind Papyrus in his honor, it is one of the earliest mathematical
documents extant--an especially interesting one because of the evidence it
contains that men in 1700 B.C. were already looking beyond arithmetic into the
vistas of algebra. From the days of the pharaohs on down, the basic purpose of
algebra has remained the same: to permit the solution of a mathematical problem
which involves an unknown number. The unknown is expressed by an abstract
symbol which is manipulated until its numerical value can be established. In
order to pin the problem down and hold it securely while it is being turned
around and simplified, the relationship between known and unknown numbers is
set down in an equation- -a statement of what equals what.
The venerable Egyptian problem of "Aha, its whole, its seventh, it makes 19"
can readily be transmuted into 20th Century terms. A hardpressed taxpayer faces
the prospect of filing a declaration of estimated income tax. He knows that his
actual tax will be $1,900. But he decides that if he slightly underestimates it
at the beginning of the year-so that the balance he will have to make up at the
end of the year does not exceed one seventh of what he has estimated- -the
Internal Revenue Service will not make a federal case out of it. Using the
marvelously timesaving shorthand and rulebook logic of modern algebra, he says
to himself: "Let x equal the number of hundreds of dollars I will declare as my
tax. Then the problem is to find x so that x plus one seventh of it will equal
19." He expresses the entire problem as an equation. x + x/7 = 19 ("one seventh
of x" being x/7). Then, almost automatically, he follows the axiom that equals
multiplied by equals remain equal, and he multiplies both sides of the equation
by 7 to arrive at a new equation, 7x + x = 133. This in turn gives him 8x =
133, then x = 133/8, and, finally, x = 16 5/8, or, in another form, 16 5/8
hundreds of dollars--an estimated tax of $1,662.50. The ancient Egyptians also
reached the answer of 16 5/8, although without the symbolic sort of equation we
||x + x/7
We are primarily interested in the number 19[,] however, many numbers have
several unusual qualities about them.
have avoided number symbology because of baseless claims made by certain
numerologists, only to discover that it (used properly) is a valuable tool of
learning. As such it takes its place alongside paradox, symbol, metaphor and
other analogical devices, etc. As a teaching device, "number" was employed both
by the Bab and Bahá'u'lláh. Sometimes not enough attention has been paid to
certain "numbers". Occasionally such an investigation reveals significant
meanings. Even then it may lead nowhere but oftentimes solutions to
long-standing perplexing problems are discovered.
The Number 19 in the Qur'an
One of the most convincing proofs demonstrating striking evidence of the
divine inspiration of the Qur'an is also the most recent. Using a computer Dr.
Rashad Khalifa presents evidence which demonstrates that the number 19 occurs
too frequently in the Qur'an to be there by chance. A simple application of the
laws of probability is sufficient to interest and astonish even the most
Dr. Khalifa, an Egyptian, received a doctorate in biochemistry in the United
States and taught there for awhile. He published a 60 page booklet privately in
English in the United States in 1972 which was called Number 19: A Numerical
Miracle in the Koran.
In the January 13, 1980 and
January 20, 1980 issues of the weekly Gulf Times, published in Doha the capital
city of Qatar, articles appeared describing this extraordinary marvel. There
are 114 surihs in the Qur'an. 114 is 19 x 6, a multiple of
The formula, "In the name of God, Most Gracious,
Most Merciful" is found over every surih of the Qur'an except the ninth. In
this formula there are 19 Arabic letters.
has been repeated 113 times at the beginning of the surihs plus one extra time
in the Surih of Naml or the Ants XXVII which adds up to 114 times. 114 is a
multiple of 19 (6 x 19). If this heading had not been repeated one extra time
in the Surih of Naml it would not have become a multiple of
From where the heading is missing in surih IX and
where it is repeated in surih XXVII there are 19
The sacred formula Bismi'llahi'r
Rahmani'r-Rahim, which means "In the name of God, Most Gracious, Most
Merciful," has words in it which are repeated each a multiple of 19. Its first
word, Ism, which means name, is found 19 times
throughout the Qur'an. The second word, Allah, meaning God, is found 2698 times
which is 142 x 19. The third word, al-Rahman meaning most gracious, appears 57
times which is 19 x 3. The fourth word, al-Rahim meaning most merciful, is
found 114 times or 6 x 19.
The very first surih (XCVI)
revealed to Muhammad is called Iqraa or Read! or Proclaim! It is also called
'Alaq or The Clot of Congealed Blood. This first surih has 19 'yihs or verses.
The number of letters in surih XCVI adds up to 285 or 19 x
Regarding the statements in the Qur'an where it
says that man was created from a clot of congealed blood, Maurice Bucaille, the
French surgeon, says this has always been mistranslated. Man has never passed
through a stage of being a blood clot. Maurice Bucaille tells us:
"Something which clings" is the translation of the word 'alaq. It is the
original meaning of the word. A meaning derived from it, "blood clot", often
figures in translation; it is a mistake against which one should guard: man has
never passed through the stage of being a "blood clot". The same is true for
another translation of this term, "adhesion" which is equally inappropriate.
The original sense of "something which clings" corresponds exactly to today's
firmly established reality.
When the egg is implanted in the uterus the development of villosities result.
These, like roots, draw nourishment from within the wall of the uterus. "These
formations make the egg literally cling to the uterus. This is a discovery of
Five times the Qur'an describes the act
of clinging. This is the way Bucaille translates the following verses:
Read in the name of thy Lord Who fashioned,
Who fashioned man from something which clings.
We have fashioned you from...something which clings.
We have fashioned the small quantity (of sperm) into something which clings.
(God) fashioned you from a small quantity (of sperm), from
something which clings.
Was (man) not a small quantity of sperm which has been poured out?
After that he was something which clings; then God fashioned him in due
Qur'an 75: 37-38.
The last four of the above five verses describe progressive changes from the
small quantity of sperm to his development as an adult. The description of
these stages is in complete harmony with what we now know about it and doesn't
have a single statement that is not in agreement with science. There is a
statement in the Qur'an that tells us "that the embryo passes through the stage
of 'chewed flesh', then osseous tissue appears and is clad in flesh (defined by
a different word from the preceding which signifies 'intact
We fashioned the thing which clings into a chewed lump of flesh and
We fashioned the chewed flesh into bones and We clothed the bones with intact
Maurice Bucaille explains, "'Chewed flesh' is the translation of the word
mudga; 'intact flesh' is lahm. This distinction needs to be stressed. The
embryo is initially a small mass. At a certain stage in its development, it
looks to the naked eye like chewed flesh. The bone structure develops inside
this mass in what is called the mesenchyma. The bones that are formed are
covered in muscle; the word lahm applies to them."
Verses 1 to 5 of Surih XCVI were the first words of revelation to Muhammad.
All accounts agree that a long interval followed these words where there was
further revelation. How long this interval was is a matter of speculation. Some
say it was as long as three years while others put it as low as ten days. The
first three years of Muhammad's ministry is very obscure. There was no public
declaration of His mission during this time and only a handful of followers.
The people of Mecca were unaware that God had chosen someone amongst them to be
His Prophet and that He was well known to them. There was a general feeling of
expectancy. "...a prophet was expected, and women were anxiously hoping for
male children, so they might mother the Apostle of God; and the more thoughtful
minds, tinged with traditions of Judaism, were seeking for what they called the
'religion of Abraham,' These men were 'Hanifs,' or
When the Angel Gabriel, the vehicle of
Revelation, appeared to Muhammad on Mount Hirra" , three times the Angel held
up a Tablet and told Him to read. Each time He pleaded He could not read. When
the words of revelation came upon Him He was so overcome He thought He was
going mad. At that moment a clear voice rang out again in the quiet of the
mountainside saying to tell Muhammad that God had chosen Him to be His
Messenger to mankind. He was aware and terrified of the awesome mission to
proclaim that God is One. The first words of the revelation, "Read, in the name
of your Lord" are known to every Muslim. These first words of revelation
contain 76 letters or 19 x 4.
The words of the first
revelation (verses 1 to 5 in surih 96) number 19 which is 19 x
The words of the second revelation (the first 9
verses of surih 68) number 38 which is 19 x 2.
The words of the third revelation (the first 10 verses of surih 73) number 57
which is 19 x 3.
Surih Muddaththir or One Wrapped Up (LXXIV) mentions nineteen appointed angels
and says the choosing of the number 19 is to test unbelievers. It is in this
surih that several reasons are stated for the use of the number 19. Among
these reasons are: So that the People of the Book (i.e. Jews, Christians,
Sabians, Zoroastrians) may know for certain that the Qur'an is a divinely
inspired Book, that the believers increase in faith, to remove doubts and to
show that faith is a gift from God which God puts into the heart of whomsoever
He pleaseth and will "leave to stray whom He pleaseth." Nineteen as a number by
itself is mentioned only once in the Qur'an (Qur'an 74:30). The Qur'an explains
the meaning for other numbers such a seven, twelve, forty, etc., but the number
19 is not defined. The last of the surihs, the Surih of Nasr or Help CX, which
dates to only a few months before the passing of Muhammad, has a total of 19
Twenty nine surihs in the Qur'an begin with the
mysterious disconnected letters. 14 different letters from the alphabet are
used and there are 14 various combinations of these disconnected letters in the
beginning of the surihs (see Appendix 1 and Appendix 2). All these numbers add
up to 57 (29 + 14 + 14 = 57). 57 is 3 x 19, a multiple of
Up to this point the proofs advanced could possibly
have been discovered without the aid of a computer. Now we will examine some
very complex proofs. The Qur'an contains 77,974 words. There are 329,156
letters in the Qur'an. There has been no change since it was revealed fourteen
centuries ago. Not one letter has been added to the original and not one letter
has been taken away. It has been kept in a state of purity obviously by divine
forces. 329,156 is a multiple of 19 (17,324 x 19).
Surih of Qaf (surih 50) begins with the disconnected letter "Q" or "Qaf" from
which the surih is named. The letter Q is found in this surih 57 times or 3 x
19. The people who rejected Lut
are mentioned twelve
times throughout the Qur'an. They are always referred to as "the people of Lut"
(eleven times) except in the fiftieth surih where they are called "the brethren
People is an Arabic word that has a Q in it. If this change had not been made Q
would have occurred 58 times and the mathematical basis of the Qur'an would
have been destroyed.
One of the disconnected letters at
the beginning of surih 42 is "Q". There are 57 of these letters in surih 42
which is the same as in surih 50. Together they total 114 which is a multiple
of 19 (19 x 6). Since there are 114 surihs in the Qur'an, "Q" seems to mean
The Surih of Qalam or the Pen (LXVIII) which begins with the disconnected
letter "N", or Nun has 133 "N's" in it. 133 is 7 x 19, a multiple of
The surih of Sad (XXXVIII) begins with the
disconnected letter "Sad" or "S" and this letter is found 29 times in this
surih. This is not a multiple of 19 but when it is added to the S which is one
of the disconnected letters at the beginning of the surih of Maryam (Mary)
(XIX) where the total times it is found is 26 (also not a multiple of 19) and
add the total of times S appears in the Surih of Araf or the Heights (VII)
where the total is 97 (also not a multiple of 19) you get a total of 152 (29 +
26 + + 97 = 152 which is a multiple of 19 or 19 x 8). There are only three
times where this letter is used as a disconnected letter in the Qur'an.
Separately, in the individual surihs where they appear the letters do not total
a multiple of 19. It is only when they are taken together that a multiple of 19
There are several other cases of this
complex phenomenon. The Surih of Ya. Sin. is the 36th surih of the Qur'an and
is named from the disconnected letters which are found at its opening verse (Y
and S). Y is found in this surih 237 times and S is found 48 times. Neither 237
or 48 are multiples of 19 but together they add up to 285 which is 19 x
Seven surihs 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45 and 46 begin
with the disconnected
letters H.M. The number of times H appears in these seven surihs is 292 and the
number of times M appears is 1855. Added together they total 2147 which is 19 x
113. 292 and 1855 are not multiples of 19 but added together they become a
The same is true for the disconnected letters
which appear at the beginning of the other surihs.
It is true in all 29 surihs which begin with the mysterious disconnected
letters. All of these letters fit precisely this mathematical pattern. Unknown
to millions who have spent endless hours reading, memorizing and studying the
Qur'an is that this revealed Book has a mathematical precision which has
remained unpenetrated for a full millennium and that this exactitude has not
been corrupted by time. In view of the changes everything experiences,
especially language, even over the space of a few years, it is obvious that
this sacred writing has been divinely protected. Dr. Khalifa tells us that the
Qur'an, according to the original, was written into a General Electric
Time-sharing terminal which was connected to a central computer. It was
programmed to count the frequency of occurrence of each letter in each chapter.
Each Arabic letter was given an English equivalent. An important point to keep
in mind is that the original Qur'anic Arabic was strictly adhered to. Some
printings of the Qur'an use the conventional Arabic which is not identical.
This is one of the most unusual and important discoveries of this century. We
have been given a key that will unlock the door to the understanding of the
mysteries hidden in the Qur'an. It would be an error to think that these
discoveries are an end in themselves. They seem to be a beginning which will
yield explanations to mysteries we are not even aware of at the present
First and foremost, the reason for the attention Muhammad calls to the number
19 is part of His fulfillment of the covenant He made concerning the Bab, the
Promised One who would appear after Him. Every Prophet has made a covenant with
His people that they accept and follow the next Manifestation who would be the
reappearance of His own reality. Muhammad left signs and evidences everywhere
to make it easier for the sincere seeker to recognize the Bab. In no way has
Muhammad fallen short of His duty but the people have been found to have closed
hearts and blind eyes. There is no evidence that the number 19 has ever been
used or figured prominently or even significantly in any religious system or
social order until the coming of Islam. In Islam it appears as a mysterious
number which has been a source of wonderment to scholars and a cause of
speculation to the mystics. All have failed to come up with convincing
arguments for its appearance in the Qur'an. Not until the coming of the Babi
Faith and the Bahá'í Faith has convincing reasons for its use in Islam been
brought forward. Its use in the Qur'an is an indisputable proof of the validity
of Islam, the Cause of the Bab and the Cause of Bahá'u'lláh. Such a powerful
proof should remove doubts from any true seeker and bring greater heights of
certitude to the confirmed soul. Its use in the Qur'an is none other than to
point the way to the Promised One. The historical and practical use in the Babi
Faith and the Bahá'í Faith and its application as one of the basic mathematical
components for the structure of the coming world civilization is dazzling as
one contemplates the far-reaching transformation that this usage alone will
have on human society. This is true even though we feel its effects only
slightly at the present time.
The Number Nineteen Becomes Manifest in the Bahá'í Faith
Besides being a number which both the Bab and Bahá'u'lláh have employed to use
for practical reasons, the number has been used to help searchers and believers
alike to recognize the Messenger of God for this day. It has been used in
prophecy. It has been used in many ways to conceal meanings and to reveal
extended meanings in certain words and phrases. The use of the number nineteen
in the Bahá'í Faith is so extensive and obvious as to leave the investigator in
awe and astonishment, yet the mysteries contained within that number are
inexhaustible. Some of the ways in which this number has been and is now in
common practical usage in the Faith are:
1. The Bayan (Exposition), the Book of Laws
Babi Dispensation, consists of nine Vahids (Unities) of nineteen chapters each,
except the last which has only ten chapters.
2. Bismi'llahi'r-Rahmani'r-Rahim is the sacred formula placed before every
surih of the Qur'an except the ninth.
this "In the Name of God, Most Gracious, Most Merciful" while others translate
it," In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful." There are nineteen
Arabic letters in this formula. The Bab has changed this formula to
Bismi'llahi'l-Amna'i'l-Aqdas which when translated is, "In the Name of God, the
Inaccessible, the Sanctified," however the number of letters has remained
unchanged. These are symbolic of the nineteen Letters of the Living--eighteen
disciples surrounding the nineteenth, the Bab Himself.
For a period of forty days only Mulla Husayn believed in the Bab. Gradually
other Letters were generated from the Primal Point as the Bab Himself
Understand in the same way the beginning of the manifestation of the Bayan:
during forty days no one but the letter Sin believed in B. It was only, little
by little, that the Bismi'llahu'l-Amna'u'l-Aqdas
clothed themselves with the garment of faith until finally the Primal Unity was
completed. Witness then how it has increased until our
Shoghi Effendi confirms this when he writes, "Not until forty days had
elapsed, however, did the enrollment of the seventeen remaining Letters of the
Note that the word for unity ln both
Arabic and Persian is vahid and that the numerical values of the letters of
this word add up to 19. The letter Sin is the first letter to follow the B in
Bismi'llah (remembering that short vowels are not written). The Bab indicates
that, "All that is in the Bayan is synthesized in one of the verses of the
He explains that this is the first
Bismi'llahi'l-Amna'i'l-Aqdas and says, "All that
is in the Bayan is synthesized in one of the verses, and it is He the B of
Bismi'llah and this B is a proof in itself."
The Bab is
referring to the point which is beneath the B. Without that diacritical mark
the letter would not exist. In both Arabic and Persian the B is a straight line
with a point under it. The Bab reminds us of some interesting mathematical
facts when He states, All material letters exist and flow from a point--a line
is nothing but a succession of points;--therefore, the reality of the letters
does not exist nor develop except through the point of Truth. This Point, in
the Qur'an, is Muhammad, in the Bayan, the master of the Seven
and in the manifestation of 'Him whom God Shall
Make Manifest,' it is Divine Truth, the Divine being...it is the sun of
He also says that, "The Point is like the sun,
and the other letters are like mirrors placed before the resplendent star."
Each letter is like a mirror, several mirrors or in the case of Quddus, mirrors
to the number of eight Vahids revolve."
reflects the Source of Light and if you look into any of those mirrors you see
the Bab Himself. The First Vahid is the Primal Unity. These eighteen lesser
luminaries, together with the Bab, are the First Vahid
(Unity) of the Dispensation of the Bayan. The Bab is the Primal Point from
which have been generated this Primal Unity and,"... from which have been
generated all created things."
Expanding on this truth
He says, "Therefore, as words and letters are only made real through the Nuqtih
(Point) also, through Him the realities of human beings will manifest and
This is not the first time that this truth
has been revealed to man. It has been known among some of the mystics, the wise
and the learned of Islam. In a well-known tradition, which has been attributed
to 'Ali, it is said that the essence of all religious and spiritual truth of
all past revealed religions is to be found in the Qur'an and that the Qur'an
itself is contained in the first chapter, that this chapter is contained in the
first verse, that this verse is contained in its first letter (B) and that all
that is contained in the B is contained in the point beneath the B. 'Ali has
said, "I am that Point."
3. There are nineteen
invocations in a very special and beautiful prayer usually said by Muslims of
Shi'ah Islam during the period of fasting in the month of Ramadan. These invoke
God through His names. The first of these invocations revolves around Baha
which means Glory. The Badi'' Calendar, which is the one in use in the Bahá'í
Faith, uses these names in the same order. The Bab has given them to the
nineteen months of His calendar.
Each month has
nineteen days in it. Bahá'u'lláh gave formal sanction to this calendar
indicating that it should begin in the year of the Bab's Declaration and since
the position of the intercalary days were not specified He stated where they
were to be. One of the traditions of Islam says that the "Greatest Name of God"
is among these nineteen names. The Asma'u'l-Husna or "Most Beauteous Names" of
God are phrases found in several places in the Qur'an.
In hadith literature there is a statement attributed to Muhammad, "Verily there
are 99 names of God, and whoever recites them shall enter
Some Islamic scholars have made a list of
from extensive research in hadith literature.
These traditions also say that God has a hundredth name, the "Most Great Name",
and whoever calls on God by that Name shall obtain all his desires. Many of the
mystics, the wise and the learned have tried and failed to unravel this
mystery. Some have even claimed to possess the Greatest Name but lacking
authority they failed to give the certainty required for such a claim. Only a
Manifestation of God could speak with such authority and solve such an issue as
this. It becomes obvious that this Name could only truly be known when the
Mihdi was made manifest.
One of the most interesting stories is that of a perceptive and widely known
scholar who claimed that the "Most Great Name" was Baha and he even adopted the
name Shaykh Bahá'í. He was from Lebanon, born in 953 A.H. (1547 A.D.) and went
to Persia when he was a young boy. He became the most highly regarded scholar
at the court of Shah 'Abbas.
Bahá'u'lláh confirmed that
the "Greatest Name" is Baha. The Bab sent Bahá'u'lláh a scroll with three
hundred and sixty derivatives of the word Baha' written in the form of a
pentacle. The various derivatives of the word Baha in Arabic are also regarded
as the "Greatest Name." The "Greatest Name" is referred to as Ism-i-A'zam.
The Badi'' Calendar, which is used by Bahá'ís throughout the world, consists of
19 months of 19 days each with four additional intercalary days (Ayyam-i-Ha) in
ordinary and five in leap years. The Bab described this calendar in the
Kitab-i-Asma'', revealed in Arabic, and stated that this system was dependent
upon the acceptance and good-pleasure of "Him Whom God shall make
It is based on the solar year. 19 months
multiplied by 19 days plus Ayyam-i-Ha equals oneness (361 + 5 = 1 year). The
Bab has also divided the years following His Revelation into cycles of nineteen
years. Each cycle of nineteen years is called a vahid. He gave each
of these a name which is different from the names He gave to the months.
Nineteen cycles make 361 years which is called a Kull-i-Shay'. As mentioned
before the numerical value of the word vahid is nineteen. Kull-i-Shay' is an
Arabic word whose numerical value is 361 (19 x 19) according to the abjad
system of number value (K = 20, 1 = 30, Sh = 300, a = 1, y = 10). Kull-i-Shay'
means "all things". We are living in the eighth vahid of the first
5. "...it behooveth man, upon reaching the age of nineteen, to
render thanksgiving for the day of his conception as an embryo. For had the
embryo not existed, how could he have reached his present
The Bab teaches man to be grateful for this
gift from God while also, in the text of the same paragraph, He teaches man to
be grateful for former Revelations. For, "...had the religion taught by Adam
not existed, this Faith would not have attained its present
6. The Bab, on pilgrimage to Mecca, purchased
and sacrificed nineteen lambs of the choicest breed. He performed this
according to ancient custom. Nine of these were in His own name, seven in the
name of Quddus and three for His Ethiopian servant. He didn't take any of the
meat Himself but gave it to the poor and needy of the
7. The Bab said that Quddus, "... is the
one round whom revolve eight Vahids...."
said Quddus is the one "...whom the Persian Bayan extolled as that
fellow-pilgrim round whom mirrors to the number of eight Vahids
Eight Vahids is 152 (8 x 19) a multiple of
8. "The incarceration of Quddus [in Sari]... lasted five and ninety
days," (5 x 19).
9. After the first sortie from the
fort of Shaykh Tabarsi"...Quddus bade his companions dig a moat around the fort
as a safeguard against a renewed attack. Nineteen days elapsed during which
they exerted themselves to the
utmost for the completion of the task they had been charged to
10. After the death of Mulla Husayn, Quddus
ordered Mirza Muhammad-Baqir to lead the fourth sortie: "Sally out and, with
the aid of eighteen men marching at your side, administer a befitting
chastisement upon the aggressor and his host. Let him realize that though Mulla
Husayn be no more, God's invincible power still continues to sustain his
companions and enable them to triumph over the forces of their
11. At the command of Quddus, "Mirza
Muhammad-Baqir again ordered eighteen of his companions to hurry to their
steeds and follow him" (18 + 1 = 19). This was the fifth sortie in the defense
of the fort of Shaykh Tabarsi.
12. During the period of
some of the heaviest defensive action of the Zanjan conflagration Hujjat gave
instructions that the guards of the barricades were "...to carry out the Bab's
injunction to His followers and to repeat nineteen times, each night, each of
the following invocations: 'Allah-u-Akbar,'
13. The siege at Zanjan was a
long and heroic struggle. After the capture of the fort by the enemy, the
soldiers were bent upon the extermination of the Babi defenders. The rest of
the companions continued their defensive actions from houses. "They were
divided into five companies, each consisting of nineteen times nineteen
companions. From each of these companies, nineteen would rush forth together
and, raising with one voice the cry of 'Ya' Sahibu'z-
would fling themselves into the midst of the
enemy and would succeed in scattering its forces. The uplifted voices of these
ninety-five companions would alone prove sufficient to paralyse the efforts,
and crush the spirit, of their assailants."
companies times 19 companions equals 95. Note that the number 5 is a reference
to the Bab. The numerical values of the letters in His name is equivalent to 5
in the abjad system of reckoning (b = 2, a = 1, b = 2).
14. Hujjat had endured
severe pain, caused by a wound, for nineteen days
before he suddenly passed away in the act of prayer invoking the name of the
15. The Bab revealed the Lawh-i-Huru'fat (Tablet
of the Letters) which unravelled the mystery of the Mustaghath and alluded "...
to the nineteen years which must needs elapse between the Declaration of the
Bab and that of Bahá'u'lláh."
16. The Bab had made the
command to His followers that once every nineteen days the eighth Chapter of
the sixth Vahid of the Bayan should be read. This was done so they would not
fail to recognize"... the revelation of Him Whom God shall make
17. "Be attentive," warns the Bab, "from
the inception of the Revelation till the number of Vahid
Again and even more precisely He says, "The
Lord of the Day of Reckoning will be manifested at the end of Vahid
These are unmistakable references to the
nineteen years that must elapse between the public Declaration of the Bab and
the public Declaration of Bahá'u'lláh. It is a reference to the year nineteen
of the Badi Calendar.
18. The time between the Declaration of the Bab and the
Declaration of Bahá'u'lláh was nineteen years.
19. The "hour" mentioned several
times by the Author of the Apocalypse is nineteen years. There are many
meanings to this word. Mirza Asadu'llah-i-Nur explains that it means the
Manifestation Himself, the Declaration of His Mission, the "time of the end,"
and the amount of time between the Declaration of the Bab and the Declaration
20. The Bab in a warning to Vahid
states, "Beware, beware, lest in the days of His Revelation the Vahid of the
Bayan (eighteen Letters of the Living and the Bab) shut thee out as by a veil
from Him, inasmuch as this Vahid is but a creature in His
21. Regarding the disconnected letters which
appear before many of the
surihs of the Qur'an Bahá'u'lláh says, "In the disconnected letters of the
Qur'an the mysteries of the divine Essence are enshrined, and within their
shells the pearls of His Unity are treasured."
close attention to the word unity in this statement for in it is disclosed the
The word vahid means unity in Arabic and
Persian and the numerical values of the letters of this word (v = 6, a = 1, h =
8, d = 4) add up to 19 according to the abjad system of reckoning. Bahá'u'lláh
provided the first clue to a mystery that had remained unsolved for over
thirteen centuries. The word itself signifys unity and symbolizes the unity of
God. It is the name of the number one. When an Arabic speaking person counts he
starts out with vahid which means one.
22. The "Greatest Name" has within it
all of the numbers with mystical significance. Taken as a whole it symbolizes
the Glory of God and the Unity of God. Of the many mysteries surrounding the
"Greatest Name" the number nineteen appears among them, especially with the
twin stars as it is used on the Bahá'í ringstone. Some of these, from the
personal view of this writer are:
- 7 + 7 + 5 which equal nineteen. Seven being the number of letters in the
name 'Ali Muhammad when written in Arabic and Persian and seven being the
number of letters in the name Husayn-'Ali. The five is derived from the
pentacle formed from three hundred and sixty derivatives of the word "Baha"
which the Bab had written in His own handwriting, a fine shikastih script, on a
scroll of blue paper and had it delivered to Bahá'u'lláh in
Tihran. The number 5 in this case is the symbol of the
Bahá'í Faith which may, in time, become the dominant symbol of the Faith.
That it will become dominant is, of course, the personal opinion of this
writer. The five pointed star is the symbol of our Faith as state in a letter
dated 28 October 1949 written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi to an individual
believer, "Strictly speaking the 5-pointed star is the symbol of our Faith as
used by the Bab and explained by Him. But the Guardian does not feel it is wise
or necessary to complicate our explanations of the Temple by adding
this." It does seem inappropriate and confusing in our
explanation of the Temple but very helpful in understanding other aspects of
- The twin stars (5 + 5) and the word "Baha," the numerical values of which
add up to 9, equal 19. This would fit a personal explanation given by Hand of
the Cause of God Abu'l-Qasim Faizi who asks:
may I venture to
suggest another approach to the meaning of the two stars This approach is
merely a personal one therefore not authoritative. Could we not visualize God
as manifested in His most resplendent glory in the majestic figure of
Bahá'u'lláh, and standing on either side of Him, two towering personalities of
unsurpassed beauty: the Bab the Herald, the incarnation of sacrifice and of
self effacement and the highest expression of true love ever possible in this
contingent life; and 'Abdu'l-Bahá', the Center of the Covenant, the true
Exemplar of the teachings and the highest embodiment of servitude.These two
exemplify the mysteries of sacrifice and servitude, calling on all men to
hasten and offer their potentialities as humble gifts for the establishment of
God's redeeming Order, the very reflection of His Kingdom on
- The calculation of the word "Bab" is 5 and "Baha" is 9. Add these together
with the 5 in the star which is the symbol of the Bahá'í Faith and you get
- The "Greatest Name" taken as a whole also has the value of one which stands
for unity. Vahid (19) - 1 + 9 = 10 = 1. One has always symbolized the unity of
- 'Abdu'l-Bahá comments upon the significance of the inscription on the
Bahá'í ring. He sheds much light upon the meanings of the Greatest Name but
some are very profound. He says, "The inscription is composed of two 'Ba' and
four 'Ha'" and suggests that you refer to the
commentary upon "Bismi'llah, Errahman. Errahin" for a detailed explanation of
"Ha". His explanations touch upon many subjects which will require much study
and research and should be richly rewarding. After overwhelming your
imagination He says, "Briefly, such are the least of the mysteries of the
composition of the Greatest Name upon the stone of the Divine
Wearing the Bahá'í ring is for ornamentation and for purposes of identifying
oneself as a Bahá'í. This is the most general and simplest reason for its use
but there are many other reasons for its use. Wearing of the "Greatest Name"
usually on a pendant or a ringstone or placing it upon the wall of where one
has his home is an outward sign of one's firm bond with the covenant
Bahá'u'lláh has established with the believers. It is a pledge of one's
It is a sign of from whence he draws his strength. It is a reminder, a source
of protection, a source of spirituality, a visible badge of one's honor. An
announcement that his conduct and deeds are intimately linked to the One he
champions as his Liegelord. It is a declaration of the One to Whom he bears
allegiance and the One to Whom he swears fealty.
23. The triumph of Bahá'u'lláh
over the beast and the false prophet begins in the l9th chapter of the
Apocalypse. There are 22 chapters in the Apocalypse which is also the number of
letters in the Hebrew alphabet. That a book had 22 chapters was a Hebrew
practice meaning a book is complete.
24. Seven has
always been looked upon as a mystic number and symbol. It is made up of many
but yet forms an indivisible integer. It is the highest indivisible integer of
one digit. Seven is used in the Qur'an to some extent. There are seven heavens,
seven gates of hell, and so on:
God is He Who Created seven Firmaments and of
the earth a similar number.
'Abdu'l-Bahá quotes an Islamic source possibly the Qur'an or the Hadith when
He writes, "The seven heavens and the seven earths weep over the mighty when he
is brought low."
Five is the mystic symbol representing man who stands at the center of the
four elements, the four directions and the four seasons of the year, which
characterize the earthly state. Five, the pentad is the sum of 2 and 3, the
first even and odd compound. One is the Creator. One is unity, God alone
without creation. Two is diversity, and three, the sum of 1 and 2, is the
bringing together of unity and diversity which are the two principles in
operation in the universe and which represents the combined powers of nature.
Five represents man and the symbol used is often the star or pentacle which
represents the body of man, with the head, the two arms and the two
Five also represents the five senses through
which man perceives existence. As there are seven heavens and seven earths,
man's external world has fourteen planes. Since he relates to these levels with
five senses the number of stages governing his development and controlling his
conduct may be said to be nineteen. Man can acquire the "seven virtues" of
faith, hope, charity, justice, fortitude, prudence and temperance or he can
fall into the grip of the "seven deadly" or "capital sins" of pride, wrath,
envy, lust, gluttony, avarice and sloth. We are aware that the virtues and sins
are endless, without number, but there is a profound reason why they have been
termed seven in number. Seven signifies rest or repose in the divine center,
"And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it, because that in it He had
rested from all his work." In one sense it is the symbol of attainment. Seven
is the stamp of the divine seal upon things of the earth. Six, among other
things, is the symbol of man in that state on the sixth day when he was
created. Beyond six (seven) is that from which all existence comes from and to
which it returns. Man in the process of acquiring virtues follows the spiritual
path which the manifestation for the day in which he is living points out to
him. Man must learn to desire, even yearn, for this love. He opens his heart
and receives the
gift of love and faith. There are risks taken on the path and he could break
laws and fall prey to all manner of sin. Some say it is better not to set out
at all than to awaken the soul, go a certain distance and then abandon the path
because the greater the virtue the greater the danger in becoming the very
embodiment of one or more of the deadly sins. Man in this state can be
described as corruption optimi pessima or the best when corrupted becomes the
worst. This is reminiscent of Alexander Pope's statement, "The worst of madmen
is a saint run mad."
25. There are six verses in the Prayer for the Dead which are to be repeated
26. Each believer is to repeat the "Greatest Name" "Allah-u-Abha'" ninety-five
times a day (19 x 5).
27. There is an exemption from
offering the Obligatory Prayers granted to women in their courses provided they
perform their ablutions and repeat "Glorified be God, the Lord of Splendour and
Beauty" 95 times a day (19 x 5).
28. Every nineteen
days, usually on the first day of the Bahá'í month, the Bahá'ís gather for
prayers, consultation and fellowship. These meetings are called Nineteen Day
Feasts because they are held once every nineteen days. The Nineteen Day Feast,
established by Bahá'u'lláh,
is the most sacred of
Bahá'í institutions and has been described by the Guardian as the foundation of
the new World Order."
"The Nineteen Day Feast was
inaugurated by the Bab and ratified by
29. The period of fasting is for 19
days. There is an exemption from fasting granted to travellers who break their
journey for less than 19 days. If a traveller breaks his journey at a place
where they will stay 19 days, he is exempt from fasting only for the first
three days. There is an exemption for women in their courses if they perform
their ablutions and repeat the verse "Glorified be God, the Lord of Splendour
and Beauty" 95 times a day (19 x 5).
30. The Bahá'í
period of engagement must not exceed 95 days (5 x 19).
31. The marriage dowry is fixed at 19 mithqals
pure gold for city-dwellers and 19 mithqals of silver for
You are forbidden to pay more than
95 (5 x 19) mithqals.
Bahá'u'lláh states that He wants
the man to content himself with the payment of 19 mithqals of
32. During a year of patience, which all
Bahá'ís must observe if they wish to divorce, sexual intercourse with one's
mate voids the period of waiting. Intercourse with anyone else is forbidden and
"whoever breaks this law must repent and pay the House of Justice 19 mithqals
33. "If a person has possessions equal in
value to at least 19 mithqals in gold, it is a spiritual obligation for him to
pay 19% of the total amount, once only, as Huququ'llah (The Right of God)...
Thereafter, whenever his income, after all expenses have been paid, increases
the value of his possessions by the amount of at least 19 mithqals of gold, he
is to pay 19% of this increase, and so on for each further
34. If one is able to do so there is a law
requiring the renewal of the furnishing of one's house after nineteen
35. The National Assemblies are elected,
"...annually by delegates whose number has been fixed, according to national
requirements, at 9, 19, 95, or 171 (9 times 19)..."
36. The number nineteen is found within the architecture of the Bahá'í House of
Worship in America along with other numbers significant to the Revelation of
Bahá'u'lláh. "There are 18 steps at each of the nine entrances of the Temple,
which with the completing doorway make 19- -and each door (a 19) becomes a
recurring symbol of the Bab himself, because as we remember, Bab is a title
meaning a door between heaven and earth."
The number eight had a significant part in the building of the Shrine of the
Bab on Mt. Carmel in the Holy Land. In explaining the meaning for the use of
eight in the architecture of the Shrine. Shoghi Effendi recited a verse of the
Qur'an, "...on that day eight shall bear up the throne of thy
Shoghi Effendi, "...always referred to the
Shrine as the 'Throne of the Lord,' and to the Casket of the Bab as the
'Throne.' Even the Holy Dust was called by Him by the
Ugo Giachery, Hand of the Cause of God
says, "The eight pinnacles, one at each corner of the octagon...are indeed
original in conception.... Speaking one evening of the importance of the
minarets in Islamic architecture,
Shoghi Effendi said: 'The mosque of Medina has seven minarets, the one of
Sultan Ahmad in Constantinople has six, but the Qur'an mentions eight.'[142a]
Furthermore, the eight slender minaret-like spires symbolize the bearers of the
'throne of God.'"[142b] "'Also the Bab is the eighth Manifestation of those
religions whose followers still exist.'"
The use of
the number eight is evident in many other details of the Shrine and in the
grounds around it such as the eight doors, the flowerbeds shaped as
eight-pointed stars, etc. Might not the "Angels...on its
be the ones for whom the doors of the Shrine of
the Bab were named?
37. Shoghi Effendi selected nineteen from amongst the foremost followers of
Bahá'u'lláh who had passed away and grouped their photographs in an
illustration published in The Bahá'í World, Volume 3. Under the illustration
they have been named, "The Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh" and "Pillars of the
38. Shoghi Effendi selected nineteen from amongst the foremost servants of the
Faith who had passed away and grouped their photographs in an illustration
published in The Bahá'í World, Volume 3. Under the illustration they have been
named, "The Disciples of 'Abdu'l-Bahá and "Heralds of the
39. It was 'Abdu'l-Bahá who conceived the great plan for the development of
Bahá'í properties on Mount Carmel. Using the Shrine of the Bab as the axis,
"The plan called for nine terraces with stairways from the foot of the mountain
to the Shrine, and nine above the Shrine to the mountain-top, with the Shrine
area constituting the nineteenth terrace."
The list is not exhaustive. It would be more proper to say the list is
Time, prayer and effort will obviously reveal a wider knowledge and
understanding of the total pattern of all numerical significances and deeper
penetration into the concealed meanings that are yet to astonish the mind of
The evidence presented here should indicate that every letter of the Qur'an
has been preserved exactly as it was revealed and should leave no doubt that
the Qur'an is a divinely inspired Book which, in turn, should increase the
faith of every believer and enable him to look upon that Book with a new
reverential awareness. It also confirm that the statements in the Qur'an are in
agreement with precise scientific concepts which have only been discovered in
recent times. In addition to this, it shows in an unsuspecting and ingenuous
way that the Bab and Bahá'u'lláh were the Ones promised by Muhammad.
29 letters are found in the Arabic alphabet (hamza and alif are counted as two
letters). 29 surihs have disconnected letters. Surih XLII has two sets of
disconnected letters and is not counted twice. 14 different letters from the
Arabic alphabet have been used prefixed to 29 surihs. 15 letters have not been
These 14 letters are:
These 14 letters have been used in 14 combinations.
The 14 various combinations are:
Three surihs have one letter by itself.
N. Surih 68.
Q. Surih 50.
S. Surih 38.
Ten surihs have two letter combinations.
H.M. Surih 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46.
T.H. Surih 20.
T.S. Surih 27.
Y.S. Surih 36.
Thirteen surihs have three letter combinations.
A.L.M.Surih 2, 3, 29, 30, 31, 32.
A.L.M.Surih 10, 11, 12, 14, 15.
T.S.M.Surih 26, 28.
Two surihs have four letter combinations.
A.L.M.R. Surih 13.
A.L.M.S. Surih 7.
Two surihs have five letter combinations.
K.H.'A.S. Surih 19.
H.M. and 'A.S.Q. Surih 42
The twenty-nine surihs which have disconnected letters are:
Lam. Mim. Sad. |
Lam. Mim. Ra. |
Lam. Ra. |
Ha. Ya. 'Ain. Sad.
Sin. Mim. |
and Ha. Mim. and 'A.S.Q.
The twenty-nine surihs, their disconnected letters and their numerical
+ 30 + 40
+ 30 + 40
+ 30 + 40 + 90
+ 30 + 200
+ 30 + 200
+ 30 + 200
1 + 30 + 40 + 200
+ 30 + 200
+ 30 + 200
+ 5 + 10 + 70 + 90
+ 60 + 40
+ 60 + 40
+ 30 + 40
+ 30 + 40
+ 30 + 40
+ 30 + 40
and 8 + 40 'A.S.Q. 70 + 60 + 100
The abjad or numerical values of all the disconnected letters in all the
twenty-nine surihs where they appear total 3385. This number  added,
using either the abjad system or the literary device called the gematria,
equals 1. (3385 = 19 = 9 + 1 = 10 = 1). 3385 is also a multiple of five (677 X
* Muslims would strongly disagree with the statement that the Qur'an was the "work of one man." Rather, they would explain it as the voice of God, delivered to Muhammad through the angel Gabriel. -J.W., 2012.
1. Translation taken from Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'l-Bahá, Bahá'í Scriptures (New
York: Bahá'í Publishing Committee, 1923), p. 567. See also Bahá'u'lláh, The
Kitab-i-Iqan: The Book of Certitude (Wilmette, Illinois: Bahá'í Publishing
Committee, 1931), p. 140 where the translation is, "We noted all things and
wrote them down."
2. The spelling of the Oriental words and proper names used in this article is
according to the system of transliteration established at one of the
International Oriental Congresses.
3. Bahá'u'lláh, The Kitab-i-Iqan: The Book of Certitude, trans. Shoghi Effendi
(Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í Publishing Committee, 1931), p. 210.
4. Bahá'u'lláh, Epistle to the Son of the Wolf, trans. Shoghi Effendi
(Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í Publishing Committee, 1941), p. 82.
5. Bahá'u'lláh, EPistle to the Son of the Wolf, p. 112.
6. Shoghi Effendi, The Advent of Divine Justice (Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í
Publishing Trust, 1971), p. 41.
7. Shoghi Effendi, The World Order of Bahá'u'lláh (Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í
Publishing Trust, 1955), p. 106.
8. Bahá'u'lláh, Gleanings From the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh, trans. Shoghi
Effendi (Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1976), p. 101.
9. Maurice Bucaille' The Bible. The Qur'an and Science: "La Bible, le Coran et
la Science', trans. Alastair D. Pannell and the Author (Indianapolis: American
Trust Publications, 1978), p. 148. This work has also been translated into
10. Bucaille, p. 125.
11. Bucaille, p. 120.
12. Bucaille, p. 167.
13. Edward Gibbon, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire ( New York: The
Modern Library, n.d.), III, 85. This is a most beautiful and poetic story which
helps man in his comprehension and is compatible with Bahá'í teaching. We are
aware that paper, silk or anything that decomposes and is perishable does not
exist in worlds beyond the material world and that the angel Gabriel is the
personification of the Holy Spirit. In Christianity it is symbolized by a dove
and in the Bahá'í faith the Holy Spirit is personified by a Maiden. It is a
well known concept in Islam that God speaks through the mouth of His Prophet.
It should be a well known concept in Christianity on the basis of such clear
statements of Christ such as: 'For I spake not from myself but the Father that
hath sent me, He hath given me a commandment, what I should say, and what I
should speak "(John 12:49). The power of the Qur'an in the development of man
and the creation of a new civilization can best be understood by the words of
Bahá'u'lláh in what He says about a single letter from God: "Every single
letter proceeding from Our mouth is endowed with such regenerative power as
enable it to bring into existence a new creation--a creation the magnitude of
which is inscrutable to all save God. He verily hath knowledge of all things.
It is in Our power, should We wish it, to enable a speck of floating dust to
generate, in less than the twinkling of an eye, suns of infinite, of
unimaginable splendor, to cause a dewdrop to develop into vast and numberless
oceans, to infuse into every letter such a force as to empower it to unfold all
the knowledge of past and future ages (Bahá'u'lláh quoted in Shoghi Effendi,
The World Order of Bahá'u'lláh (Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í Publishing Trust,
14. Sir William Muir, Life of Mohammed (Edinburgh, 1912), p. 24.
15. Professor Hamidullah quoted by Maurice Bucaille, The Bible, The Qur'an and
Science: La Bible. le Coran et la Science, trans. by Alastair D. Pannell and
the Author (Indianapolis, Indiana: American Trust Publications, 1978), pp.
16. H. M. Balyuzi, Muhammad and the Course of Islam (Oxford: George Ronald,
1976), p. 221.
17. Marzieh Gail, Six Lessons on Islam (Wilmette, Illinois: Bahá'í Publishing
Committee, ), p. 29.
18. Gail, Six Lessons on Islam, p. 29.
19. Gail, Six Lessons on Islam, p. 29.
20. Abu'l-Qasim Faizi, The Prince of Martyrs: A Brief Account of the Imam
Husayn (Oxford: George Ronald, 1977), p. 10-11.
21. Abu'l-Qasim Faizi, p. 11.
22. Abu'l-Qasim Faizi, p. 11.
23. They are called the disconnected letters of the Qur'an, the letters
prefixed to the surihs of the Qur'an, the abbreviated letters, and sometimes
just the broken letters. They are often called isolated letters by Bahá'í
24. Bahá'u'lláh, The Kitab-i-Iqan, p. 202.
25. Bahá'u'lláh, The Kitab-i-Iqan, p. 203.
26. Bahá'u'lláh, The Kitab-i-Iqan, p. 203.
27. Colonel Anaitullah Sohrab, Lessons of Teaching, p. 54. This book contains
lessons from the Bahá'í Summer School in the year 106 B.E. (1950 A.D.) in
Isfahan and was published by the Institute of National Bahá'í Prints in 117
B.E. (1961 A.D.). This book was given to this writer by Parviz Mohebali. It is
written in Persian and was translated into English with the help of Parviz
Mohebali and Shoaullah Motamedi.
28. Sohrab, p. 52.
29. Sohrab, p. 52.
30. Sohrab, p. 52. Each lunar year is approximately eleven days shorter than a
solar year. About every 33 years you lose almost a full year. To be specific
one solar year is 365.242 days while one lunar year is 354.367 days. One solar
year is 1.03069 lunar years. To convert a date in the Christian solar calendar
to the Muslim lunar equivalent you multiply by 1.03069. Remember the beginning
of the Muslim calendar was in 622 A.D. To convert the year 1844 A.D. to its
approximate equivalent you compute (1844-622) x 1. 03069 - 1259.5 A. H. To
convert the year 680 A.D. in the Christian solar calendar to its approximate
Muslim lunar equivalent you compute:
680 - 622 X 1.03069 = 58 X 1.03069 = 59.78002
To 59.78002 you must add 12 lunar years because this was the span of time
between the beginning of the Muslim calendar (622 A.D.) and the Divine Summons
of Muhammad (610 A.D.).
59.78002 + 12 = 71.78002 years
To convert the year 750 A.D. in the Christian solar calendar to its
approximate Muslim lunar equivalent you compute:
750 - 622 X 1.03069 = 128 X 1.03069 = 131.92832
To 131.92832 you must add 12 lunar years because this was the span of time
between the Divine Summons of Muhammad (610 A.D.) and the beginning of the
Muslim calendar (622 A.D.)
131.92832 + 12 = 143.92832 years
Considering the subtraction of the months in the beginning year and those of
the ending year of each event, the loss of days in 12 lunar years (about 132
days) and the fact that the exact month and day of Muhammad's Divine Summons is
not known and cannot be stated with certainty[,] the computation is likely to
equal 142 years. Also it is not possible to get exact equivalent dates for the
earliest years of the Muslim calendar with the Christian calendar because there
seems to have been some discrepancy between the calendar that was in use in
Medina and the one in Mecca, and because up to 632 A.D. the calendar was
roughly luni-solar. When Muhammad adopted a purely lunar calendar the confusion
ended. Every date after 10 A.H. can be converted to a corresponding date in any
other accurate calendar. Before that time there are problems to consider and
caution is necessary.
31. Sohrab, p. 52.
32. Sohrab, p. 54.
33. Sohrab, p. 52.
34. Shoghi Effendi, God Passes By (Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í Publishing Trust,
1970), p. 96.
35. Adib Taherzadeh, The Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh: Baghdad 1853-63 (Oxford:
George Ronald, 1974), pp. 125-26.
36. A prime number is a number that is not divisible, without remainder, by any
number except itself and unity (the number one).
37. Franklyn M. Branley, The Moon: Earth's Natural Satellite, revised ed. (New
York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1960), p. 108.
38. Richard Cavendish, Mysteries of the Universe (New York: Galahad Books,
1981), p. 28.
39. Branley, p. 108.
40. Branley, pp. 88-89.
41. David Bergamini and the Editors of Life, Mathematics: Life Science Library
(New York: Time Incorporated, 1963), p. 63.
42. Jeffrey J. W. Baker and Garland E. Allen, A Course in Biology (Reading,
Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1979), pp. 95-96. For example
the pattern of nine is very common, probably universal, in all cell structure.
This was discovered in the 1960's when detailed electron microscope
investigations confirmed the existence of microtubules in the cytoplasm of
cells. The cytoplasm surrounding the nuclear membrane of a cell is like oil
floating on water. It doesn't separate because the microtubules in the
cytoplasm is made of protein which is very tough. Microtubules seem to be part
of the structure of many, perhaps most, cells. They are like a building
frame-work of structural girders. They are found in simple and complex cell
life from one-celled protozoan to human brain cells. Microtubules are long,
minute cylindrical structures and are made up of longitudinal fibrils. They are
more numerous next to the plasma membrane. The cross section of the Naegleria
flagellum of the one-celled protozoan shows a characteristic 9 + 2 pattern of
In a cross section of sperm flagellum of the rat we observe the 9 + 2 pattern
of microtubules. The dense outer coarse fibers number 7.
Sometimes the microtubules in cross section have this pattern of nine.
43. Martin Gardner, "Mathematical Games," Scientific American, September 1980,
Volume 243, Number 3, pages 22 and 24. This biographical information has been
taken from this magazine along with some of the computer information. The first
time the computer discoveries were brought to the attention of the writer of
this article, was when he was shown a brief feature in the Persian section of
the French Bahá'í Journal when he was in Holland. Later, when casually
mentioning this to Dr. Gerald Hanks of Winnipeg, Dr. Hanks called attention to
this article in Scientific American. From correspondence with Martin Gardner
regarding some mathematical problems the writer was able to get Dr. Khalifa's
address and eventually his books so the computer findings could be reviewed and
Dr. Khalifa has since published his translation of the Qur'an called, Quran:
The Final Scripture (Tucson, Arizona: Islamic Productions, 1981).
He has also written and published, The Computer Speaks: God's Message to the
World (Tucson, Arizona: Renaissance Productions, 1981).
44. Rashad Khalifa, The Computer Speaks: God's Message to the World (Tucson,
Arizona: Renaissance Productions, 1981), p. 9.
45. The Bab calls attention to this in His Persian Bayan. The Bab changed this
sacred formula but did not change the number of letters it contains. This
change will be discussed later.
46. Rashad Khalifa, The Computer, pp. 94-95.
47. Rashad Khalifa, The Computer, p. 96.
48. Rashad Khalifa, The Computer, pp. 17-18 and pp. 87-90.
49. Rashad Khalifa, The Computer, p. 15.
50. Bucaille, p. 204.
51. Bucaille, p. 204.
52. Bucaille, p. 205.
53. Bucaille, pp. 205-06.
54. Stanley Lane-Poole, Speeches and Table-Talks of the Prophet Mohammad
(London, 1882), pp. 24-25.
55. Rashad Khalifa, The Computer, pp. 14.
56. Rashad Khalifa, The Computer, pp. 13.
57. Rashad Khalifa, The Computer, p. 97.
58. Rashad Khalifa, The Computer, p. 98.
59. Rashad Khalifa, The Computer, p. 8.
60. Rashad Khalifa, The Computer, pp. 199.
61. Rashad Khalifa, Let the World Know: Mathematical Miracle of Quran (Tucson,
Arizona: n.p., n.d.), p. 10.
62. Lut is the Lot of the English Bible.
63. Rashad Khalifa, The Computer, p. 109.
64. Rashad Khalifa, The Computer, p. 111.
65. Rashad Khalifa, The Computer, p. 115.
66. Rashad Khalifa, The Computer, p. 117.
67. Rashad Khalifa, The Computer, p. 122.
68. Rashad Khalifa, The Computer, p. 125.
69. Shoghi Effendi, God Passes By, p. 28.
70. Shoghi Effendi, God Passes By, p. 25.
71. It is also used by Muslims at the beginning of many acts such as at the
beginning of meals, undertaking a journey, putting on new garments.
72. Wanden Mathews, La Farge, "The Relation of the Bab to the Traditions of
Islam," in The Bahá'í World: A Biennial International Record, Volume III,
1928-1930, comp. National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'í of the United States
and Canada (New York: Bahá'í Publishing Committee, 1930), pp. 293-99.
73. The Bab, Le Bayan Persan, Vol. 4, p. 119, trans. (into French) A.L.M.
Nicolas, quoted in Emily McBride Perigord', Translation of French Foot-Notes of
the Dawn-Breakers (Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1970, p. 8.
74. Shoghi Effendi, God Passes By, p. 7.
75. The Bab, quoted in La Farge, "The Relation of the Bab to the Traditions of
Islam," p. 296. La Farge translates from A.L.M. Nicolas, Seyyed 'Ali Mohammed
dit le Bab (1905). Nicolas was a distinguished orientalist and longtime first
interpreter of the French legation in Persia. His book is very rare.
76. La Farge, p. 296.
77. The Bab, quoted in La Farge, p. 296.
78. 'Ali Muhammad has seven letters when written in Arabic and Persian.
79. The Bab, quoted in La Farge, p. 297.
80. The Bab, Selections From the Writings of the Bab, trans. Habib Taherzadeh
(Haifa: Bahá'í World Centre, 1976), p. 90.
81. The Bab, quoted by Shoghi Effendi, God Passes By, pp. 8 and 57.
82. The Bab, quoted by La Farge, p. 296.
83. Adib Taherzadeh, The Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh: Baghdad 1853-63, p. 34. See
also La Farge, p. 296. The quotation from Nicolas is as follows: "'Ali said:
'All that is in the Qur'an is contained in the first Surah, all that is in the
first Surah is contained in Bismi'llahi'r-Rahmani'r - Rahim, all that is in
Bismi'llahi'r-Rahmani'r - Rahimthe is contained in the B of Bismi'llah, all
that is contained in the B of Bismi'llah is contained in the point which is
beneath the B -- and I am that Point.'" The Shi'ahs transfer this station to
'Ali after the Prophet's death and to each succeeding Imam.
84. Adib Taherzadeh, The Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh: Baghdad 1853-63, p. 116.
85. Qur'an 17:110.
86. Marzieh Gail, Bahá'í Glossary (Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í Publishing Trust,
1955), p. 9.
87. In this day Bahá'u'lláh has said that the names and attributes of God are
inexhaustible. Man has now reached the stage where he can comprehend this
knowledge far greater than at any time in the past. It is a time when large
masses of humanity are familiar with elementary mathematical concepts such as
infinity in such problems as:
Some people find it difficult to imagine anything that does not have limits
while others find it difficult to think of anything in terms of limitations.
The reality of inexhaustible names and attributes is an example of an agreement
between science and religion. This knowledge is one of the most important
safeguards Bahá'u'lláh has given to humanity. No longer will man have to live
in fear of his life because he has a different degree of understanding from
Bahá'u'lláh has promised to remove from religion anything which has been or
will be a source of disunity. This will bring to an end the fearsome injustices
of the past.
88. Adib Taherzadeh, The Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh: Baghdad 1853-63, p. 117.
89. Nabil-i-A'zam (Muhammad-i-Zarandi), "Additional Material Gleaned from
Nabil's Narrative (Vol. II), Regarding the Bahá'í Calendar,' The Bahá'í World:
A Biennial International Record, Volume VII, 1936-1938, comp. The National
Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada (Wilmette,
Ill.: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1939 ), p. 448-51.
90. The Bab, Selections, trans. Habib Taherzadeh, p. 89.
91. The Bab, Selections, trans. Habib Taherzadeh, p. 89.
92. Nabil-i-A'zam (Muhammad-i-Zarandi), The Dawn-Breakers: Nabil's Narrative of
the Early Days of the Bahá'í Revelation, trans. and ed. Shoghi Effendi (New
York: Bahá'í Publishing Committee, 1932), p. 132.
93. The Bab, Selections from the Writings of the Bab, trans. by Habib
94. Shoghi Effendi, God Passes By, p. 49.
95. Nabil-i-A'zam, The Dawn-Breakers, pp. 350-51.
96. Nabil-i-A'zam, The Dawn-Breakers, p. 363.
97. Nabil-i-A'zam, The Dawn-Breakers, pp. 386-87.
98. Nabil-i-A'zam, The Dawn-Breakers, p.394.
99. "God the Great."
100. "God the Most Great."
101. "God the Most Beauteous."
102. "God the Most Glorious."
103. "God the Most Pure."
104. Nabil-i-A'zam, The Dawn-Breakers, p. 552.
105. "Lord of the Age," One of the titles of the promised Qa'im. Qa'im meaning
"He who shall arise "is a title designating the Promised One of Islam.
106. Nabil-i-A'zam, The Dawn-Breakers, p. 570.
107. Nabil-i-A'zam, The Dawn-Breakers, p. 573.
108. Shoghi Effendi, God Passes By, p. 27.
109. The Bab quoted by Bahá'u'lláh, Epistle to the Son of the Wolf, p. 158.
110. The Bab quoted by Shoghi Effendi, God Passes By, p. 29.
111. The Bab quoted by Shoghi Effendi, God Passes By, p. 29.
112. Mirza Asadu'llah-i-Nur, Sacred Mysteries (Chicago: Bahá'í Supply and
Publishing Board, 1902) pp. 16-17.
113. The Bab quoted by Shoghi Effendi, God Passes By, p. 29.
114. Bahá'u'lláh, The Kitab-i-Iqan, p. 202.
115. Shoghi Effendi indicates that the numerical values of this word total 19
in God Passes By, pp. 25 and 29. Marzieh Gail mentions this in Bahá'í Glossary
(Wilmette, Ill.: Baha' Publishing Trust, 1955), p. 53. See also Bahá'u'lláh,
Epistle to the Son of the Wolf, p. 153.
116. Nabil-i-A'zam, The Dawn-Breakers, p. 505. See also 'Abdu'l-Bahá, A
Traveler's Narrative: Written to Illustrate the Episode of the Bab, trans.
Edward G. Browne, new and corrected edition (Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í Publishing
Trust, 1980), p. 26. Bahá'u'lláh ordered the most important of His tablets
which were addressed to individual sovereigns to be written in the form of a
pentacle. This symbolized the temple of man. See Shoghi Effendi, The Promised
Day is Come, revised ed. (Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1980), p.
117. Shoghi Effendi, Directives from the Guardian (New Delhi: Bahá'í Publishing
Trust, n.d.), p. 48. The quotation originally appeared in Bahá'í News, Feb.
1950, p. 4.
118. Abu'l-Qasim Faizi, Explanation of the Symbol of the Greatest Name (New
Delhi: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, n.d.), p. 20.
119. Abdu'l-Bahá, in Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'l-Bahá, Bahá'í Scriptures, p.
120. 'Abdu'l-Bahá, Bahá'í Scriptures, p. 479.
121. Robert F. Riggs, The Apocalypse Unsealed (New York: Philosophical Library,
1981), pp. 14 and 224.
122. The Secret of Divine Civilization, trans. Marzieh Gail (Wilmette, Ill.:
Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1957), p. 9.
123. 'Abdu'l-Bahá, Bahá'í Scriptures, p. 479.
124. Bahá'u'lláh, Prayers and Meditations by Bahá'u'lláh, trans. Shoghi Effendi
(New York: Bahá'í Publishing Committee, 1938), CLXVII, pp. 260-61.
125. Bahá'u'lláh, A Synopsis and Codification of the Laws and Ordinances of the
Kitab-i-Aqdas: The Most Holy Book of Bahá'u'lláh, trans. and outlined in
English with notes in Persian by Shoghi Effendi and completed by the Universal
House of Justice (Haifa: Bahá'í World Centre, 1973), p. 46 and 63.
126. Bahá'u'lláh, Synopsis and Codification Kitab-i-Aqdas, pp. 36 and 37.
127. The National Spiritual Assembly of the United States quoted in Bahá'í
Meetings: The Nineteen Day Feast, comp. The Universal House of Justice
(Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1976), pp. 23-24.
128. Shoghi Effendi quoted in Bahá'í Meetings: The Nineteen Day Feast, p.
129. Abdu'l-Bahá quoted in Bahá'í Meetings: The Nineteen Day Feast, p. 21. 130.
Bahá'u'lláh, Synopsis and Codification Kitab-i-Aqdas, pp. 38-9 and p. 57.
131. 3 1/2 grams. A mithqal is a weight which was designated by the Bab.
132. Bahá'u'lláh, Synopsis and Codification Kitab-i-Aqdas, p. 40.
133. Bahá'u'lláh, Synopsis and Codification Kitab-i-Aqdas, p. 40.
134. Bahá'u'lláh, Synopsis and Codification Kitab-i-Aqdas, p. 40.
135. Bahá'u'lláh, Synopsis and Codification Kitab-i-Aqdas, p. 42.
136. Bahá'u'lláh, Synopsis and Codification Kitab-i-Aqdas, p. 60.
137. Bahá'u'lláh, Synopsis and Codification Kitab-i-Aqdas, pp. 51 and 65. 138.
Shoghi Effendi, God Passes By, p. 333.
139. Mary Hanford Ford quoted in "The Mashriqu'l-Adhkar: 'The Dawning Place of
God's Praise'", Bahá'í Year Book, Volume I, 1925-1926, comp. National Spiritual
Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada (Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í
Publishing Trust, 1926), p. 62.
140. Surih 69, The Inevitable, verse 17, of Rodwell's translation quoted in Ugo
Giachery, Shoghi Effendi: Recollections by Ugo Giachery (Oxford: George Ronald,
1973), p. 83.
141. Ugo Giachery, Shoghi Effendi: Recollections by Ugo Giachery (Oxford:
George Ronald, 1973, p. 83.
142a. Ugo Giachery, Recollections, p. 96.
142b. Ugo Giachery, Recollections, p. 83.
143. Shoghi Effendi quoted in Ugo Giachery, Recollections, p. 84.
144. Qur'an 69:17.