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Bahá'í Chronology: years 191-

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191-

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1910 (In the year) Agnes Parsons made a pilgrimage to Akka to see 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [Luminous Journey 30:02] She had become a Bahá'í in 1908. During her pilgrimage Agnes extracted a promise from ‘Abdu'l-Bahá that he would stay with them when he came to Washington. On returning from her pilgrimage she had a hourse built especiall for 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [SYH57239Days Day 11] [key] Akka Agnes Parsons; pilgrimage
1910 (In the year) Charles Mason Remey and Howard Struven arrived in Shanghai and met with Áqá Mírzá `Abdu'l-Baqí Yazdí. They were probably the first Bahá'ís from the West to go to China. [PH25; Video Early history of the Bahá'í Faith in China 5min45sec] [key] Shanghai; China Charles Mason Remey; Howard Struven; Aqa Mirza Abdul-Baqi Yazdi; Firsts, Other First Bahá'ís from West to go to China
1910 (In the year) Within a year of her arrival in Persia, Dr. Susan Moody opened the Tarbíyat School for Girls in Tihrán. [BBD221–2; BFA2:360–1]

Some of those serving at the school were:

  • Miss Lillian Kappes of Hoboken, New Jersey arrived in December of 1911 to serve as a teacher. She stopped in Thonon to visit 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the way. [SoW Vol 2 No 17 Jan 19. 1912 p2] She died on the 1st of December, 1920 of typhus and was buried there.
  • She was replaced by Genevieve Coy, a qualified psychologist, a Ph.D. in 1922 who was followed by Adelaide Sharp in 1929. Her mother, Clara Sharp joined her in 1931. [BFA2p361, AY233]
  • Elizabeth Stewart who served as a nurse at the school accompanied Lillian Kappes on her arrival. Miss Stewart served until 1924 when she returned to Philadelphia where she died in 1926. [ABF43]
  • Munírih Khánum Ayádí, the mother of Dr Karím Ayádí (later famed as the Shah much-trusted doctor) was Persia's first official Director of the Tarbíyat School for Girls. She was widely recognized as exceptional, at a time when Persia's Bahá'í women were only gradually emerging from their earlier state under Islam. Much respected by the men, her attitude toward them was one of total equality. Her greatness was in herself, her devotion to the Faith absolute, and she was made a member of such advanced committees as the Bahá'í Women's Committee. Her views were moderated by her sense of humour, which included self-deprecation so that she never subjected you to her piety. One day during the Bahá'í Fast, she asked Marzieh Gall: ‘Do you think God would notice if I ducked into that room and sneaked a few puffs of tobacco?' [AY333] [key]
  • Tihran; Iran Tarbiyat School; Bahai schools; Susan Moody; Lillian Kappes; Genevieve Coy; Adelaide Sharp; Clara Sharp; Elizabeth Stewart; Women; Social and economic development; Munirih Khanum Ayadi; Karim Ayadi First Tarbíyat School for Girls
    1910 (In the year) The publication of The Oriental Rose, or, The teachings of 'Abdu'l-Bahá which trace the chart of "The Shining Pathway" by Mary Hanford Finney Ford. [Collins7.983]
  • See page 158-159 for her pen portrait of 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • See SoW Vol 2 No 15 November 23, 1911 p3 for her description of 'Abdu'-Bahá's time in Paris during the two weeks she was there.
  • New York; United States Mary Hanford Ford; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Introductory; Abdul-Baha, Pen portraits; Pen portraits; Portraits; Publications
    1910 (In the year) The publication of Questions and Answers in the East. It was a document comprising exclusively of answers Bahá'u'lláh revealed in response to questions about the laws of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas. Questions were submitted in writing and answers were likewise revealed in writing. It is by nature of small size regarded as an appendix to the Most Holy Book. Its compiler was Zaynu'l-Muqarrabín, one of the erudite, devoted and trusted followers of Bahá'u'lláh. He was a mujtahid (specialized in Islamic jurisprudence) before embracing the Bábí and Bahá'í Faiths. Bahá'u'lláh authorized him not only to ask questions about the laws of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, but also to compile Risálih-i-Su'ál va Javáb (Questions and Answers).
    The text of Questions and Answers, though compiled during Bahá'u'lláh's ministry, remained unpublished until 1910. Its English translation was published together with the authorized English translation of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas in 1992-3. The reason for the delay in the publication of Questions and Answers was the necessity for Bahá'u'lláh's Book of Laws to be translated and annotated under the aegis of the Universal House of Justice. Without the Book, the appendix would have had no source of reference. [Lights of Irfán vol. 18 p430-432]
  • See Chronology 1993
  • Zaynul-Muqarrabin (Mulla Zaynul-Abidin); Questions and Answers; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book); Bahaullah, Writings of; Publications
    1910 (In the year) The publication of Fifty-Three Years in Syria by Reverend H. H. Jessup. (Apologies: this link does not have the same text as found on SBBR1p78) [Collins10.818]
  • This same Reverend Jessup who delivered the address to the World Parliament of Religions in 1894 in Chicago seemed to have revised his opinion about the Faith. Perhaps this was due to the dis-information being spread by the Covenant-breakers after the passing of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • He also published Babism and the Babites in "The Missionary Review of the World", Princeton, NJ Oct 1902 p771-775 and The Babites in "The Outlook", London, 22 June 1901 p451-456. [Collins11.574, 11.575]
  • See also WOB83 for other missionaries who wrote polemics against the Bahá'í Faith.
  • United States; Syria Criticism and apologetics; Henry Jessup; Christian missionaries
    1910 (In the year) The publication of God's Heroes: A Drama in Five Acts by Laura Clifford Barney, (London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner, 1910). The play, based on the life of the Báb, centred on Táhirih. London Laura Clifford Barney; Plays; Drama; Tahirih; Bab, Life of
    1910 (In the year) The publication of The Splendor of God Being Extracts from the Sacred Writings of the Bahais with introduction by Eric Hammond. Published by E P Dutton and Company in New York. New York; NY Splendor of God (book); Eric Hammond; Publications
    1910 (In the year) The publication of The Mysterious Forces of Civilisation; Written in Persian by an eminent Bahai Philosopher translated y Johanna Dawud in London by Cope & Fenwick and in Chicago by the Bahá'í Publishing Society in 1910 and 1918. [BEL 3-79 p12] [key] London,UK Johanna Dawud; Yuhanna Dawud
    1910 8 Jan The Persian-American Educational Society was inaugurated in Washington DC. [BFA2:XVII; 355–8]
  • Its primary purpose was to assist the Tarbíyat School in Iran. Mr. Sidney Sprague was in charge. Many Americans contributed toward scholarships for children. [BFA2:357] [key]
  • Washington DC; United States; Iran Bahai associations; Tarbiyat School; Bahai schools; Education
    1910 4 Mar The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Hájí Mullá ‘Alí-Akbar-i-Shahmírzádí, (Hájí Akhund). He was born in Shahmírzád around 1842/3. [Bahaipedia]
  • Bahá'u'lláh had entrusted him with the sacred task of moving and hiding the remains of the Báb. In Tehran he transferred the remains to Hand of the Cause Amínu'l-Bayán who moved them through innumerable dangers to a safe hiding place in the Mosque of the Imámzádih Zayd in Tehran, where they lay concealed until the time when, at the behest of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá, they were transferred to the Holy Land to be laid in their permanent resting place on the slopes of Mount Carmel. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 March, 1985]
  • He was appointed a Hand of the Cause by Bahá'u'lláh. [LoF3-8]
  • He was appointed as one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Hand of the Cause of God `Alí-Akhar-i-Shahmírzádí (Hájí Ákhúnd) passed away in Tihrán. [BBD14; EB266] [key]
  • Tihran; Shahmirzad; Iran Haji Akhund (Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Shahmirzadi); Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Apostles of Bahaullah
    1910 21 Mar The first issue of the Bahá'í News was published in Chicago. [BFA2:XVII; BW10:179; BWNS1289]
  • See BFA2:320–2, BW8:927 and SBBH1:116–17 for the magazine's development.
  • It was the first Bahá'í magazine published in the West. [BBD2 14]
  • Star of the West was published as Bahá'í News (Volume 1, Issues 1-19 from 21 March, 1910 until 2 March, 1911) and later under Star of the West /The Bahá'í Magazine (Volume 2 to Volume 25, 21 March, 1911 until 25 March,1935).
  • Its editors were Albert Windust and Gertrude Buikema. Others involved with its publication over its history were Albert and Emily Vail, Dr. Zia Baghdadi, Ahmad Sohrab, Edna M. True; with Horace Holley and Stanwood Cobb being singled out as early contributors. [Duane Troxel]
    Star of the West Published March 1910 to April 1935
              URL   (For cut 'n' paste)  
             Volume # / Dates (links)   
    Vol 1 (Mar 1910) - Vol 10 (Mar 1920)
    Vol 11 (Mar 1920) - Vol 20 (Mar 1930)
    Vol 21 (Apr 1930) - Vol 25 (Apr 1935)

    For an access to the Star of the West archives see http://www.starofthewest.info. This site is not searchable.

  • Chicago; United States Star of the West; Bahai News; - Periodicals; First publications; Publications; BWNS First issue of Bahá'í News; first Bahá'í magazine
    1910 25 - 26 Apr The Second Annual Convention of the Bahá'í Temple Unity was held in Corinthian Hall, 17th Floor of the Masonic Temple at State and Randolph Streets.
  • Honoré Jaxon presented a report on his negotiations for the purchase of land for the Temple site. [BN Vol 1 Issue 4 17 May 1910 pg 19]
    • See SoW Vol 3 No 4 p5 for Dedication of the Mashrak-el-Azkar Site (Illustrated)—By Honoré J. Jaxon.
  • See A Bit of Extraneous Matter: The 1910 Bahai Temple Unity Convention and the Downfall of Henry Clayton Thompson by Jackson Armstrong_Ingram where a member tries to make a claim for leadership. [SBBR14p129]
  • See the official report by Joseph Hannen in SoW Vol 2 No 4 p3.
  • Chicago, IL Honore Jaxon; Conventions, National; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
    1910 10 May Talk by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Haifa to some American pilgrims. [SoW1 Vol 8] [key] Haifa Pilgrims
    1910 13 May Talk by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Haifa to to a number of Jewish, Zoroastrian, Christian and Mohammedan Bahais. Haifa Interfaith dialogue
    1910 18 - 29 May The Paris International Air Navigation Conference of 1910, also known as the Conférence internationale de navigation aérienne, was the first diplomatic conference to consider formulating international aviation law. It was proposed by the French government who were concerned about aircraft from foreign nations flying over their territory and was attended by representatives from 19 European nations. The conference went into recess in June 1910 but did not reconvene due to differences of opinion and then later the outbreak of the First World War. Hence, no agreement was signed. Its deliberations, however, influenced the development of international aviation law.

    For obvious reasons, the treatment of aviation matters was a subject at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. The conference was the first political effort to develop the doctrines of international law relating to aerial navigation. Delegates disagreed about the right of foreign aircraft to fly over national territory. It was resolved to create an Aeronautical Commission charged to prepare a convention on international aerial navigation. The result was the creation of the International Commission for Air Navigation under the authority of the League of Nations. This Paris Convention was the first successful attempt at common regulation of international air navigation and laid the foundations of air law.

    A proposal was formally taken up by France and submitted to the other principal Allied powers who received it favourably. This action then resulted in the drawing up of the International Air Convention, which was signed by 26 of the 32 Allied and Associated powers represented at the Paris Peace Conference and was ultimately ratified by 38 States. It should be noted that this Convention took over all the principles that had already been formulated by the Conference that had been held in 1910 in Paris. The Convention was ultimately in force for thirty-three States by 1940.

    The U.S. government extended an invitation to 55 States to attend an International Civil Aviation Conference in Chicago in 1944. Known then and today more commonly as the ‘Chicago Convention', this landmark agreement laid the foundation for the standards and procedures for peaceful global air navigation. It set out as its prime objective the development of international civil aviation "…in a safe and orderly manner", and such that air transport services would be established "on the basis of equality of opportunity and operated soundly and economically." On 4 April 1947, upon sufficient ratifications to the Chicago Convention, the International Civil Aviation Authority came into being. The first official ICAO Assembly was held in Montreal in May of that year. On 3 October 1947 the ICAO became a UN specialized agency.

    Today the ICAO has 193 Members States with headquarters located in the Quartier international de Montréal of Montreal, Quebec, Canada with seven Regional Offices throughout the world. [Chicago Convention; 1919 Paris Convention; ICAO website] [key]

    Paris, France; Chicago, USA; Montreal, Canada United Nations; International relations; International Standards
    1910 Aug Having moved all His family to Haifa, `Abdu'l-Bahá Himself moved from the House of `Abdu'lláh Páshá to His new home at 7 Haparsim (Persian) Street, Haifa. [BBD13, 107; DH145]
  • Laura Barney helped with the purchase of the land and with the plans. [Prezi] [key]
  • BWC; Haifa; Akka Abdul-Baha, House of; House of Abdullah Pasha; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; Laura Clifford Barney
    1910 8 Aug Birth of Mary Sutherland Maxwell, Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum, Hand of the Cause of God, in the borough of Qeens, New York City. New York; United States Mary Maxwell; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1910 29 Aug `Abdu'l-Bahá departed for Egypt on board the steamer Kosseur London accompanied by two attendants, Mírzá Munír-i-Zayn and 'Abdu'l-Husayn. Upon arrival he telegrammed the Bahá'í in Haifa that he was in Egypt. Shoghi Effendi was asked to come two days later. [AB133-168; ABF5; BBRXXX; GPB280; AB134-135; Bahá'í News #12 16Oct1910 pg206; the Message from the Universal House of Justice dated August 29, 2010]
  • See letter from Sydney Sprague to Isabella Brittingham which indicates that He left sometime before this date.
  • GPB280 and AY84 say He departed in September.
  • After one month in Port Said He embarked for Marseille but turned back to Alexandria owing to His health. In a letter to Munírih Khánum He stated that His intention was to proceed to America or South Africa. [GPB280, ABF5]
  • He stayed for a few days in the Victoria Hotel but then moved to a rented house in Ramleh, a suburb of Alexandria, where He stayed for about one year. [GPB280, AB136; Memories of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá by Ali M Yazdi (1899-1978) who was a child at the time.]
  • Early in May of 1911 he moved to Cairo and took up residence in nearby Zaytún. [AB138]
  • It was during this period that a sudden change occurred. A journalist who had previously been hostile towards Him took a new tone. [AB136]
  • The Russian poet Isabel Grinevsky, the Oriental Secretary of the British Agency, Ronald Storrs, Lord Kitchener, George Zaydán, eminent writer and celebrated editor as well as clerics, aristocrats, administrators, parliamentarians, men of letters, journalists and publicists, Arabs, Turks and Persians all sought out His company and met with Him. This period could be considered the first public proclamation of the Faith. [MRHK348, AB136-139; CH226]
  • See AB138-139 for a description of His triumphs during this period.
  • Haifa; Port Said; Ramleh (Alexandria); Alexandria; Cairo; Zaytun; Egypt Abdul-Baha in Egypt; Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Proclamation; Firsts, Other; Isabella Grinevskaya; Ships; Kosseir The first public proclamation of the Faith.
    1910 (In the year) The Ottoman officials, architects and masons came from Constantinople for the express purpose of planning a city outside of the old prison walls. They opened two large gateways through the thick, solid and ancient walls of the old fort of Acca. Both opened out on the green plain in front of Bahji. -Ameen U. Fareed (Star of the West, vol. 1, no. 9, August 20, 1910) Akka History (general)
    1910 20 Sep Muhammad-Ja`far-i-Sabbágh was martyred at Najafábád. [BW18:387] [key] Najafabad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1910 Nov Wellesley Tudor Pole met ‘Abdu'l-Bahá in Alexandria. An interview with him appeared in Christian Commonwealth (1910 28 Dec), "A Wonderful Movement in The East" (reproduced in SoW Vol 1 Issue 18 p1-4. [SYH6] [key] Alexandria; Egypt Wellesley Tudor Pole; Abdul-Baha in Egypt
    1911 (In the year) A group of Bahá'ís developed in South Africa. [A Brief Account of the Bahá'í Faith in Africa Since 1953 by Nance Ororo-Robarts and Selam Ahderrom p2] [key] South Africa Statistics
    1911 (In the year) A systematic teaching campaign was launched in India with the assistance of two American women and a 19-member teaching council was elected. [BBRSM:194 220] [key] India Teaching campaigns
    1911 - 1914 The publication of Le Beyan Persan in Paris by A. L. M. Nicolas. It was a French translation of the Persian Bayán and was published in four volumes. [BBR39] [key] Paris; France Bab, Writings of; A.L.M. Nicolas; Bayan-i-Farsi (Persian Bayan); Translation; Publications
    1911 (In the Year) The publication of The Mountain of God by E. S. (Ethel Stefana) Stevens (later Mrs E M Drower, Lady Drower) in London by Mills and Boon. The romantic novel is noteworthy for the author's pen portrait of 'Abdu'l-Bahá and it records impressions of the Bahá'í community as well as life in ‘Akká and Haifa in 1911.
  • See Symbols of Individuation in E. S. Stevens's The Mountain of God by Cal E. Rollins. PDF.
  • See World Order 4:3 (Spring 1970), pages 28-52 together with World Order 4:4 (Summer1970), pages 33-50 for excerpts from the book.
  • Photo of the cover.
  • She also published two articles about the Faith, Abbas Effendi: His Personality, Work, and Followers in The Fortnightly Review, New series vol 95, no 534, 1 June 1911, pp. 1067–1084 and The Light in the Lantern in Everybody's Magazine, vol 24, no 6, Dec 1911, pp. 755– 786.
  • Haifa; Mount Carmel E.S. Drower (E.S. Stevens); Abdul-Baha, Pen portraits
    1911 10 Mar 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent Lua Getsinger and Dr Ameen Farid to California where they spoke to some 5,000 people delivering lectures on "Bahá'í Reformation" or referring to it in the course of lectures on other subjects. She spent two weeks visiting friends in Chicago and then departed for California on the 10th of March. [LGHC123]
  • Among the groups contacted were the Scottish Rite Masons, the Knights Templar, the Oakland Chamber of Commerce, some literary clubs, a Unitarian congregation in Almeda, a large group of Japanese, the "World's Spiritual Congress", the Church of the Golden Rule, the Auxiliary of the Juvenile Court, with Persian, Turkish, Egyptian and Jewish ladies, the Federation of Women's club, the faculty members of the University of California and of Stanford University, the crew of the battleship S.S. California, and prisoners in San Quentin. They also went to Tijuana, Mexico, where a civil war was in progress, and where she served as a volunteer nurse for the Red Cross while Dr Fareed served as surgeon to the wounded. [LDNW25; SBBH1p126; SoW Vol 2 No 13 p6-7; SoW Vol 2 No 14 p13-14; SoW Vol 2 No 16 p12-13]
  • Dr Fareed met President Taft at a luncheon of the Union League Club, and also at the dedication of the ground for the 1915 Panama Exposition. He had an opportunity for a few minutes to speak privately to the President when, as a Bahá'í, he congratulated him upon his efforts for Arbitration Treaties and promotion of Peace between nations. Thus the President was informed of the goal of the Bahá'í Movement, and its sympathy with all efforts far the Unity and Peace of the world. [SoW Vol 2 No 14 p13]
  • Some time before the end of 1911 Dr. Fareed returned to Egypt. See the same reference for a report from Ella Goodall Cooper on the progress of the teaching work in California. [SoW Vol 2 No 16 p12-13]
  • Some of Lua's talks were:
    • December 17th, 1911 at the California Club Hall in San Francisco. [LGHC358]
    • January 6th, 1912 at the Bellevue Hotel in San Francisco. [LGHC373]
    • January 16th, 1912 at the Bellevue Hotel in San Francisco. [LGHC375]
  • Lua Getsinger travelled to Chicago to meet Him and to attend the dedication of the land for the Temple. 'Abdu'l-Bahá asked her to participate in the ground-breaking ceremony by turning over a shovelful of earth. [LDNW26-27] iiiii
  • California; United States; Tijuana; Mexico; San Quentin Lua Getsinger; Travel teaching; Ameen Fareed (Amin Farid); Abdul-Baha in Egypt
    1911 9 Apr c. Louis Gregory visited Ramleh where ‘Abdu'l-Bahá was staying in preparation for His first visit to Europe. During their first conversation ‘Abdu'l-Bahá immediately cut "to the substance of the issue." "What of the conflict between the white and colored races?" he asked. "Work for unity and harmony between the races," ‘Abdu'l-Bahá told him. "The colored people must attend all the unity meetings. There must be no distinctions." [239Days Day 12; SoW Vol 2 No 10 September 8 1911 p5; SYH6]
  • On pilgrimage at the same time were Neville Meakin and another British Bahá'í, Louise Mathew. On the 16th of April the three set sail for Haifa. [SYH3-8]
  • After visiting the Holy sites Louis returned to Cairo and to 'Abdu'l-Bahá who asked him to visit Stuttgart, Paris and London before returning to America. [SYH12-13] [key]
  • Ramleh (Alexandria); Alexandria; Egypt Louis Gregory; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Louise Gregory; Abdul-Baha in Egypt
    1911 28 Apr The marriage of Laura Barney and Hippolyte Dreyfus. [See Some Answered Questions" and Its Compiler by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani published in Lights of Irfan, 18, pages 444] [key] Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Laura Clifford Barney; Weddings
    1911 May Louis Gregory travelled to Stuttgart after his visit with 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Egypt. There he renewed his acquaintance with Alma Knobloch, he had learned of the Faith in the Hannen household.
  • "When he went to Stuttgart," ‘Abdu'l-Bahá wrote of him, "although being of black color, yet he shone as a bright light in the meeting of the friends." [239 Days in America]
  • Members of that community, Miss Alma Knobloch, Mr and Mrs Herrigel and Mr Haiges went to London when 'Abdul-Bahá was visiting that city.
  • When He was Paris in October, Mr and Mrs Eckstein and Mr and Mrs Häfner and their child went to that city and were photographed with Him. From the 13th to the 16th of October, Miss Margarethe Döring remained with 'Abdul-Bahá and had the honour of living in the house occupied by Him; from the 19th to the 22nd, Miss Anna Kastlin, Miss Julie Stäbler and Mrs Schweizer were in Paris and during the three days of their visit were received six times in private audience. [SoW Vol 2 No 17 January 19, 1912 p8] [key]
  • Stuttgart; Germany Louis Gregory
    1911 3 May Aurelia Bethlen, a Hungarian who had come to the United States in 1892 and had become a Bahá'í in New York City about 1905-6, departed from San Francisco on the first around the world teaching trip undertaken by a Bahá'í woman. [BFA2:351–3] [key] San Francisco; Hungary Aurelia Bethlen; travel teaching First around the world teaching trip by Bahá'í woman
    1911 11 May W. Morgan Shuster was an American chosen by the Persian Chargé d'Affaires at Washington, Mirza Ali Kuli Khan, to serve as Treasurer-General of Persia for a period of three years. His mandate was to organize and conduct the collection and disbursements of the revenues. Four American assistants were likewise engaged to serve under the Treasurer-General. Since the Anglo-Russian agreement of 1907 the country was under the influence of the Russians in the north and the British in the south. The purpose in engaging Shuster was to put the country's financial affairs in order so that they might attract investment from other nations.
  • After an encounter with the Russian Consul-General he was forced to leave on the 14th of January, 1912. [AY79-82]
  • He subsequently wrote a book called The Strangling of Persia.
  • Iran; Washington DC; United States Ali Kuli Khan; Iran, General history; History (general); Imperialism/colonialism
    1911 15 May Talk by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Haifa on the day of the commemoration of the Báb's Declaration. Haifa Bab, Declaration of; Abdul-Baha, Life of
    1911 18 May Talk by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Haifa to to Mr. Charles Mason Remey and Mr. Howard C. Struven on the day of their departure. Haifa Abdul-Baha, Life of
    1911 3 Jun Ghodsea Khanoum Ashraf (Qudsíyyih Ashraf) (b. 22 November 1889 in Majidābād, d. 16 April 1976 in Tehran) arrived in the United States together with Dr. Lutfullah Hakim and four others. On the final leg of her journey from Southhampton to New York City aboard the RMS Mauretania, she was accompanied by Louis Gregory. She was the first Persian woman to travel to the country and as such, received considerable press coverage. [BFA2:358]
  • She remained in the United States until 1919. Her return to Iran was delayed due to travel restrictions during the war. During this time she obtained a high school certificate, a bachelor's degree and then a master's degree. She was asked by ʿAbdu'l-Bahá to represent the women of the East at the cornerstone-laying ceremony of the Temple in Wilmette on the 1st of May in 1912 and met Him again in Washington during November of the same year.
  • Upon her return to Iran she produced her academic credentials to the Education Minister and declared her readiness to serve her country. Despite her many outstanding qualifications he refused to hire her because she was a Bahá'í. Despite being denied the opportunity to serve as a teacher she found ways to render service in the field of education. With the passing of Lillian Kappes, the principal at the time of the Tarbiyat Girls' School of Tehran (Tarbiyat al-Banat), she took over as principal. In that capacity she took significant initiatives, notably offering monthly conferences and adult literacy classes.
  • She became further qualified by obtaining a diploma in nursing and then another in midwifery and subsequently opened clinics that offered services to the poor and the disadvantaged.
  • In 1956 Ms. Ashraf initially joined her nephew Mr. Abdollah Sahihi, a pioneer in Brazil. She then served in three more countries; Brazil, Ecuador and Columbia. In 1963 she attended the World Congress in London and then returned to Iran to continue her service to her native country.
  • See Ahmad Sohrab's letter to her in SW6, 10:77–9.
  • For short biographies see SCF55-85; Encyclopedia Iranica and Iran Press Watch.
  • Majidabad; Tihran; Iran; United States Ghodsieh Ashraf (Qudsiyyih Ashraf); Firsts, Other; Tarbiyat School The first Persian woman to travel in the USA.
    1911 26 - 29 Jul The First Universal Races Congress was held at the University of London. It was the first important conference in which the British Bahá'ís participated. It was an international symposium on the theme of the brotherhood of humankind and attracted leading politicians, theologians and scholars from the whole of the British Empire and from Europe as well as North America. During the Congress itself there were several presentations from Bahá'ís including the reading of a letter from 'Abdu'l-Bahá who was in Egypt at the time. [NBAD45]
  • See 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Letter and here.
  • See SoW Vol II No 9 for a report by Wellesley Tudor-Pole, an article by Thorton Chase as well as the letter from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to the conference. See as well Speech for the Universal Races Congress translation and comments by Senn McGlinn.
  • A translation was published in "The Christian Commonwealth" on August 2, 1911.
  • A bibliography of the presentations, papers and contributions and secondary literature by Ralph Dumain can be found here.
  • A paper by Dr W E B DuBois entitled The Negro Race in the United States of America (pp348-364)was also presented at this conference.
  • Alain Locke attended. It may have been where he first heard of the Bahá'í faith. He credits this conference as his inspiration to begin the first of five historic lectures on race relation he delivered at Howard University in 1916. [Alain Locke: Faith & Philosophy p43 by Dr Chrisopher Buck]
  • See the website of the National Centre for Race Amity.
    • The long term goal of the National Center for Race Amity is to have a reesoltuin adopted by both the House and the Senate to have the second Sunday in June declared as an annual Day of Observance in the United States, with the President issuing a Proclamation supporting the passage of the Race Amity Day Resolution.
  • London; United Kingdom Conferences, Racial amity; Race amity; Race (general); Race unity; Firsts, Other; Alain Locke; Wellesley Tudor-Pole; Thorton Chase; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of first important conference in which the British Bahá'ís participated.
    1911 Aug Hájí Muhammad-Taqí Afnán, Vakílu'd-Dawlih, the cousin of the Báb largely responsible for the building of the House of Worship in `Ishqábád, was buried in the newly acquired Bahá'í cemetery in Haifa, the earliest recorded burial in the cemetery. [BBD51; DH182]
  • He was appointed as one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Haifa In Memoriam; Haji Muhammad-Taqi Afnan (Vakilud-Dawlih); Afnan; Bab, Family of; Cemeteries and graves; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Ishqabad; Firsts, Other; Apostles of Bahaullah First known use of the Bahá'í Cemetery in Haifa.
    1911 9 Aug When 'Abdu'l-Bahá was about to depart on his first voyage to the West, He wrote to Albert Smiley, host of the annual Lake Mohonk Conference on International Arbitration. On the 22nd of August, 1911 while in Thonon-les-Bains, France, He wrote to H.C. Phillips, secretary of the Mohonk arbitration institution. These letters were unique because He usually didn't initiate correspondence. He was, undoubtedly, making arrangements to speak at their annual conference as Ali Kuli Khan had recently done.
  • The letter. [SoW Vol 2 No 15 December 12, 1911 p3]
  • While crossing the Atlantic on the S.S. Cedric He told a newspaperman, "I am going to America at the invitation of the Peace Congresses of that place, as the fundamental principles of our Cause are universal peace, the oneness of the world of humanity and the equality of the rights of men..." When the ship docked in New York and the plank was lowered, the press clambered aboard to interview him and he told them, "Our object is... the unity of mankind... I have come to America to see the advocates of universal peace..." [Who Will Bell the Cat: The Story of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Visit to Lake Mohonk by Janet Ruhe-Schoen]
  • These meetings at Lake Mohonk were instrumental in the creation of the Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague, Netherlands. [Wikipedia] [key]
  • Egypt; Thonon-les-Bains; France; Lake Mohonk Albert Smiley; H.C. Phillips; Ali Kuli Khan; Lake Mohonk Conference on International Arbitration; Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 11 Aug The beginning of `Abdu'l-Bahá's first Western tour [AB139]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá departed from Egypt with a party of four on the S. S. Corsica for Marseilles, Thonon-les-Bains and London. [AB139; GPB280; SBR22, SoW Vol 2 no.10 8 September, 1911 p7]
  • Subsequent research has shown that the ship was not the S.S. Corsica as stated in GPB280 but rather the L'Orenoque. See 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Paris page 6 note 47.
  • See BW1:130 for a list of cities He visited between 1911 and 1913.
  • It is believed that funds for ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's teaching journeys to the West were provided by an oil-rich believer in Baku, Áqa Músá Naqiof (alternate spelling Musa Naghiyev)(yet another alternate spelling Báqirof) (1849-1919). [AY11; ABF295note684]
  • Baku; Alexandria; Egypt; Marseilles; Thonon-les-Bains; France; London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha in Egypt; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; S. S. Corsica; Orenoque; Ships; Funds; Donations; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Musa Naghiyev; Musa Naqiof First Western tour by `Abdu'l-Bahá'
    1911 Star of the West volumes chronicled both the first and second Western journeys of `Abdu'l-Bahá. Star of the West; Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour First Western journey of `Abdu'l-Bahá
    1911 16 Aug After four and half days of travel over 2500 kilometres L'Orénoque arrived in Marseilles, France's major port on the Mediterranean. 'Abdu'l-Bahá was met by Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney who had recently married (28 April). He and his wife would be 'Abdu'l-Bahá's constant companions in France and would later be in His company in England and the eastern United States. They had already met 'Abdu'l-Baha in Palestine and Laura stayed there between 1904 and 1906. [ABF8]
  • He stayed at the Hôtel Louvre de la Paix at 53, la Canebière (today a C&A department store). [ABF9]
  • Thus began His first trip to France. It lasted 4 days.
  • Marseilles; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Laura Clifford Barney; Orenoque; Ships
    1911 18 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá had an exchange of telegrams with Wellesley Tudor Pole from the Theosophical Summer School in Derbyshire, England where he had just presented a lecture on the Bahá'í Faith. [ABF9-10, SoW Vol 2 no10 p.7] [key] Marseilles; France; Derbyshire; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Wellesley Tudor Pole; Theosophical Society
    1911 19 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent a telegram to Charles Mason Remey in America inviting him to join Him in Europe. [SoW vol2 no.12 (16 October 1911) p9, ABF10] [key] Marseilles; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Charles Mason Remey
    1911 20 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá and His party left Marseilles and traveled by train to Geneva, arriving late in the day and checking into the Hôtel de la Paix. Marseilles; France; Geneva; Switzerland Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 21 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá and His party took a ferry from Geneva to Thonon-les-Bains and were met by Laura Dreyfus-Barney. They stayed at the Hôtel du Parc. He wrote to His sister, Bahíyyih Khánum. It was she that He had placed in charge of the affairs of the Faith in His absence. [ABF12-13, LTDT172-173]
  • About this time He also wrote to His wife, Munírih Khánum. [ABF14]
  • This was His first visit to Switzerland. It lasted just one day.
  • Geneva; Switzerland; Thonon-les-Bains; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Munirih Khanum
    1911 22 Aug The Master sent for Juliet Thompson who had been waiting in London for His permission to join Him. [DJT157, ABF14-15]
  • See LGHC140-142 for Juliet's letter to Lua Getsinger, then teaching in California at 'Abdu'l-Bahá's request.
  • See SoW Vol 2 No 14 November 23 1911 p9 for her account of her time with 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Switzerland.
  • Thonon-les-Bains; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Juliet Thompson
    1911 23 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá went for a carriage ride in the nearby hills. ["With 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Switzerland" by Juliet Thompson, SoW Vol 2 no 14 (Nov 23, 1911) p9-13, ABF15]
  • Later that day, by chance, 'Abdu'l-Bahá encountered the Persian prince, Sultán-Mas'ud Mírzá Zillu's-Sultán (1850-1918), the eldest son of Násirid-/dín Sháh, (1850-1918) in the Parc Hotel. He was in voluntary exile in Europe accompanied by his four sons. At various times, he had been the governor or governor-general of various provinces in Iran from 1862 to 1907 and had persecuted the Bahá'ís zealously. He was responsible for ratifying the execution of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs in 1879. Upon meeting 'Abdu'l-Bahá he presented his excuses but 'Abdu'l-Bahá forgave him by saying "All those things are in the past. Never think of them again." [DJT172-3, ABF17; ABW411]
  • Annie Boylan arrived in Thonon-les-Bains from America by way of Lausanne. 'Abdu'l-Bahá is reported to have told her that the building of the Shrine of the Báb was the fulfillment of the prophecy that "the Lord would come and rebuild the temple that had been torn down". He added that the Tomb of the Báb and that of Bahá'u'lláh were considered the first Mashriqu'l-Adhkar. [SoW vol 11. no. 1 (March 21, 1920) p1-15, ABF18] iiiii
    • Annie Boylan had been on pilgrimage in October of 1908. [WMSH60]
    .
  • Thonon-les-Bains; France; Isfahan; Iran Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Zillus-Sultan; Annie Boylan; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1911 22 Aug - 3 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá took up residence at Thonon-les-Bains on Lake Leman (Lake Geneva). [AB140; GPB280; SBR219]
  • While there He encountered Zillu's-Sultán, the eldest son of the Sháh of the time, Násirid-Dín Sháh. It was he who had ratified the execution of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs and at least 100 others. The whole family was in exile in Geneva at this time. 'Abdu'l-Bahá was very courteous to this man who had been such an inveterate enemy of the Cause. [DJT172, AY19, GPB201] .
  • The Master sent for Juliet Thompson who had been waiting in London for His permission to join Him.
  • During His stay he had a visit from Annie Boylan, a member of the New York community that was experiencing disharmony. Unaware of Bahá'í election procedures, a group that was unhappy with the disunity and ineffectiveness of the Council had organized a vote to be rid of several of its Council members. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had written to the community a short time before recommending that the Council be expanded from 9 to 27 members so that all factions could be represented. He also recommended that women be included on the Council and that the name be changed to "the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of New York". This apparently addressed the problem of disunity because the New York community went on to contribute significantly to the progress of the Faith on a national level. [DJT181, BFA2p338]
  • Horace Holley, who lived at Quattro Torri, Siena, Italy at the time, along with his wife Bertha Herbert and baby daughter Hertha, visited 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the 29th and 30th of August. Please see his Religion for Mankind p 232-237 for a pen portrait of 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • He met with Elizabeth Stewart and Lillian Kappes who were on their way to Tehran. [find reference]
  • It would appear that He returned to Marseilles and travelled to London by sea. [SCU22-23] [key]
  • Thonon-les-Bains; Lake Leman; Marseilles; France; Switzerland; Italy; London; United Kingdom; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; Unity; Zillus-Sultan; Persecution; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Juliet Thompson; Horace Holley; Elizabeth Stewart; Lillian Kappes; Ships
    1911 24 Aug Tammaddun'ul-Mulk and Juliet Thompson arrived in Thonon-les-Bains from London via Geneva. She had landed in Southampton on board the Lusitania from America on the 25th of July.

    Juliet Thompson had been in Paris in 1899 and had been part of the nascent Bahá'í community there along with May Maxwell and Lua Getsinger. In addition, she had met 'Abdu'l-Bahá in 'Akká in 1909.

  • She, like many others, was anxious to know when He might come to America. He replied that the unity of the believers would be His invitation. There had been strong differences of opinion among the believers in America and one of those points was in their understanding of the station of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. Some believed Him to be an ordinary man who, through spiritual practice, had attained HIs station, implying that all could do the same. Others insisted that He was the return of Christ. The differences among the believers in New York was such that an election for the New York Bahá'í Board of Council had been influenced to excluded one of the incumbents. 'Abdu'l-Bahá insisted that the Board be increased to 19 members to ensure his re-election. [ABF19] [key]
  • London; United Kingdom; Thonon-les-Bains; France Tammaddunul-Mulk; Juliet Thompson; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 25 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá spent the morning with Juliet Thompson, part of the afternoon with Bahrám Mírzá and then visited the Gorges du Pont du Diable on the Dranse river at Le Jotty some 15 km south of Thonon-les-Bains. He travelled by automobile and was accompanied by Juliet and the Dreyfus-Barneys. [ABF27-28, DJT174-178]
  • See Images of the Gorges du Pont du Diable.
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Juliet discussed dreams. He instructed her to write down her dream and said dreams were of three types: (1) those caused by some bodily disorder, (2) symbolic dreams and (3) dreams in which future events are clearly foretold. [ABF32] [key]
  • Thonon-les-Bains; Le Jotty; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Gorges du Pont du Diable; Dreams and visions
    1911 26 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk to those gathered at the hotel on the theme of unity. Present was Annie Boylan, a New York believer who had made the journey to present her case against another New Yorker, Howard MacNutt whom she believed was unfit to serve the Cause. [ABF31-33, DJT180-184] [key] Thonon-les-Bains; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Howard MacNutt; Annie Boylan
    1911 27 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá and His party took a ferry to Vevey, a resort town on the other side of Lake Geneva (Lake Leman). Vevey was the location of the Dreyfus summer home and it was near here that Lady Blomfield and her daughters finalized the translation of Paris Talks [ABF33-44, DJT186, SoW vol 2 no 14]
  • He took a room at the Park Hôtel Mooser where He took some rest and also met Edith Sanderson and her mother. With the assembled friends He discussed immortality and divorce.
  • The party returned by ferry to Thonon-les-Bains, stopping at Évian-les-Bains. [DJT196-197]
  • In the afternoon He met with Lillian Frances Kappes and Elizabeth Harnill Stewart who had just arrived from America on their way to teach at the Tarbiyát School for girls in Iran. The school for boys had been in operation since 1897 and the school for girls was just being established in. [ABF43, SoW vol 2 no 18, SoW vol 2 no 14] Perhaps it was at this time He delivered the talk that has been entitled, "The oneness of humanity and of religions". ['Abdu'l-Bahá Speaks] [key]
  • Thonon-les-Bains; Vevey; Switzerland; Evian-les-Bains; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Lady Blomfield; Edith Sanderson; Lillian Kappes; Elizabeth Stewart; Tarbiyat School; Bahai schools; Paris Talks (book)
    1911 28 Aug In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá's visitor was Sultán-Husayn Mírzá, the eldest son of Zillu's-Sultán. Between 1879 and 1906 he had served as either governor or deputy governor of Khuzestán, Lorestán, Yazd, Fárs, Burujerd and Kurdistan. He was responsible for the martyrdoms in Yazd in 1891 and again in 1903. He had been exiled with his father in 1908.
  • As a footnote, in his latter years he became a devoted Bahá'í. [DJT206]
  • Later He gave a talk in Arabic that was published in its entirety by the leading Egyptian newspaper, Al-Ahram. [ABF45-48, SoW vol 5 no 10, Far Stretching River (translation by Mohsen Enayat)] [key]
  • Thonon-les-Bains; France; Yazd; Iran Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Sultan-Husayn Mirza; Mohsen Enayat; Seven martyrs of Yazd; Seven martyrs; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Yazd upheaval
    1911 29 Aug Horace Holley and his wife Bertha arrived from Italy with their baby daughter Hertha. They stayed two days. He described their experience in A Pilgrimage to Thonon published in 1911 and in Religion for Mankind p232-237. [ABF49-51; Collins7.1220] [key] Thonon-les-Bains; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Horace Holley
    1911 30 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá spent the morning in Thonon-les-Bain and took the ferry to Geneva after dinner. He stayed at the Hôtel de la Paix located at 11, Quai du Mont-Blanc. [ABF5154, DJT208]
  • This marks the end of 'Abdu'-Bahá's second stay in France. It lasted 9 days.
  • Thonon-les-Bains; France; Geneva; Switzerland Horace Holley; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 31 Aug- 4 Sep During His stay in Geneva 'Abdu'l-Bahá most likely returned the visits of Zillu's-Sultán Sultán-Mas'úd Mírzá and his four sons, Sultán-Husayn Mírzá, Bahrám Mírzá, Fírúz Mírzá, and Ismá'íl Mírzá. [DJT214-215, ABF54-60]
  • This marks the end of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's time in Switzerland. He stayed a total of 6 days, 20-21 August, 27 August, and the 30th of August until the 3rd of September.
  • Geneva; Switzerland Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Zillus-Sultan; Sultan-Masud Mirza; Sultan-Husayn Mirza
    1911 4 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá arrived in London accompanied by His secretary, Mírzá Mahmúd and Khusraw, His servant. This marked His first visit to the country and lasted 29 days. [ABL53, AB140; GBP280; SBR22, 148, BW4p378, In the Footsteps of the Master p.5]
  • CH149 says He arrived 8 September and 3 September as per the UK Bahá'í site.
  • Those Bahá'ís who assembled to meet him were listed as: Lady Blomfield (in whose home at 97 Cadogan Gardens He stayed), Mrs Thornburg-Cropper, Miss Ethel Rosenberg, Miss Gamble, Miss Herrick, Mrs Scaramucci, Miss Elsie Lee, Mr Catanach, Mr Cuthbert, Mr and Mrs Jenner, Miss Yandell, Miss Julia Culver, Mrs Stannard, Mr and Mrs Eric Hammond, The Rev Harrold Johnston, The Rev Cooper Hunt, Miss Juliet Thompson, Mrs Louise Waite, Mrs Movius, Mrs Claudia Coles, Mr Mountfort Mills, Mr Mason Remey and Miss Drake Wright. Mr and Mrs Dreyfus-Barney provided translation. In addition there were a number of Persians who took the opportunity to meet Him. [BW4p377]
  • As described by Lady Blomfield those who came to see him were: "Ministers and missionaries, Oriental scholars and occult students practical men of affairs and mystics, Anglican-Catholics and Nonconformists, Theosophists and Hindus, Christian Scientists and doctors of medicine, Muslims, Buddhists, and Zoroastrians. There also called: politicians, Salvation Army soldiers, and other workers for human good, women suffragists, journalists, writers, poets and healers dress-makers and great ladies, artists and artisans, poor workless people and prosperous merchants, members of the dramatic and musical world, these all came; and none were too lowly nor too great to receive the sympathetic consideration of this holy Messenger, who was ever giving His life for others' good." In addition there was a representation from the Bramo-Somaj Society, a Hindu reform group. [CH150-152]
  • See BW4p377 where Lady Blomfield reported that Prince Jalalu'd-Dawlih entreated to be received by 'Abdu'l-Bahá and when in His presence fell prostrate and implored pardon for his crimes. (see 1891 19 May) [BW4p377]
  • Among the list of visitors were: Professor Edward Granville Browne, Mr Tudor-Pole, Emmeline Pankhurst, a British political activist and leader of the British suffragette movement who helped women win the right to vote. [BW4p377]
  • See BW4p381 for the story of a homeless, suicidal man who had seen a picture of 'Abdu'l-Bahá in a newspaper in a shop window.
  • See BW4p382-383 for the story of the persistent journalist who imposed upon the appointment of two ladies from Scotland who had journeyed all that day and intended to make the return voyage that same evening.
  • For details of His stay in England see AB140–58 and GPB283–5.
  • It is implied that 'Abdu'l-Bahá was attended by Dr Lutfu-lláh Hakím while in London. [BW4p380]
  • During His stay in London 'Abdu'l-Bahá received death threats by anonymous letter and he was advised to give up He planned journey to Egypt. He ignored them. [BW4p 387]
  • During His stay in London He had professional photographs of Himself taken by the Irish photographer, James Lafayette (1853-1923). "...to have a picture of oneself is to emphasise the personality, which is merely the lamp, and is quite unimportant. The light burning within the lamp has the only real significance." [SBR25, BW4p383-384, ABF84] [key]
  • London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Pictures and portraits; Portraits; Abdul-Baha, Death threats to; Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper; Ethel Rosenberg; Juliet Thompson; Louise Waite; Mountfort Mills; Charles Mason Remey; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Jalalud-Din-Dawlih; Mirza Mahmud-i-Zarqani; Khusraw; Edward Granville Browne; Wellesley Tudor Pole; Emmeline Pankhurst; Lutfullah Hakim; James Lafayette
    1911 5 Sep ‘Abdu'l-Bahá was interviewed by the editor of The Christian Commonwealth, Mr Albert Dawson, and later met with the Rev R. J. Campbell. The Christian Commonwealth was a weekly newspaper. On 13 September it printed, on its front cover, an article which included the interview between ‘Abdu'l-Bahá and Rev R. J. Campbell that had taken place on 5 September. The following week the front cover had another article, entitled ‘The Vanishing of the Veil', about ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's visit to St John's, Westminster. Other issues also had substantial articles about His visits. [In the Footsteps of the Master p.7] [key] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Interviews; Newspaper articles
    1911 8 Sep In the morning He received a small party in Lady Blomfield's drawing room. [SoW Vol 2 No 12 October 16, 1911 P3]

    'Abdu'l-Bahá visited the home of Miss Ethel Jenner Rosenberg for a Unity meeting at White Lodge, 8 Sunnyside, Wimbledon (since demolished). [ABL44-45, In the Footsteps of the Master p.9, SYH40] [key]

    London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Ethel Rosenberg
    1911 9 Sep ‘Abdu'l-Bahá visited the home of Mrs Thornburgh-Cropper at 31 Evelyn Mansions, Carlisle Place, Victoria.
  • In the afternoon ‘Abdu'l-Bahá visited the home of Miss Anett Schepel and Miss Alice Buckton, Vanners, Byfleet, Surrey (since demolished), some 20 miles out of London. He spoke with a number of working women from the Passmore Edwards' Settlement who were visiting while on holidays. (The Passmore Edwards' Settlement began in 1890 as one of the first "settlements" run by socially-conscious middle-class educators for the benefit of local working people and their children.) The talk has been entitled, "The small house and the path to true happiness". ['Abdu'l-Bahá Speaks, SYH39]
  • Alice Mary Buckton (1867-1944) wrote many plays and poems. Her play Eager Heart was seen by ‘Abdu'l-Bahá on His second visit to England. She became a member of the Froebelian Society which was formed to reform educational methods. She persuaded Anett Schepel who had worked at Pestalozzi-Froebel Haus in Germany to move to England and together they worked to improve child education, opening a school in St John's Wood. [ABL85-86, In the Footsteps of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá p9-10]
  • Byfleet; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Alice Buckton; Eager Heart (play); Drama; Plays; Education
    1911 10 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá gave His first public address in the West in the City Temple Church in Holborn, London to an audience of over 2,000 people. He proclaimed that "This is a new cycle of human power…the gift of God in this enlightened age is the knowledge of the oneness of mankind and the fundamental oneness of religion." [ABL17-20, AB140; BW2:227; GPB283–4, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p11]
  • He spoke at the invitation of The Reverend R J Campbell. Mr. Wellesly Tudor-Pole read the translation. [CH154]
  • Dialogue between Rev Campbell and 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [SoW Vol 2 No 11 27 September 1911 p3, 4-7]
  • For the text of His talk see AB140–2.
  • For the words He wrote in the pulpit Bible see AB145. The church was bombed in World War II and the pulpit Bible was destroyed. The church was rebuilt in 1958.
  • For a photo see BWNS792.
  • SoW Vol 2 No 11 27 September 1911 p3, 7-8.
  • See A New Cycle of Human Power: Abdu'l-Bahá's Encounters with Modernist Writers and Artists by Robert Weinberg.
  • London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches; Firsts, Other; BWNS first public address in West by `Abdu'l-Bahá
    1911 11 Sep Mrs. Thornburgh-Cropper gave an "At Home" to the believers and between fifty and sixty were present to meet Him. [SoW Vol 2 No 12 October 12, 1911 p2] [key] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper
    1911 12 Sep 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk at a meeting of the friends at the home of Mrs. Thornburgh-Cropper in London. It has been entitled "A Heavenly Meeting". ['Abdu'l-Bahá Speaks] [key] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 13 Sep (or possibly 14 Sep) Mrs Thornburgh-Cropper gave a reception for ‘Abdu'l-Bahá at her home 31 Evelyn Mansions, Carlisle Place, Victoria for about 45 people. [ABL46-47, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p12, SYH40]
  • His talk has been entitled, "Persian-English friendship and a brief history". ['Abdu'l-Bahá Speaks] [key]
  • London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of
    1911 14 Sep At a meeting at the office of the Editor-in-chief of the Journal of the Freemasons and Theosophists 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk that has been entitled "Abdu'l-Baha sends greetings to the Theosophical Society". ['Abdu'l-Bahá Speaks] [key] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 17 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá addressed the congregation of St John's, Westminster, His second address to a Western audience. He also met with members of the Salvation Army who were singing outside. [ABL21-25, AB145; SBR8, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p13, SYH38]
  • For text of His talk see AB147–8 and 'Abdu'l-Bahá Speaks.
  • He spoke at the invitation of Archdeacon of Westminster, Albert Wilberforce, grandson of famed abolitionist William Wilberforce. The invitation had been extended to Him during a private audience in the home of Lady Blomfield. [CH153-154]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent an invitation to the Archdeacon asking him to meet with Him. He turned Him down with a message, "We are all one behind the veil." 'Abdu'l-Bahá replied, "...and the veil is thinning quite." When Wilberforce met with 'Abdu'l-Bahá he found that there was no separation between them. [Ahmad Sohrab's Diary - The Great Tour p99]
  • See also Star of the West Vol. II No. 12, p. 12.
  • Westminster; London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches
    1911 21 Sept Reverend Peter Z Easton called on Àbdu'l-Bahá. Apparently he wanted a sparring match but Àbdu'l-Bahá did not give him the satisfaction. Shortly after he published an article "Bahaism: A Warning," in the September and October, 1911, issue of the British magazine Evangelical Christendom. Easton characterized Bahá'u'lláh as a "betrayer, assassin, and blasphemer — a worthy successor of that long line of Persian antichrists from the beginning of its history down to the present day." [AB149-151]

    By December the article found its way to Mirzá Abu'l-Fazl in Beirut who wrote a fitting response to the attack on the Faith. Abu'l-Fazl signed it, and mailed it to ‘Àbdu'l-Bahá, "so that He can, in his wisdom, decide what to do with it."

    Àbdu'l-Bahá received the manuscript in New York on June 19, 1912. He had it translated and printed, and called it The Brilliant Proof. "Each one of you should have a copy," he told the Americans. "Read, memorize and reflect upon it. Then, when accusations and criticisms are advanced . . . you will be well armed." [239 Days Website] [key]

    London; UK; New York; USA
    1911 21 Sept During Àbdu'l-Bahá's first visit to Britain, he was invited into churches and welcomed warmly by many Christian clergymen. This outraged more conservative Christian ministers, and an attack on the Bahá'í Faith and its Central Figures was published in the journal Evangelical Christendom by Peter Z Easton. When the article, Bahá'ísm: A Warning, was shown to Mirza Abu'l-Fadl, who was at that time in Beirut, he immediately penned a reply and sent a copy to Àbdu'l-Bahá who received the manuscript in New York on June 19, 1912. He had it translated and printed, and called it The Brilliant Proof.
      "Each one of you should have a copy. Read, memorize and reflect upon it. Then, when accusations and criticisms are advanced . . . you will be well armed."[The Brilliant Proof]

    The Brilliant Proof was first translated by Ali Kuli Khan and published by the Bahá'í News Service in Chicago in 1912 in which it said: "Written in response to published attacks on the Bahá'í Religion by the British clergyman Peter Z Easton" (1846-1915). [Collins7.15 p41]

    Peter Easton (1846-1915) was a Presbyterian in the Synod of the Northeast in New York who had been stationed in Tabriz from 1873 to 1880. While Àbdul'Bahá was in England Easton attempted to meet and challenge him. He made those around him uncomfortable and ‘Abdu'l-Bahá withdrew him to a private conversation and then after which he left. Later he was able to have printed a polemic attack on the religion, Bahaism — A Warning, in the Evangelical Christendom newspaper of London (Sept.-Oct. 1911 edition.) It was published in the Appendix of The Brilliant Proof (p70-80) [Bahaipedia]

    Lady Blomfield in her book The Chosen Highway (p183) described such a visit and the affect it had on Àbdu'l-Bahá.

    London; UK Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 22 Sep ‘Abdu'l-Bahá visited the home of Misses Marion Jack and Elizabeth Herrick, at 10 Cheniston Gardens, Wright's Lane (sometimes given as 137a High Street, Kensington. About 80 people were present. [ABL48-49, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p14; SoW Vol 2 No 12 October 16, 1911 p5]
  • The talk was stenographically recorded and published as Discourse by 'Abdu'l-Bahá at the Unity Meeting of Misses Jack and Herrick. September 22nd, 1911. For full text see NBAD233-234.
  • London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Elizabeth Herrrick; Marion Jack; Publications
    1911 23 Sep Abdu'l-Bahá travelled by train from London to Bristol going from Paddington Station to Bristol Temple Meads arriving at mid-day. He stayed at the Clifton Guest House at 17 Royal Crescent which was owned by Major Wellesley Tudor Pole. After a short rest carriages were ordered and an extensive drive was taken through some of the world-renowned beauty spots around Bristol and neighbourhood. After the evening meal 'Abdul-Bahá addressed a gathering of about 80 friends in the Guest House Salon [SoW Vol 2 No. 12 October 16, 1911 p7; AB156, ABL81-84, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p15-16, SYH39-40; Some Sacred Spaces in the United Kingdom Slides 2-21]
  • During His stay in Bristol, He had a photograph taken. [ABF84]
  • Bristol; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Wellesley Tudor Pole; Trains; Abdul-Baha, Pictures and portraits; Clifton Guest House
    1911 25 Sep The Master rose early, as was His custom, and from 5 to 8AM dictated letters and cablegrams. He then breakfasted with all the members of the party and guests. Another country drive followed and then He gave several private interviews to friends who had just arrived from London, Edinburgh and elsewhere.
  • After lunch the Master went all over the Guest House blessing and dedicating each room to the service of Bahá'u'lláh and promising that the house would become a centre of peace and rest for pilgrims from East and West. He also blessed the Oratory and all the workers in the house, calling them all into his presence and telling them of the dignity of labour and true service. Again we sat down nineteen to supper, and again the Master blessed the gathering and showed great joy and animation.
  • About mid-day the Master returned to London after expressing the intention of returning again someday. He wrote a beautiful prayer and blessing in the Visitors' book. [SoW Vol 2 No 12 October 12, 1911 p7] [key]
  • Bristol Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Clifton Guest House
    1911 28 Sep 'Abdu'l-Bahá visited Byfleet for a second time by motorcar. He stayed the night and returned the evening of the next day. [ABL86, 99, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p.17]
  • He committed the poor, saying they were very poor. [SYH39]
  • Mrs Thornburgh Cropper had place her motorcar at His service. She and Ethel Rosenberg who had visited Him in 'Akká were lovingly attentive to Him. [BW4p384] [key]
  • Byfleet; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Cars
    1911 29 Sep A farewell reception was given for 'Abdu'l-Bahá in the hall mof the Passmore Edwards' Settlement in Tavistock Place. The Settlement movement of the late 19th century was intended to bridge the ever-widening gap between the poor and the middle classes. A purpose-built building would be constructed in a working class area and young solicitors, doctors, architects and other middle class professionals would be encouraged to live there while at the same time the working classes would be free to use the building and mix with them, using the building more or less as a community centre. It was attended by a capacity crowd of some 460 people. [SYH41, ABL31-39, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p.18; SoW Vol 2 No 13 November 4, 1911 p4]
  • For more information on this remarkable philanthropist see John Passmore Edwards.
  • Byfleet; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places; John Passmore Edwards
    1911 29 Sep The start of the Italo-Turkish war which lasted until the 18th of October 1912 when the Ottoman Empire signed a treaty in Ouchy in Lausanne called the First Treaty of Lausanne, (often also called Treaty of Ouchy to distinguish it from the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne), (the Second Treaty of Lausanne). Italy's victory led to the annexation of the Ottoman Tripolitania Vilayet, including sub-provinces like Fezzan, Cyrenaica, and Tripoli itself. These regions later became Italian colonies known as Italian Tripolitania and Cyrenaica, which eventually merged into Italian Libya. Italy established control over Libya and would govern the region until the end of World War II.

    After defeating the Ottoman army they confiscated on large scale the lands of the Arab peasants on which Italian settlements were established and large numbers of Italian settlers were brought in for the cultivation of cash products. The war cost Italy 1.3 billion lire, nearly a billion more than Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti had estimated before the war. This ruined ten years of fiscal prudence.

    This war is notable for the introduction of new military technologies including the use of the airplane for reconnaissance and bombing. It also included the first instance of an airplane being shot down by ground fire.

    The Italians also used a wireless telegraph network established with the help of the Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi.

    This war is considered by historians as a precursor of the First World War. Members of the Balkan League, seeing how easily Italy defeated the Ottomans and motivated by incipient Balkan nationalism, attacked the Ottoman Empire in October 1912, starting the First Balkan War a few days before the end of the Italo-Turkish War. [Wikipedia]

    The Battle of Benghazi was a preliminary to the fascist invasion of Ethiopia and Italy's ambitions to establish its own colonial empire. [Colonialism, Nationalism and Jewish Immigration to Palestine: Abdu´l-Baha's Viewpoints Regarding the Middle East by Kamran Ekbal p18] [key]

    Turkey; Italy; Libya Imperialism/colonialism; History (general)
    1911 30 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá addressed the Theosophical Society in London, His last talk in England on this visit. He met the Theosophical society at their new Headquarters at the express request of their president Mrs. Annie Besant. After a general history of the movement and sympathetic words of welcome by Mr. A. P. Sinnett, ‘Abdu'l-Bahá rose and delivered to the crowded assembly an address upon the distinctive notes of the Bahá'í teaching, warmly commending the eagerness of the Society in its search for Truth. The tenants of the Society were a belief in the brotherhood of man and the equality of all religions. [ABL26-30, 58 AB152, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p.19, SYH38] iiiii London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at other places; Theosophical Society; Annie Besant
    1911 1 Oct A young Persian couple asked 'Abdu'l-Bahá to marry them. The union was blessed at the Higher Thought Centre, 10 Cheniston Gardens, Kensington. The bride, Regina Núr Mahal Khánum, had travelled from Baghdad to meet and marry her bridegroom, Mírzá Yuhanna Dáwud. [AB:77, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p.20] [key] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 2 Oct Abdu'l-Bahá breakfasted with the Lord Mayor of London at the Mansion House, City of London. The Lord Major of London at the time of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's visit was Sir Thomas Vezey Strong (1858-1920). He was a teetotaler and a temperance advocate. He traded in paper and was the holder of a number of honours. [In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p.20; SoW Vol 2 No 12 October 16, 1911 p4] [key] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Mayor of London; Mayors
    1911 3 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk that has been entitled, "Eleven essentials: the Bahai principles as taught by Abdu'l-Baha in London". ['Abdu'l-Bahá Speaks]

    He left London for Paris. [AB154; SBR25, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p22]

  • See ABL113 for details of His last day in London. He left from Victoria Station.
  • He was accompanied by many Bahá'ís from England who attended many of the public meeting at which He spoke in Paris. This group included Marion Jack, Ethel Rosenberg, Lady Bloomfield and her two daughters. [NBAD47, SYH42]
  • He remained in Paris for nine weeks. [AB159; GPB280]
  • For details of His visit see AB159–68.
  • For `Abdu'l-Bahá's talks given in Paris see PT.
  • London; United Kingdom; Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Marion Jack; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of
    1911 4 Oct The start of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's third stay in France. It lasted 2 month and 9 days.
  • It is quite probable that 'Abdu'l-Bahá stayed with Hippolyte and Laura Dreyfus-Barney at 15, rue Greuze for a couple of nights before moving to the apartment at 4, avenue de Camoēns which had been prepared for Him by them. The apartment was in a building that was relatively new having been built in 1910. It was one block away from the Trocadéro Gardens and the Eiffel Tower stood just across the River Seine. It had a drawing room that could easily accommodate 75-100 people and came with a French maid who performed the domestic functions and who answered the bell. The apartment was purchase by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of France in 1996. [ABF62, 65, 68-71, 85 Sur les pas de 'Abdu'l-Bahá à Paris by Paul Hakim, SoW Vol 2 No 14 p3-4]
  • Some members of His entourage stayed at the Grand Hötel de Passy (now Hötel Passy-Eiffel) some ten minutes walk away. [ABF84] [key]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Avenue de Camoens
    1911 5 Oct 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk at 46, avenue de Malakoff (today avenue Raymond Poincaré) at the home of Edith Sanderson and her mother Margaret Sanderson. [ABF62; The Holy Spirit is the source of Life] [key] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Edith Sanderson
    1911 6 Oct 'Abdu'l-Bahá invited a number of Persian students then in Paris to His apartment. [ABF63-65] [key] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 14 Oct 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk at the home of Hippolyte and Laura Dreyfus-Barney. This was the first of His Parisian talks which were published. [ABF68] [key] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Paris Talks (book)
    1911 15 Oct In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk at His apartment at #4 Avenue de Camoens. During the talk Muhammad Qazvíní and Siyyid Hasan Taqízásih entered the room. The former had written an introduction for and was the force behind the publication of Kitáb-i-Nuqtatu'l-Káf, a book that supposedly was an early history of the Faith but in reality was heavily biased to the the views of Mírzá Yahya. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had had Mírzá Abdu'l-Fadl write a refutation to the book. Both men had additional dinner engagements with 'Abdu'l-Bahá during His visit. ['Abdu'l-Bahá's Meetings with Two Prominent Iranians, World Order, Fall 1998 Vol 30, no 1 pp35-46, ABF71-76]
  • In the afternoon all were invited to meet Him at #22 rue Ledru- Rollin pré-Saint-Germais-sur-Seine outside the walls of Paris. The purpose was to visit a project run by Mons. V. Ponsonaille and his wife to provide some comfort to the poor children in an underprividged quarter of the city. For an account of this event see Glimpses of Abdul'Bahá in Paris by Alice Beede.[ABF76-79; SYH45]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Kitab-i-Nuqtatul-Kaf; Criticism and apologetics; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Muhammad Qazvini; Siyyid Hasan Taqizasih
    1911 16 Oct 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk before a group of English Bahá'ís which was given the title The Duty of Kindness and Sympathy towards Strangers and Foreigners. [PT15-17]
  • In the evening He spoke at the Dreyfus-Barney home. [ABF79-82] [key]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 17 Oct In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke in HIs apartment about doing the will of God and not just speaking about it. [SoW Vol 2 no 16 December 31, 1911 p3]
  • In the afternoon He met again with some students and others at the Hôtel de Passy. [ABF84-85] [key]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 18 Oct In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk entitled, The Power and Value of True Thought Depend upon Its Manifestation in Action. [PT17-19, ABF85-87, SoW Vol 2 no 16 December 31, 1911 p3-4] [key] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 19 Oct In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke of healing. God is the Great Compassionate Physician Who Alone Gives True Healing. [PT19-21, ABF87-89; SoW Vol 2 No 16 December 31, 1911 p4] [key] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 20 Oct In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke of the relationship between East and West, The Need for Union Between the Peoples of the East and West. [PT21-22,ABF89-90]
  • The evening talk was given at the Dreyfus-Barney home. God Comprehends all: He Cannot be Comprehended. [PT23-27, ABF9295]
  • The talk, The Sun of Truth, shown as being given on the 22nd of October, was perhaps delivered this day. [PT20-33, ABF100-102] [key]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 21 Oct News of the Battle of Benghazi (17 October) was headline news. It was one of the opening salvos of the Turko-Italian War and began on the 17th of October when Italian invasion forces began their bombardment of the Turkish garrison. The Turks were forced to abandon the city and there were many lives lost, Italians, Turks and civilians.
  • His talk, The Pitiful Causes of War, and the Duty of Everyone to Strive for Peace. [ABF96-100 PT28-30; Colonialism, Nationalism and Jewish Immigration to Palestine: Abdu´l-Baha's Viewpoints Regarding the Middle East by Kamran Ekbal p18]
  • See as well SoW Vol 2 No 14 November 23, 1911 p5 for His talk on the Battle of Benghazi.
  • The talk was attended by Remi de Gourmont, literary critic, essayist, poet and writer. The following day his editorial, "Le Béhhaïsmie: les idées dujour" was published in the newspaper Le France. [ABF95n287, 98] [key]
  • Paris; France; Benghazi; Libya; Turkey; Italy Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; War (general); History (general); Peace; Remy_de_Gourmont; Imperialism/colonialism
    1911 23 Oct In the morning He gave a talk, The Light of Truth is now Shining Upon the East and West. [PT33-35; ABF103-104; SoW Vol 2 No 16 December 31, 1911 p5] [key] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 24 Oct In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk, The Universal Love. [PT3539, ABF104-108] [key] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 25 Oct In the morning He spoke of His imprisonment. The Imprisonment of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [PT39-41; ABF108-109; SoW Vol 2 No 16 December 31, 1911 p6] [key] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 26 Oct In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk at His apartment. God's Greatest Gift to Man. [PT41-43]
  • A different version of the same talk was recorded by Mary Hanford Ford. [ABF111-112]
  • In the evening 'Abdu'l-Bahá was driven to 59, avenue de La Bourdonnais by Hippolyte Dreyfus where He spoke at the Société théosophique of Paris. This talk was reported in a number of French newspapers and was published in Talks by Abdul Baha Given in Paris p117-124. [ABF1113-118] [key]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 27 Oct In the afternoon 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk at His apartment on the relation between God and man entitled, The Clouds that Obscure the Sun of Truth. [ABF1118-119, PT43-45]
  • A second talk was given at His apartment, The Benefits of God to Man. [ABF120-121, PT49-51].
  • In the evening He spoke at the Dreyfus-Barney home. He spoke about how religious leaders have mislead their congregations into denying the divinity of other Manifestations. Religious Prejudices. [ABF121-124, PT45-49] [key]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 28 Oct 'Abdu'l-Bahá's morning talk at His apartment was on the theme that God was the creator of all existence and therefore all men are as brothers. It was named, Beauty and Harmony in Diversity. [ABF125-126, PT51-54] [key] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 29 Oct The title for 'Abdu'l-Bahá's morning talk was Worldly riches do not help Spirit. [ABF133, SoW vol 2 no 16 p4-5]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá was invited to dinner at 29, rue Brézin, the home of Madeleine Jenny Sacy, the widow of French Bahá'í Gabriel Sacy (1858-1903). He had known Sacy in Egypt where he died unexpectedly. Sacy had been a Syrian Christian who, upon becoming a Bahá'í had a remarkable faculty for interpreting the prophecies of the Old and New Testaments. Colonialism, Nationalism and Jewish Immigration to Palestine: Abdu'l-Baha's Viewpoints Regarding the Middle East by Kamran Ekbal. p7 says that he carried messages from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to Leo Tolstoy in 1901.
  • That same day He spoke at the home of the sister of Hippolyte Dreyfus, Yvonne and Paul Mayer May at 21, boulevard Beauséjour. [ABF135] [key]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Gabriel Sacy
    1911 30 Oct His morning talk was titled The True Meaning of the Prophecies Concerning the Coming of Christ. [ABF136-139, PT54-57] [key] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 31 Oct 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke at His apartment on the theme of The Holy Spirit, the Intermediary Power between God and Man. [ABF139-141, PT57-59] [key] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 1 Nov His talk this day, the Feast of All Saints, was The Two Natures in Man. [ABF143-144, PT60-62] [key] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 2 Nov 'Abdu'l-Bahá's morning talk in His apartment concerned Material and Spiritual Progress. [ABF146-149, PT62-64] [key] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 3 Nov The morning talk in His apartment was on The Evolution of Matter and Development of the Soul. [ABF149-151, PT64-67]
  • The Persian students who had been frequent visitors paid one last visit before departing for their place of study.
  • In the evening He spoke at the Dreyfus-Barney home on the evolution of matter and the development of the soul. [ABF152] [key]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 4 Nov In the morning at His apartment 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke about The Spiritual Meetings in Paris. [PT67-68, ABF152-153] [key] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 5 Nov 'Abdu'l-Bahá delivered an address entitled The Two Kinds of Light. [ABF155-156, PT68-70] [key] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 6 Nov This morning's talk at His apartment was Spiritual Aspiration in the West. [ABF161-163, PT70-72]
  • In the evening He spoke at the studio of Edwin and Josephine Scott at 17, rue Boissonade, American artists living in Paris. The lecture has been called Lecture Given at a Studio in Paris. [ABF163-165, PT72-74]
  • Another version of the lecture, this time entitled, Aims and Ambitions of Bahaies: Spoken by Abdul Baha in Paris, November 6th, 1911 was published in Star of the West. It was submitted by Madame d'Ange d'Astre, considered to be the first French Bahá'í from a Catholic background. [SoW Vol 2 no 14 23 November 1911 p15; SYH46] [key]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour the first French Bahá'í from a Catholic background
    1911 7 Nov His morning talk was on Bahá'u'lláh. [ABF165-169, PT75-79] [key] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 8 Nov His morning talk at His apartment was Good Ideas Must Be Carried into Action. [ABF169-170, PT79-81] [key] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 9 Nov The morning talk at 4, avenue de Camoëns was on The True Meaning of Baptism by Water and Fire. [ABF171-172, PT81-83]
  • In the afternoon He was invited to speak to the Alliance Spiritualiste at Salle de l'Athénée, 21, rue du Vieux-Colombier. Discourse at "l'Alliance Spiritualiste was the title given to His talk. The meeting was attended by about 40 people. Spiritualism was a religion founded in part on the writings of the Swedish mystic Emmanuel Swedenborg (1699-1772). [PT83-88; SoW Vol 2 No 17 Janurary 19, 1912 p2; SYH41] [key]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Emmanuel Swedenborg
    1911 10 Nov In the morning He gave a talk at His apartment on the The First Principle—Search after Truth. [PT135-137; ABF180-181, SoW Vol 3 no1 p3-4]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk later entitled The Evolution of the Spirit at 15 Rue Greuze, Paris, the home of the Dreyfus-Barneys. [Paris Talks p88-94; ABF182-186] [key]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1911 11 Nov In the morning at His apartment, 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk on The Second Principle—The Unity of Mankind and the third principle, that religion should be the cause of love and affection. [ABF186-191; PT138-141]
  • In the afternoon He visited the art exhibition Salon d'automne at the Grand Palais. The theme that year was decorative arts. He would have seen the works of some of France's top furniture designers.
  • In the evening he attended a reception at the home of the operatic composer Herman Bemerg. [ABF188-189] [key]
  • Paris Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1911 12 Nov In His apartment at 4 avenue de Camoëns, 'Abdu'l-Baha gave a talk on The Fourth Principle—The Acceptance of the Relation between Religion and Science. [ABF191-193; SoW Vol 3 No 1 21 March 1921 p5; PT141-146] [key] Paris Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1911 13 Nov In the morning 'Abdu'l-Baha gave a talk in His apartment on The Fifth Principle—The Abolition of Prejudices. [ABF193-195; PT146-151] [key] Paris Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1911 14 Nov In the morning in His apartment 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk on The Tenth Principle—Equality of Sex. [PT160-166; ABF196-197; SoW Vol 3 No 2 April 9, 1912 p4-5] [key] Paris Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1911 15 Nov In the morning in His apartment 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke about The Sixth Principle—Means of Existence. [PT151-154; ABF198-200]
  • In another talk on this day He spoke about how He wished the friend to progress spiritually. [PT151-154; ABF200; The Desires and Prayers of ‘Abdu'l‑Bahá] [key]
  • Paris Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1911 16 Nov In the morning in His apartment 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke on The Seventh Principle—Equality of Men. [PT154-155ABF201]
  • He spoke again, presumably in the evening but that talk has not been translated. [ABF201] [key]
  • Paris Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1911 17 Nov In the morning in His apartment at 4 Avenue de Camoëns, He spoke on the theme of non-interference in religion and politics, the ninth principle. [PT157-160; ABF202-204]
  • His second talk for the day was in the home of Hippolyte and Laura Dreyfus-Barney. This talk has been entitled Concerning Body, Soul and Spirit. [ABF205-207] [key]
  • Paris Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1911 18 Nov In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke in His apartment on The Eleventh Principle—The Power of the Holy Spirit. [PT163-166; ABF209-210; SoW Vol 3 No 2 April 9, 1912 p6-7]
  • In the evening He spoke in the home of Monsieur Dreyfus. The talk has been entitled "Involvement of the faithful in political life, and showing justice in all walks of life. ['Abdu'l-Bahá Speaks] [key]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1911 19 Nov In His morning talk 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke about spiritual brotherhood and strongly condemned the war then being fought in Tripolitania. [The Bahá'ís Must Work with Heart and Soul to Bring About a Better Condition in the World; PT99-101] [key] Paris Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1911 19 or 20 Nov 'Abdu'l-Bahá's talk on this day may have been a response to the attack on the Faith made three days earlier at the meeting of the French Anti-Masonry League. In 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Paris Jan Jasion suggests (p. 213) that this talk was a response to an attack on the Bahá'í Faith by Antoine Baumann at the meeting of the French Anti-Masonry League (La Ligue antimaçonnique) on Friday, November 17, 1911, but this supposes that Baumann's words were published at the time or reached 'Abdu'l-Bahá by report. They were later published in La Revue Antimaçonnique for December 1911 – February 1912. [Opposition and its beneficial effects; ABP213-216] [key] Paris Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1911 21 Nov 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke about material and spiritual progress and the tragedy of war. [ABF216-218] [key] Paris Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1911 22 Nov 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk on Pain and Sorrow. [ABF218-220; PT109-112] [key] Paris Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1911 23 Nov 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk on spiritually and virtues. [The Perfect Human Sentiments and Virtues; PT112] [key] Paris Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1911 24 Nov 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke about the press coverage given to a train accident that claimed the lives of some 20 people in Paris the previous day. He compared this to the apparent indifference to the news that 5,000 people had been killed in the bombing in Tripoli as the Turkish-Italian war raged on there. [ABF221-223; The Cruel Indifference of People towards the Suffering of Foreign Races]

    In a comment not in the transcript of the talk in Promulgation of Universal Peace He is recorded as having said that the Italians left their country:

    Paris Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other; Imperialism/colonialism
    1911 25 Nov Further to the criticism that had been directed toward the Faith, 'Abdu'l-Bahá offered words of encouragement. [ABF227-229; We Must Not Be Discouraged by the Smallness of Our Numbers; PT116-118] [key] Paris Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1911 26 Nov 'Abdul-Bahá was invited to speak at Temple du Foyer de l'Ame at 7bis, rue Duval (today rue du Pasteru-Wagner). This was the church established by poet and orator Charles Wagner, a liberal Lutheran pastor who was involved in a movement to unite all the reform Protestant churches. [ABF230; Words Spoken by ‘Abdu'l‑Bahá in Pastor Wagner's Church (Foyer de l'Ame) in Paris; PT119=123; SYH44] [key] Paris Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other; Charles Wagner
    1911 27 Nov 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke in His own apartment in the morning and in the evening at the residence of Edwin and Josephine Scott. Neither of these talks has been translated into English. [ABF235-237] [key] Paris Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other; Edwin Scott; Josephine Scott
    1911 28 Nov In the morning he gave a short talk about the meaning of the spiritual principles on which be had been speaking previously. The talk has been entitled This Great and Glorious Cause [PT167-168; ABF237-238; Eleven Principles; PT127] [key] Paris Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1911 29 Nov In the morning he gave a talk in His apartment. It has not been translated into English.
  • It is possible that the following incident took place that day. A woman came from America to seek out 'Abdu'l-Bahá because her young daughter had told her that Jesus had returned. [ABP238-239; [key]
  • Paris Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1911 30 Nov - 7 Dec It was about this time that 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent four Bahá'ís to Germany to assist with the teaching and the consolidation of the Faith. They were: Lady Blomfield, a Mrs Earl, Mírzá Asadu'lláh-i-Isfáhaání and Mirza Ahmad Sohrab. They remained in Stuttgart until the 7th of December.
  • Lady Blomfield then travelled to Vevey, Switzerland to be with her daughters and to continue working on the collected talks of 'Abdu'l-Bahá for publication. They stayed at the Hôtel Belvedere. [ABF255-256, 275] [key]
  • Paris; Stuttgart; Germany; Vevey; Switzerland Lady Blomfield; Mrs Earl; Mirza Asadullah-i-Isfahaani; Mirza Ahmad Sohrab; Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1911 1 Dec In the evening in the home of Hippolyte and Laura Dreyfus Barney at 15 Rue Greuze 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave His last talk in Paris for this trip. [PT168-172; ABF240-243; SoW Vol 2 No 16 December 31, 1911 p6]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke about the future of Paris. He said that He could see the day when Paris is "bathed in the light of the Holy Spirit". [SYH48] [key]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Laura Clifford Barney
    1911 2 Dec `Abdu'l-Bahá left Paris for Marseilles by train from the Gare de Lyon arriving late in the day. Little is known about His stay in that city save for one talk. [ABF246]
  • See ABF256-260 for some of the places that 'Abdu'l-Baha visited while in Paris for which the visits are undated. Included in the list is His visit to the Senat of the French Republic [PUP72].
  • There are also a number of undated talks and fragments of talks the have been published in a variety of sources. [ABF261-264]
  • See ABF264-268 for a list of persons with whom 'Abdu'l-Bahá had undocumented visits.
  • Paris; Marseilles; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Life of
    1911 6 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk on materialism at a meeting of theosophists, possible at 25, Boulevard Baille. For the text of this talk see ABF247-254. Marseilles; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Theosophical Society
    1911 7 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá departed Marseilles for Egypt on board Le Portugal. It travelled to Beirut via Alexandria and Port Said and reached Alexandria on the 12th of December. [ABF255-256; AB167; GPB280; SBR25]
  • Letter from Ahmad Sohrab. [SoW Vol 2 No 16 December 31, 1911 p9] [key]
  • Marseilles; France; Alexandria; Egypt Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha in Egypt; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Ships
    1911 12 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá arrived in Egypt for His second stay in the country. This sojourn lasts 3 months and 14 days. Eqypt C
    1912 c. Mishkín-Qalam (b.1826, Shiraz, Iran) passed away in the Holy Land. He was buried in the Bahá'í Cemetery Bahjí. [BBD157; EB272]
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • See Memorials of the Faithful #38.
  • He was appointed as one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Haifa Mishkin-Qalam; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Apostles of Bahaullah
    1912 (In the year) The publication of Universal Principles of the Bahai Movement, Social, Economic, Governmental by The Persian-American Bulletin.
  • The original.
  • The pdf.
  • Washington DC; United States Introductory; Persian-American Bulletin
    1912 (In the year) There were about two dozen Bahá'ís in Canada by this year. [BFA2:158] [key] Canada Statistics
    1912 (In the year) By this year at least 70 Bahá'í books and pamphlets had been produced in English. [BBRSM:103–4] [key] Publishing; Translation; Statistics; Publications
    1912 (In the year) Birth of `Alí Muhammad Varqá, Hand of the Cause of God, in Tihrán. Tihran; Iran Varqa, Ali-Muhammad; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Varqa
    1912 (In the year) Mírzá Muhammad-`Alí and his wife were killed in Bárfurúsh (now called Babol), Mázandarán. [BW18:387] [key] Barfurush; Mazandaran; Iran; Babol Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1912 (In the year) Margaret Stevenson was the first believer in New Zealand. [New Zealand Bahá'í News, May 1997]
  • See 11 February, 1941 for biographical information.
  • For a photo see Encyclopedia of New Zealand
  • She was the first New Zealand Bahá'i, and for 10 years from 1912, the only one. When the first New Zealand Bahá'i group formed in 1924, Stevenson was elected its president. Her two sisters also joined the faith. Stevenson remained secretary of the Bahá'i Spiritual Assembly in New Zealand until her passing in 1941.
  • New Zealand Margaret Stevenson; First Bahais by country or area first believer in New Zealand.; first group in New Zealand
    1912 (In the year) The publication of The Brilliant Proof by Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl Gulpáygání in Chicago by the Bahai News Service, 1912. The first edition notes state that it was written December 28, 1911, in Syria, "by the pen of Mirza Abul Fazl Gulpaygan."
  • 239D93 says this book was written by Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl in answer to a London minister's criticism of the Cause.
  • The publication of this book marked the end of an early era of Bahá'í teaching in the West. As 'Abdu'l-Bahá continued his journeys in the United States and Canada, He delivered hundreds of public talks and private addresses which were tailored to Western audiences. The fresh outpouring of teachings which resulted from these encounters produced a new Bahá'í literature of the words of 'Abdu'l-Bahá in the West. Examples include the following: The Promulgation of Universal Peace: Talks Delivered by `Abdu'l-Bahá During His Visit to the United States and Canada in 1912, compiled by Howard MacNutt, (Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1922-25); Paris Talks: Addresses Given by `Abdu'l-Bahá in Paris in 1911-1912 (London: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1912); 'Abdu'l-Bahá in London.
  • Chicago; United States Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Criticism and apologetics; Proofs; Publications; Abdul-Baha, Travels of
    1912 In the year The first publication of the book that has come to be titled Paris Talks initially called Talks by Abdul Baha Given in Paris. Prior to this, in the autumn of 1911, Mornings Spent with Abdul Baha Abbas in London and Paris had been published which, of course, did not include information from His visit the following year.
  • In 1924 the title was changed to The Wisdom of Abdul Baha from Addresses delivered in Paris 1910-1911. Talks by Abdul Baha Given in Paris...with supplementary historical note and introduction was printed in 1936 with the following editions starting in 1945 using the title that is currently used Paris Talks: Addresses Given by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Paris in 1911-1912
  • Counting the initial publication, there have been 19 editions in English including one in Braille and an audio recording. In addition, there have been multiple editions in some 25 other languages. ['Abdu'l-Bahá in France 1911 to 1913 p726-730] [key]
  • Paris Talks (book); First publications; Publications; Translation first publications of Paris Talks.
    1912 3 Jan In Sárí, Mázandarán, a mob attacked houses of Bahá'ís and four Bahá'ís were killed; a few days later another Bahá'í was killed. [BW18:387] [key] Sari; Mazandaran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Persecution, Mobs
    1912 4 Feb Two Bahá'ís were killed in Máhfurúzak, Mázandarán. [BW18:387] [key] Mahfuruzak; Mazandaran; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
    1912 20 Mar 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk on the festival of Naw-Rúz at the Hotel Victoria in Ramleh, a suburb of Alexandria. This translation was released by the Research Department in 2016. In His talk 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke about the importance of the day for the Persian people and for mankind in general. ['Abdu'l-Bahá's Talks] [key] Alexandria; Ramleh (Alexandria); Egypt Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha in Egypt
    1912 25 Mar 'Abdu'l-Bahá ended His second stay in Egypt which lasted 3 months and 14 days. Egypt Abdul-Baha in Egypt
    1912 25 Mar-17 Jun 1913 `Abdu'l-Bahá's second Western tour

    'Abdul'-Bahá and His party embarked from Alexandria on the White Star Line Liner RMS Cedric for New York via Naples. They departed Naples on the 30th of March and made a call at Gibraltar. Three of His party were forced to leave the ship for supposed "medical' reasons. Among them was His grandson, Shoghi Effendi. [AB171; GPB281; ABF274; ABTM50-52; SYH50-51]

  • Boarding in Naples to join Him on the Atlantic crossing were Louisa Mathew and the Woodcock family, Percy, Aloysia and their daughter, May as well as Mr and Mrs Austin from Denver, Colorado. [SYH49, 52; ABPp18n.96] [key]
  • Alexandria; Egypt; Naples; Italy; Gibraltar; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha in Egypt; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Louise Gregory; Percy Woodcock
    1912 11 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá arrived in New York. [AB172; GPB281; APD3-5; SoW Vol 3 No 3 p3; Mahmúd's Diary p38-39]

    As the ship that finally brought "‘Abdu'l-Bahá to the shores of the American continent passed by the Statue of Liberty, He threw His arms wide open in greeting, saying "There is the new world's symbol of liberty and freedom. After being 40 years a prisoner I can tell you that freedom is not a matter of place. It is a condition. Unless one accept dire vicissitudes he will not attain. When one is released from the prison of self, that is indeed a release." [‘Abdu'l-Bahá in Their Midst p.56; SYH54]

  • He remained on board doing interviews with a number of newspapermen. Edward Kinny was called to come on the ship and the rest of those awaiting were told to leave the pier, proceed to the Kinney residence and wait for Him. [Mahmúd's Diary p38-39; DJT233-234]
    • See World Order Summer 1973 p45 for the story of disobedient Juliet Thompson and her friend Marjory Morton who remained behind on the quay to get a glimpse of Him.
  • One of the newspapermen to interview Him was Wendell Phillips Dodge who boarded the SS Cedric at quarantine and interviewed 'Abdul-Bahá coming up the bay. The article he wrote was given to all of the New York newspapers, and, through the Associated Press, was sent, though boiled down considerably, to newspapers throughout the world. See SoW Vol 3 No 3 April 28, 1912 p3 for the article.
  • When asked why He had come to America He said that He had come at the invitation of the peace congresses. [SYH53; MD8]
  • He stayed at the Ansonia Hotel at 2109 Broadway. [Luminous Journey 14:37, SYH55]
  • Talk at the home of Mr. Edward B. (Saffa, or Serenity) Kinney and his wife, Carrie (Vaffa, or Certitude), 780 West End Avenue, New York to some 200 people. This was the first private home in which 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk on His American tour. [PUP3]
  • One of the Persians in the Master's suite had cabled Alice Ives Breed in New York City, about the Master's arrival date. Thus alerted, Ali-Kuli Khan directed the Persian Consul, Topakian (an Armenian businessman), to officially greet ‘Abdu'l-Bahá with full courtesies. Mr Topakian carried this out, and the Master was much pleased with his services. [AY85]
  • During His tour `Abdu'l-Bahá visited 49 cities and made approximately 400 addresses of which 185 were recorded. The combined audience for His talks is estimated to be 90,000 people. [SBBH1:110; Luminous Journey 1:37; 'Abdu'l-Bahá in America 1912-2012]
  • For a chronological list of talks given by `Abdu'l-Bahá while in North America see PUP473–8 or Index.
  • For details of His journey see AB171–339.
  • Ward, 239 Days; Balyuzi, `Abdu'l-Bahá; The Diary of Juliet Thompson; many editions of Star of the West and numerous biographies of Bahá'ís of the time as well as other books carry information about `Abdu'l-Bahá travels and talks.
    He was accompanied by:
    • Sayyid Asadu'lláh Qumí
    • Dr Fareed Amin Ullah, He was a nephew of 'Abdu'l-Bahá and served as his translator during His tour of the West. Because of his disobedience, both he and his father were expelled from the Faith. See AY102-103 and AB230.
    • Mírza Mahmúd-i Zarqání. He was a member of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's entourage for both the Western and European tours. He wrote an account of the travels in a book entitled Kitáb-i Badáyi'u'l-Áthár and called "Mahmúd's Diary" in the English translation. [APD151]
    • Mirza Ahmad Sohrab. He had originally come to the West to assist Mírzá Abú'l-Fadl Gulpaygání in 1901. He remained and worked at the Iranian Consulate until 1912 and during this time he translated much of the correspondence between 'Abdu'l-Bahâ and the Western believers. After the American tour, he returned to the Holy Land. After the passing of 'Abdu'l-Bahá he rejected the authority of Shoghi Effendi and was expelled. [APD155]
  • See video entitled 'Abdu'l-Bahá and New York City.
  • New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other; Ali Kuli Khan; Edward Kinney; Topakian, Mr; Consuls; Mahmuds Diary; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline first private home where he gave a talk was at the Kinney’s
    1912 11 Apr Hippolyte and Laura Dreyfus Barney sailed on the SS Kaiserin Auguste Victoria from Cherbourg for New York to be with 'Abdu'l-Bahá for a few months. [ABF285]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá had invited Louisa Mathew to come to America and accompany Him. [Documentary: 'Abdu'l-Baha's Initiative on Race from 1921: Race Amity Conferences 34:00] [key]
  • Cherbourg; France; New York; United States Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney
    1912 12 Apr Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Howard MacNutt, 935 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, New York, [PUP4]
  • Talk at Studio of Miss Phillips, 39 West Sixty-seventh Street, New York. [PUP7; DJT239; Mahmúd's Diary p39-41]

    In this talk He commented on the actions of Italy in Libya and denounced Itally as a nations that does not follow Christian ideals:

  • New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Howard MacNutt; Imperialism/colonialism
    1912 13 Apr Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Alexander Morten, 141 East Twenty-first Street, New York [PUP9; Mahmúd's Diary p41-42] [key] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
    1912 14 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá spoke from the pulpit of the Church of the Ascension, Fifth Avenue and Tenth Street, New York at the invitation of Percy Stickney Grant who was later reprimanded by his bishop, Bishop Burch, for inviting 'Abdu'l-Bahá, unbaptized, to sit in the red plush Bishop's Chair behind the alter rail. This was in violation of church protocol and created a great controversy. [ABF22, 239D:21–3, PUP11, 239 Days in America Day52; Mahmúd's Diary p43-44; SoW Vol 3 No 3 April 28, 1912 p6]
  • Talk at Union Meeting of Advanced Thought Centers, Carnegie Lyceum, West Fifty-seventh Street, New York. [PUP14] [key]
  • New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches; Abdul-Baha, Talks other; Percy Grant first public address given by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in North America.
    1912 15 Apr Talk at the home of Mountfort Mills, 327 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP16; Mahmúd's Diary p44-45] [key] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Mountfort Mills
    1912 15 Apr The Titanic was the largest steamship ever built. She was 882 feet long, 96 feet wide, displacing 45,000 tons. Her luxurious appointments included a theatre seating 1,200, a church somewhat smaller, a ballroom accommodating 500 couples, beautiful salons, palm courts, gymnasium, bowling alley, tennis court and a swimming pool. She could accommodate nearly 4,000 passengers and carried a crew of 860. She set forth on her first and fatal voyage from Southampton, England, April 10, 1912, the pride of her builders and an admiring world. At 11:40 p. m., Sunday, April 14, she grazed a mammoth iceberg, tore open her hull, and in two and one-half hours sank in 2,000 fathoms, taking over 1,500 souls to a watery grave.—The Editors. [SoW Vol 4 No 12 16 Oct 1913 p210] [key] Titanic
    1912 16 Apr Talk at Hotel Ansonia to Bahá'í Friends of New Jersey, Broadway and Seventy-third Street, New York. [PUP18; Mahmúd's Diary p45] [key] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
    1912 17 Apr Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York, [PUP23; Mahmúd's Diary p46]
  • Talk at Hotel Ansonia, Broadway and Seventy-third Street, New York. [PUP20]
  • New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
    1912 18 Apr Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Marshall L. Emery, 273 West Ninetieth Street, New York. [PUP25; Mahmúd's Diary p46-47] [key] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
    1912 19 Apr Talk at Earl Hall, Columbia University, New York. [PUP29; Mahmúd's Diary p47-48]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá visited The Bowery Mission accompanied by Edward Getsinger and Juliet Thompson as noted in her unpublished Diary. They arrived with two heavy bags of quarters to distribute to the poor and spoke with hundreds of impoverished men. [OPOP165-168, PUP32]
  • He invited Mary William, a rare female journalist who wrote under the name of "Kate Carew". Her signature style was one of scepticism.
  • Bowery; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Columbia University; Abdul-Baha, Talks at universities; Charity and relief work; Social and economic development; Wealth and poverty; Edward Getsinger; Juliet Thompson; Bowery Mission; John Good
    1912 11 - 19 Apr During His time in New York 'Abdu'l-Bahá saw a play by Charles Rann Kennedy called The Terrible Meek about the crucifiction of Christ. He later came to His hotel room to see Him. [Luminous Journey 21:42]
  • At some point Juliet Thompson introduced him to Lebanese poet and artist Khalil Gibran who created a portrait of HIm. [Luminous Journey 22:07]
  • Howard Colby Ives met with Him at His hotel. His description of the account ends with "But life has never been quite the same since." [Portal to Freedom Chapter 2] [key]
  • New York The Terrible Meek (play); Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Kahlil Gibran
    1912 20 Apr During `Abdu'l-Bahá's eleven days in New York He gave 15 formal talks and countless informal one in homes and private studios. He left New York and arrived in Washington DC after a five hour train. He was accompanied by Dr Getsinger, Dr Fareed, Mírzá Valiyu'lláh Nakhjavání and Mahmúd-i-Zarqání. [239D:37–8; AB178; SBR78, APD9; Luminous Journey 18:48]
  • See AY85 for the welcome He received from the Kahn family and others including Mrs Agnes Parson, Mason Remy and Joseph Hannen.
  • John Bosch had travelled from California specifically to see Him. He was given a Persian name by the Master, Núrání (The Luminous). John and Edward Getsinger travelled with the party on the train from New York to Washington. [Mahmúd's Diary p48-49. SYH57]
  • He stayed at the Parsons' home, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, for eight days and gave a talk every afternoon at 5PM. Agnes Parsons had had this home built to accommodate 'Abdu'l-Bahá complete with a room that could hold 150 people. It was unusual for Him and His interpreter to stay in private homes. ['Abdu'l-Bahá in America: 1912-2012; FMH47-48]
  • He gave a talk at Orient-Occident-Unity Conference at the Carnegie Library on Massachusetts Avenue before an audience of 3,000. ‘Abdu'l-Bahá encouraged commercial ties between the United States and Persia. ‘For the Persians there is no government better fitted to contribute to the development of their natural resources and the helping of their national needs in a reciprocal alliance than the United States of America; and for the Americans there could be no better industrial outlet and market than the virgin … soil of Persia. The mineral wealth of Persia is still latent and untouched. It is my hope that the great American democracy may be instrumental in developing these hidden resources and that a bond of perfect amity and unity may be established between the American republic and the government of Persia. May this bond—whether material or spiritual—be well cemented.' [AY48; PUP35; Luminous Journey 31:06; SoW Vol 3 No 3 April 28, 1912 p7, SYH82]
  • Washington DC; New York; United States; Iran Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places; Trains; Business; Agnes Parsons
    1912 21 Apr Talk at Studio Hall, 1219 Connecticut Avenue, Washington, D.C. [PUP37, APD14; SoW Vol 3 No 3 April 28, 1912 p9]
  • Talk at Universalist Church, Thirteenth and L Streets, Washington, D.C. [PUP39; APD16; Mahmúd's Diary p50-54; SoW Vol 3 No 3 April 28, 1912 p10]
  • Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Studio Hall; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches; Abdul-Baha, Talks at other places
    1912 22 Apr Talk at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP43, APD22-24, AY86; Mahmúd's Diary p54-55] Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Arthur Parsons; Agnes Parsons
    1912 23 Apr Harriet Gibbs Marshall (1868-1941) became a Bahá'í while ‘Abdu'l Bahá was visiting the US. It is possible that she heard Him speak on this day as He spoke at both Howard University and in a Black church later that same evening. This was the first occasion since His arrival in America that 'Abdul-Bahá addressed the race issue.
    She was an extremely educated woman for the time, she studied piano, pipe organ, and voice culture at the Oberlin Conservatory of Music and in 1889. Marshall was the first African American to complete the program and earn a Mus.B. degree (Bachelor of Music degree). In 1903 she founded the Washington Conservatory of Music. According to blackpast.org "Marshall's conservatory was a landmark in the history of black education. The Centre sponsored regular concerts for the black community, trained many prominent musical professionals and attracted the nation's most talented musicians as teachers. It remained in operation until 1960." [blackpast.org; Bahá'í Chronicles]
    Washington DC; United States Harriet Gibbs Marshall; Washington Conservatory; Schools; Admiral Peary
    1912 23 Apr Talk at Howard University, Washington, D.C. Howard University had been founded in 1867 to educate the newly freed slaves and by 1912 it was one of the foremost black universities in the country. It is reported that well over a thousand students, faculty members, administrators and guests jammed into the Rankin Chapel as 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke with Louis Gregory standing beside Him. The Howard University Journal, 26 April 1912, published His entire address. [PUP44, APD29, 239Dp40; Mahmúd's Diary p50-54; SoW Vol 3 No 3 April 28, 1912 p14]
    • To recapitulate His talk, `Abdu'l-Bahá emphasized the personal sacrifice of Northern whites for southern blacks in the course of the Civil War, and that African Americans (as the descendants of emancipated slaves) should therefore be grateful to whites in kind. In so saying, `Abdu'l-Bahá invoked history (or a certain view of it) in order to make history—by completing the unfinished work of the Emancipation Proclamation. ['Abdu'l-Bahá's 1912 Howard University Speech: A Civil War Myth for Interracial Emancipation by Dr Christopher Buck p134]
    • See as well TMTW51.
  • Coralie and George Cook arranged for 'Abdu'l-Bahá to speak at Howard University. Both were professors at Howard,, she the Chair of Oratory and he was professor of Commercial and International Law and later the Dean of the School of Commerce and Finance. [AWD70, 165]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá attended a reception at the Khan residence in the Persian embassy where He met Admiral Robert Peary. In the words of Juliet Thompson `Abdu'l-Bahá had told the Admiral, "That `for a very long time the world had been much concerned about the North Pole, where it was and what was to found there. Now he, Admiral Peary, had discovered it and that nothing was to [be] found there; and so, in forever relieving the public mind, he had rendered a great service." [DJT272-273]
  • It was on this occasion, at a dinner for the elite of Washington, that 'Abdu'l-Bahá asked, "Where is Mr Gregory? Bring me Mr Gregory!" when He saw that a place had not been set for him at the dinner table. Khan fetched Mr Gregory and 'Abdu'l-Bahá made a place for him on His right. 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk on the oneness of humankind and Agnes Parsons, who was seated on His left, asked a question about spiritual healing. [SYH59]
  • Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D.C. about the Titanic disaster. [PUP46; SoW Vol 3 No 3 April 28, 1912 p12; YouTube 'Abdu'l-Bahá - Life After Death]
  • Talk to Bethel Literary Society, Metropolitan African Methodist Episcopal Church, M Street, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP49; SoW Vol 3 No 3 pg5] [key]
  • Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at universities; Howard University; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches; Admiral Peary; Ali Kuli Khan; Agnes Parsons first time 'Abdu'l-Bahá addressed the race issue in America
    1912 Apr At some point during his stay in Washington, 'Abdu'l-Bahá was invited to tea by nine year-old Rene Hooper, her widowed mother Marie and their cook, Eurirhra. (In 1908 Herbert Hooper, an architect who had studied at the École des Beaux Arts in Paris and who had accompanied Thomas Breakwell when he returned from his pilgrimage to Paris, died of tuberculosis.) 'Abdu'l-Bahá accepted the invitation on the condition that they invite Black friends as well. They were not from Washington and so the only such person they knew was Louis Gregory so they invited him. As it happened, Eurirhra's family was able to attend and so they had the bounty of serving them as well. [BW20p916; SYH61 Washington DC; United States Herbert Hooper; Rene Hooper; Rene Welsh; Marie Hooper; Eurirhra
    1912 24 Apr Talk at Children's Reception, Studio Hall, 1219 Connecticut Avenue, Washington, D.C. [PUP54; Sow Vol 3 No3 pg7; Mahmúd's Diary p56-59]
  • Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP56, APD37-45] iiiiii
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá visited the home of Alexander Graham Bell. The day before he had visited the Master and invited Him to attend the meeting of the Scientific Society. He then spoke of the importance and the results of science, the greatness of this age and the interdependence of society. The meeting was also attended by Ali Kuli Khan who was asked to relate the history of the Faith by 'Abdu'l-Bahá. At about midnight the table was spread with bread, meat, candies, cookies, fruit and beverages. Although the Master had not yet had dinner, He spoke through Mr Bell to his wife and daughter. [239Days Day 12] [key]
  • Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places; Alexander Graham Bell; Ali Kuli Khan
    1912 25 Apr Talk to Theosophical Society, Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP58; SoW Vol 3 No3 pg22-23, ]
  • Message to Esperantists, Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP60; APD47; SoW Vol 3 No5 Pg7-8]
  • The Turkish Ambassador Díyá Páshá hosted a "royal feast" for 'Abdu'l-Bahá and a number of dignitaries. He gave a short talk afterward. [Mahmúd's Diary p60-61]
  • He gave a talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons. [PUP62, APD46-49; SoW Vol 3 No 5 P7-8, Mahmúd's Diary p59-62]
  • Theodore Roosevelt visited 'Abdu'l-Bahá at the Parsons' home on this date. He was not the President at this time. [MD464n59] [key]
  • Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Theosophical Society; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Abdul-Baha, Talks other; Arthur Parsons; Esperanto; Theodore Roosevelt
    1912 26 Apr 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke at President Taft's All Saints Unitarian Church to the Women's Alliance on the subject of the varieties of light, the effulgence of the Sun of Reality in its original essence, and of the waiting souls with pure hearts who are like unto clear spotless mirrors, whose eyes and ears become enlightened by the appearance of the Sun of Reality. [APD50; 239D45; MD62-64]
  • Before lunch He spoke in the home of John J. White at the invitation of Mrs White. Lunch was taken at the Parsons home with the Turkish Ambassador as a guest.
  • On this day He spoke with the US Treasurer, Lee McClung. [Luminous Journey 30:24]
  • In the early evening He addressed a gathering in the Parsons' home. The subject of the talk was the interpretation of the Old Testament statement concerning the creation of man in the image of God. After the meeting, `Abdu'l-Bahá went for a stroll in a park to recuperate. [APD51]
  • In the evening 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke ing the Memorial Continental Hall in the new national headquarters of the Daughters of the American Revolution on 17th Street, NW, between C and D Streets. He shared the podium with Samuel Gompers, the President of the American Federation of Labor. Gompers made a plea for the women of the working classes and ‘Abdu'l-Bahá drew a parallel between the advancement of women in the West and in the East citing the new building as an example of the power of women.
  • None of His talks for this day has been recorded in The Promulgation of Universal Peace.
  • Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; John J. White; Agnes Parsons; Lee McClung; Orient-Occident Unity
    1912 27 Apr During lunch at the Parsons' home 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke about the proper method of taxation. [APD53-57]
  • For His discourse on taxation see FWU38-43.
  • In the evening there was a grand reception for some 300 people in honour of 'Abdu'l-Bahá on behalf of the Orient-Occident Unity Society. Among the guests and dignitaries are General Adolphus Greely, Admiral Wainwright, a Washington judge, Admiral Peary, a bishop, the chargé d'affaires of Switzerland, a member of Congress, the head of the United States Patent Office, the General Consul, the President of the Peace Congress and others. [MD64-65]
  • Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places; General Adolphus Greely; Wainwright, Admiral; Peary, Admiral; Agnes Parsons; Taxation
    1912 27 Apr - 2 May The Bahá'í Temple Unity held the 4th annual meeting in Chicago. [SoW Vol 2 No 18 February 7, 1912 p8] [key] Chicago Bahai Temple Unity
    1912 28 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá gave private interviews in the morning then called on the Turkish Ambassador, Diya Pasha. [APD56-59] . He spent considerable time with the Turkish ambassador, Zia Pasha while in Washington. [AY86-87; Luminous Journey 36:45]
  • For a list of some of the well-known individuals whom the Khans brought into ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's presence see AY88.
  • During His time in Washington He toured the Library of Congress with the Parsons. He went to the Arlington National Cemetery to pay tribute to the graves of the parents of Agnes Parsons. [Luminous Journey 31:56]
  • At some point during His stay in Washington former president Theodore Roosevelt came to visit 'Abdu'l-Bahá at the Parsons' residence. Mahmud reports that this took place on April 25, after the reception at the Turkish Embassy. [Luminous Journey 34:26; MD]
  • Alice Pike Barney, the influential artist and thespian and an important member of the Washington arts scene, hosted a luncheon and two evening receptions at her studio for 'Abdu'l-Bahá. She had met Him earlier when she accompanied her daughter Laura to Akka in 1905. [Luminous Journey 34:59]
  • Ali Kuli Khan, one of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's former secretaries in Akka and who, by this time was the chargé d'affairs at the Persian Legation, tried to arrange a meeting for 'Abdu'l-Bahá at the White House and for Him to speak to the Congress but scheduling did not work out. He hosted receptions for 'Abdu'l-Bahá and arranged for prominent diplomats to met Him. [Luminous Journey 36:00]
  • At a meeting at the Persian Legation where a meal was being served, 'Abdu'l-Bahá and arranged for the place of honour on His right for African-American lawyer Louis George Gregory. At this time he was a thirty-seven-year-old, Fisk- and Howard-educated African American lawyer from Charleston, South Carolina. He was president of the Bethel Literary and Historical Association, the oldest African American organization in Washington and he was one of the most prominent members of the capital's African American community. Even so, at this time in Washington where one third of the population was Black, it was expected that he would not eat with Whites. [Luminous Journey 38:36; 239Days Day 12]
  • At this time there were only about 15 Black Bahá'ís in the Washington Community and events were not fully integrated following the example in the segregated city. Pauline and Joseph Hannen held integrated gatherings and became proponents of racial integration. [Luminous Journey 42:00]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá left Washington for Chicago. [239D:46; AB184; SBR81]
    • Accompanying Him were Louise Mathew and Mrs Moss, a stenographer. [SYH62]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá arrived in Chicago some 12 hours late due to mechanical failure. [239D:47] [key]
  • Washington DC; Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Ambassadors; Arlington National Cemetery; Louise Gregory
    1912 29 Apr Mírzá Yahyá died in Famagusta. [BBD243; BBR312]
  • He was the younger half-brother of Bahá'u'lláh and a follower of the Báb who conferred on him a high station and leading role in the Bábí community. Later he became an opponent of Bahá'u'lláh. Shoghi Effendi described him as "the arch-breaker of the Covenant of the Báb." GPB165
  • He was known as Azal (Eternity or Pre-eternity) and Subh-i-Azal (Morning of Eternity) and his followers become known as Azalís.
  • He had been deserted by most of his followers and was given a Muslim funeral. [BKG426; GPB233]
  • Years later the sons of Mírzá Yahya and their relatives reconciled themselves to the authority of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [CH237-238] [key]
  • Famagusta; Cyprus Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Covenant-breakers; Cyprus exiles; Births and deaths
    1912 30 Apr Talk at Hull House, Chicago, Illinois where He spoke about racial unity. Hull House was a immigrant community centre, one of the earliest in Chicago, founded by Jane Addams of the National American Woman Suffrage Association. [PUP67, MD70; ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's Historic Meeting with Jane Addams by Ruth Moffet]
  • Talk at Fourth Annual Conference of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Handel Hall, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP69, MD71]
    • The NAACP's co-founder, writer and civil rights activist W.E.B. Du Bois, was in correspondence with ‘Abdu'l-Bahá and published His talk as well as His photo in the organization's magazine, The Crisis Vol. 4, No. 1 (May, 1912) pp14-16. [BWNS1310; Luminous Journey 45:04] iiiii
    • The website for the current day on-line magazine and a collection can be found in the Smithsonian Museum.
    • His talks in Chicago attracted such prominent Black people as Alain LeRoy Locke, Ida B. Wells and Robert Sengstacke Abbott, the founder of The Chicago Defender, the most influential Black newspaper. [Luminous Journey 45:26]
    • See FMH152 for the story of Grace Ober inviting Dr. Du Bois and 60 others from an NAACP Convention in Pittsburg 6-10 July, 1931, to their tenement flat for tea.
  • In the evening He greeted the closing session of the public meeting of the Bahá'í Temple Unity where more than a thousand people had gathered. After His address he donated 2,000 francs to the Temple Fund. The meeting was held in the Drill Hall, Masonic Temple, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP65, SYH67]
  • Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Conventions, National; Bahai Temple Unity; Abdul-Baha, Talks at other places; W.E.B. Du Bois; National Association of the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP); BWNS
    1912 1 May `Abdu'l-Bahá laid the cornerstone of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in Wilmette. [SYH67-68, CT102; 239D:51; AB186; GPB288, 349; MBW143; Luminous Journey 47:00]
  • Talk at Dedication of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár Grounds. [PUP71]
  • The cornerstone had been offered by Mrs Nettie Tobin, a member of the Women's Teaching Assembly. [AB186]
  • See SYH65-66 for the story of how the Foundation Stone made it to the building site.
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá asked delegates from the various Bahá'í communities and Bahá'ís from different backgrounds each to dig the earth to lay the stone. Corrine True, Lua Getsinger and several other women turned the sod. After the stone had been laid 'Abdu'l-Bahá declared that "The temple is already built." [AB186–7; Luminous Journey 47:00] [key]
  • Wilmette; Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Nettie Tobin; Foundation stones and groundbreaking; Abdul-Baha, Life of; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
    1912 2 May Talk at Hotel Plaza, Chicago, Illinois, [PUP72]
    • Talk to Federation of Women's Clubs, Hotel La Salle, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP74]
    • Talk at Bahá'í Women's Reception, Hotel La Salle, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP77]
    • Talk at Hotel Plaza, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP78]
    • Talk at Hotel Plaza, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP79]
    • A funeral was held for Corrine True's son Davis. Two days later 'Abdu'l-Bahá went to the cemetery and prayed for Davis. [Luminous Journey 49:48, SYH67] [key]
    Chicago Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
    1912 3 May Talk at Hotel Plaza in Chicago. [PUP83]
  • In this talk He said, ""Observe what is taking place in Tripoli: men cutting each other into pieces, bombardment from the sea, attacks from the land and the hail of dynamite from the very heaven itself." and denounced imperialism and colonialism by saying that men conquering other territories in our times are considered by Him to be nothing less than "tyrants" and "murderers", and even worse than wolves. [Colonialism, Nationalism and Jewish Immigration to Palestine: Abdu´l-Baha's Viewpoints Regarding the Middle East by Kamran Ekbal p20]
  • Afterward He gave each child an envelope with a rose petal and invited all of them to Lincoln Park for a photograph. He asked for time alone and walked over to a statue of Abraham Lincoln at which He gazed for a while. [PUP84; Luminous Journey 51:25] [key]
  • Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places; Imperialism/colonialism
    1912 4 May Talk to Theosophical Society, Northwestern University Hall, Evanston, Illinois. [PUP87; Luminous Journey 50:00] [key] Evanston; Illinois; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Theosophical Society; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1912 5 May Talk at Children's Meeting, Hotel Plaza, Chicago, Illinois. [PSBW134–5, PUP91]
  • Talk at Plymouth Congregational Church, 935 East Fiftieth Street, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP93; Luminous Journey 50:15]
  • Talk at All-Souls Church, Lincoln Center, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP97]
  • While in Chicago He revealed a special prayer for America, "O Thou kind Lord! This gathering is turning to Thee..... [Luminous Journey 50:25] [key]
  • Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
    1912 6 May `Abdu'l-Bahá left Chicago, arriving in Cleveland the same day. [239D:57; AB189]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave interviews to reporters at the Euclid Hotel. [Luminous Journey 54:00]
  • Talk at the home of Dr. C. M. Swingle to an audience of forty. [PUP104; SoW Vol. 3, No. 6, pp. 5-6]
  • Talk at Euclid Hall to an audience of some 500 people. [PUP101; SoW Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 29-32.]
  • "The American continent gives signs and evidences of very great advancement; its future is even more promising, for its influence and illumination are far-reaching, and it will lead all nations spiritually." – Abdu'l-Baha, PUP104.
  • Both the Cleveland News and the Cleveland Plain Dealer carried articles on 'Abdu'l-Bahá's approval of marriage between the races. [SYH60] [key]
  • Chicago; Cleveland; Ohio; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1912 7 May `Abdu'l-Bahá left Cleveland for Pittsburgh, arriving the same day. [239D:63; AB189]
  • Martha Root arranged for Him to talk at the Hotel Schenley to 400 people followed by private meetings with leaders of thought. The hotel is now the University of Pittsburgh's Student Union building, known as the William Pitt Union. [PUP105; Luminous Journey 55:00; Schenley Hotel] [key]
  • Cleveland; Pittsburgh; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
    1912 8 May `Abdu'l-Bahá took a morning train from Pittsburgh, arriving in Washington DC that night for His second visit to that city. [239D:64; AB189; SBR81]
  • He and His entourage moved into the apartment of William P. Ripley who had vacated it for this purpose. [APD59-60] [key]
  • Pittsburgh; Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Trains
    1912 9 May `Abdu'l-Bahá spoke to a capacity gathering at the Parsons' home. He noted that religious ministers in Washington were denouncing Him and the Cause. [APD61-63] [key] Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Agnes Parsons; Opposition
    1912 10 May At the instigation of Agnes Parsons, `Abdu'l-Bahá's sat for sketches by prominent English sculptor Theodore Spicer-Simson who made a portrait medallion of the Master. See Medallions for pictures of his work. A second medallion was later designed by another well-known artist, Louis Potter. [Luminous Journey 33:21]
  • In the morning Agnes Parsons took 'Abdu'l-Bahá to the Capitol then to the Washington Monument where they took the elevator to the top.
  • He spoke to a small group in the Parsons' home in the afternoon and at the Studio Hall in the evening. [APD63-66]
  • In The Diary of Juliet Thompson p285 it is reported that 'Abdu'l-Bahá had been horrified by the prejudice He observed against Black people in Washington.
  • Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Abdul-Baha, Talks at other places; Capitol; Washington Monument; Studio Hall; Agnes Parsons; Abdul-Baha, Pictures and portraits; Portraits; Racism
    1912 11 May `Abdu'l-Bahá left Washington for New York City, arriving the same day. [239D:64–5, AB190, APD66-67]
  • Talk at the Hudson Apartment House at 227 Riverside Drive, New York. [PUP111, DJT282] [key]
  • Washington DC; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at other places
    1912 12 May `Abdu'l-Bahá took a ferry to New Jersey then a train to Montclair where He addressed the congregation of the Montclair Unity Church before returning to New York to speak to the International Peace Forum at the Grace Methodist Episcopal Church on West 104th Street, New York where He spoke to 2,000 people. [239D:66; AB191, PUP113, PUP116]

    He used the situation in Libya as an example of the senselessness of war. See Promulgation of Universal Peace p119 and Colonialism, Nationalism and Jewish Immigration to Palestine: Abdu´l-Bahá's Viewpoints Regarding the Middle East by Kamran Ekbal p19-20] [key]

    Montclair; New Jersey; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches; International peace conferences; Peace; Trains; Imperialism/colonialism
    1912 13 May `Abdu'l-Bahá, very unwell, attended a reception and gave a talk to the New York Peace Society at the Hotel Astor where He was the guest of honour. [239D:67; AB192, PUP123, APD67]
  • Various personages paid tribute to Him. The Consul General of Persian, General Topakyan referred to `Abdu'l-Bahá as the Beauty of God and the Glory of the East [Luminous Journey 56:06]
  • In the evening there was a meeting at `Abdu'l-Bahá's residence with people from India and Japan. He spoke to them in detail, saying: "India had a great civilization in former times. That civilization spread from that part of Asia to Syria and Egypt; from Syria it was extended to Greece from whence it found its way to Arabia and Spain. Again, from Spain it spread over most of Europe. The world of man, however, has not yet reached its maturity. The time will come when this material civilization will be infused with divine civilization. Universal peace will be realized and people will become angelic. That will be the time of the world's maturity." [MD] [key]
  • New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other; Peace; Topakyan; India
    1912 14–16 May `Abdu'l-Bahá attended the eighteenth annual Conference on International Peace and Arbitration at Lake Mohonk, presenting the first address during the second session of the conference. [239D:67–9; AB193; ABF15; MD101]
    "His early public references in North America to the purpose of His visit there placed particular emphasis on the invitation of the organizing committee of the Lake Mohonk Peace Conference for Him to address this international gathering." [BWNS1297]
  • The Lake Mohonk Conference on International Arbitration was founded in 1895 and was held annually until 1917 for the purpose of creating and directing public sentiment in favour of international arbitration, arbitration treaties, and an international court. For archives see Swarthmore College Peace Collection.
  • These meetings at Lake Mohonk were instrumental in the creation of the Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague, Netherlands. [Wikipedia]
  • Picture.
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent Zia Baghdadi back to the city to obtain a carpet to be used as a gift for the president of the International Peace Society and His host, Mr Smiley. Baghdadi rode a freight train to New York, awoke the sleeping residents at 2 a.m., boarded the first train for Lake Mohonk, begged to ride on the mail run and arrived just as 'Abdu'l-Bahá was shaking Smiley's hand at 10 a.m. [Luminous Journey 58:00] iiiii
  • See Who Will Bell the Cat: 'Abdu'l-Bahá at Lake Mohonk by Janet Ruhe-Schoen.
  • See "The Cause of Universal Peace: ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's Enduring Impact" by Kathryn Jewett Hogenson. This article looks at the circumstances around ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's participation in the 1912 Lake Mohonk Arbitration Conference and the urgency and timeliness of His message over the subsequent decades. The article also reviews efforts of the Bahá'í community to promote world peace in the decades that followed.
  • See a photo of Lake Mohonk in the article The Cause of Universal Peace; ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's Enduring Impact by Kathryn Jewett Hogenson.
  • Lake Mohonk; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; International peace conferences; Conferences, International; Peace; Abdul-Baha, Talks other; Lake Mohonk Conference on International Arbitration; Peace
    1912 19 May In the morning He spoke at the Church of the Divine Paternity, Central Park West, New York. [PUP126; DJT287]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá traveled to Jersey City to speak in the Unitarian Church, the Brotherhood Church, Bergen and Fairview Avenues, of which Howard Colby Ives is the pastor. [SEBW143; 239D:70–1; AB194, PUP129] [key]
  • Jersey City; New Jersey; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Howard Colby Ives; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches
    1912 20 May Talk at Woman's Suffrage Meeting, Metropolitan Temple, Seventh Avenue and Fourteenth Street, New York. [PUP133] [key] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1912 22 May `Abdu'l-Bahá traveled to Boston, arriving the same day. [239D:71; AB198]
  • He stayed at the Hotel Charlesgate (or Hotel Charles). [Luminous Journey 59:32; MD]
  • That evening the first meeting in Boston was held for the American Unitarian Association Conference at the Tremont Temple Baptist Church, the largest of all of the churches in the region and purported to be the first Integrated church in America. The President of the Republic, Mr Taft, was also a member of this important association. Present at the conference were some 800 Unitarian ministers representing the Unitarian churches in America and Canada. In addition, there were nearly two thousand others assembled. The presiding officer of the meeting was the Lieutenant-Governor of Massachusetts [Robert Luce], who introduced the Master to the audience. [MD] [key]
  • New York; Boston; Massachusetts; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912 23 May The Bahá'ís of Cambridge, Massachusetts, celebrated `Abdu'l-Bahá's birthday at the Breed home with a cake bearing 68 candles. (Significantly, He did not stay for the festivities. He forgave this time, but had forbidden the celebration of His birthday. Six years before He had told Khan and other pilgrims that besides Naw-Rúz, the Holy Days were only for the Báb and Bahá'u'lláh, that His birth on the twenty-second/twenty-third of May was ‘only a coincidence'.) `Abdu'l-Bahá addressed the group on the importance of the Báb at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Francis W. Breed, 367 Harvard Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts. [239D:72; AB199, PUP138; AY89]
  • Before arriving in the early evening, He had proceeded to Worcester and addressed Clark University there. [AY95; Luminous Journey 1:00] [key]
  • Worcester; Cambridge MA; Massachusetts; United States Abdul-Baha, Birth of; Day of the Covenant; Holy Days; Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Abdul-Baha, Talks at universities; Bab, Life of; Clark University; Universities
    1912 24 May Talk at Free Religious Association, or Unitarian Conference, Boston, Massachusetts. [PUP140] [key] Boston; Massachusetts; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1912 25 May Talk at Huntington Chambers, 30 Huntington Ave, Boston, Massachusetts. [PUP143] [key] Boston; Massachusetts; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at other places
    1912 26 May `Abdu'l-Bahá left Boston and returned to New York, arriving in the evening. [239D:73; AB201]
  • Talk at Mount Morris Baptist Church, Fifth Avenue and 126th Street, New York. [PUP147] [key]
  • Boston; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches
    1912 28 May `Abdu'l-Bahá and His party were evicted from their hotel because of the `coming and going of diverse people' and the `additional labours and troubles' caused to the staff. [239D:74]

    Talk at Reception at Metropolitan Temple, Seventh Avenue and Fourteenth Street, New York. [PUP150] [key]

    New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches
    1912 25 May Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP154] [key] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Edward Kinney
    1912 30 May Talk at Theosophical Lodge, Broadway and Seventy-ninth Street, New York. [PUP156] [key] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Theosophical Society; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1912 31 May At the request of William Hoar, 'Abdu'l-Bahá made a trip to Fanwood, New Jersey. He had been invited for a rest and to escape the oppressive heat of New York but He could not stay just to rest. He addressed a meeting at the Town Hall. He showed how the leaders of religion have contributed to the wakening of it foundations. [AB205-206]
  • Talk at Town Hall, Fanwood, New Jersey. [PUP161] [key]
  • Fanwood; New Jersey Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
    1912 1 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá returned to New York. [AB206]
  • He had His first sitting for the portrait painted by Juliet Thompson. [DJT299]
  • He sat for her a total of six times but she could paint in only three of the sessions. The last session was on June 19, 1912.
  • New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Juliet Thompson; Abdul-Baha, Pictures and portraits; Portraits
    1912 2 Jun Talk at Church of the Ascension, Fifth Avenue and Tenth Street, New York at the invitation of Percy Grant. [PUP163, ABF22; SoW Vol 3 No 10 September 24, 1912 p24] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches; Percy Grant
    1912 3 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá traveled to Milford, Pennsylvania. [AB208] [key] Milford; Pennsylvania; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912 4 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá returned to New York. [AB208] [key] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912 8 Jun Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York, [PUP171]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá arrived in Philadelphia. [239D:88; AB209] [key]
  • New York; Philadelphia; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
    1912 9 Jun Talk at Unitarian Church, Fifteenth Street and Girard Avenue, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. [PUP172]
  • Talk at Baptist Temple, Broad and Berks Streets, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. [PUP176]

  • Philadelphia; United States Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches; Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912 10 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá left Philadelphia and returned to New York, arriving the same day. [239D:88; AB211] [key] Philadelphia; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912 11 Jun Talk at Open Committee Meeting, Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP183]
  • Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP183]
  • Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP186]
  • New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Edward Kinney
    1912 12 Jun Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP187] [key] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
    1912 15 Jun Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP189] [key] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
    1912 16 Jun Talk at Fourth Unitarian Church, Beverly Road, Flatbush, Brooklyn, New York. [PUP190]
  • Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Howard MacNutt, 935 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, New York. [PUP194]
  • Talk at Central Congregational Church, Hancock Street, Brooklyn, New York. [PUP197] [key]
  • New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Churches; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Howard MacNutt
    1912 17 Jun Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP204] [key] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
    1912 18 Jun Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP205]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá made a recording of His voice on an "Edison Talking Machine" (a cylinder phonograph). [‘Abdu'l-Bahá's Journey West: The Course of Human Solidarity Fig5.1, AY320]

    An authorized translation of the text of the recording has been made available. See here for more background information.

  • New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Abdul-Baha, Voice recordings of
    1912 19 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá clarified His station as the Centre of the Covenant. It is widely believed that He named New York the `City of the Covenant' on this occasion but no substantiation can be found, however, Shoghi Effendi noted that He did call New York City the "City of the Covenant" (CoF158; GPB288 refer). [239D:93; AB220; BBD55, ABNY51; DJT315-316]
  • This proclamation was made to about 125 people gathered in HIs house at West 78th Street.
  • The text of HIs talk can be found at SoW Vol 5 No 15 December 12, 1914 p227-228. The translation of this talk was done by Dr Ameen Fareed. Notes were taken by "E. C. M." and revised by 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Fareed at Montclair on the 25th of June, 1912. [LGHC410n82] Also see [LGHC165-166].
  • This same day 'Abdu'l-Bahá named Lua Getsinger "Herald of the Covenant" while in Juliet Thompson's studio for the sixth sitting for His portrait. [LGHC157]
    • See 239D:92–93 for a description of this event.
  • It was on this day that Àbdu'l-Bahá received a manuscript from Mirzá Abu'l-Fazl. He had it translated and printed, and called it The Brilliant Proof.
  • New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Covenant, City of; Covenant (general); Lua Getsinger; Juliet Thompson; portrait; Herald of the Covenant
    1912 20 Jun Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP206]
  • ‘Abdu'l-Bahá agreed to a photographic session at the renowned Gertrude Kasebier's Studio. He approved and chose the proofs He liked. [ABNY51; LGHC159]
  • In a talk He stated His intentions to hold a Unity Feast. [SoW Vol 3 No 10 September 8, 1912 p23-24] [key]
  • New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
    1912 21 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá arrived in Montclair, New Jersey for a 9 day stay. [239D:97; AB221] [key] Montclair; New Jersey; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912 23 Jun Talk at Montclair, New Jersey. [PUP210]
  • Lua Getsinger, Juliet Thompson and Georgie Ralston, in defiance of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's wishes, joined Him at Montclair. He had asked Lua to go to California again to prepare the ground for His arrival. To delay her departure she removed her shoes and stockings and walked through poison ivy. 'Abdu'l-Bahá prescribed an apple and a pomegranate for her recovery and two days later her feet and legs had returned to normal. Their next ploy was to tell 'Abdu'l-Bahá that she couldn't go because He had asked Juliet to paint her portrait and she had to stay for the sitting. This brought only laughter from 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [DJT211-312; LGHC159-161] [key]
  • Montclair; New Jersey; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1912 29 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá hosted a Unity Feast in the Evergreen Cabin at the Wilhelm properties in West Englewood, New Jersey. [239D:102; AB223, PUP213]
  • For pictures of this event see 239D:100–1.
  • Some years later, in 1953, Curtis Kelsey helped to rebuild and enlarge Evergreen Cabin, built on the spot where 'Abdu'l-Baha was host at the first Unity Feast in America. [BW15p470]
  • See Shoghi Effendi's comments to Roy Wilhelm about West Englewood, 14 November 1932. [BN No 80 January 1934 p5]
  • A Brief History of Roy Wilhelm and the Annual Souvenir Unity Feast of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá by Joel Nizin.
  • West Englewood; New Jersey; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Unity Feast; Roy Wilhelm; Evergreen cabin
    1912 30 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá returned to New York after visiting Mr Topakyan, the Persian Consul General, in Morristown. [239D:103; AB225–6] [key] New York; Morristown; New Jersey; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Topakian, Mr; Consuls
    1912 1 Jul Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP216]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke on the subject of poverty and the alleviation of the discrepancy between the rich and the poor.
  • Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP218] [key]
  • New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Wealth and poverty
    1912 5 Jul Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York, the home of Howard MacNutt. [PUP218]
  • Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP220]
  • On this occasion 'Abdu'l-Bahá assigned Howard the task of deepening a group of Chicago Bahá'ís on the importance of the Covenant and instructing them not to associate with Covenant-breakers. Howard failed to complete this task and continued correspondence with associates of Kheiralla. For more information see this date.
  • New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Howard MacNutt; Covenant-breakers
    1912 6 Jul Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP225] [key] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
    1912 6 Jul In obedience to 'Abdu'l-Bahá Lua Getsinger departed New York for California to prepare for His coming or as "just a bugler in the army of the Lord" as she stated her mission. [LGHC161-162] [key] California; New York; United States Lua Getsinger; Travel teaching
    1912 14 Jul Talk at All Souls Unitarian Church, Fourth Avenue and Twentieth Street, New York. [PUP228] [key] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches
    1912 15 Jul Talk at Home of Dr. and Mrs. Florian Krug, 830 Park Avenue, New York. [PUP236]

    Mahmud has dated this visit to the Krug home at 14 July. [MD169-170]

  • Dr Krug was opposed to the visit of 'Abdu'l-Bahá however Grace was determined to have 'Abdu'l-Bahá visit their home. Immediately upon meeting 'Abdu'l-Bahá all opposition melted. [WMSH64; AY113]
  • After speaking in the Krug home ‘Abdu'l-Bahá summoned their son Carl Krug (probably Charles) to ride home with Him. Seated in the taxicab, He instructed Carl to write what He was about to say. Then ‘Abdu'l-Bahá said: "You must be very grateful to your mother—you must appreciate her greatly—you do not realize her station now or what a great honour she has bestowed on your household. She will be one of the famous women of America. You must appreciate and love her very much. All will know of her servitude." [BW8p676] Note: This reference has dated this event as the 2nd of June. It is likely that it took place on the 15th of July.
  • See AY112-113 for the story of Dr. Florian Krug and his second wife, Grace.
  • New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Florian Krug
    1912 21 Jul 'Abdu'l-Bahá received an invitation from the Consul General of Turkey. He took the ferry then a tram to travel to the Consul General's house. The meeting was attended by a number of prominent men and statesmen. The Consul's brother-in-law requested permission to take His photograph.
  • In the evening he was invited by the Armenian Memorial Society to attend a gathering at which He spoke. The talk was not recorded because Mahmud arrived late to the meeting. [MD175] [key]
  • New York; NY Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks to ethnic groups; Armenians
    1912 23 Jul `Abdu'l-Bahá left New York, arriving in Boston the same day for His second visit. [239D:117; AB233]
  • Talk at Hotel Victoria, corner of Newbury and Dartmouth Sts, Boston, Massachusetts. [PUP238]
  • For an interesting story about Nancy Douglas Bowditch see Wikipedia.
  • Also see The Artist's Daughter: Memoirs, 1890 - 1979 the autobiography of Nancy Douglas Bowditch.
  • New York; Boston; Massachusetts; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places; Nancy Douglas Bowditch
    1912 24 Jul Talk to Theosophical Society, The Kensington, Exeter and Boylston Streets, Boston, Massachusetts. [PUP239] [key] Boston; Massachusetts; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Theosophical Society; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1912 25 Jul Talk at Hotel Victoria, Boston, Massachusetts. [PUP244]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá left Boston and arrived in Dublin, New Hampshire, the same evening. [239D:117; AB233; SBR82, APD72-73]
  • In 2012 the Dublin Inn was purchased and donated to the national Bahá'í community by Gisu Mohadjer Cook, a World Bank executive and daughter of Hand of the Cause of God and Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Rahmatu'lláh Muhájir.
  • Dublin; New Hampshire; Boston; Massachusetts; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places; Gisu Mohadjer Cook; Rahmatullah Muhajir
    1912 26 Jul `Abdu'l-Bahá's and His companions took up residence at one of the two Parsons home in Dublin, NH, a resort area. The house in question is named "Day-Spring". [APD7376]
  • See FMH49.
  • Dublin; New Hampshire; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Agnes Parsons
    1912 28 Jul `Abdu'l-Bahá's spoke at the Parsons home. [APD79-80]
  • See 239 Days.
  • Dublin; New Hampshire; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
    1912 4 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke to a group of 28 black people on the importance of unity and friendship between the races and announced that Louise Mathew and Louis Gregory were to be married. [SYH71]
  • Mahmúd, page 189-190 stated that this event took place on the 2nd of August.
  • Dublin; New Hampshire; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Life of; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Louise Mathew; Louis Gregory; Louise Gregory
    1912 5 Aug Talk at Dublin Inn, Dublin, New Hampshire. [PUP245] [key] Dublin; New Hampshire; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
    1912 6 Aug Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, Dublin, New Hampshire. [PUP247] [key] Dublin; New Hampshire; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Arthur Parsons
    1912 11 Aug Howard Colby Ives visited 'Abdu'l-Bahá at an inn where He was staying in the mountain summer resort of Dublin, New Hampshire. At this time he was still the preacher of the Brotherhood Church and was studying all available literature on the Faith. Subsequent to the visit he received his first tablet from 'Abdu'l-Baha dated the 26th of August. [PtF124-131; SEBW144] [key] Dublin; New Hampshire Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha; Howard Colby Ives
    1912 16 Aug `Abdu'l-Bahá journeyed to Green Acre by car, arriving the same day. [239D:123; AB240]
  • Talk at Green Acre, Eliot, Maine. [PUP253]
  • For `Abdu'l-Bahá's activities while in Green Acre see AB240–51.
  • For the story of Fred Mortensen see 239D:126–9 and AB247–51.
  • See also Green Acre on the Piscataqua.
  • Eliot; Maine; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Cars; Fred Mortensen; Abdul-Baha, Talks other; Green Acre
    1912 17 Aug Talk at Green Acre, Eliot, Maine. [PUP261]
  • Talk at Green Acre, Eliot, Maine. [PUP263]
  • Talk at Green Acre, Eliot, Maine. [PUP264]
  • Talk at Green Acre, Eliot, Maine. [PUP270]
  • See a photo of Eirenion Hall, built in 1897, where 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a number of talks. It was lost in a fire in 1924
  • Eliot; Maine; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Green Acre; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1912 22-27 Aug The International Moral Education Congress was an international academic conference held in Europe six times between 1908 and 1934. It convened because of an interest in moral education by many countries beginning a decade before the inaugural event.

    The Second Congress was held at The Hague, August 22–27, 1912. Twenty-three countries sent official government delegates. Over 1,000 members were officially enrolled for the congress. Over 200 papers of some 2,000 words each were contributed and appeared in the five published volumes of more than 1,200 pages. [Wikipedia]

    From Alexandria, Egypt, 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent a paper called Universal Education.

    The Hague; Netherlands; Alexandria; Egypt Peace; Education; Moral education; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha in Egypt; Abdul-Baha, Life of
    1912 23 Aug `Abdu'l-Bahá arrived in Malden, Massachusetts, for a week-long stay, making trips to Boston and Cambridge. He stayed in the home of Miss Marie P. Wilson [239D:131; AB251–2; BW5p84; Abdu'l-Bahá in America 1912-2012]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá spent a total of 10 days in the house of Miss Wilson. Upon her passing in 1930 she willed the house to Shoghi Effendi and he asked the National Assembly to manage the property on his behalf. On the 27th of September, 1935 he executed a deed of trust transferring the property to the Trustees for the benefit of the NSA. [BW7p84]
  • At some point during the visit He attended the wedding of Ruby Breed, the younger sister of Florence Breed. The wedding was held in the Breed home and was presided over by an Episcopalian minister. [AY96] [key]
  • Malden; Massachusetts; Boston; Cambridge; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Weddings
    1912 25 Aug Talk at the New Thought Forum, Metaphysical Club, Boston, Massachusetts about women's rights. [PUP276, 239Dp131] [key] Boston; Massachusetts; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1912 26 Aug Talk at Franklin Square House, Boston, Massachusetts. [PUP280] [key] Boston; Massachusetts; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1912 27 Aug Talk at Metaphysical Club, Boston, Massachusetts. [PUP284] [key] Boston; Massachusetts; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1912 29 Aug Talk at Home of Madame Beale Morey, 34 Hillside Avenue, Malden, Massachusetts. He spoke on "Religions of the World". [239Dp132, PUP289] [key] Boston; Massachusetts; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
    1912 30 Aug `Abdu'l-Bahá left Malden for Boston. He left Boston by train for Montreal, arriving at midnight. [239D:132; AB132; BW8:637]
  • He stayed in Montreal for ten days, living for four nights at the Maxwell residence. [239D:132]
  • See also `Abdu'l-Bahá in Canada.
  • Malden; Boston; Montreal; Canada Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Trains; Maxwell residence; Montreal Shrine; Abdul-Baha in Montreal; May Maxwell (Bolles); Sutherland Maxwell
    1912 1 Sep 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk at the Church of the Messiah, corner of Simpson and Sherbrooke Sts in Montreal. (Architects: The Maxwell Bros. Built 1907, destroyed by fire 1937) [PUP297]
  • Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. William Sutherland Maxwell, 716 Pine Avenue West, (now 1548 avenue des Pins, ouest) Montreal, Canada. [PUP302]
  • Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. William Sutherland Maxwell, 716 Pine Avenue West, (now 1548 avenue des Pins, ouest) Montreal, Canada. [PUP306] [key]
  • Montreal; Quebec; Canada Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; May Maxwell (Bolles); Sutherland Maxwell; Abdul-Baha in Montreal
    1912 2 Sep Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. William Sutherland Maxwell, 716 Pine Avenue West, (now 1548 avenue des Pins, ouest) Montreal, Canada. [PUP308] [key] Montreal; Canada Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; May Maxwell (Bolles); Sutherland Maxwell; Abdul-Baha in Montreal
    1912 5 Sep Talk at St. James Methodist Church, 463 Saint Catherine Street, West, Montreal, Canada. [PUP312]
  • See the film Abdu'l-Bahá in Canada.
  • Montreal; Canada Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches; Abdul-Baha in Montreal
    1912 9 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá was taken to the Grand Trunk Railway station where departed Montreal on His way to Buffalo arrived in Buffalo by train from Montreal. [239D:139; AB265] [key] Montreal; Canada; Buffalo Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Trains; Abdul-Baha in Montreal
    1912 12 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá left Buffalo for Chicago, passing by Niagara Falls and arriving at about 8PM at the LaSalle Station where He was received by the awaiting friends. Among them was Saichiro Fujita. [239D:142; MD257-259]
  • He went to the home of Corinne True by automobile. [239D:142; AB266] [key]
  • Buffalo; Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Corinne True
    1912 13 Sep The True home was inundated with visitors and among them, a group of black believers. 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk in the evening. The three large rooms on the ground floor were filled to capacity and He walked from room to room as He spoke. [MD260-262] [key] Chicago Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Corinne True
    1912 14 Sep In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá walked along the shores of Lake Michigan. In the afternoon He spoke to the Theosophical Society to a rousing response.
  • For pictures of outing in Lincoln Park see the photos between pages 278 and 279 of Mahmúd's Diary.
  • Chicago Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Corinne True
    1912 15 Sep In the morning`Abdu'l-Bahá spoke to Dr. William Frederick Nutt, a friend of Kheiralla. (Nutt later broke the Covenant) Observers say that both Dr. Nutt and the interpreter were left trembling after He made his remarks.
  • Shu'á'lláh, son of Mírzá Muhammad-'Ali was in America at the same time. The previous May he had written to the Kenosha Evening News decouncing 'Abdu'l-Bahá and proposing a meeting between himself and 'Abdu'l-Bahá to settle their differences. In July Kheiralla had written to the same newspaper in support of Shu'á'lláh. [MD264n277]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá, his party of six plus Fujita departed to Kenosha but they missed their train. He told His fellow travellers not to be concerned over this, as there would be a good reason for it; travelling on the next train they come across the wreckage of the first, which has been in a collision. [239D:145; AB267]
  • Upon arrival they were taken to the hall of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár where they were served lunch. After lunch they went to the home of Mrs Henry Goodale.
  • In the evening He spoke at the Congregational Church on the unity of the Manifestations. [MD226] Now called First Congregational Church of Kenosha, 5934 8th Avenue. ['Abdu'l-Bahá in America 1912- 2012] [key]
  • Chicago; Kenosha; Wisconsin; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Trains
    1912 16 Sep In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá departed for Chicago
  • He gave a talk at Home of Mrs. Corinne True, 5338 Kenmore Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. The subject of this talk was The Covenant. [PUP320]
  • In the evening He told His party to pack and move to the hotel. [MD268] [key]
  • Kenosha; Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Corinne True
    1912 17 Sep Mírzá 'Alí-Akbar Nakhjavání arrived from Malden and was allowed to join the group along with Fujita. [MD270]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá and entourage left Chicago for Minneapolis at 10AM. The date of His departure was probably the 16th [239D:146; AB273] however, Muhmúd gives it as the 17th. [MD268]
  • They arrived late in the evening and stayed at the Plaza Hotel. [MD271] [key]
  • Chicago; Minneapolis Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Ali Akbar Nakhjavani; Fujita
    1912 20 Sep Talk at Home of Mr. Albert L. Hall, 2030 Queen Avenue South, Minneapolis, Minnesota. [PUP325]
  • Talk at Home of Dr. and Mrs. Clement Woolson, 870 Laurel Avenue, St. Paul, Minnesota. [PUP329]
    • For more information on Clement Woolson see his Find a grave eulogy.
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá left Minneapolis for Omaha, Nebraska, arriving the same night. [239D:20]
  • AB279 says this was 21 September.
  • Omaha; Nebraska; Minneapolis; Minnesota; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
    1912 21 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá visited Omaha, left at midnight and arrived three hours later in Lincoln, Nebraska. [239D:151]

    News reached Àbdu'l-Bahá of the impending conflict in the Balkan Peninsula. [Àbdu'l-Bahá in America

    Omaha; Lincoln; Nebraska Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912 22 or 27 Sep The marriage of Louis G. Gregory and Louisa ("Louise") A. M. Mathew, the first interracial Bahá'í couple, who met while on pilgrimage and whom 'Abdul-Bahá had encouraged to marry. They exchanged Bahá'í vows after the rites performed by Rev. Everard W. Daniel, curate of St. Philip's Protestant Episcopal Church, perhaps the most prestigious African American church in the country, in a private ceremony in his residence. In a "Tablet" (translated March 14, 1914). She was 46 and he was 8 years younger. [SYH73-75, 91]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá lauded the Gregorys' marriage as "an introduction to the accomplishment" of harmony between the races. [`ABDU'L-BAHÁ' S 1912 HOWARD UNIVERSITY SPEECH: A CIVIL WAR MYTH FOR INTERRACIAL EMANCIPATION p117 by Dr Christopher Buck]
  • See The Journey West.
  • The prayer, "Verily, they are married in obedience to thy command. Cause them to become the signs of unity and harmony until the end of time..." was revealed for their wedding by 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [FMH97]
  • "Intermarriage is a good way to efface racial differences. It produces strong, beautiful offspring, clever and resourceful." [sYH7]
  • [239D:169] reported this marriage took place on the 27th of September.
  • At this time interracial marriage was legal in Washington but not socially acceptable. It was outlawed in 25 states. It wasn't until 1967 that legislation forbidding interracial marriages was henceforth illegal. In the Washington community at this time there were white Bahá'ís who did not yet understand the principle of racial unity. [SYH80, 85-86]
  • "I made that marriage." 'Abdu'l-Bahá is reported having said to Mrs Parsons. "I wish the white and coloured races to marry"
  • New York; United States Marriage; Louis Gregory; Louisa Mathew Gregory; Firsts, Other; Race (general); Unity; Interracial marriage; Weddings; Louise Gregory the first interracial Bahá’í couple
    1912 22 Sep While passing through Lincoln, Nebraska 'Abdu'l-Bahá's intention was to return the visit of William and Mary Bryan who had met Him in Akka in 1906. Upon telephoning they learned that Mr Bryan was not at home but Mrs Bryan invited Him to their home for tea. (Mr Bryan was on a campaign tour for the future president, Woodrow Wilson. Bryan later become his Secretary of State.) [MD281; 239D152; ABW74; SoG221] iiiii Lincoln; Nebraska William Jennings Bryan; Mary Elizabeth Baird; Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912 23 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá arrived in Denver in the afternoon. [239D:152; SoG221-222; MD282-283] [key] Denver; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912 24 Sep Talk at Home of Mrs. Roberts Denver, Colorado. [PUP334] [key] Denver; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
    1912 25 Sep Talk at Second Divine Science Church, 3929 West Thirty-eighth Avenue, Denver, Colorado . [PUP337] [key] Denver; Colorado; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches
    1912 26 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá left Denver and arrived in Glenwood Springs, Colorado. [239D:158] [key] Denver; Glenwood Springs; Colorado; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912 27 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá left Glenwood Springs for Salt Lake City. [239D:159] [key] Denver; Glenwood Springs; Salt Lake City; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912 28 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá arrived in Salt Lake City. [239D:159] [key] Salt Lake City; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912 30 Sep Thornton Chase, the first American Bahá'í, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, passed away in California before 'Abdu'l-Bahá'í and His retinue arrive. He was buried at Inglewood. He had been named Thábit (Steadfast) by the Master. [BBD71; BFA2:XVII]
  • See SoW Vol 3 No 12 16 October, 1912 p1-7 for a tribute to him upon his passing.
  • For a brief biography see Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • See as well Bahá'í Encyclopedia.
  • See "Disciples of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá" . [BW3p84–85; BW4p118–119]
  • See the article Chase, Thornton: The First Bahá'í from the Western Hemisphere by Richard Francis.
  • For a biography see Thornton Chase: First American Bahá'í by Robert H Stockman, Bahá'í Publishing Trust, Wilmette, 2002.
  • During the early years of the Faith in North America the Bahá'ís were unclear about the station of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. There were those who thought Him an ordinary man who had applied the teachings of Bahá'u'lláh flawlessly through His effort. Others believed Him to be the return of Christ. See ABF244-246 for his letter to Wellesly Tudor-Pole on the station of 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • And a draft of a portion of the Stockman book, Love's Odyssey: The Life of Thornton Chase.
  • Upon hearing of his passing 'Abdu'l-Bahá is reported to have said, "This revered personage was the first Bahá'í in America. He served the Cause faithfully and his services will ever be remembered throughout ages and cycles." [SoW Vol 4 No 11 p.189]
  • Photos of the grave of Thornton Chase in Inglewood Park Cemetery.
  • Directions to his grave. Find a grave.
  • His publications:
    • A number of pamphlets, See Bibliography of English-Language Works on the Bábí and Bahá'í Faiths, 1844–1985 by William Collins, George Ronald, Oxford, 1990 page 66-67.
    • In Galilee and In Spirit and In Truth, first published in 1908. This was a record of his pilgrimage. [Collins7.634]
    • The Bahai Revelation, first published in 1909. This book was an introduction to the Faith intended for a Christian audience. [BEL7.629]
  • See the trailer for a film entitled Steadfast-The Thornton Chase Story by Mithaq Kazimi and produced by Sam Baldoni.
  • See the Thornton Chase Website created by the Local Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Inglewood, California and The Thornton Chase Committee to honour the legacy of Thornton Chase.
  • Los Angeles; California; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Thornton Chase; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Cemeteries and graves
    1912 Oct Shoghi Effendi was enrolled in the preparatory school associated with the Syrian Protestant College in Beirut. The 1912-1913 academic year was a turbulent time in the Middle East region because the Italo-Turkish war had spilled over into the area. Owing to the fact that the Syrian Protestant College flew an American flag it had some degree of protection from the warring factions. [PG8-9] [key] Beirut; Lebanon Syrian Protestant College; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1912 1 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá arrived in San Francisco about midnight. [239D:165; AB286] [key] San Francisco; California; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912 3 Oct After the visitation of many friends in the morning, in the afternoon, at the invitation of Mrs Goodall, the Master and friends went to the Golden Gate Park outside of the city where again He met with visitors and answered questions of reporters.. [MD303-304; SoW Vol 4 No 12 October 16, 1913 p206-207] [key] San Francisco; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912 7 Oct Talk to Japanese Young Men's Christian Association, Japanese Independent Church, 576 Sycamore Street, Oakland, California. [PUP343]

    He said in part:

      When we review history from the beginning of human existence to the present age in which we live, it is evident all war and conflict, bloodshed and battle, every form of sedition has been due to some form of prejudice--whether religious, racial or national--to partisan bias and selfish prejudice of some sort. Even today we witness an upheaval in the Balkans, a war of religious prejudice. Some years ago when I was living in Rumelia, war broke out among the religious peoples. There was no attitude of justice or equity whatever amongst them. They pillaged the properties of each other, burning each others' homes and houses, slaughtering men, women and children, imagining that such warfare and bloodshed was the means of drawing near to God. This clearly proved that prejudice is a destroyer of the foundations of the world of humanity, whereas religion was meant to be the cause of fellowship and agreement. The Promulgation of Universal Peace p343
    Oakland; California; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1912 8 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá spoke at Leland Stanford Junior University in Palo Alto. [239D:166 AB288, PUP348; ]
  • There were two thousand in the audience. [AB288]
  • "He spoke to fifteen hundred students". .. [LGHC176] [key]
  • Palo Alto; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at universities; Universities
    1912 8 Oct The start of the the First Balkan War when Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro and Serbia constituting the Balkan League and having large parts of their ethnic populations under Ottoman sovereignty, attacked the Ottoman Empire, terminating its five centuries of rule in the Balkans. The seven-month campaign ended in the Treaty of London (30 May 1913) brokered and mediated by the great powers of Europe, including the United Kingdom, Russia, France, Germany, and Austria-Hungary. They sought to prevent further conflicts in the Balkans and to maintain stability in the region.

    The main provisions included the following:

  • Serbia expanded its territory, gaining control of Kosovo, parts of Macedonia, and northern Albania.
  • Greece acquired southern Epirus, southern Macedonia, Crete, and the northern Aegean islands.
  • Bulgaria received Thrace up to the outskirts of Constantinople (modern Istanbul) and parts of Macedonia.
  • Montenegro also saw territorial gains in northern Albania and Kosovo.
  • Albania was created as an independent state, with the great powers of Europe guaranteeing its sovereignty.
  • The division of Macedonia: The treaty stipulated that the majority of Macedonia would be under the sovereignty of Serbia and Greece, with Bulgaria gaining a smaller portion. This division sowed the seeds of future conflicts and territorial disputes in the region.
  • The deportation of people according to their "ethnical" backgrounds was stipulated in this treaty for the first time in history and was soon to lead to unprecedented atrocities and new forms of racism and racial prejudice committed later in Europe, especially by the Nazis. Unprecedented atrocities were committed by all parties involved and hundreds of thousands of Muslims, mostly Greeks, Bulgarians and Slavs now designated as "Turks", were deported eventually to the Asiatic parts of Turkey, putting an end to Ottoman rule in Southeastern Europe. [Colonialism, Nationalism and Jewish Immigration to Palestine: Abdu´l-Baha's Viewpoints Regarding the Middle East by Kamran Ekbal p16]

    In a talk at the Japenese Independ

  • Balkans; London; United Kingdom Imperialism/colonialism; Ethnic divisions; History (general)
    1912 10 Oct Talk at Open Forum, San Francisco, California [PUP355] [key] San Francisco; California; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
    1912 12 Oct Talk at the synagogue Temple Emmanu-El, 450 Sutter Street, San Francisco, California. [PUP361, ABF408] [key] San Francisco; California; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at synagogues; Interfaith dialogue; Judaism
    1912 13 or 14 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá visited Phoebe Hearst at her estate, at her invitation. [239D:168; AB307]
  • She was estranged from the Faith because one or two individuals had tried to extort money from her but her invitation was sincere. AB307–8] [key]
  • California; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Phoebe Hearst; Hearst estate; Misconduct of believers
    1912 16 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá returned to San Francisco. [AB308; 239 Days] [key] San Francisco; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912 17 Oct 'Abdu'l-Bahá discovered His signet ring was missing and for the rest of His trip He signed, rather than seal, every Tablet He wrote or dictated. [Historical Dictionary of the Bahá'í Faith pg. xxxvii, AY101-102] [key] Oakland; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Rings; Seals
    1912 18 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá left San Francisco for Los Angeles, arriving the same day. [239D:169; AB309]

    Having heard that 'Abdu'l-Bahá was in Los Angeles, Mabel Rice-Wray took children Edris and Colston to the hotel where the Master was staying. They spent over an hour with 'Abdu'l-Bahá in His room. Both Edris and Colston sat on 'Abdu'l-Bahá's knee and were given cookies. Some years later, in response to a letter from their mother, 'Abdu'l-Bahá bestowed the name Rawshan ("brilliance") on Edris, and Ruqi on Colston, and revealed in their honour the well-known prayer for children that begins: "O my Lord! O my Lord! I am a child of tender years. Nourish me from the breast of Thy mercy ... " [Find a grave Edris Rawshan Wray] [key]

    Los Angeles; San Francisco; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, prayers of; Mabel Rice-Wray Ives
    1912 19 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá visited the grave of Thornton Chase in Inglewood. [239D:169; AB309; MD337-339]
  • The purpose of His journey to Los Angeles is to visit the grave of Thornton Chase. [AB309]
  • Upon visiting his grave 'Abdu'l-Bahá is reported to have said "This personage is worthy of having the friends visit his grave. The traces of this personage will ever shine. This is a personage who will not be forgotten. For the present his worth is not known but in the future it will be inestimably dear. His sun will ever be shining, his stars will forever bestow the light. The people will honor this grave. Therefore, the friends of God must visit this grave and on my behalf bring flowers and seek the sublimity of the spiritual station for him and have the utmost consideration for the members of his family. This personage will not be forgotten." [SoW Vol 3 No 13 4 November, 1912 p14]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá is reported to have said:
    "As many times as possible-at least once a year-you should make it a point to visit his tomb, for his spirit will be exhilarated through the loyalty of the friends, and in the world of God will it be happy. The friends of God must be kind to one another, whether it be in life or after death." [SoW Vol 4 No 13 p225] [key]
  • Inglewood; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Thornton Chase; Cemeteries and graves
    1912 20 Oct Shu'áu'lláh, who had been living in Pasadena at the time, had persuaded a newspaper editor to write two misleading articles in which he tried to show that because of his biological relationship he was bound to inherit the station of the Prophets. At a public meeting a reporter pressed 'Abdu'l-Bahá about him and His reply was to quote Christ when asked about His relationship with His brothers. [MD339-340, 490n325]
  • In the evening He gave an address on unity to a large crowd assembled in an auditorium. [MD341] [key]
  • Los Angeles Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Covenant-breakers; Shuaullah
    1912 21 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá left Los Angeles for San Francisco. [AB310] [key] Los Angeles; San Francisco; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912 25 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá left San Francisco for Sacramento and arrived at noon the same day. [239D:171]
  • Talk at Hotel Sacramento, Sacramento, California. [PUP370]
  • San Francisco; Sacramento; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
    1912 26 Oct Talk at Assembly Hall, Hotel Sacramento, Sacramento, California. [PUP376]
  • In His talk 'Abdu'l-Bahá said that, "the greatest need in the world today is international peace," and after discussing why California was well-suited to lead the efforts for the promotion of peace, He exhorted attendees: "May the first flag of international peace be upraised in this state." [The Cause of Universal Peace: 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Enduring Impact by Kathryn Jewett Hogenson]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá left Sacramento for Denver. [239D:172; AB316] [key]
  • Sacramento; California; Denver; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
    1912 28 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá arrived in Denver at midnight. [239D:175; AB316] [key] Denver; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912 29 Oct During a 24-hour stopover in Denver, Àbdu'l-Bahá met Cardinal John Murphy Farley who had come from New York to dedicate the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception on behalf of the Pope. [239 Days website; MD356-357]

    See a provisional translation of a talk Àbdu'l-Bahá gave in Port Said on the 23rd of Jun 1913 on His meeting with the Cardinal.

    In the afternoon He gave a public talk at the home of Mrs Sidney Roberts and in the evening He spoke at the Church of the Messiah. [MD357; 239Days175]

    Denver; USA Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912 30 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá left Denver for Chicago. [239D:175] [key] Denver; Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912 31 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá arrived in Chicago and gave a talk at the Plaza Hotel. The subject of this talk was The Covenant. [239D:176; PUP381].
  • It is likely that 'Abdu'l-Bahá encountered Rabindranath Tagore who was to become a well-known Bengali poet and musician who would reshape Bengali literature and music and be the first non-European to win the Nobel Prize in Literature. [Rabindranath Tagore: Some Encounters with Bahá'ís by Peter Terry; Wikipedia] [key]
  • Chicago; United States; India Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places; Rabindranath Tagore; Bengal Renaissance
    1912 1 Nov Talk at Home of Mrs. Corinne True, 5338 Kenmore Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. The subject of this talk was The Covenant. [PUP383] [key] Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Corinne True
    1912 4 Nov `Abdu'l-Bahá left Chicago and arrived in Cincinnati the same day. [239D:179] [key] Chicago; Cincinnati; Ohio; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912 5 Nov Talk at Grand Hotel, Cincinnati, Ohio. [PUP388]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá left Cincinnati for Washington DC. [239D:179] [key]
  • Cincinnati; Ohio; Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
    1912 6 Nov `Abdu'l-Bahá arrived in Washington DC. [239D:179]
  • Talk at Universalist Church, Thirteenth and L Streets, NW, Washington, D.C. [PUP390]
      In this talk He made reference to the situation in the Balkans:
      "How savage and fearful the ferocity of man against his fellowman! Consider what is taking place now in the Balkans, what blood is being shed. Even the wild beasts and ferocious animals do not commit such acts. The most ferocious wolf kills but one sheep a day, and even that for his food. But now in the Balkans one man destroys ten fellow beings. The commanders of armies glory in having killed ten thousand men, not for food, nay, rather, for military control, territorial greed, fame and possession of the dust of the earth. They kill for national aggrandizement, notwithstanding this terrestrial globe is but a dark world of grossest matter. It is a world of sorrow and grief, a world of disappointment and unhappiness, a world of death.
    • Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches
      1912 7 Nov Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D. C. [PUP397]
        In this talk He made reference to the changing world order:
        "Consider events in the Balkans today where a great conflagration of war is furiously raging and so much blood is being shed. Virtually the whole world of humanity is mourning and lamenting because of the revival of these calamitous conditions. Governments are in the process of change and transformation. The sovereignty of oriental nations is tottering; outcomes are wrapped in the greatest uncertainty."
    • Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D. C. [PUP400] [key]
    • Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Arthur Parsons
      1912 8 Nov Talk at Eighth Street Temple, Synagogue, Washington, D. C. [PUP411]
    • See PG100 where 'Abdu'l-Bahá referred to this talk to illustrate the extraordinary reception He was given during is travels to the West.
    • Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at synagogues; Interfaith dialogue; Judaism
      1912 9 Nov Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D. C .[PUP411]
    • Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D. C .[PUP415]
    • Talk at Bahá'í Banquet, Rauscher's Hall, Washington, D. C. [PUP418] [key]
    • Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Arthur Parsons; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
      1912 10 Nov Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. Parsons, 1700 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D. C .[PUP421]
    • Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Joseph H. Hannen, 1252 Eighth Street, NW, Washington, D. C. 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke of Bahá'u'lláh's faithful Ethiopian servant, Isfandiyar, and his service to the family of Bahá'u'lláh's family while He was in prison in the Síyáh-Chál. [PUP425, 239D181-182]
    • Talk at 1901 Eighteenth Street, NW, Washington, D. C. [PUP428] [key]
    • Washington DC; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Abdul-Baha, Talks other; Arthur Parsons; Joseph Hannen; Isfandiyar
      1912 11 Nov `Abdu'l-Bahá traveled to Baltimore by train and arrived at Camden Station at 11AM. He was accompanied by Dr. Ameen Fareed and Mirza Ahmad Sohrab (interpreters), Mirza Mahmud, Mirza 'Ali Akah, Mirza Valiollah Khan, Dr. Zia Bagdadi, and Saya Assadollah [239D:183; AB329]
    • At noon He spoke at the chapel of the Unitarian Church on the unity of religions and the oneness of God. The chapel was packed with Johns Hopkins University faculty members and many local professional men.
    • After the address he shared lunch at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Struven with more than 50 people.
    • He left Baltimore about 3PM and on his return to New York He passed through Philadelphia, where He met the Bahá'ís on the train platform. ['Abdu'l-Bahá in Baltimore by Allison Vaccaro and Edward E. Bartlett] [key]
    • Baltimore; Philadelphia; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches; Trains
      1912 12 Nov `Abdu'l-Bahá arrived in New York at 1:00 a.m. He and His party stayed at the "Champney House" located on Riverside Drive near the Hudson River at 309 West 78th Street. [AB329]
    • Shoghi Effendi later urged the National Spiritual Assembly acquiring this property as a national executive centre. [MM2p24-25] [key]
    • New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Champney House
      1912 15 Nov Talk at Home of Miss Juliet Thompson, 48 West Tenth Street, New York. [PUP431; PtF147] [key] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Juliet Thompson
      1912 16 Nov Talk at 309 West Seventy-eighth Street, New York. [PUP437] [key] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
      1912 17 Nov Talk at Genealogical Hall, 252 West Fifty-eighth Street, New York. [PUP437] [key] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
      1912 18 Nov `Abdu'l-Bahá visited the library of J. Pierpont Morgan and inscribed his album with a blessing for his philanthropy. [239D:186–7]
    • Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Frank K. Moxey, 575 Riverside Drive, New York. [PUP422] [key]
    • New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; J. P. Morgan Library; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
      1912 18 Nov `Abdu'l-Bahá had instructed MacNutt to meet with a group of potential Covenant-breakers in Chicago and warn them of the danger. He also ordered MacNutt to break all communication with Ibrahim Kheiralla and other Covenant-breakers. He had failed to do as directed. They met in the Kenny's home for the first time since his trip, where `Abdu'l-Bahá advised him that he had violated the Covenant himself and commanded him to repent before a group of New York Bahá'ís gathered there, which he did, reluctantly. [DJT371; AY121] [key] New York; United States Covenant-breakers; Howard MacNutt; Ibrahim George Kheiralla
      1912 23 Nov A farewell banquet was held for `Abdu'l-Bahá at the Great Northern Hotel, 118 West Fifty-seventh Street, in New York. [239D:187; AB331, PUP447]
    • The hotel did not allow the black Bahá'ís to attend. [239D:187] [key]
    • New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
      1912 24 Nov `Abdu'l-Bahá and the white Bahá'ís served the Black Bahá'ís at a dinner at the Kinney's. [239D:187] [key] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Kinney
      1912 26 Nov 'Abdu'l-Bahá had no time to meet with visitors individually in the morning as He was attending to correspondence.
    • In the afternoon at a meeting with some of the friends He spoke about the Covenant and the need for divine Manifestations.
    • In the evening He spoke about man's ability to understand reality using his intelligence. [MD410-411] [key]
    • New York Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
      1912 29 Nov Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP449] [key] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Edward Kinney
      1912 2 Dec Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP452]
    • Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York. The subject of this talk was The Covenant. [PUP453]
    • Star of the West reported that 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke of India on this date although there is no mention of such a talk in Mahmúd's Diary. [SoW Vol 5 No 2 April 9, 1914 p20-21] [key]
    • New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Edward Kinney
      1912 3 Dec Talk at Home of Dr. and Mrs. Florian Krug, 830 Park Avenue, New York. [PUP457; MD420-422]
    • Talk to Mr. Kinney's Bible Class, 780 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP458]
    • Talk at Home of Mr. and Mrs. Edward B. Kinney, 780 West End Avenue, New York. [PUP460] [key]
    • New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes
      1912 4 Dec `Abdu'l-Bahá addressed His last meeting in North America with a talk to Theosophical Society, 2228 Broadway, New York. [239D:193, PUP462] [key] New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Theosophical Society; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
      1912 5 Dec `Abdu'l-Bahá sailed on the S. S. Celtic from New York to Liverpool. [239D:193–4; AB337; GPB281]
    • For `Abdu'l-Bahá's final words to the Bahá'ís, spoken while on board ship. Again He made reference to the war in the Balkans. See PUP468.
        "Consider what is happening in the Balkans. Human blood is being shed, properties are destroyed, possessions pillaged, cities and villages devastated. A world enkindling fire is astir in the Balkans. God has created men to love each other; but instead, they kill each other with cruelty and bloodshed. God has created them that they may cooperate and mingle in accord; but instead, they ravage, plunder and destroy in the carnage of battle. God has created them to be the cause of mutual felicity and peace; but instead, discord, lamentation and anguish rise from the hearts of the innocent and afflicted."
    • For Ahmad Sohrab's account of the sea crossing see SW3, 16:2.
    • During his time in North America 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave over 400 talks to approximately 93,000 people. He spoke in 31 moderate and progressive churches, 14 theosophical and other metaphysical gatherings, 5 universities, 3 synagogues, 1 African-American church, the Lake Mohonk Peace Conference, Hall House, and the 4th annual NAACP Conference. [Àbdu'l-Bahá's Journey Across America 18min12sec] [key]
    • New York; United States; Liverpool; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Ships; S. S. Celtic; Abdul-Baha, Life of
      1912 Dec-Jun 1913 `Abdu'l-Bahá's second visit to Europe.
    • It was His second visit to Great Britain. It lasted 24 days.
    • Europe Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Life of; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
      1912 13 Dec `Abdu'l-Bahá arrived in Liverpool aboard the S. S. Celtic at about 9PM. He was met by dozens of Bahá'ís from Liverpool, Manchester and Leads as well as Hippolyte Drefus-Barney who had come from Paris. [AB343; SBR38, ABTM273-4] [key] Liverpool; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; S. S. Celtic; Ships
      1912 14 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá stayed in Liverpool at the Adelphi Hotel. His first talk was to the Theosophical Society. [ABTM274, SoW Vol III No17 9Jan1913 p3] [key] Liverpool; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Theosophical Society
      1912 15 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke at Pembroke Chapel and was introduced by Rev Donald Fraser. [ABTM275, SoW Vol III No 17 9Jan1913 p4] [key] Liverpool; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
      1912 16 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá and his entourage departed Liverpool for London by train from the Lime Street Station. When they arrive at Euston Station they are met by a group of about 50 Bahá'ís. He is taken by motorcar to the home of Lady Blomfield at 97 Cadogan Gardens which she again offered to Him during His stay in London. After resting He gave a talk to newspaper reporters and later gave a talk to the gathering of Bahá'ís. [AB343, ABTM276] [key] Liverpool; London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Trains; Cars; Lady Blomfield
      1912 17 Dec A Bahá'í arrived from Ireland to see 'Abdu'l-Bahá, possibly Joan Waring, after travelling all day and all night.
    • He made comments on the character of the American people.
    • In the afternoon He spoke to a large gathering at Caxton Hall in Westminster. [SoW Vol III no 19 2Mar1913 p3-4, ABTM276-277] [key]
    • London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
      1912 18 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk at which E. G. Browne was present. He visited `Abdu'l-Bahá several more times while in London. [SoW Vol III no19 2Mar1913 p4, AB346, ABTM277-278]
    • Hájí Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardakání (Hájí Amín) arrived in London from Paris with three young Persian. He spoke neither English nor French and had had some difficulty in getting from Paris to London. He crossed the English Channel and then found himself back in Paris. His second attempt was successful. [SoW Vol III no19 2Mar1913 p4, AB346–7, ABTM278] [key]
    • London; United Kingdom; Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Edward Granville Browne; Haji Amin (Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani)
      1912 19 Dec Hájí Amín, the Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh, presented 'Abdu'l-Bahá with a gift from a poor workman in 'Ishqábád. He had nothing monetary to offer so he gave Hájí Amín his mid-day meal, two small loaves of bread and an apple wrapped in a handkerchief. 'Abdu'l-Bahá took the offering tenderly, ate a small piece of the stale bread and gave the rest to be passed around to the rest of the table. [SoW Vol III No 19 2Mar1913 p5, ABTM278] [key] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Gifts; Huququllah; Haji Amin
      1912 20 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá interviewed E. S. (Ethel Stefana) Stevens (later Lady Drower) who had come from Southhampton to meet Him. [SoW Vol III no 19 2Mar1913 p6]
      • Three years prior she had spent 3 or 4 months (possibly 6 months) in 'Akka and Haifa gathering material for a book. During her stay she had the opportunity to observe both ‘Abdu'l-Bahá and the Bahá'í community at close quarters. The book, called Mountain of God, was published in 1911. World Order excerpted this book in a two-part serial in 1970. [Collins7.2476}
      • She also wrote an article for the magazine Fortnightly Review. Excerpts from the article, impressions of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. can be found at the US Bahá'í site.
    • In the evening He was driven to Westminster for a meeting at the Palace Hotel, His first public talk since returning to London. [SoW Vol III no 19 2Mar1913 p6; SoW Vol III no 17 19Jan1913 p510] [key]
    • London; Westminster; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; E.S. Drower (E.S. Stevens)
      1912 21 or 22 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá witnessed His first dramatic performance. It was a mystery Christmas play entitled Eager Heart written by Miss Alice Buckton and performed at the Church House, Westminster before an audience of 1,200. [SoW Vol III no 19 2March1913 p 7, CH154, AB34]
    • He is reported to have said, perhaps on another occasion, "The stage will be the pulpit of the future". [Quoted by Loulie Mathews in The Magazine of the Children of the Kingdom, Vol 4, No. 3 (June 1923, p69]
    • Star of the West, Vol. 19 no. 11 Feb1929, p.341 quotes 'Abdu'l-Bahá as saying: "drama is of the utmost importance. It has been a great educational power in the past; it will be so again,". [BW1994-1995p255] [key]
    • Westminster; London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Drama; Plays; Arts; Loulie A. Mathews (Loulie Mathews); Alice Buckton First time `Abdu'l-Bahá attends a theatre performance
      1912 c. Dec On another occasion He gave an outline for a play to his hostess for the evening, Mrs Gabrielle Enthoven, which He called Drama of the Kingdom. It was expanded into a play and put to print by Lady Blomfield's daughter, Mary Basil Hall, approved by the Reviewing Committees for the National Assemblies of both the British Isles and the United States and Canada. It was published in 1933. In 1994 a production based on this outline was premiered in Perth, Australia entitled The Face of Glory: A Musical Rendezvous with the Soul. [CH155-156, Bahá'ís and the Arts: Language of the Heart by Ann Boyles, also published in 1994-95 edition of The Bahá'í World, pp. 243-272] [key] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Drama; Mary Basil Hall (Mary Bloomfield); Lady Blomfield; Publications; Drama of the Kingdom (play)
      1912 24 Dec `Abdu'l-Bahá received many expensive Christmas gifts; He turned them all away by returning them and asking the donors to sell them and give the money to the poor.
    • That evening He visited the Salvation Army Shelter in Westminster. That night there were 1,000 men present. After His talk He departed but not before leaving twenty gold sovereigns and many handfuls of silver with Col Spencer for a similar dinner to be held on New Year's Eve. [ABTM282-283] [key]
    • London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Charity and relief work; Gifts
      1912 25 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá paid a visit to Lord Lamington who was deeply touched by the message of peace and goodwill. [PG141] [key] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Lord Lamington
      1912 26 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke about prayer, evil, and the progress of the soul in a talk at 97 Cadogan Gardens. [PT176-179] [key] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
      1912 29 Dec In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá received a visit from the Maharajah or Jhalawar. [ABTM283]
    • In the afternoon He spoke at the home of Miss Annie Gamble. [SoW Vol. 9 No 2 9Apr1918 p 24]
    • In the evening He gave a talk at the King's Weigh House Methodist Church hosted by Rev E W Lewis. [SoW Vol. 4 No 17 19Jan1914 p284-285]
    • For a transcript see 'Abdu'l-Bahá Speaks.
    • London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Maharajahs
      1912 30 Dec The 19 Day Feast was held at the home of Mrs Robinson. [AB352] [key] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
      1912 31 Dec `Abdu'l-Bahá visited Oxford at the invitation of Dr Thomas Kelly Cheyne to address a meeting at Manchester College. [BW4p384-385, AB352–354, ABIM284, Journey West 20130210; Ahmad Sohrab's Diary - The Great Tour p99; The Dawn Vol 1 No 2 October 1923 p2]
    • In 1886, Cheyne was appointed Oriel Professor of Interpretation of Scripture at Oxford University, and, as an ordained Anglican priest (1864), was installed as Canon of Rochester Cathedral (Church of England) that same year. An advocate of "higher criticism" as applied to biblical scholarship, Professor Cheyne was the first at Oxford University to teach students how to apply the methods and tools of higher criticism to the Hebrew Scriptures. See An Oxford Scholar on the Spirit of Truth by Christopher Buck.
    • For biographical information see a paper by Crawford Howell Toy entitled Thomas Kelly Cheyne.
    • See Hurqalya Publications for a translation by Stephen Lambden of a Tablet to Dr Cheyne as well as the address to Manchester College.
    • After the visit of 'Abdu'l-Bahá the elderly and infirmed professor, who was unable to walk and had difficulty speaking, went on to write the book, The Reconciliation of Races and Religions. See BWXp483 for an excerpt regarding Bahá'u'lláh and 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
    • His second wife was the poetess Elizabeth Gibson Cheyne (1869-1931) whom he married (aged 69) on August 28th [19th] 1911 about four years after the death of his first wife. Elizabeth Gibson was the sister of the `War Poet' Wilfred Wilson Gibson. A paper by Judy Greenway, a grand niece of Elizabeth Gibson entitled "From the Wilderness to the Beloved City: Elizabeth Gibson Cheyne", pays tribute to the woman whom 'Abdul'-Bahá lauded during His visit. This paper was given at the invitation of the Oxford Bahá'í Community in December 2012, as part of the celebration of the centenary of Abdu'l-Bahá's visit to Oxford.
    • See an article by Christopher Buck on Cheyne's interpretation of Isaiah's prophecies
    • Oxford; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Thomas Kelly Cheyne (T. K. Cheyne); Elizabeth Gibson Cheyne; Stephen Lambden; Judy Greenway
      1913 In the year In 1913 `Abdu'l-Bahá wrote to Dr Augur advising him to take the Bahá'í message to Japan. [Bahá'í Encyclopedia] [key] Japan George Augur
      1913 4 Jan 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke about The Four Kinds of Love in an address at 97 Cadogan Gardens. [PT179181] [key] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
      1913 5 Jan The Master spoke at the home of Miss Herrick's to some 150 people. He gave a very "spiritual" lecture about the negligence of the people about God and their submerging in the sea of materialism.
    • Elizabeth Herrick lived in London with Mrs Thornburgh-Cropper and authored Unity Triumphant:The Call of the Kingdom. London: The Unity Press, 1925. She owned and operated a hat shop under the name Madame Corelli at 137a High Street in Kensington. [Ahmad Sohrab's Diary, Edinburgh, 1913] [key]
    • London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
      1913 6 Jan `Abdu'l-Bahá and His party, Síyyíd Asadu'lláh-i-Qumí, His attendant, Ahmad Sohrab, His interpreter and Mírzá Mahmúd-i-Zarqání, His secretary, departed by train and arrive in Edinburgh's Waverly Station in the late afternoon. This marked the start of His only visit to Scotland,. It lasted 4 days. [SCU68]
    • Also with 'Abdul-Bahá during His time in Edinburgh were Lady Blomfield and Alice Buckton and a young Persian student, Lutful'lláh Hakím.
    • On the train He told the story of Miss Wardlaw-Ramsay of the Church Missionary Society who was a missionary in 'Acca for some 40 years. She was antagonistic to the Cause but the Master showed her all manner of kindness because she was very faithful to her Christ. When she left Akka and returned to Scotland He gave a party for her. [Ahmad Sohrab's Diary, Edinburgh, 1913 p5; SBBE1p76]
    • Upon arrival He was taken to the home of Mrs Jane Elizabeth Whyte (neé Barbour) (1857-1944) at 7 Charlotte Square. She had met 'Abdu'l-Bahá before. She and her friend, Mrs Thornburgh-Cropper, had been invited to visit her sister who was on an extended stay in Egypt during the winter of 1905-6. In March they made a visit to 'Akká. By 1912 she had become a member of the "Council" established to promote the Faith in Britain. The Whytes, along with the Theosophical Society, had been instrumental in arranging Abdu'l-Bahá's visit to Edinburgh. ['Abdu'l-Baha in Edinburgh: The Diary of Ahmad Sohrab by Ahmad Sohrab]
    • Mrs Whyte's account of her meeting in 1906 is in her book Seven Candles of Unity, pp 47-49. and in her book entitled Seven Candles of Unity: the Story of 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Edinburgh (London: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1991). [Scottish Women: A Documentary History, 1780-1914 by Esther Breitenbach and Linda Fleming p.213]
    • Her husband, Mr Alexander Whyte (1837-1921) was a Scottish divine; a minister of the Free Church of Scotland, he became colleague and successor of Dr R S Candlish at Free St Georges (now St George's West, 58 Shandwick Place), and then principal and professor of New Testament literature at New College, Edinburgh. [AB355, 363–8; SBR26]
    • Miss Isobel Fraser served as the advance publicity agent for the visit.
    • Edinburgh; Scotland; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Isobel Fraser; Trains
      1913 7 Jan 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke to a crowd of several hundred Theosophists. The Theosophical Society (founded 1875) promoted brotherhood, the importance of Eastern philosophies and the search for spiritual and psychic truths. Edinburgh had one of the most active centres in Europe.
    • In the late morning they had a tour of Outlook Tower, 549 Castlehill, Edinburgh EH1 2ND. Outlook Tower was an educational institution which taught astronomy, natural geography, cartology etc. The tour guide was Sir Patrick Geddes (1854-1932) who was a Scottish biologist and botanist, known also as an innovative thinker in the fields of urban planning and education; as a town-planner in Palestine he had involvement in the cypress avenue leading up to the Shrine of the Báb, and he also planned a Bahá'í House of Worship in India. [AB447, Leroy Ioas, p218, SCU68, 73-82]
    • In the evening 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke to the Esperanto Society at Freemason's Hall, 96 George Street, Edinburgh EH2 3DH. There were 1,000 people in the hall and some 300 outside. This was His first public address in Scotland. [ABTM294, Ahmad Sohrab's Diary, Edinburgh, 1913] [key]
    • Edinburgh; Scotland; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Esperanto; Theosophical Society; Patrick Geddes, Sir first public address by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Scotland.
      1913 8 Jan 'Abdu'l-Bahá was given a tour of the Edinburgh College of Arts conducted by the President. (74 Lauriston Place, Edinburgh EH3 9DF) This was followed by a tour of a school in the poorer district, North Canongate School.
    • In the afternoon He spoke to a capacity attendance at Rainy Hall, New College, the Mound, Edinburgh EH1 2LX.
    • 'Abdu'l-Bahá attended a charity performance of Handel's Messiah at St Giles Cathedral. (Royal Mile, Edinburgh EH1 1RE) St. Giles was also known as the High Kirk of Edinburgh. It was Edinburgh's religious focal point for at least 900 years.

      And the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together: for the mouth of the Lord hath spoken it. (Isaiah 40:5) [Ahmad Sohrab's Diary, Edinburgh, 1913, ABTM297, SCU85-100] [key]

    • Edinburgh; Scotland; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; St Giles Cathedral; Handels Messiah; Edinburgh College of Arts; North Canongate School
      1913 9 Jan After a morning of receiving visitors 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke to a woman's group that included those of a wide spectrum of conviction on the role of women from suffragists to suffragettes to those opposed of giving women the vote.
    • 'Abdu'l-Bahá visited the painter, John Duncan, (1866 Dundee-1945) a foremost Celtic revivalist painter, on the Management Board of the College of Arts, who was guided along by Patrick Geddes. He married Christine Allen in 1912 and immediately moved to 29 Bernard's Crescent as his home and studio, where this visit took place. Both were members of the Theosophical Society. Christine Duncan née Allen (c1886-) was a spiritualist with connections to Wellesley Tudor Pole and Alice Buckton.
    • He was driven north of the city to see the Forth Railway Bridge, Edinburgh EH30 9TB. This engineering marvel, stretching 2.5 km from South to North Queensferry opened on the 4th of March 1890 and has been designated as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. [UNESCO]
    • 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke at the Theosophical Society meeting at 28 Great King Street, Edinburgh EH3 6QN. "Several hundred" attended. [Ahmad Sohrab's Diary, Edinburgh, 1913 p.14, SCU101-107] [key]
    • Edinburgh; Scotland; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Theosophical Society; John Duncan; Christine Duncan
      1913 10 Jan `Abdu'l-Bahá returned to London departing from Waverly Station at 11 AM and arriving at Euston Station at 7 PM. He returned to the home of Lady Blomfield at 97 Cadogan Gardens. She devotedly placed her whole apartment at His disposal, whilst she herself (certainly in 1913) stayed a few moments away with Lady Elcho in 62 Cadogan Square (now likely 58). [AB368, SCU109-113, Ahmad Sohrab's Diary, Edinburgh, 1913, David Merrick p8]
    • It was the start of His third visit to England and last visit to England and lasted 11 days.
    • London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
      1913 11 Jan 'Abdu'l-Bahá was most anxious that follow-up be done in Scotland. In and interview with Miss Buckton and Miss Schepel He encouraged them to go as soon as possible. [Ahmad Sohrab's Diary, Edinburgh, 1913, David Merrick p17]
    • 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke at Caxton Hall in Westminster and after entertained a small crowd of people at His residence where He recounted stories of Bahá'ulláh's suffering. [AB368, ABTM299] [key]
    • London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
      1913 12 Jan He attended a dinner party at the home of Sir Richard and Lady Shapely, St. Martin's Lane, London. Dinner was followed by a talk. [PT173-176; AB369, ABTM299] [key] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
      1913 13 Jan 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke at Cadogan Gardens on the darkness of superstitions and imitations. [AB369, ABTM299] [key] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Superstition
      1913 14 Jan 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke in the East End of London at a Congregational Church. [CH168, AB369, ABTM299] [key] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Churches
      1913 15 Jan `Abdu'l-Bahá traveled to Bristol and stayed at the Clifton Guest House which belonged to Mr and Mrs Tudor-Pole. He was accompanied by the Persian ambassador, Dúst-Muhammad Khán. In the evening He addressed a meeting in the Guest House with 120 people in attendence. [AB369; Some Sacred Spaces in the United Kingdom Slides 2-21] [key] Bristol; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Wellesley Tudor Pole; Dust-Muhammad Khan
      1913 16 Jan `Abdu'l-Bahá returned to London and spoke at 97 Cadogan Gardens. He spoke about the diversity of those entering the Faith and the recommended way to conduct a meeting. [AB370, ABTM302-303] [key] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
      1913 (Date unknown) At some time during this short stay in London 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke at a meeting of the Women's Freedom League. His remarks can be found in BNE121 (1980 edition). London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
      1913 18 Jan `Abdu'l-Bahá received guests from the Muslim Community of Britain and was asked to speak at the Shah Jehan Mosque at Woking, one of the two mosques in England at the time and the first built in England and perhaps Western Europe. He spoke on the subject of the Unity of Religions and translation was done by Mírzá Ahmad Sohrab. [CH152, AB370, BW3p278-279, BW4p377]
    • Note ABTM303 reports that this event took place on the 17th of January.
    • Dr. Gottlieb Wilhelm Leitner (1840–1899) was the builder of the Oriental Institute, founded to train Asians living in Europe for the learned professions, to the study of linguistics and culture, and for the teaching of languages to Europeans who wished to travel to the East. To cater for the spiritual needs of students of all major faiths and to provide for any who lived within reach, Dr. Leitner intended to build a synagogue, a church, a temple and a mosque. Only the Shah Jehan Mosque was completed. (Oct-Nov 1889). The Institute relied too heavily upon Dr. Leitner's personal enthusiasm and wealth and it did not survive his early death in March of 1899. The Mosque was closed and practically empty between 1899 and 1912. Khwaja Kamal-ud-Din, a prominent Kashmiri lawyer and founder of the Woking Muslim Mission, worked to repair and re-open the Mosque in 1913. It was the first formal place of Islamic worship in England and became a centre of Islam in the UK. [Dr. Gottlieb Wilhelm Leitner]
    • For a photo of the gathering see BW3p280 or BWNS818.
    • Woking; Surrey; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Mosques; Unity of religion; Interfaith dialogue; BWNS
      1913 19 Jan 'Abdu'l-Bahá was the guest of Rev Dr R J Campbell for luncheon. A number of divines had also been invited. [AB371]
    • Subsequently Rev Campbell made a tour of America and 'Abdu'l-Bahá made a request that the Bahá'í community show him every courtesy. [SoW Vol 2 No 18 February 7, 1912 p10] [key]
    • London; Woking; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
      1913 20 Jan Dr Felix Mosscheles held a reception for 'Abdu'l-Bahá in his home that was attended by a number of notable people.
    • 'Abdu'l-Bahá was the guest of a Rajput prince who gave a dinner party for Him.
    • In the evening He spoke at the Higher Thought Centre, His last engagement in London. [AB371] [key]
    • London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
      1913 21 Jan `Abdu'l-Bahá left London for Paris. [AB371]
    • The visit to Paris lasts several weeks. [AB372; SBR220] [key]
    • London; United Kingdom; Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
      1913 23 Jan The start of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's third visit to France. It lasted 2 months and 9 days.
    • After His morning talk He visited and had lunch with Natalie Clifford Barney, the sister of Laura Dreyfus Barney and the daughter of Alice Pike Barney, probably at her salon at 20, rue Jacob.
    • On this day, or perhaps the next, He met the famous French philosopher and writer, Henri Bergson. (Nobel prize for literature 1928). He was a professor at the College de France. 'Abdu'l-Bahá impressed him with His simple proof for the existence of God. [ABF302-304, Bahá'íes de France] [key]
    • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Natalie Clifford Barney; Henri Bergson
      1913 6 Feb `Abdu'l-Bahá visited Versailles. [AB376] [key] Paris; Versailles; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
      1913 12 Feb Date of the last of the 12 letters sent to Edward Granville Browne by 'Abdu'l-Bahá. The first of these letters was written on the 4th of August, 1890. Edward Granville Browne
      1913 13 Feb 'Abdu'l-Bahá delivered an address to the Paris Theosophical Society at the Theosophical Headquarters, 59 Avenue de la Bourdonnois. ['Abdu'l-Bahá on Divine Philosophy compiled by Elizabeth Fraser Chamberlain p165] . [key] Paris Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of
      1913 17 Feb For the text of an interview, originally published in Abdul Baha on Divine Philosophy, with Pasteur Monnier during which 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke on the relationship between the Bahá'í Faith and Christianity, see Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 3:1 (1993), with notes by Khazeh Fananapazir.
    • Pasteur Henri Monnier (b. 1871) was the "Professor á la Faculté libre de théologie protestante de Paris", Vice-president of the Protestant Federation of France and Pastor of the Etoile Church [from International Who's Who, 1st ed.] [key]
    • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Christianity; Interfaith dialogue; Henri Monnier, Pasteur; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of
      1913 21 Feb 'Abdu'l-Bahá addressed "The Spiritual Alliance" at 14 rue de Trevise in Paris. ['Abdu'l-Bahá on Divine Philosophy compiled by Elizabeth Fraser Chamberlain p175 Paris Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of
      1913 30 Mar `Abdu'l-Bahá traveled from Paris to Stuttgart. [AB379]
    • He told His attendants to wear European dress and to discard their oriental headgear. [AB379]
    • He did not tell the Bahá'ís of Stuttgart of His arrival in advance. [AB379]
    • The party arrived on the 1st of April and took rooms in Hotel Marquardt, near the train station. Then He asked His attendant to telephone the Bahá'ís to announce His arrival and invite them to the hotel. [AB379-380] [key]
    • Paris; France; Stuttgart; Germany Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Baqir-Uf; Baqiroff
      1913 1 Apr 'Abdu'l-Bahá departed for Stuttgart from Gar de l'Est accompanied by Siyyid Ahmad-i-Báqiroff, Mirza Ahmad Sohrab, Siyyid Asadu'llah-i-Qumi, and Mahmúd Zarqání. It was His first trip to Germany and it lasted for 7 days. [ABF537-538] [key] Stuttgart; Germany; Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
      1913 3 Apr 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke to a large audience in the City Museum. The talk was translated into English by Ahmad Sohrab and then rendered into German by Herr Eckstein. [AB380-382] [key] Stuttgart; Germany Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
      1913 4 Apr See a photo of 'Abdu'l-Bahá with a group of friends in Stuttgart. [‘Abdu'l-Bahá Champion of Universal Peace by Hoda Mahmoudi and Janet Khan] [key] Stuttgart; Germany Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
      1913 7 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá traveled to Bad Mergentheim by automobile to visit the hotel and mineral bath owned by Consul Schwarz, (Later named Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá by Shoghi Effendi). [AB383]
    • Later, in 1916 the local Bahá'í community commemorated the visit with the dedication of a monument, a life-sized likeness of the head of 'Abdu'l-Bahá on a granite stone about two metres in height. The Nazis removed it in 1937 but it was replaced in 2007. [BWNS524] [key]
    • Bad Mergentheim; Germany Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Cars; Consul Schwarz; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Monuments; Abdul-Baha, Pictures and portraits; Portraits; World War II; BWNS
      1913 8 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá returned to Stuttgart, then left in the evening for Budapest, changing trains in Vienna the next morning. To this date no travel teacher had visited Budapest and there were no resident believers. [ABM316]
    • The trip was made at the invitation of, among others, Mr and Mrs Lipót Stark. the Secretary General of the Theosophical Society, who had given a lecture entitled "The Bahá'í Movement" on the 25th of February, 1912 and the text of the lecture had been published in the Esperanto periodical Teozofia (Theosophical). [SBBR14p110]
    • `Abdu'l-Bahá was accompanied by Wilhelm Herrigel to serve to translate into German. [AB384]
    • For further information on His time in Budapest see 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Budapest by György Lederer in Bahá'ís in the West SBBR Vol 14 pp109-126
    • See as well The Utterance Project 9-18 April 1913
    • Stuttgart; Germany; Budapest; Hungary Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Trains; Wilhelm Herrigel
      1913 9 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá arrived in Budapest and He was met by a delegation at Keleti pu Ostbahnhof (Eastern Train Station). Another welcoming party had been waiting for Him at the Western station where a train had arrived from Vienna. He was escorted to the Ritz Hotel (now called the Hotel Forum) on the Pest side where He was further welcomed by a delegation of citizens. To compensate for the fact that many had missed His arrival at the train station, He held a press conference in the hotel lobby. [AB384, SBBR14p110]
    • For details of His visit see AB384–8 and MRHK362–70 and 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Budapest by Alice Schwartz-Salivo.
    • See Abdu'l-Bahá's Visit to Budapest on the Hungarian Community website. There you will find information on the places visited by `Abdu'l-Bahá in Budapest.
    • See 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Budapest by Gyorgy Lederer in SBBH14p102, 109-126.
    • See ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's Visit to Budapest found in SoW Vol 24 Issue3 June 1933 p85.

      "…it was His hope that Budapest might become a centre for the reunion of the East and the West, and that from this city the light might emanate to other places." ['Abdu'l-Bahá in Budapest p1; BWNS303; MRHK363] [key]

    • Budapest; Hungary Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
      1913 10 Apr While walking `Abdu'l-Bahá crossed the Chain Bridge and attracted a crowd of curious onlookers who had seen His picture in the newspaper. [MRHK363]
    • He received visitors at His hotel. Among them are Dr Agnes Goosen, the Rector of the University of Budapest, Dr Alexander Giesswein, a member of Parliament and Sirdar Omrah Singh of Punjab. Professor Julius Germanus, a young Orientalist from the Eastern Academy, brings a group of Turkish language students. [MRHK364]
    • He visited the homes of several families.
    • In the evening He spoke to 50 people at the Theosophical Meeting, praising the organization and its goals. Dr Germanus interpretes the talk into German.
    • Budapest; Hungary Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
      1913 11 Apr Julius Germanus from the Eastern Academy called upon 'Abdu'l-Bahá at His hotel accompanied by his Turkish students. [SBBR14p112]
    • 'Abdu'l-Bahá visited Hungarian Orientalist Professor Ignáz Goldziher in his home. He was the first person of the Jewish Faith to occupy a professional chair in the University of Budapest. and he had previously written about the Bahá'í Faith. Some time later Professor Goldziher received a carpet and a tablet as a gift from 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [SBBR14p116, AB386]
    • 'Abdu'l-Bahá delivered a lecture in the old Parliament organized by the Peace Society and the Esperanto Association to an audience estimated to be 500, 800 or 1,000 depending on the source. He was flanked by Catholic prelate Dr Alexander Giesswein and Dr. Goldziher, a Jewish Orientalist. The significance of seeing an eminent Jewish scholar and a Catholic clergyman on the same stage on either side of 'Abdu'l-Bahá was not lost on the audience and they broke into applause. [SBBR14p116-117. MRHK362]
    • After the lecture a dinner was given in His honour at the Hotel Pannonia. [MRHK366] [key]
    • Budapest; Hungary Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Julius Germanus; Ignaz Goldziher; Alexander Giesswein; Gifts; Carpets
      1913 12 Apr 'Abu'l-Bahá received many visitors at His hotel including the president of the Túránian Society, Jewish-born Arminius Vambéry. He was an orientalist and one of the most colourful figures of the nineteenth century. He had some prior knowledge of the Bahá'í Faith. (Ali Kuli Khan had met him as he was travelling near Karbila disguised as a dervish, probably in 1896. [SUR73-74]) Some time later he wrote a much-publicized tribute to the Bahá'í Faith. [AB8, 386–7, SBBR14p114]
    • `Abdu'l-Bahá visited the home of Arminius Vambéry. [SBBR14p115]
    • He was invited to speak at the former House of Magnates in the National Museum Building by the founder of the Hungarian Turanian Society, Alajos Paikert. ['Abdu'l-Bahá in Budapest p4] [key]
    • Budapest; Hungary Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Arminius Vambery
      1913 13 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá was sick and the weather was bitterly cold. He went to the studio of Professor Robert A. Nadler of the Royal Academy of Art to sit for a portrait. He gave him a total of three sittings during His visit to Budapest. [AB387, MRHK368-9]
    • "The portrait is remarkable not only because of its art, but also because of its later miraculous fate. Reportedly, after heavy bombing in 1945, only that part of the building in which the painting was hung remained unharmed." [Renée Szanto-Felbermann Two Portraits p3, Rebirth: Memoirs of Renée Szanto-Felbermann p159]
    • The painting was purchased and taken to the Bahá'í World Centre in 1972. [SBBR14p118]
    • See SBBR14p108 for a picture of the portrait.
    • In the afternoon He visited the home of Sirdar Omrah Singh. [AB387]
    • In spite of a raging blizzard a good many attended His address at the hotel in the evening. [AB387] [key]
    • Budapest; Hungary Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Robert A. Nadler; Abdul-Baha, Pictures and portraits; Portraits; World War II; War (general)
      1913 14 Apr 'Abu'l-Bahá's plan had been to leave but His departure was delayed due to a request from the president of the Túránian Society, Count Pal Teleki, who later became the Hungarian Prime Minister two times.
    • In the afternoon 'Abu'l-Bahá visited Arminius Vambéry at his home again and some time later sent him a tablet and a carpet by the post. It was reported in "Star of the West" (February 1929) that this tablet was in possession of Arminius's son, Rusztem Vámbéry. [SBBR14p115, 125, AB387, SoW9Vol9p24]
      • See BW5p329 for the testament written by Professor Vámbéry and published in the Egyptian Gazette September 24th, 1913.
      • See SUR73 for the story of Arminius Vámbéry, while travelling with a caravan and disguised as a dervish, encountered another caravan loaded with coffins bound for burial in the vicinity of the Shrines in Karbilá'.
      • See The Dervish of Windsor Castle: The Life of Arminius Vambery by Lory Alder and Richard Dalby.
    • At a meeting of the Túránian Society in the grand hall of the National Museum 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a lecture entitled "Peace Between Nations and Religions" to some 200 people. The talk was translated into Hungarian by Leopold Stark and into English by Mirza Ahmad Sohrab. [SBBR14p113; ABM318; Talk by Abdu'l-Baha Given in Budapest to the Turanian Society on 14 April 1913 (Provisional)]
    • 'Alí Abbás Áqá, a Tabrízí carpet merchant, hosted a dinner party in His honour. Among those attending was the Turkish Consul. [AB387, MRHK367, SBBR14p113] [key]
    • Budapest; Hungary; Karbala; Iraq Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Arminius Vambery; Leopold Stark; Count Pal Teleki; Ali Abbas Aqa
      1913 15 Apr 'Abdu'l-Bahá's planned departure was delayed a second time due to a severe cold. He was attended by Mr and Mrs Stark as well as Sirda Omrah Singh. He continued to meet visitors in His hotel during this period. [MRHK369] [key] Budapest; Hungary Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
      1913 18 or 19 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá left Budapest and travelled to Vienna by rail, reaching the city in the evening and taking residence in the Grand Hotel.

      Abdu'l-Bahá is reported to have said: "the freedom of Europeans, that an individual is free to do whatsoever he desires as long as he does not harm any other person," and says "In the religion of God, there is no freedom of action. Man cannot transgress the law of God, even if no harm is done to others. For the purpose of the law of God is education, for others and for oneself. In the sight of God, to harm oneself is the same as to harm someone else, and both are blameworthy." [Message 9 May 2014]

    • It is estimated that some 30 people accepted the Faith during His visit. [AB388, SBBR14p120]
    • In 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Egypt p80 it is reported that a bust of 'Abdu'l-Bahá was made during His time in Vienna. Two copies were received in Port Said via Stuttgart on the 18th of July, 1913, one intended for Ahmad Sohrab and the other for Mírzá Mahmúd-i-Zarqání.
    • Also see Martha Root: Herald of the Kingdom by Kay Zinky pp361-374 for "Àbdu-l-Bahá's Visit to Budapest".
    • Vienna; Austria; Budapest; Hungary; Port Said; Egypt Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Trains; Abdul-Baha, Pictures and portraits
      1913 20 Apr 'Abdu'l-Bahá, walking around Vienna, joined some people entering a palatial-looking domed church, Karlskirche, or St. Charles' Church, widely considered the most outstanding Baroque church in Vienna, with an opulently-decorated interior. He walked around the church for about ten minutes and donated money before returning to the hotel and speaking to Theosophists.
    • In the afternoon 'Abdu'l-Bahá called on a Persian minister then returned to visit the Ottoman Ambassador. [The Utterance Project] [key]
    • Vienna; Austria
      1913 24 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá left Vienna and returned to Stuttgart, where He arrived in the early hours of the next morning. [AB389]
    • This marked the end of HIs visit to Austria where He had spent 6 days.
    • Vienna; Austria; Stuttgart; Germany Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
      1913 1 May `Abdu'l-Bahá left Stuttgart and returned to Paris. [AB391]
    • The start of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's fourth and last visit to France. It lasted 1 month and 12 days.
    • Stuttgart; Germany; Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
      1913 13 May Birth of H. Collis Featherstone, Hand of the Cause of God, at Quorn, South Australia. Quorn; Australia Collis Featherstone; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
      1913 9 Jun Paul and Mirra Richard paid one last visit to 'Abdu'l-Bahá at His hotel arriving at 9:30PM. There were 19 documented encounters/visits of this couple with 'Abdu'l-Bahá during His stays in Paris, many of them alone with Him in the latter part of His day ending at midnight. On a number of occasions He asked her to speak, other times He would send her to a meeting as the speaker and on at least one occasion she spoke on His behalf when he was too ill to attend. This was remarkable considering that neither Mirra nor her husband considered themselves as Bahá'ís. [ABFsee index]
      A short biography: Blance Rachel Mirra Alfassa (b. 21 February 1878, d. 17 November 1973 Pondicherrry, India). She was the daughter of Sephardic Jews from Turkey and Egypt. She studied art at the Academy des Beaux Arts in Paris. In 1897 she married the French painter Henry François Morisott and they had a son (b.1898). They divorced in 1908 and she married the French lawyer Paul Antoine Richard. Around 1905 she became involved with the occult movement, first in France and from 1906-10907 in Algeria. In 1914 she and Paul left for India and met the Indian mystic Sri Aurobindo at Pondicherry. They returned to France briefly 1915-1916 and from 1916 to 1920 she and Paul were in Japan. In 1920 they returned to Pondicherry and from then until the end of her life she was associated with Sri Aurobindo's ashram. After his passing in 1950 she became the head and was know as "the Mother". [ABF339n815]
      Two of her books are Words of Long Ago by The Mother (Mirra Richard) Sri Aurobindo Ashram Publications 1994 and The Mother-Collected Works Vol 2-Words of Long Ago.
      Paul Richard's biographical book was called Without Passport: The Life and Work of Paul Richard covers the period from his birth to 1919. He was a lawyer in the Paris Court of Appeals and it is likely that he learned of the Faith from Hippolyte Dreyfus.
      Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Mirra Alfassa
      1913 12 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá left Paris for Marseilles, arriving the same evening. [AB395]

      In total 'Abdu'-Bahá spent about 171 days in Paris.

      3 October to 2 December 1911 - 60 days          
       21 January to 30 March 1913 - 69 days          
             1 May to 12 June 1913 - 42 days          
                            Total   171 days          
    • See David Merrick's map for the places visited by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Paris.
    • See PG117-118 for 'Abdu'l-Bahá continuing concern for Paris in 1919.
    • Paris; Marseilles; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
      1913 13 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá left Marseilles on the S. S. Himalaya for Port Said. Sailing with Him were: Mirza Ali-/akbar Nakhjavani, Mirza Ahmad Sohrab, SIyyid Asadu'llah-i-Qumi and Mahmud Zarqani. [AB395; ABF667-669]
    • He sent a telegram to Haifa instructing the many pilgrims awaiting His return to come to Port Said. Because of the great numbers who came, there wasn't sufficient hotel accommodations and a large tent was erected on the roof in which to hold meetings. [SoW Vol 4 No 7 p121] [key]
    • Marseilles; France; Port Said; Egypt Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha in Egypt; S. S. Himalaya; Ships; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Pilgrims; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
      1913 16 Jun The Second Balkan War broke out on 16 June 1913 when Bulgaria, dissatisfied with the territorial gains it had made in the Treaty of London (1913), attacked its former allies, Serbia and Greece. Those armies repulsed the Bulgarian offensive and then attacked, penetrating into Bulgaria. Romania and the Ottomans used the opportunity to intervene against Bulgaria to make territorial gains. In the resulting Treaty of Constantinople (29 September 1913) with a redrawing of borders on ethnical lines they recovered Adrianople. [Colonialism, Nationalism and Jewish Immigration to Palestine: Abdu´l-Baha's Viewpoints Regarding the Middle East by Kamran Ekbal p6] [key] Bulgaria; Romania; Serbia; Greece; Constantinople; Adrianople; Turkey
      1913 16 Jun - 2 Dec 'Abdul-Baha began His third stay in Egypt which lasted 5 months and 16 days.
    • At some time during His stay in Egypt 'Abdu'l-Bahá met with Sir Ronald Storrs who presented Him to Lord Kitchener. [BW10p192,194]
    • 'Abdu'l-Bahá presented him with a specimen of writing by Mishkín-Qalam and His own Persian pen box. [CH226] [key]
    • Egypt Abdul-Baha in Egypt; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Ronald Storrs; Kitchener, Lord; Mishkin-Qalam; Gifts
      1913 23 Jun Àbdu'l-Bahá gave a talk in which He mentioned a certain cardinal that He had encountered while in the United States and who had made several remarks against Him. In the talk Àbdu'l-Bahá compared the "display" of the Cardinal who had come to Denver to dedicate the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception in Denver, Colorado on behalf of the Pope and the "display" of Christ on the cross.

      See Talk 23 June 1913 for a provisional translation of the talk by Adib Masumian. As mentioned in the footnotes the unnamed man was Cardinal John Murphy Farley of New York.

      Port Said; Egypt Abdul-Baha, talks of
      1913 Jun - Jul Immediately upon return from the latest trip to the West, Mírzá Mahmúd-i-Zarqání began to document 'Abdu'l-Bahá's most recent travels. The work took three parts: 1. His addresses, 2. the diary and 3. the translations of the articles that appeared in newspapers and magazines. ['Abdu'l-Bahá in Egypt p5] [key] Port Said; Egypt Mahmuds Diary; Mirza Mahmud-i-Zarqani
      1913 10 Jul `Abdu'l-Bahá went to Ismá`ílíyyah, where the weather is less humid. He took up short-term residence at the Hotel Vaseteef. [AB399–400; 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Egypt p51] [key] Ismailiyyah; Egypt Abdul-Baha in Egypt; Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Life of
      1913 16 - 21 July The 6e Congrès International du Progrès Religieux (Chrétiens Progressifs et Libres-Croyants) [6th International Congress of Religious Progress (Progressive Christians and Free Believers)] was held in Paris. Over twenty of the clergy that 'Abdu'l-Bahá had met in His travels in Britain, Canada, the United States and France attended. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's photograph was published amongst those invited to attend and inserted in the proceedings of the Congress. Hippolyte Dreyfus presented the Bahá'í address. [ABF411note 977] [key] Paris; France International Congress of Religious Progress; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney
      1913 17 Jul `Abdu'l-Bahá traveled to Ramleh. It was hoped that the drier climate would be more salubrious than the humidity of Port Said and Ismá`ílíyyah for He was still not well. He and his attendants stayed at the Victoria Hotel initially. The remainder of His party that had remained in Port Said joined Him on the 24th of July and His daughter Touba Khanum with her son Rouhi arrived from Haifa.
      At this time Ramleh was a modern Egyptian town with all the conveniences of western civilization. It was a summer resort for the most important European officials in the service of the Egyptian government and also for the native Pashas. [AB400; 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Egypt p80]

      Note: Memories of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá by Ali M Yazdi says that He returned to Ramleh on the 3rd of July.

      Ramleh (Alexandria); Egypt Abdul-Baha in Egypt; Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Life of
      1913 23 Jul Lua Getsinger arrived at Port Said and was given permission to join 'Abdu'l-Bahá the following day. [LGHC188; AB400] [key] Port Said; Egypt Lua Getsinger; Abdul-Baha in Egypt; Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Life of
      1913 1 Aug With his final year of high school over, Shoghi Effendi hastened from Beirut to Ramleh to join the Master. He, the Greatest Holy Leaf and the eldest daughter of `Abdu'l-Bahá arrived in Egypt. [PG9 AB401]
    • During this period Tammaddun'ul-Mulk (who had been in London during `Abdu'l-Bahá first visit) attempted to divide the Bahá'ís of Tehran and Dr Amínu'llah Farid's increasingly erratic behaviour brought Him much suffering and sorrow. [AB402] [key]
    • Ramleh (Alexandria); Alexandria; Egypt; Tihran; Iran Abdul-Baha in Egypt; Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Syrian Protestant College; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Covenant-breakers; Tammaddunul-Mulk; Ameen Fareed (Amin Farid)
      1913 19 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá took the decision to send Lua Getsinger to India. His words to her were published SoW Vol 4 No 12 p208. [LGHC189] [key] Ramleh (Alexandria); Alexandria; Egypt; India Lua Getsinger; Edward Getsinger; Travel teaching
      1913 28 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá revealed a tablet to an unnamed woman saying that only two things were not open to women, front-line military duties and service on the Universal House of Justice. He promised equality to men and "as regards tenderness of heart and abundance of mercy and sympathy" superiority. [PT182-184] [key] Egypt Abdul-Baha, Life of; Women; Equality
      1913 28 Aug The opening of the Peace Palace in The Hague.
    • It was built as the home for the for the Permanent Court of Arbitration with funding from the Scottish-American steel Magnate Andre Carnegie at the sum of US$1.5 million ($14M in today's terms) The buiding is owned by the Carnegie Foundation
    • Between 1922 and 1940 The Permanent Court of International Justice, often called the World Court and by a resolution from the League of Nations on 18 April 1946, both the Court and the League ceased to exist and were replaced by the International Court of Justice and the United Nations.
    • In 1923 it became the seat for The Hague Academy for International Law and The Peace Palace Library, a library of international law.
    • Since 1945 it has been the seat of the International Court of Justice. The ICJ is the highest judicial organ of the United Nations.
    • The Peace Palace is also home to the Carnegie Foundation, the legal owner and manager of the building.
    • The Peace Palace website.
    • The Hague; Netherlands Peace Palace; Fortresses, castles and palaces
      1913 Oct Shoghi Effendi returned to Beirut and the Syrian Protestant College to start his college education in an Arts program. [PG9] [key] Ramleh (Alexandria); Alexandria; Egypt; Beirut; Lebanon; Haifa Syrian Protestant College; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
      1913 14 Oct Daniel Jenkyn, from England, made a two-week trip through the Netherlands, the first time a Bahá'í journeyed to the country to teach the Faith. [SBR43–4] [key] Netherlands Daniel Jenkyn; travel teaching First teaching trip to the Netherlands
      1913 (prior to `Abdu'l-Bahá's departure fm Egypt) "Tamaddunu'l-Mulk caused mischief amongst the friends and perpetrated such disunity that the foundation of the divine Faith was nearly destroyed. On numerous occasions, he repented. And yet, after each contrition, he would cause further mischief. Eventually, I telegraphed that Tamaddun is expelled and association with him is not permissible." [Tablet Concerning Covenant-Breakers: Excerpt by Abdu'l-Bahá translated by Ahang Rabbani]
    • In this Tablet 'Abdu'l-Bahá warned against association with Covenant-breakers because its harm will injure the Cause of God and will enable them to penetrate the community and to completely uproot the Faith from within. Association with Covenant-breakers is the same as a person nurturing a snake in his shirt or giving a home to a scorpion in his sleeve.
    • Egypt; Tihran; Iran Covenant-breakers; Tamaddunul-Mulk; Abdul-Baha, Life of
      1913 Dec Áqá Abu'l-Qásim-i-Isfandábádí was killed by two assailants in Qúzih-Kúh, Bavánát, Fárs. [BW18:387] [key] Quzih-Kuh; Bavanat; Fars; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
      1913 2 Dec `Abdu'l-Bahá boarded a Lloyd Triestino boat (then called Lloyd Austriaco) bound for Haifa with stops at Port Said and Jaffa. [AB402]

      "Having raised the warning and urged the world to work for peace, ‘Abdu'l-Bahá returned on 5 December 1913 to Haifa, then part of the Ottoman Empire. Aware of the coming war, He took steps to protect the Bahá'í community under His stewardship and to avert a famine in the region. One of His first decisions upon returning to the Holy Land was to send home all the Bahá'ís who were visiting from abroad." [BWNS1297] [key]

      Egypt; Port Said; Jaffa; Haifa Lloyd Triestino; Ships; Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha in Egypt; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
      1914 (In the year) Mr Husayn Uskuli and two Bahá'ís friends arrived in Shanghai from 'Ishqábád. His family joined him later. [PH28-29, BW13p871-872]

      The war years 1937-1945 were difficult for him and the conditions following the victory of the Chinese Communist Party made it impossible to have contact with the local people yet he remained.

    • He spent all his remaining years but for a few in Shanghai where he passed away on the 25th of February, 1956 and was laid to rest in the Shanghai Kiangwan cemetery. [Video Early History of the Bahá'ís of China 6min 33 sec] [key]
    • Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Shanghai; China Husayn Uskuli
      1914 (In the year) The publication of The River of Life: A Selection from the teachings of Baha Allah and Abdul Baha as translated by Johanna Dawud published in London by Cope & Fenwick. [Collins4-249 p27] [key] London; UK Johanna Dawud; Yuhanna Dawud
      1914 (In the year) The publication of Kitáb-i Badáyi'u'l-Áthár written by Mírza Mahmúd-i Zarqání, by Elegant Photo-Litho Press in Bombay. The English translation, Mahmúd's Diary, was published in 1998 by George Ronald Publisher. [APD151]

      "Mírzá Mahmúd was a careful and faithful chronicler and engaged in assembling and publishing his work with the permission of the beloved Master . . ." (The Universal House of Justice - a letter dated April 30, 1984 addressed to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States).

      Mumbai (Bombay); India Mahmuds Diary; Mirza Mahmud-i-Zarqani; Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Publishing; Publications
      1914 (In the year) 'Abdu'l-Bahá was forced to expel Tammaddun'ul-Mulk for corrupt behaviour. He was from Shiraz and had been living in Paris for several years. He had been part of His entourage in 1911. [ABF19] [key] Shiraz; Tihran; Iran; Paris; France Tammaddunul-Mulk; Covenant-breakers
      1914 Jan The publication of A Brief History of Beha'u'llah: the Founder of Behai Religion by M J Gazvini. [Collins7.1530] [key] Akka M J Gazvini
      1914 9 Jan John Ferraby, Hand of the Cause of God, was born in Southsea, England. Southsea; United Kingdom John Ferraby; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
      1914 21 Jan Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl-i-Gulpáygání, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, passed away in Cairo. [AB404; BBD67]

        ... learned apologist . .. (one of the) successive messengers despatched by 'Abdu'l-Bahá (who) succeeded in rapidly dispelling the doubts, and in deepening the understanding of the believers, in holding the community together, and in forming the nucleus of those administrative insitutions which, two decades later, were to be formally inaugurated through the explicit provisions of'Abdu'l-Bahá'ís Will and Testament. Shoghi Effendi
      • He became a believer in 1876. [RoB3p91-107]
      • He was named as an Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh.
      • For biographical information see EM263–5; SDH113; RoB3p433-441; SBNB208-225
      • See BW17p625 for Highlights in the life of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl based on an article by R Mehrabkani
      • His resting place is now next to that of Lua Getsinger in the Bahá'í cemetery in Cairo. [BW9p87]
      • His numerous works include Fará'id (The Peerless Gems) 1898; The Brilliant Proof; 1912; Bahá'í Proofs, 1902; and Al-Duraru'l-Bahíyih (The Shining Pearls, published in English as Miracles and Metaphors), 1900. [BBD7]
      • Find a grave.
      • See AY103, Star of the West, vol. IV, no. 19, pp. 316–7 and Bahá'í Proofs p17-18 for the story of how Ameen Fareed entered and secretly remained in Mírzá's house, between the time of Mírzá's death and his burial, and removed precious manuscripts which, slightly changed, he would spread among the believers in an attempt to undermine their unity at a later time.
      • 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl in His home in Haifa on 21 and 22 January, 1914 as reported in SoW Vol 9 No 3 April 28, 1918.
      • Among his works are:
        • Borhān-e lāmeʿ, translated and published as The Brilliant Proof (1912),
        • al-Ḥojaj al-bahīya, translated and published as Miracles and Metaphors (1981).
        • A selection of his shorter works, entitled Letters and Essays (1985), is also available in English.
        • His other works such as al-Farāʾed, Šarḥ-e Āyāt-e Mowarraḵa, Kašf al-ḡeṭāʾ, and a few collections of his shorter works exist in Arabic and Persian.
      • See the Wikipedia page for links to his works.
      • See Bahá'í Library for a list of works by or about him.
      Cairo; Egypt Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Apostles of Bahaullah; Lua Getsinger; Cemeteries and graves; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Ameen Fareed (Amin Farid); Covenant-breakers
      1914 Jan - Feb 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent Lua and Dr. Getsinger on a teaching tour in India. The duration of the tour and the places visited have yet to be confirmed. She lectured at Theosophical Society Hall in Surat on "Purity and Divinity" (22 Jan); in Bombay, she spoke in Pratana Mandir Hall for an hour on "The Bahá'í Movement—Its Rise and Progress." (24Jan) She addressed the students of the Theistic Society on "Individual Spiritual Progress" (4 Feb); and in the Ideal Seminary she spoke on "Service as an Act of Worship." (8 Feb) In addition to the public lectures, to large and enthusiastic audiences, Dr. and Mrs. Getsinger were kept busy meeting people of various creeds. Lua's most important interview, and the one which ‘Abdu'l-Bahá spoke of as a "certain definite result", was with the Maharajah of Jalowar (Jhalawar) whom He had met in London. He wished to acquaint this receptive enlightened person with the Bahá'í teachings, and chose Lua to seek him out. The Maharajah received her most graciously, and afterwards corresponded with her, remaining a staunch friend of the Faith. [SoW vol. V, No. 2, p. 21-22; "Lua Getsinger -Herald of the Covenant" by Amine DeMille; BFA2:353]
    • In her autobiography, Sunburst pg 236 Loral Schopflocher wrote:
        The Maharaiah of Ghalawar was the first ruler to accept the Baha'i teachings and attempted to put them into practice in his domain.
    • For more information on him see The Indian Biographical Dictionary (1915) by C. Hayavadana Rao.
    • Surat; Gujarat; Jhalawar; Rajasthan; Mumbai (Bombay); India Maharajah of Jalowar; Lua Getsinger; Edward Getsinger; Travel teaching
      1914 15 Feb Dr Howard Bliss, the president of the Syrian Protestant College, visited 'Abdu'l-Bahá in part, to arrange for the Bahá'í students to spend their upcoming spring break in Haifa in the vicinity of the Shrines of Bahá'u'lláh and the Báb, affording them an opportunity to meet and learn from ʻAbdu'l-Bahá. [AB405]

      By this time, Bahá'í students from Haifa and ‘Akká, as well as Persia, Egypt, and Beirut, had attended SPC (later called the American University at Beirut) for about a decade, in increasing numbers over the previous few years. There were no comparable institutions in their own countries, and attending universities in Europe or America was not yet practical for most. As SPC became a popular choice, the prospect of joining an existing group of Bahá'í students was an additional attraction. A sizable group of students as well attended the Université Saint-Joseph (USJ), also in Beirut. Together, they constituted a single coherent group, meeting together, visiting each other, and collaborating, for example, in the activities of the "Society of the Bahá'í Students of Beirut," which had been formed in 1906. [‘Abdu'l-Bahá and the Bahá'í Students] [key]

      Haifa; Beirut; Lebanon American University of Beirut; Syrian Protestant College; Howard Bliss; Université Saint-Joseph
      1914 Spring Laura and Hippolyte Dreyfus Barney started their teaching trip to China and French Indonesia. They visited the German colony of Qingdao, China with a plan to travel up the Yangzi river (and overland) to Kunming, Yunnan Province. However due to the outbreak of the first world war they returned to Europe, escaping from Qingdao thanks to Hippolyte's adroitness. They returned to France in time for him to assume his military obligations. [Iranica] [key] China; French Indonesia Laura Clifford Barney; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney
      1914 Jun George Augur arrived in Japan. [BFA2:53; SBR191]
    • He was the first Bahá'í to reside in the country. [SBR191]
    • For a biography of George Augur see SBR187–98.
    • See PG118 for 'Abdu'l-Bahá's comments on Japan.
    • Japan George Augur First Bahá'í to reside in Japan
      1914 28 Jun The heir to the Austrian throne was assassinated in Sarajevo. Sarajevo; Serbia; Austria World War I; War (general); History (General)
      1914 29 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá instructed the remaining pilgrims in the Holy Land to leave. [AB406]
    • CH191 says the American pilgrims left on the last boat from Haifa to Alexandria on 15 Jan. 1915.
    • Haifa Pilgrims
      1914 (Early to middle of the year) The defection of Dr Amín Faríd, (b. 1882, d. 1953)`Abdu'l-Bahá's translator while in America, became known publicly. His mother was a sister of Munirih Khanum, wife of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB407]
    • For his activities against `Abdu'l-Bahá see AB230, 402, 407–9.
    • Dr. Aminu'lláh Faríd travelled to Europe in defiance of the wishes of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. In the absence of Lady Blomfield in London, a meeting at the Kingsway Hall had been arranged for him. Dr Lutfu'lláh prevented Dr Farid from speaking. Mason Remey and George Latimer were in London at the time. 'Abdu'l-Bahá also sent Dr Habibu'lláh Khudákhsh (later called Dr Mu'ayyad) and 'Azíz'lláh Bahádur to go to Europe to counter his activities. They were in Stuttgart when the war broke out. He recalled all four to the Holy Land (Sep-Oct). [AB407-409; Concerning Covenant-breakers: Excerpt by 'Abdu'l-Bahá translated by Ahang Rabbani] iiiii
    • Laura and Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney were dispatched to the United States where Mrs Chevalier had been acting as Dr Farid's emissary. [AB408]
    • See the message from Shoghi Effendi in MBW53-54.
    • For a description of his activities as a young man in 'Akká see M9YA108.
    • United States; London; United Kingdom; Stuttgart; Germany Ameen Fareed (Amin Farid); Covenant-breakers; Lutfullah Hakim; Charles Mason Remey; George Latimer; Habibullah Khudakhsh; Habib Muayyad; Azizllah Bahadur; Laura Clifford Barney; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Chevalier, Mrs
      1914 28 Jul The Great War (1914–18) broke out in Europe. (28 July, 1914 to 11 November, 1918)

      Austria declared war on Serbia.

    • See Reading Reality in Times of Crisis: ‘Abdu'l-Bahá and the Great War by Amín Egea.
    • The world experienced horrors the like of which had never been seen with a long list of military engagements.

      The Battle of Verdun (February to December 1916) 130,000 unknown dead on both sides

      The first Battle of the Somme (July to November 1916) 1,000,000 casualties in four months

      The naval battle of Jutland (31 May to 1 June) 21 ships sunk.

    • Europe; Austria; Serbia World War I; War (general); History (general); Amin Egea
      1914 Aug Shoghi Effendi returned to Haifa after completing his first year of college at the Syrian Protestant College just as war was breaking out in Europe. [PG12] [key] Beirut; Lebanon; Haifa Syrian Protestant College; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
      1914 4 Aug England declared war on Germany. United Kingdom; Germany; Europe World War I; War (general); History (general)
      1914 27 Aug Áqá Mírzá Yúsif-i-Qá'iní was killed in Mashhad. [BW18:387] [key] Mashhad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
      1914 Oct Shoghi Effendi returned to Beirut from Haifa to take up his sophomore year of university at the Syrian Protestant College. As a result of the fear of unrest in Beirut, enrollment was down. The College was instrumental in the relief work being done for wounded soldiers or other casualties who were treated free of charge. As a result of this work it became a place of relative safety. The number of Bahá'í students at the Syrian Protestant College increased to 35, many of whom were sent by 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [PG15] [key] Beirut; Lebanon; Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Syrian Protestant College
      1914 15 Oct In a talk by 'Abdu'l-Bahá to Mason Remey and George Latimer in Haifa the Master distanced Himself from anyone who asked for money in His name. [SoW Vol 7 No11 4 November 1916 p122] [key] Haifa; Akka Abdul-Baha, life of
      1914 1 Nov Turkey entered the war on the side of the Central Powers.
    • Palestine was blockaded and Haifa was bombarded. [GPB304]
    • `Abdu'l-Bahá sent the Bahá'ís to the Druze village of Abú-Sinán for asylum. [AB411; DH124; GPB304, BWNS1297]
    • For `Abdu'l-Bahá in wartime see CH188–228.
    • `Abdu'l-Bahá had grown and stored corn in the years leading up to the war and was now able to feed not only local people but the British army. [AB415, 418; CH210; GPB304, 306]
    • Properties in the villages of Asfíyá and Dálíyá near Haifa were purchased by `Abdu'l-Bahá, and, at the request of Bahá'u'lláh, bestowed upon Díyá'u'lláh and Bahí'u'lláh. Land was also acquired in the villages of Samirih, Nughayb and 'Adasíyyih situated near the Jordan river. 'Adasíyyah was the village occupied by Bahá'ís of Zoroastrian heritage that produced corn for the Master's household. The village of Nughayb is where the relatives of the Holy Family lived. [CH209-210]
      • See 'Adasiyyah: A Study in Agriculture and Rural Development by Iraj Poostchi. This village was purchased by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in 1901. He paid 400 Turkish gold lira for 920 hectares and then gifted 1/24th of the total area to the family from whom He had made the purchase.
      • Under the guidance of 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi this village became a model of agriculture and Bahá'í life. The Bahá'ís lost ownership after 1962 when Jordan implemented land reforms.
      • 'Adasiyyah is mentioned in the film Exemplar (17:40-18:50).
    • See as well `Abdu'l-Baha in Abu-Sinan: September 1914 by Ahang Rabbani.
    • See Senn McGlinn's Abdu'l-Baha's British knighthood for more background.
    • Palestine; Israel; Abu-Sinan; Haifa; Asfiya; Daliya; Samirih; Nughayb; Adasiyyih (Adasiyyah); Jordan World War I; War (general); Druze; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Knighthood (KBE); British; Charity and relief work; Social and economic development; History (General); - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Diyaullah; Bahaullah; Exemplar (film)
      1914 6 Nov Agnes Alexander arrived in Japan at the request of 'Abdu'l-Bahá en route she stopped in Hong Kong. [TR30; Video Early history of the Bahá'í Faith in China 6min15sec]
    • She lived there for a total of thirty–two years. [PH32]
    • See also W2:42–4 and Sims, Traces That Remain.
    • Japan; Hong Kong Agnes Alexander; China
      1915 (in the year) Jamál Páshá, Commander of the 4th Army Corps of the Turkish army, was put in military control of Syria, including the Holy Land. [AB412]
    • For an account of his relationship with ‘Abdu'l-Bahá see AB412–14.
    • He threatened to crucify ‘Abdu'l-Bahá and to destroy the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh. [AB414; GPB303-305, 317, SYH99] [key]
    • Haifa; Akka; Bahji Jamal Pasha; Bahaullah, Shrine of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Death threats to; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
      1915 In 1915 and 1916 The publication of Bahaism and Its Claims: A Study of the Religion Promulgated by Baha Ullah and Abdul Baha by Samuel Graham Wilson. It has been described as a "hostile and uninformed Christian missionary's overview of the Bahá'í Faith".
    • See a reference to Wilson SBBH5p234-235.
    • Other publications by Wilson include Bahaism: An Anti-Christian System also published in 1915 and Mahdist Movements. It was published in 1916 and is "{an} unsympathetic Christian missionary's early history of the Faith".
    • See also WOB83 for other missionaries who wrote polemics against the Bahá'í Faith.
    • Bahaism and Its Claims; Samuel Graham Wilson; opposition
      1915 (In the year) A plan to fund part-time travelling Bahá'í teachers in the USA and Canada was approved. There had been a great deal of reluctance to take this measure for fear of creating a "clergy" class but the vastness of the country and the fewness of believers of independent means as well as the impetus to teaching sparked by 'Abdu'l-Bahá's visit helped to take the decision. [BBRSM:105, 219] [key] United States; Canada Subsidies; Funds; Travel teaching
      1915 (In the year) Mírzá Husayn-i-Hudá was martyred in Urúmíyyih. [BW18:387] [key] Urumiyyih; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
      1915 Jan Lua Getsinger arrived in Haifa and remained there as a guest of the Holy Family for seven months. This was her last visit. When news came of the possibility of America declaring war, and a United States gunboat came to the very port of Haifa, ‘Abdu'l-Bahá told her that now was the time to leave and take news to the friends in Egypt, Europe and America who had been cut off from correspondence with the Holy Land during the war. "It is a long time that they are without any word," He said, "and I desire to send you to them, after which you are to go and teach." [Star of the West, vol. VI, No. 12, p. 90] [key] Haifa; Egypt Lua Getsinger
      1915 30 Jan Martha Root sailed from New York on her first around the world trip. [MR58] [key] New York Martha Root
      1915 14 Mar Shaykh ‘Alí Akbar-i-Qúchání was shot to death in Mashhad. Considerable anti-Bahá'í agitation follows and many Bahá'ís are forced to seek sanctuary. Three hundred people are arrested. [BBRXXX; BW18:387; GPB298–9] [key] Mashhad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
      1915 Apr The Central Organization for a Durable Peace was formed at The Hague (the Netherlands) in April 1915 by representatives from nine European nations and the United States. The deliberations of this meeting were summarized in a manifesto, and a nine point minimum-program calling for coercive sanctions, which were studied by nine international research committees and several national committees. Departing from strict pacifism, the organization expressed a willingness to accept military sanctions against countries that started hostilities without first making a good faith effort to resolve a dispute by submitting to international arbitration or making some other appeal to the existing peace machinery. The Hague; Netherlands Central Organization for a Durable Peace; International Peace Conferences; League of Nations; Peace
      1915 19-25 Apr The Panama-Pacific International Exposition was held in San Francisco and the 24th of April was declared International Bahá'í Congress Day. [BW8:797-808]
    • See PG97-99 for a Tablet by 'Abdu'l-Bahá to James Barr, the director of the Congresses at the Pacific International Exposition, regarding his assistance to the First International Bahá'í Congress.
    • San Francisco; United States Conferences, Other; International Bahai Congress first International Baha'i Congress
      1915 May The Bahá'ís of Haifa and `Akká returned to their homes from the village of Abú-Sinán. [DH147] [key] Haifa; Akka; Abu-Sinan; Palestine; Israel Druze; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Charity and relief work; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
      1915 May A third international peace conference was planned by the Central Organization for a Durable Peace in The Hague and to this end, they put out a request for interested specialists to participate. Two Bahá'ís in Tehran, Ahmad Yazdáni and 'Alí Muhammad 'Ibn-i-Asdaq, drew 'Abdu'l-Bahá's attention to the organization's invitation. The Hague; Netherlands International Peace Conferences; Central Organization for a Durable Peace; Lawh-i-Hague (Tablet to The Hague); Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mirza Ali-Muhammad); Peace
      1915 16 Jun Miss Margaret Green of Washington DC arrived in Alaska, the first known resident Bahá'í. She settled in Juneau from 1915 to 1918 and worked as a public librarian. [NSA site] [key] Washington DC; Alaska; United States Margaret Green Margaret Green is the first know resident Bahá'í in Alaska.
      1915 Latter half `Abdu'l-Bahá's Memorials of the Faithful began to take shape. [AB417; MFXII]
    • `Abdu'l-Bahá would tell stories of Bahá'í heroes and heroines to the weekly gatherings of Bahá'ís in Haifa and these were compiled and published as a book in 1924. [AB417; MFXII] [key]
    • Haifa Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Memorials of the Faithful (book); - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
      1915 Jul 1915 The McMahon–Hussein Correspondence was a series of ten letters exchanged from July 1915 to March 1916 between Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca, and Sir Henry McMahon, British High Commissioner to Egypt. In these letters, the UK government agreed to recognize Arab independence in certain regions after World War I if the Arabs revolted against the Ottoman Empire. The intended area for Arab independence was defined by boundaries proposed by the Sharif of Mecca, excluding some regions of western Syria. However, this correspondence became controversial after the Balfour Declaration in 1917 and the Sykes–Picot Agreement in 1916, which contradicted the promises made to the Arabs. As a result, Sharif Hussein later refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles and any agreements assigning Palestine to Jewish homeland or Syria to foreign control. The McMahon–Hussein Correspondence significantly influenced Middle Eastern history and continues to be a topic of discussion and dispute​. [Colonialism, Nationalism and Jewish Immigration to Palestine: Abdu´l-Baha's Viewpoints Regarding the Middle East by Kamran Ekbal p21] Israel; Palestine Imperialism/colonialism; History (general)
      1915 Aug Shoghi Effendi returned from the Syrian Protestant College in Beirut to Haifa. Because of the naval blockade many of Persian students were unable to return home so they were invited to spend their summer vacation in Haifa where they were accommodated in the anteroom to the Shrine of the Báb. [PG15] [key] Beirut; Lebanon; Haifa Syrian Protestant College; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
      1915 Aug Martha Root made a brief stopover in Dalian, Manchuria en route from Yokohama to the Hawaiian Islands. It was to be the first of four visits to China. [MR70; SYH59; PH30; Film Early History of the Baha'í Faith in China 10 min 45 sec ]] [key] Manchuria, China Martha Root
      1915 Sep Lua Getsinger arrived in Port Said tired and exhausted. Leaving Port Said, Lua sailed to Cairo expecting to depart shortly for America, but was taken ill and was forced once more to take to her bed. She was cared for most tenderly in the home of her Bahá'í host, Mirza Taki Esphaim and his family, but her weakness lingered on through the winter. Lua went about with heroic will giving the Bahá'í teachings, her work being chiefly among the young men, as they are the only ones among the Egyptians who knew English.
      In the early spring, she moved to Shoubra, a suburb of Cairo to the home of a believer who greatly desired that she should remain with his wife and family for the sake of her uplifting influence. It was here that she spent her last days. [SoW vol. VI, No. 12, p. 89-90; SoW vol. VII, No. 19; BW8p642-643] [key]
      Port Said; Cairo; Egypt Mirza Taki Esphaim; Lua Getsinger
      1915 Sep The publication of The Persian Rival to Jesus, And His American Disciples by Robert P. Richardson. This 24-page "history" concludes by saying, "And Bahaism is simply a sectarian religion; it is a reversion to modes of thought that the ideals of civilization have long ago outgrown."
    • See also WOB83 for other missionaries who wrote polemics against the Bahá'í Faith.
    • Criticism and apologetics; Opposition; Robert P. Richardson
      1915 Oct Shoghi returned to Beirut to commence his junior year at the Syrian Protestant College. [PG16] [key] Haifa; Beirut Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Syrian Protestant College
      1915 11 Oct Arthur Pillsbury Dodge, Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, passed away in Freeport, New York. [SBR15]
    • He had become a Bahá'í in 1895 just before moving to New York City. He visited Haifa in 1900 and Dr. Edward Granville Brown in Cambridge. He was a lawyer, publisher and self-made man. In 1898 he held the first Bahá'í classes in his home and the first public meetings on the Faith with talks given by Dr. Ibrahim Kheiralla. The first person to become a Bahá'í in NYC was Mr. James F. Brittingham, then of Weehawken, NJ who first heard the message from his sister, Mrs. Dixon of Chicago. Mrs. Mary H. Tousey organized the classes at Dodge's home. Later that year, Mr. Howard MacNutt received the message. [Highlights of the First 40 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in New York, City of the Covenant, 1892-1932 by Hussein Ahdieh p3]
    • For biographies see Bahá'í Chronicles; BFA1:116-17, SBR1-16 and SW6, 13:100-1.
    • For his obituary see SW6, 19:161-7.
    • Dodge's books include The Truth of It (1901) [SW6, 13:101] and Whence? Why? Wither? (1907). [SW6, 13:101; Collins7.821] [key]
    • Freeport; New York; United States Arthur Pillsbury Dodge; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; James F. Brittingham; Howard MacNutt first Bahá'í classes in New York City. First public meetings in New York City. First person to become a Bahá'í in New York City-James Brittingham;
      1916 (in the year) Anthony Yuen Seto and his wife Mamie Lorettta O'Connor became Bahá'ís in Hawaii. Mr Seto was the first Chinese Bahá'í in the Hawaiian Islands and the first Chinese-American Bahá'í in the United States. [PH30; BW13p886-889] [key] Hawaii First bahais by country or area The first Chinese-American Bahá'í in the United States. the first Chinese Bahá í in the Hawaiian Islands
      1916 (in the year) The United States census showed 2,884 Bahá'ís. [BBRSM:105; SBBH1:117] [key] United States Statistics
      1916 11 Feb In 1915 Ahmad Yazdání and two other Bahá'ís had written a paper on Bahá'í principles in French and submitted it to the Central Organization for a Durable Peace which had been formed in the Hague. After correspondence with Ahmad Yazdáni, the Executive of the Central Organization for a Durable Peace sent a letter to Tehran to be delivered to 'Abdu'l-Bahá. Communications were disrupted because of the war and the letter was not delivered to Him in Haifa until the 17th of December, 1919. [Bahaipedia] [key] Tihran; Iran; The Hague; Netherlands Central Organization for a Durable Peace; Ahmad Yazdani
      1916 22 Feb In Sultánábád, Mírzá `Alí-Akbar, his wife, his sister-in-law (aged 12) and their four children (aged from 46 days to 11 years) were killed by having their throats cut. [BW18:387; GPB299]
    • See DB610 for picture.
    • Sultanabad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
      1916 26 Mar-22 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá revealed eight of the Tablets of the Divine Plan. [AB420; BBD219 BBRSM157; SBBH132-3; TDPX; Message 29 December 2015]
    • For the order and place of their revelation see AB420-2 and TDP.
    • For a description of their content see AB422-3.
    • Shoghi Effendi characterizes them as a `mandate' and a `supreme charter for teaching'. [GPB255; TDPVII]
    • The Tablets can be found at bahai.org/library:
    • 1st (Page 1) Tablet to the Bahá'ís of the Northeastern States. Revealed on March 26, 1916, in ‘Abdu'l‑Bahá's room at the house in Bahjí, addressed to the Bahá'ís of nine Northeastern States of the United States: Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Vermont, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and New York.
    • 2nd (Page 2) Tablet to the Bahá'ís of the Southern States. Revealed on March 27, 1916, in the garden adjacent to the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh, addressed to the Bahá'ís of sixteen Southern States of the United States: Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee, Kentucky, Louisiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma and Texas.
    • 3rd (Page 3) Tablet to the Bahá'ís of the Central States. Revealed on March 29, 1916, outside the house in Bahjí, and addressed to the Bahá'ís of twelve Central States of the United States: Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska and Kansas.
    • 4th (Page 4) Tablet to the Bahá'ís of the Western States. Revealed on April 1, 1916, in ‘Abdu'l‑Bahá's room at the house in Bahjí, addressed to the Bahá'ís of eleven Western States of the United States: New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, Nevada, California, Wyoming, Utah, Montana, Idaho, Oregon and Washington.
    • 5th (Page 5) Tablet to the Bahá'ís of Canada and Greenland. Revealed on April 5, 1916, in the garden adjacent to the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh, and addressed to the Bahá'ís of Canada—Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Alberta, British Columbia, Yukon, Mackenzie, Keewatin, Ungava, Franklin Islands—and Greenland.
    • 6th (Page 6) Tablet to the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada. Revealed on April 8, 1916, in the garden outside the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh, and addressed to the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada.
    • 7th (Page 8) Tablet to the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada. Revealed on April 11, 1916, in ‘Abdu'l‑Bahá's room at the house in Bahjí, and addressed to the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada.
    • 8th (Page 11) Tablet to the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada. Revealed on April 19, 1916, in ‘Abdu'l‑Bahá's room at the house in Bahjí; on April 20, in the pilgrims' quarters of the house in Bahjí; on April 22, in the garden adjacent to the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh, and addressed to the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada.
    • See the story of the Geography Book used for the Tablets of the Divine Plan. It was called World Geography: One Volume Edition by Ralph Stockman Tarr and Frank Morton McMurry.
    • Haifa Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Tablets of the Divine Plan; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
      1916 Apr or May The first Chinese Bahá'í in China, Chen Hai An (Harold A. Chen), became a Bahá'í while studying at the University of Chicago through the efforts of Dr Zia Baghdádí. He returned to Shanghai that same year. [PH29-30; Video Early history of the Bahá'í Faith in China 6min40sec]
    • PH30 says this was 1919 but this is clearly a typographical error.
    • He returned to China in December 1916.
    • China; Chicago; United States First Bahais by country or area; Zia Bagdadi The first Chinese Bahá'í in China
      1916 May The publication of Tablets of Abdul-Baha abbas Volume III by the Bahai Publishing Society of Chicago. Chicago; IL Tablets of Abdul-Baha abbas
      1916 2 May Louisa Aurora "Lua" Moore Getsinger, (b. 1 November, 1872 in Hume, Allegany County, New York) Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá, "Mother teacher of the West" died of heart failure in Cairo. [BBD87; Find a grave; Bahaipedia; GPB257]
    • 'Abdu'l-Bahá's appointmented of Lua as "Herald of the Covenant" in the June 19, 1912. [LGHC157]
    • For an her obituary see [SoW Vol 7 No 4 May 17, 1916 p29-30].
    • She was buried in the Protestant Cemetery in Cairo. In 1939 a court ruling enabled the Bahá'ís to reinter her in the first Bahá'í cemetery established in Cairo, El Qahira, Egypt. Her grave was now beside that of Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl. [GPB344]
      • For a photo of the reinterment see BW9p87.
    • See Lua Getsinger: Herald of the Covenant by Amine DeMille. [USBN No489 December 1971 p1-5]
    • See also Sears and Quigley, The Flame.
    • See as well Lua Getsinger: Herald of the Covenant by Velda Piff Metelmann.
    • For a brief biography see 239Days as well as The Shining Lamp and Beyond Foreignness. iiiii
    • Cairo; Egypt Lua Getsinger; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Cemeteries and graves; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
      1916 6 May In response to the perceived threat from within the Ottoman Empire, the authorities took harsh measures against leading nationalist persons, intellectuals and activists. On this day, 21 were publicly hanged in Beirut and 10 in Damascus on the order of Jamal Pasha, the commander in chief of the Turkish forces in Greater Syria, (Present-day Lebanon, Syria, Jordan and Palestine).

      These individuals were accused of collaborating with the British and the French and were seen as leaders of the Arab nationalist movement. The day has become to be known as "Syrian Martyrs Day". [Wikipedia; Colonialism, Nationalism and Jewish Immigration to Palestine: Abdu´l-Baha's Viewpoints Regarding the Middle East by Kamran Ekbal p21] [key]

      Damascus; Syria; Beirut; Lebanon
      1916 16 May The Sykes–Picot Agreement, officially known as the Asia Minor Agreement, was a secret 1916 agreement between the United Kingdom and France, to which the Russian Empire assented. The agreement allocated to Britain control of areas roughly comprising the coastal strip between the Mediterranean Sea and the River Jordan, Jordan, southern Iraq, and an additional small area that included the ports of Haifa and Acre, to allow access to the Mediterranean. France got control of southeastern Turkey, northern Iraq, Syria and Lebanon. Russia was to get Istanbul, the Turkish Straits and Armenia. The controlling powers were left free to determine state boundaries within their areas. Further negotiation was expected to determine international administration in the "brown area" (an area including Jerusalem, similar to and smaller than Mandate Palestine), the form of which was to be decided upon after consultation with Russia, and subsequently in consultation with the other Allies, and the representatives of Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca. [Wikipedia] [key] Haifa; Akka; Israel; Palestine Sykes–Picot Agreement (Asia Minor Agreement); History (general); Middle East
      1916 summer Mr Vasily Eroshenko, a young blind Russian, visited Thailand, the first Bahá'í to do so. Thailand First travel teachers and pioneers First Bahá'í to visit Thailand
      1916 28 July Mullá Nasru'lláh-i-Shahmírzádí was martyred in his home in Shahmirzád, Khurásán. [BW18:387]

      Shahmirzad; Khurasan; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
      1916 8 Sep The first five Tablets of the Tablets of the Divine Plan were published in Star of the West. [BBD219; SoW Vol 8 No 10 8 September 1916p87-91]
    • For editorial comment see SoW Vol 8 No 10 8 September 1916p86
    • After this, communication was cut off with the Holy Land. [BBD219] [key]
    • Chicago; United States Tablets of the Divine Plan; Star of the West; Publications
      1916 Oct Shoghi Effendi attended his senior year of university at the Syrian Protestant College. Due to the continuing war conditions further deteriorated in the region. More than 300,000 people lost their lives in Syria due to starvation and disease. [PG17-18] [key] Beirut; Lebanon; Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Syrian Protestant College
      1916 Oct The North American Bahá'í community began a teaching campaign aiming to teach the Faith in the many states named in the Tablets of the Divine Plan, and Montreal was designated the centre of the Northern Territory of the Campaign, which was assigned the responsibility of teaching the Faith in Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Alberta, British Columbia, Yukon, Mackenzie, Keewatin, Ungava, Franklin Island, and Greenland .[SoW Vol 7 No 12 16 October 1916 p112] [key] Montreal; Canada Tablets of the Divine Plan
      1917 (in the year) The passing of Hand of the Cause of God Hájí Mírzá Muhammad-Taqíy-i-Abharí (Ibn-i-Abhar). He was born in 1853/4 in Abhar.
    • For four years he suffered in Síyáh-Chál wearing the very same chains as Bahá'u'lláh had worn in 1852.
    • On being informed that the friends in Tihrán had arranged to observe the commandment of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, Bahá'u'lláh revealed, in one of His Tablets to Ibn-i-Asdaq (later named as a Hand of the Cause), the following well known Words:
        Blessed is the spot, and the house, and the place, and the city, and the heart, and the mountain, and the refuge, and the cave, and the valley, and the land, and the sea, and the island, and the meadow where mention of God hath been made, and His praise glorified. -Bahá'u'lláh
      [Some Bahai Sacred Spaces for Community, Slide presentation by the UK Community, Slide #74]
    • His services during the time of the Master included teaching journeys through Persia, the Caucasus and India. He also made some eleven journeys to the Holy Land with the permission of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá.
    • A special service rendered by Ibn-i-Abhar was the promotion of the education of women. He and his wife played an important part in the advancement of women in Persian society.
    • In 1886 Bahá'u'lláh appointed him a Hand of the Cause. He died in 1917. [LoF13-16, BBD114, EB268; Bahaipedia]
    • Shoghi Effendi designated him as an Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh. [LoF12] [key]
    • Abhar; Tihran; Iran; Caucasus; India Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Ibn-i-Abhar (Mulla Muhammad Taqi); Siyah Chal (Black Pit); Chains; Women; Blessed is the spot; Apostles of Bahaullah
      1917 (in the year) By this year at least a hundred Bahá'í books and pamphlets had been produced in English. [BBRSM:103-4] [key] Publishing; Publications; Statistics
      1917 (in the year) Foreign troops occupied nearly all of neutral Iran. [AB416; BBRSM:87] [key] Iran War (general); History (General); Iran, General history
      1917 (in the year) The news magazine, Khurshid-i khavar (Sun of the East) commenced publication. [BWNS1289] [key] Ishqabad; Turkmenistan Khurshid-i khavar (Sun of the East); - Periodicals; First publications; Publications; BWNS
      1917 (In the year) A Children's Savings Company, which later was registered as Šerkat-e Now-nahālān, (literally `saplings) was founded in Qazvīn. The Nownahalan Company was founded as a thrift club for Bahá'í children in Iran. [BI13]
    • See BI13 for its non-profit and charitable activities.
    • On 23 November 1919 ʿAbdu'l-Bahá wrote a prayer in which He sought God's blessing for its success and durability. He also donated two gold coins of five rubles each to its capital. The company had about 9,000 shareholders with approximately 120 million rials (about $1,700,000) in assets in 1967, half a century after its establishment. [BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran by V. Rafati] [key]
    • Qazvin; Iran Serkete-Nownahalan (Childrens Savings Company); Charity and relief work; Children
      c. 1917 The publication of the booklet entitled Some Vital Bahai Principles by Charles Mason Remey. East Lansing, MI Publications; Charles Mason Remey
      1917 (In the year) The publication of O Christians! Why do Ye Believe Not on Christ? by Ibrahim George Kheiralla.
    • In the "Forward" of the book the author explains that "The purpose of this is to prove to the whole world the Infallibility of Beha 'U'llah, and that the attacks and accusations of S B Wilson, DD, and those of H H Hessup, DD, and Robert P Richarson, against Him and His teachings are not true."
    • The "Dedicatory" reads: "To His Excellency Mohammed Ali Effendi, Gusn Akbar (the Mightiest Branch), who was chosen after Abbas Effendi as the Chief Head of the Behai movement in the last Will of Beha 'U'llah entitled the "Book of My Covenant," this work is dedicated by the author."
    • 1917 (In the year) At this time there were eleven Persian Bahá'ís in Shanghai. Through the efforts of Aqa Mirza Ahmad and Ridi Tabrizi a Bahá'í pamphlet was published, probably the first Bahá'í publication in the Chinese language. It included 'Abdu'l-Bahá's twelve principles and passages from His explanation of the spiritual significance of the European War. The pamphlet include a picture of 'Abdu'l-Bahá and was also published in Persian. [PH31; Video Early history of the Bahá'í Faith in China 7 min 42 sec] [key] Shanghai, China Publications first Bahá'í publication in China
      1917 2 Feb-8 Mar `Abdu'l-Bahá revealed six Tablets of the Divine Plan. [AB422; BBD219, Message 29 December 2015]
    • As there was no communication with America at that time, the Tablets were stored in a vault under the Shrine of the Báb. [BBD219]
    • The Tablets can be found at TDP on the pages indicated:
    • 9th (Page 14)Tablet to the Bahá'ís of the Northeastern States. Revealed on February 2, 1917, in Ismá'íl Áqá's room at the house of ‘Abdu'l‑Bahá in Haifa, and addressed to the Bahá'ís of the nine Northeastern States of the United States: Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Vermont, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and New York.
    • 10th (Page 16)Tablet to the Bahá'ís of the Southern States. Revealed on February 3, 1917, in Haifa in Ismá'íl Áqá's room, and addressed to the Bahá'ís of the sixteen Southern States of the United States: Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee, Kentucky, Louisiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma and Texas.
    • 11th (Page 18)Tablet to the Bahá'ís of the Central States. Revealed on February 8, 1917, in Bahá'u'lláh's room at the house of Abbúd in ‘Akká, and addressed to the Bahá'ís of the twelve Central States of the United States: Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska and Kansas.
    • 12th (Page 20)Tablet to the Bahá'ís of the Western States. Revealed on February 15, 1917, in Bahá'u'lláh's room at the house of Abbúd in ‘Akká, and addressed to the Bahá'ís of the eleven Western States of the United States: New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, Nevada, California, Wyoming, Utah, Montana, Idaho, Oregon and Washington.
    • 13th (Page 21)Tablet to the Bahá'ís of Canada and Greenland. Revealed on February 21, 1917, in Bahá'u'lláh's room at the house of Abbúd in ‘Akká, and addressed to the Bahá'ís of Canada—Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Alberta, British Columbia, Yukon, Mackenzie, Keewatin, Ungava, Franklin Islands—and Greenland.
    • 14th (Page 23)Tablet to the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada. Revealed on March 8, 1917, in the summerhouse (Ismá'íl Áqá's room) at ‘Abdu'l‑Bahá's house in Haifa, and addressed to the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada.
    • Haifa Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Bab, Shrine of; Tablets of the Divine Plan; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
      1917 17 Feb A mob in Najafábád disintered the bodies from two Bahá'í graves. A general agitation against Bahá'ís followed. The Bahá'ís were boycotted in the bazaar and public baths and 32 are arrested. [BW18:387] [key] Najafabad; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution; Persecution, Mobs
      1917 3 Apr 'Abdu'l-Bahá's exhortation on China was published in the Star of the West on the 28th of April, 1917. "China, China, China, China-ward the Cause of Baha'o'llah must march! Where is that holy, sanctified Bahai to become the teacher of China! China has most great capability. The Chinese people are most simple-hearted and truth-seeking." and "China is the country of the future." [SotW_Vol-01 (Mar 1910)-Vol-10 (Mar 1919) p2127/2922]
    • See as well PG99-100 for His Tablet to Chen Ting Mo.
    • China Chen Ting Mo; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Pioneering; Travel teaching
      1917 6 Apr The United States entered World War I.
    • See CF36 for Shoghi Effendi's opinion of its participation in the war.
    • Europe; United States World War I; War (general); History (general); Shoghi Effendi, Life of
      1917 (in the year) A Bahá'í Reading Room was established in Chicago by Luella Kirchner in 1917 or perhaps earlier and became the scene of an incident that exemplified a stage of evolution in the North American Bahá'í community. Because communications with 'Abdu'l-Bahá had been severed due to the war, the community was free to develop as it might. The Reading Room had become host to the "Harmonite Bahá'ís" - those who subscribed to the metaphysical interpretations of the Bahá'í Writings by W. W. Harmon.
            The situation came to a head when both the House of Spirituality and the Reading Room sent delegates to the Boston convention in April 1917. In November, during an event to commemorate the Centenary of the birth of Bahá'u'lláh in Chicago, the national community took up the affair and appointed an investigative committee consisting of Mason Remey (chair) as well as Emogene Hoagg, George Latimer and Louis Gregory. Their report tabled on the 9th of December found that the Reading Room (now calling themselves the Chicago Bahá'í Assembly), had been in violation for "mingling human ideas with the Word of God".
            The victory over the "dissenters" was not complete however. In addition to those who were attracted by Harmon's interpretations there were those leading Bahá'ís like Agnes Parsons and Joseph Hannen who objected to the way the committee had conducted it's investigation. However, at the April 1918 convention the report was unanimously approved by the delegates albeit with several absent delegates. Thus the balance between liberalism and authoritarianism was shifted to the latter with firm ideas about what constituted the Bahá'í belief. As a result in 1918 there was a proposal to establish a review procedure for Bahá'í publications, both old and new as well as measures to ensure doctrinal control at Green Acre. [SBBH1p189-194] [key]
      Chicago; United States Review
      1917 2 May The martyrdom of Mírzá Muhammad-i-Bulúr-Furúsh in Yazd. [BBRXXX, BBR443] [key] Yazd; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
      1917 13 Jun Shoghi Effendi graduated from the Syrian Protestant College with the degree of Bachelor of Arts. [PG18; DH148; GBF9]
    • For pictures of Shoghi Effendi at this time see BW13:131, GBF50-1 and PP88-9.
    • See The Moore Collection for a collection of 80 photos of the campus taken by Dr Moore who was a professor at the college between 1892 and 1915.
    • For more images of the college see The Blatchford Collection of Photographs, photos # 192 and 204 -> 221.
    • An aerial view of the campustoday and live webcam views.
    • Beirut; Lebanon Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Syrian Protestant College; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
      1917 28 Jul The National Association of the Advancement of Colored People's (NAACP) organized a Silent Protest Parade, also known as the Silent March, on 5th Avenue in New York City. This protest was a response to violence against African Americans, including the race riots, lynching, and outrages in Texas, Tennessee, Illinois, and other states. [Black Past]

      One incident in particular, the East St. Louis Race Riot, also called the East St. Louis Massacre, was a major catalyst of the silent parade. This horrific event drove close to six thousand blacks from their own burning homes and left several hundred dead.

    • In response to the rioting, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) sent W.E.B. DuBois and Martha Gruening to investigate the incident. They compiled a report entitled Massacre at East St. Louis, which was published in the NAACP's magazine, The Crisis (Vol 14 # 5 p219-238). A year after the riot, a Special Committee formed by the United States House of Representatives launched an investigation into police actions during the East St. Louis Riot. Investigators found that the National Guard and also the East St. Louis police force had not acted adequately during the riots, revealing that the police often fled from the scenes of murder and arson. Some even fled from stationhouses and refused to answer calls for help. The investigation resulted in the indictment of several members of the East St. Louis police force.
    • New York; NY; St. Louis; MI National Association of the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP); W.E.B. Du Bois; Martha Gruening; Race (general); Racism
      1917 9 Oct Shoghi Effendi registered at the Syrian Protestant College and started the term as a graduate student. He left in the summer of 1918 after completing the year of study. [PG18-19] [key] Beirut; Lebanon Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Syrian Protestant College; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
      1917 Nov `Abdu'l-Bahá sent a message to the Bahá'ís of the world assuring them of His safety. [AB412]
    • The Tablet was carried by an aged Arab Bahá'í, Hájí Ramadán. It took him 45 days to walk from `Akká to Tihrán. On his return trip he brought gold and messages. [AB412; CH206-7]
    • For text of the Tablet see CH207-8.
    • Haifa; Tihran Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; World War I; Haji Ramadan; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
      1917 2 Nov The Balfour Declaration was a letter sent to Lord Walter Rothschild by British Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour declaring support for the establishment of a ‘national home for the Jewish people' in what was to become the British Mandate of Palestine. It was the first official declaration of political support for Jewish independence and is viewed by some as paving the way for the legal foundations of the modern State of Israel as evidenced by the level of international diplomacy that went into securing the letter. In the context of WWI which was still raging at the time, it offered Britain the opportunity for a stake in the Middle East in the expected wake of the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. It also marked one of the first major successes of the political Zionist movement which had officially been established with the First Zionist Congress in 1897.

      Given that the Balfour Declaration was not a unilateral document on behalf of the British but rather something which had been agreed upon privately by allied diplomats before it was issued, it is viewed as the beginning of a legal process, which involved the San Remo conference of 1920 where the Declaration was officially adopted by the allied powers and latter, the creation of the British Mandate for Palestine in 1922.

      The implementation of the Declaration was not without its failings. It provided for the safeguarding of the rights of the residents of Palestine saying ‘nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine'. In the run up to WWII that the British wanted to placate the Arab leadership in the Mandate. They issued a White Paper limiting Jewish immigration to the Mandate to fifteen thousand every year for five years, ultimately refusing entry to thousands of Jewish refugees from Europe, many of whom would tragically die in the Holocaust. [Wikipedia]

    • The Palestine Mandate.
    • Palestine; Israel; United Kingdom Balfour Declaration; Jews; Judaism; History (general); Palestine Mandate
      1917 9 Dec General Allenby entered Jerusalem. [AB425]
    • Major Wellesley Tudor Pole had risked court martial in alerting the British Cabinet of the danger to `Abdu'l-Bahá. [EJR169]
    • It was reported by British Intelligence that the Turkish Commander-in-Chief had the intention to "crucify 'Abdu'l-Bahá and His family on Mt. Carmel". [GPB306] [key]
    • Jerusalem General Allenby; Wellesley Tudor Pole; Abdul-Baha, Life of; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Abdul-Baha, Death threats to
      1918 (In the year) The publication of the 2nd edition of Some Answered Questions by the Bahai Publishing Society in Chicago.

      The book was in high demand and the Society had sold all its copies so they asked Laura Barney for permission for a second publishing. She took the opportunity to make some corrections and added "one lesson". She asked that the copyright of the book be put in her name in the United States. [LB174-175] [key]

      Chicago, IL Some Answered Questions; Laura Clifford Barney
      1918 (In the year) Shaykh Kázim-i-Samandar, Apostle of Bahá'u'lláh, passed away early in the year.
    • For the story of his life see [EB191-215]. [key]
    • Iran Shaykh Kazim-i-Samandari; Apostles of Bahaullah; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
      1918 (In the year) The publication of Excerpts from Mysterious Forces of Civilization, Written by an Eminent Bahai Philosopher in 1975: Excerpts from A Traveler's Narrative Written to Illustrate the Episode of the Bab. No publication information. [Collins3-43 p10]
    • A leather bound republication has been made of the 1918 edition. [Amazon.ca]
    • The text of this work as well as the translation done by Marzieh Gail and and the original Persian text have been laid out in one document by Bruce Barick and Nasrin Khademi. A pdf of this document has also been made available on Bahá'í-library.com.
    • Wilmette; IL Bruce Barick; Nasrin Khademi; Johanna Dawud; Yuhanna Dawud
      1918 Jan The British Bahá'ís alerted the Foreign Office about the importance of ensuring `Abdu'l-Bahá's safety in Haifa. [BBR332-5; CH219; GPB305-6]
    • CH219 says this was in the Spring but letters to the Foreign Office were dated Jan 1918.
    • For the actions of Lady Blomfield see BBR333, CH219-20, AB425-26 and ER169.
    • For the role of Major Wellesley Tudor Pole see BBR332-3; CH222-5; and ER168-70.
    • Haifa British Foreign Office; Britain; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Lady Blomfield; Wellesley Tudor Pole; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
      1918 8 Jan President Woodrow Wilson in a speech on war aims and peace terms to the United States Congress outlined his Fourteen Points. It was a statement of principles for peace that was to be used for peace negotiations in order to end World War I.
    • Wilson was influenced by the Bahá'í Teachings in formulating his Fourteen Points, at least three Bahá'í volumes were known to be in the White House. The Hidden Words appears on a 1921 listing of Wilson's private library. Also, a compilation on peace given the President by a delegation of Washington Bahá'ís ‘turned up in general reference at the Library of Congress marked "transfer from the White House"‘. In addition, Abdul-Baha on Divine Philosophy (Boston, 1918) was said to have much influenced his thinking. [AY155]
    • Commenting on the Fourteen Points laid down by the President for the world community, the Master says that twelve of them derive from principles advocated by Bahá'u'lláh fifty years before, and that these Teachings had been spread worldwide through various publications, thus becoming known to leaders in Europe and America (Persian Tablets, vol. III, p. 312). [AY156-157]
    • US Office of the Historian.
    • United States; Washington DC Woodrow Wilson; Fourteen Points; History (general); Principles; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha on Divine Philosophy; Peace; World peace (general); World War I; War (general); United States, Presidents
      1918 Mar The British Military Administration of Palestine began. [BBR488]
    • Sir Ronald Storrs was detached from Jerusalem to organize the British Administration in Haifa. 'Abdu'l-Bahá offered him His staff and a gift of a little Bokkara rug from the Shrine of the Báb. He returned the visit to Sir Ronald at a later date in Jerusalem. [BW10 194-5; CH226] [key]
    • Palestine British history; Ronald Storrs; Gifts; Carpets
      1918 15 Mar Áqá Mírzá Javád, I`timádu't-Tujjár, was shot in Bandar Jaz and the houses of the Bahá'ís were looted, causing the death of Javád's 14-year-old nephew. [BW18:387] [key] Bandar Jaz; Iran Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution
      1918 (After the National Convention) The publication of the second edition of Compilation of the Holy Utterances of Bahaʼollah and Abdul Baha, Concerning the Most Great Peace, War and the Duty of the Bahais toward their Government, authorized the the Tenth Annual Convention of the Bahais of America held in Chicago.
    • The original.
    • The pdf.
    • Chicago; United States Compilation of the Holy Utterances of Bahaʼollah and Abdul Baha
      1918 18 Sep Allenby began his last offensive against Haifa. [BBR335] [key] Haifa General Allenby
      1918 23 Sep "During the early years of World War I, though no longer imprisoned, ‘Abdu'l-Bahá faced repeated threats against His life by authorities who were antagonistic towards Him and the Bahá'ís. The Commander of the Ottoman fourth army corps had even threatened to crucify ‘Abdu'l-Bahá if the Turkish army were ever to be displaced out of Haifa." Lady Blomfield in London had learned of these threats and through her contacts in Cabinet, the British Army was instructed to protect Him and His family. [BWNS69, BWNS1202]

      The British army took the city in the 1st Battle of Haifa: The battle was won due to a courageous uphill assault by the Jodhpur Lancers of the Indian Army who took the German and Turkish artillery and machine gun emplacements on top of Mount Carmel by surprise. This attack is believed to have been one of the last cavalry charge in modern military history. Each year, on this date, the Indian Army commemorates this victory as Haifa Day. [AY104; BBR335; DH148, Scroll In 68095]

    • For details of the battle see BBR335-6.
    • For letters from the British authorities stating that `Abdu'l-Bahá is safe see BBR336-7.
    • For a photos see The Indian Weekender 5 October, 2018 as well as Wikipedia.
    • For videos see India Today, The Battle of Haifa Part 1, The Battle of Haifa Part II.
    • See the story as recounted by Col (Dr) Divakaran Padma Kumar Pillay.
    • See as well Battle of Haifa: The Last Great Cavalry Campaign in History by Ajeet Singh Choudhary. This article provides a comprehensive historical account of the Jodhpur Lancers and Battle of Haifa.
    • See PG85-86, on the 23rd of August, 1919 'Abdu'l-Bahá, in conversation with Major-General Watson, referring to the success of the British army in taking Haifa stated, "God hath wished it to be so, it was His Divine aid and assistance that made it possible." and "It was God that helped you from every standpoint."
    • Mount Carmel; Haifa; Israel World War I; War (general); History (general); Jodhpur Lancers; Indian Army; Armies; Germany; Turkey; Haifa Day; Abdul-Baha, Death threats to; BWNS; Lady Blomfield
      1918 16 Oct During the years of the war the friends in the West had no communications with 'Abdu'l-Bahá and so were concerned for His safety and well-being. After the Battle of Haifa, on the 16th of October, the British Foreign Office in Palestine informed the British Consul-General in New York of His safety with a request that he publish the news. [BBR337 ]

      At a Feast held in the home of Mr and Mrs Leo Perron in Chicago it was decided to write a supplication to 'Abdu'l-Bahá asking Him to come to America. The idea was approved by the Spiritual Assembly and a letter was sent to all other assemblies to solicit signatures for the petition. In the early part of January all the signatures were received and sent to Akka along with the supplication. [SoW Vol 10 No 3 August 1, 1919 p168; p156]

      'Abdu'l-Bahá's response, translated by Shoghi Effendi, can be found on p154-155.

      Chicago, IL Petition; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
      1918 11 Nov The end of the First World War or the Great War.

      It was a global conflict originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. It led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. An estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilians died as a direct result of the war, and it also contributed to later genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic, which caused between 50 and 100 million deaths worldwide. Military losses were aggravated by new technological and industrial developments and the tactical stalemate caused by gruelling trench warfare. It was one of the deadliest conflicts in history and precipitated major political changes, including the Revolutions of 1917–1923, in many of the nations involved. Unresolved rivalries at the end of the conflict contributed to the start of World War II about twenty years later. [Wikipedia]

    • During the war Iran suffered horribly. It is estimated that during one year 120,000 people died of disease and starvation. The Bahá'í communities established relief centres to care for the believers and not a single Bahá'í starved or was even in need. [PG111] [key]
    • Persia; Iran World War I; War (general); History (general)
      1918 23 Dec Ahmad Sohrab left the Holy Land to take the Tablets of the Divine Pan to America. [AB434] [key] Haifa Tablets of the Divine Plan; Ahmad Sohrab
      1919 (in the year) Amelia Collins, Hand of the Cause, became a Bahá'í in Pasadena, California. [PSBW74] [key] Pasadena; California; United States Amelia Collins; Hands of the Cause
      1919 (In the year) Ibrahim Kheiralla died, having been abandoned by all of his followers. [CB252]
    • See MD16 for 'Abdu'l-Bahá's comment about him.
    • Ibrahim George Kheiralla; Covenant-breakers
      1919 (In the year) The first Norwegian to accept the Faith, Johanna Christensen-Schubarth, `the mother of the Norwegian Bahá'í Community', became a Bahá'í in the United States. [BW12:694-696]. [key] Norway First Bahais by country or area The first Norwegian to accept the Faith, Johanna Christensen-Schubarth
      1919 (In the year) After joining the Bahá'í Faith, Dorothy Champ (b. Loudoun County, Virginia, 23 February, 1893, d. East Providence, RI 28 November, 1979), went on to be a lifelong lecturer and teacher of the Faith. She was also the first African American elected to the Local Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of New York City. [LoSp61-62; Highlights of the First 40 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in New York, City of the Covenant, 1892-1932 by Hussein Ahdieh p20] [key] New York; United States Dorothy Champ The first African American elected to the Local Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of New York City
      1919 (In the year) The publication of The New Day; The Bahai Revelation by Charles Mason Remey. The book was a brief statement of the history and the teachings of the Faith. East Lansing, MI; Michigan; United States Charles Mason Remey; Publications
      1919 (In the year) Chen Ting Mo accepted the Faith in the United States. He returned to Shanghai with many Bahá'í books that he deposited in the Shanghai library. [PH31; Video Early history of the Bahá'í Faith in China 7 min 04 sec] [key] Shanghai Chen Ting Mo
      1919 18 Jan The commencement of the Paris Peace Conference in Versailles.
    • Ali Kuli Khan was named as a member of Persia's Peace Delegation to the Versailles. [SUP45] [key]
    • Paris; Versailles; France Paris Peace Conference; Peace
      1919 Feb The publication of Tablets of Abdul-Baha abbas Volume II Second edition. (The first edition was published in May 1915) It was published by the Bahai Publishing Society in Chicago. Chicago; IL Tablets of Abdul-Baha abbas
      1919 22 Feb The "Self-Publishing of the Bahá'í Association" was replaced by the establishment of the "Publishing House of the German Bahá'í Federation GmbH". This publishing house was founded by eighteen Bahá'ís with a share capital of 25,000 marks. [German Bahá'í website archive] [key] Germany Publishing Trusts
      1919 (Late Winter until Early Autumn and beyond) "Red Summer" is the period from late winter through early autumn of 1919 during which white supremacist terrorism and racial riots took place in more than three dozen cities across the United States, as well as in one rural county in Arkansas.

      Some historians claim that the racial terror connected with "Red Summer" began as early as 1917 during the bloody massacre that occurred in East St. Louis, Illinois, a barbaric pogrom that would eventually set the stage for the 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre, one of the worst episodes of post-Civil War racial violence ever committed against Black Americans. The Tulsa Massacre left as many as 300 Black people dead and destroyed more than 35 square blocks of Greenwood, an all-Black community so wealthy, the philosopher Booker T. Washington called it "Negro Wall Street." [Red Summer: When Racists Mobs Ruled]

    • See Wikipedia for a partial list of locations where such events took place in 1919 alone.

      It was against this backdrop of racial tension and hatred that the Baha'i community promoted racial amity. [SYH125-126] [key]

    • United States Red Summer; Race; Race (general): Race amity; Race unity; Racism
      1919 c. Apr Initiated by Eugene and Wandeyne Deuth, Reality magazine provided a forum for accounts of Bahá'í activities (mostly those in New York) and a wide range of articles by Bahá'ís and others.
    • Reality for 1921.
    • After 1922, under the editor Harrison Gray Dyar, the magazine changed in character, serving as a vehicle for a series of attacks on Bahá'í orthodoxy and organization (1923-1926) then practically ceasing to carry any Bahá'í content (1926-1929).
    • It went out of production in the Spring of 1929. [SBBH2p135-155] [key]
    • New York; United States Reality magazine; Reality; Eugene Deuth; Wandeyne Deuth; Harrison Gray Dyar
      1919 (In the year) The Egyptian Revolution of 1919: From 1883 to 1914, the successive Khedives of Egypt and Sudan, under the Ottoman Sultan, remained the official ruler of Egypt and Sudan, but ultimate power was exercised by the British Consul-General. During the reign of Muhammad Ali (1805 - 1848), the man considered as the founder of modern Egypt, (and a dynasty of Khedives that lasted until the end of the first World War), the foundations were laid for the modernization of Egypt. Pan-Arabism and Pan-Islam were the leading ideologies of the period as well as the principle of self-determination and independence from foreign rule. A request was made for independence, Egyptian representation was made at the Paris Peace Conference that resulted in the leader of the nationalist forces being exiled to Malta. (It should be noted that during WW I Egypt was under martial law administered by the British.) [Wikipedia; Colonialism, Nationalism and Jewish Immigration to Palestine: Abdu'l-Baha's Viewpoints Regarding the Middle East by Kamran Ekbal p3] [key] Egypt; Sudan Imperialism/colonialism
      1919 13 Apr The passing of Phoebe Apperson Hearst (b. 3 December, 1842) in her home in Pleasanton, California during the worldwide influenza epidemic of 1918-1919. She was buried at Cypress Lawn Memorial Park, Colma, California. [AY49, Find a grave, Bahá'í Chronicles]
    • See AY55-> for a brief history of her life and her contribution to the progress of the Faith. She had learned of the Faith through Lua Getsinger and members of her group in the early days of the Faith in California.
    • ‘Abdu'l-Bahá called her ‘the servant of Bahá, the "Mother of the Faithful"'. He writes that she had ‘sincerely turned unto her Master... completely faced toward the Kingdom of God ... [she] shall surely have a firm and steady footing in the Cause of God, her face shall shine forth from the Horizon of Loftiness, her fame shall be spread in the Kingdom of God, and [she] shall have a ringing voice ... and the light of her glorious deeds shall beam forth during cycles and ages.' [AY54-55; 106-107] [key]
    • Pleasanton; California; Colma; United States Phoebe Hearst; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Cemeteries and graves; Lua Getsinger; Names and titles
      1919 (In the year) Ms. Dorothy Champ (b. 23 February, 1893, Loudoun County, Virginia. d. 28 November, 1979, East Providence, RI) became a Bahá'í and went on to become a great teacher of the Faith. She had been a designer, singer, model and dancer. She was so inspired by the Faith that she had given up her career to teach. Ms. Champ was the first black person elected to the Local Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of New York City. [Highlights of the First 40 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in New York, City of the Covenant, 1892-1932 by Hussein Ahdieh p20; LoS61-62] [key] New York Dorothy Champ first black person elected to the Local Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of New York City.
      1919 26 Apr-1 May The 14 Tablets of the Divine Plan were unveiled in a dramatic ceremony at the Hotel McAlpin in New York, during the `Convention of the Covenant'. The Tablets had been brought to America by Ahmad Sohrab at the request of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [ABNYP172Note24, BBD219; PP437; SBBH1:134; SBBH2:135; SBR86; AB434; TDPXI]
    • For details of the convention programme, Tablets and talks given see SW10, 4:54-72; SW10, 5:83-94; SW10, 6:99-103, 111-12 SW10, 7:122-7, 138; SW10, 10:197-203; and SW10, 12:2279.
    • Mary Maxwell (Rúhíyyih Khánum) was among the young people who unveil the Tablets. [PP437]
    • Hyde and Clara Dunn and Martha Root responded immediately to the appeal, the Dunns went to Australia where they open 700 towns to the Faith, and Martha Root embarked on the first of her journeys which are to extend over 20 years. [GPB308; MR88]
    • See also CT138-9.
    • Agnes Parsons arrived from her pilgrimage just before the close of the convention and was able to convey the instructions from `Abdu'l-Bahá to arrange a Convention for `the unity of the coloured and white races'. [BW5:413; SBR87]
    • The book Unveiling of the Divine Plan includes nine talks given by Mirza Ahmad Sohrab to the National Convention.
    • Shoghi Effendi calls the Tablets of the Divine Plan a charter for the propagation and the establishment of the Administrative Order. It has also been called a charter for the teaching of the Faith. [MBW84; LOG1628]
    • For the significance of the Tablets of the Divine Plan see ‘Abdu'l-Bahá Champion of Universal Peace by Hoda Mahmoudi and Janet Khan.
    • New York; United States Tablets of the Divine Plan; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Charters of the Bahai Faith; Conventions, National; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Agnes Parsons; Hyde Dunn; Clara Dunn; Martha Root; Race (general); Race amity; Race unity; Ahmad Sohrab
      1919 28 Jun The Treaty of Versailles was concluded. The United States never signed the Treaty of Versailles, never joined the League of Nations which President Wilson's foes derisively referred to as ‘Wilson's League'. The USA made separate treaties with Germany and the other Central Powers. Wilson died on the 3rd of February, 1924. [AY160-169; US Office of the Historian]

      Shoghi Effendi's tribute is as follows:

      "To ... President ... Woodrow Wilson, must be ascribed the unique honour, among the statesmen of any nation, whether of the East or of the West, of having voiced sentiments so akin to the principles animating the Cause of Bahá'u'lláh, and of having more than any other world leader, contributed to the creation of the League of Nations—achievements which the pen of the Centre of God's Covenant acclaimed as signalizing the dawn of the Most Great Peace, whose sun, according to that same pen, must needs arise as the direct consequence of the enforcement of the laws of the Dispensation of Bahá'u'lláh." [CoF36] [key]

      Versailles; France Treaty of Versailles; Peace treaties; Woodrow Wilson; League of Nations; History (general); World War I; War (general); World peace (general); Peace; Most Great Peace
      1919 17 Jul From the newspaper Globe and Commercial Advertiser in New York, Àbdu'l-Bahá was quoted as saying :
        "If the Zionists will mingle with the other races and live in unity with them, they will succeed. If not, they will meet certain resistance. For the present I think a neutral government like the British administration would be best. A Jewish government might come later.

        "There is too much talk today of what the Zionists are going to do here. There is no need of it. Let them come and do more and say less.

        "The Zionists should make it clear that their principle is to elevate all the people here and to develop the country for all its inhabitants. This land must be developed, according to the promises of the prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah and Zachariah. If they come in such a spirit they will not fail. [SoW Vol 10 Issue 10 September 8, 1919 p194-195] [key]

      Palestine
      1919 22 Jul Martha Root left New York on the first of her teaching journeys for the Bahá'í Faith in spite of a strike that threatened to cancel her trip. [MR90; PG104] [key] New York Martha Root
      1919 c. 4 Aug Martha Root set foot in South America for the first time, at Para (now Belém), Brazil. [MR93; MRHK44]
    • See MR93-100 and MRHK44-59 for her teaching work in Brazil.
    • Latin America; Para (Belem); Brazil Martha Root
      1919 13 Aug The passing of Mírzá Muhammad-Hasan Táliqání, Hand of the Cause of God, entitled Adíbu'l-'Ulamá, know as Adíb (Educator) in Tihrán at the Shah's College established by Násirii'd-Dín Sháh. He was born in Talaqán in 1848 and became a Bahá'í around 1889. [BBD98, SUR29]
    • Bahá'u'lláh appointed him a Hand of the Cause of God. [SDH138-140]
    • He was appointed as one of the Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh.
    • He was one of the founders of the Tarbíyat Schools in Tihrán. [LoF17-18]
    • For a brief history of his life see EB272-3.
    • EB273 says he died on 2 September 1919.
    • Tihran; Talaqan; Iran Adib (Haji Mirza Hasan Talaqani); Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Appointments; Hands appointed by Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Tarbiyat School; In Memoriam; Apostles of Bahaullah
      1919 19 Aug The Anglo-Persian agreement was signed whereby Persia would get advisors for every department and give every concession to England. It effectively made Persia a British protectorate and eliminated the Russian influence that had been established by the earlier Anglo-Russian pact. The United States Government was much displeased, for this represented a breach of ‘open covenants openly arrived at', one of Wilson's Fourteen Points, and represented a continuation of the secret diplomacy of former times. The price of this agreement, according to one official, was £500,000 paid out to one prominent official, and £300,000 to another.

      When the Persians discovered by what dubious means this Agreement was contrived, they arose in fury, there was a coup d'état with the backing of the Cossack Brigade, Siyyid Zia-ed-Din came to power (1921) and abrogated the Agreement. Then he himself would be overthrown, and replaced by Reza Khan of the Cossack Brigade as Minister of War and Commander in Chief. Thus an illiterate one-time army private, once a sentry at a hospital gate, would eventually (1925) become a powerful Shah. [AY172, 210] [key]

      Iran; United Kingdom Anglo-Persian agreement; British history; History (general); Iran, General history
      1919 19 Sep Martha Root arrived in Montevideo, Uruguay, the first Bahá'í to visit the country.
    • She spent 12 hours in the city, gave books to two libraries and placed an article about the Faith in the newspaper El Dia.
    • Montevideo; Uruguay Martha Root the first Bahá'í to visit Uruguay
      1919 20 Sep Martha Root arrived in Argentina, the first recorded visit of a Bahá'í to this country. [MR101]
    • She remained in Buenos Aires until 4 October. [MR101]
    • See MR101-2 and MRHK61-5 for her teaching work in Argentina.
    • See MR103-6 and MRHK66-9 for her journey over the Andes on a mule.
    • Buenos Aires; Argentina; Andes Martha Root; First Bahais by country or area the first recorded visit of a Bahá'í to Argentina
      1919 Oct Martha Root visited Chile, the first Bahá'í to do so.
    • During her four-hour stay in Valparaiso she met with the Theosophical Society to speak about the Bahá'í Faith.
    • Chile Martha Root; Theosophical Society
      1919 25 Oct Martha Root arrived in Panama, the first Bahá'í to visit the country. She spent one week there. Panama Martha Root the first Bahá'í to visit Panama,
      1919 Nov William Harry Randall, an American, asked `Abdu'l-Bahá if he might contribute to the building of the Western Pilgrim House. [DH179]
    • Plans were drawn up and work began but the funds available were insufficient to continue the work until 1923, when money was contributed by Amelia Collins and seven others. [BBD178; DH180; GPB307] [key]
    • Haifa William Harry Randall; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Pilgrim Houses; Pilgrim House, Western; Amelia Collins
      1919 18 Nov The periodical entitled "The Magazine of the Children of the Kingdom" was published and distributed by Miss Ella Roberts from 1919 to 1924. [Encyclopedia of Women and Religion in North America: Native American creation stories, edited by Rosemary Skinner Keller, Rosemary Radford Ruether, Marie Cantlon p.782-783]
    • The story of the naming of the magazine...
        Margaret Randall told of the establishment of a Bahá'í Junior Magazine and asked 'Abdu'l-Bahá for a name for it. The Master was told who had charge of it, and His face lighted up with a beautiful smile as He said: "The name is The Magazine of the Children of the Kingdom. Who writes it? This (name) is suitable for it. [WHR128-129]
    • See A Compilation on Bahá'í Education #96 for a tablet by 'Abdu'l-Bahá to the children of the Bahá'í school, Urbana, Illinois found here.
    • See A Compilation on Bahá'í Education #102 for a tribute to the magazine by Shoghi Effendi found here. He called it "first and only organ of the Bahá'í youth throughout the world".
    • At the American National Convention in 1925 (July 4 - 9) it was reported that "The Magazine of the Children of the Kingdom", edited by Ella Roberts and "Bahá'í World Fellowship" edited by Mrs. Victoria Bedikian had merged. ["Bahá'í News Letter" #6 Jul-Aug 1925 p.6]
    • Haifa; United States Magazine of the Children of the Kingdom; Children; Youth; - Periodicals; Publications; First publications first publication for Bahá'í youth.
      1919 21 Nov In the period after the war 'Abdu'l-Bahá was flooded with requests from India and points East for Him to visit. Indian soldiers serving with the British forced stationed in the area were frequent visitors. [PG118-120] [key] India
      1919 17 Dec Due to the difficulty of communication during the war there was a long delay before the invitation was delivered to the Holy Land.`Abdu'l-Bahá immediately responded to the invitation and wrote the Tablet to the Central Organization for a Durable Peace. He asked Ahmad Yazdáni and 'Alí Muhammad 'Ibn-i-Asdaq to come to Haifa to deliver the Tablet on His behalf. In May of 1920, they departed Haifa for Rotterdam. Upon arrival, they took a train to The Hague and delivered the Tablet on the 17th of May. Haifa; The Hague; Netherlands Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Lawh-i-Hague (Tablet to The Hague); Ibn-i-Asdaq (Mirza Ali-Muhammad); Peace; World peace (general); - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; Central Organization for a Durable Peace
      1919 25 Dec Shoghi Effendi presented a precious gift to his friend Dr Esslemont, "a drop of the coagulate and sacred blood of Bahá'u'lláh". [PG126] [key] Haifa Esslemont; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; gifts
      1919 Late Martha Root visited Cuba for one day, the first Bahá'í to do so, and lectured on the Bahá'í Faith. Cuba Martha Root the first Bahá'í to visit Cuba
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