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Bahá'í Chronology Canada: years 196-

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1960 Mar Twenty-seven communities in seven provinces participated in the Promulgation Campaign. 12,000 ministers, priests and laypersons received the letter and the newspaper ads reached a total of one million readers. The results could be analyzed in three ways: the spirit of the believers; the response from the churches; and the immediate effect in the teaching work.
  • It was noted that in small communities where economic conditions were more difficult, the level of sacrifice appeared greater.
  • While the responses from the Christian communities was encouraging there was opposition from the pulpit in such places as Saskatoon, Regina, Saint John and Winnipeg. The Premier of Alberta, Ernest Manning, on two occasions, attacked the universal nature of the Cause on national network broadcasts. Other indications are that the awareness of the claims of the Faith is high among some groups and that it is a topic of their discussions.
  • There were some 300 promulgation meetings across Canada and over 50 persons wrote for literature in response to the advertisements.
  • It was realized that with a mass-education program that repetition was essential and so sustained local follow-up was necessary to maintain the momentum. [CBN No 122 March 1960 p4-5] [key]
  • Saskatoon, SK; Regina, SK; Saint John, NB; Winnipeg, MB Proclamation I; Opposition; Promulgation Campaign
    1960 Mar As part of their Promulgation Campaign, the Bahá'ís of Saskatoon sent out some 950 letters. Bill Lacey of Minot, ND spoke to an audience of 68 at a public meeting at the University. There was a barrage of opposition from the floor but there were many who responded in defence of the Bahá'ís. At a subsequent meeting with one of those who rose to defend the Bahá'ís came the idea of having an inter-religious meeting. That brought out 32 people of different nationalities, 11 of which gave short talks on their faith. Members of the International Students Club who attended decided to hold a meeting at the University that was attended by some 150 people. Bill Gossen made a presentation on behalf of the Bahá'í Faith. [CBN No 122 March 1960 p6-7] [key] Saskatoon, SK Proclamation I; Opposition; Bill Lacey; Bill Gossen; Promulgation Campaign
    1960 Mar In the March issue of the Canadian Bahá'í News the National Archivist, Hartwell Bowsfield, and the National Library and Archives Committee made a fresh appeal on behalf of the Hands of the Cause in the Holy Land to send all letters received from Shoghi Effendi to the Archives. [CBN No 122 March 1960 p5] [key] Hartwell Bowsfield; National Archivist; Shoghi Effendi, letters of
    1960 Ridván The first Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Saltfleet was formed. [UC111] [key] Saltfleet, ON Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1960 29 Apr - 1 May The 13th National Convention was held at the Westbury Hotel in Toronto. It was attended by Hand of the Cause Amatu'l-Bahá Ruhíyyih Khánum and Hand of the Cause John Robarts. The 19 delegates selected the following for service on the National Assembly for the year 117: Peggy Ross, (sec'y) Rowland Estall, (chair) Winnifred Harvey, Hartwell Bowsfield, Harold Moscrop, Lloyd Gardner, (vice-chair) Audrey Westheuser, (treas.) Douglas Martin, and Fred Graham. [CBN No 125 June 1960 p1]
  • For the Message from the Hands of the Faith in the Holy Land see [CBN No 125 June 1960 p10].
  • For the message from the Hands of the Faith in the Western Hemisphere to the Annual Convention see [CBN No 125 June 1960 p7]. [key]
  • Toronto, ON National Convention; National Spiritual Assembly, election of; Peggy Ross; Rowland Estall; Winnifred Harvey; Hartwell Bowsfield; Harold Moscrop; Lloyd Gardner; Audrey Westheuser; Douglas Martin; Fred Graham
    1960 May The Promulgation Campaign moved into the fifth stage. The National Spiritual Assembly approved the participation of Toronto, Scarborough, North York, Etobicoke, York Township, Forest Hill, Montreal, Vancouver, Verdun, Westmount, St. Lambert, Ottawa, Eastview, Kingston, Victoria, Nanaimo, New Westminster, West Vancouver, Penticton and Vernon.
  • In Regina there were six declarations, in Saskatoon and Moose Jaw two. [CBN 123 April, 1960 p1] [key]
  • Regina, SK; Moose Jaw, SK, Saskatoon, SK Proclamation I; Promulgation Campaign
    1960 May Amy Putnam on the Six Nations reserve reported that Robert Jameson had become the first resident believer. [CBN No 123 April 1960 p3] [key] Six Nations Reserve, ON; Ohsweken, ON Native teaching; Amy Putnam; Robert Jameson first Bahá'í on the Six Nations Reserve.
    1960 16 May - 2 Jun ‘Amatu’l-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum was in North America from May 4 to June 5. She made a coast to coast tour of Canada from May 16 to June 2, 1960. She had a TV interview in Regina and was interviewed by newspaper representatives in Ottawa and other cities. In Montreal she gave an address in the Union Church. One of the recurring themes in her talk was the importance of Native teaching. During her tour she visited a Navajo First Nation in the US and the Peigan (Piikani) Reserve in Alberta. In Calgary she spoke to a group that included Native people and members of the Blackfoot First Nation declared his faith. [CBN No 126 July 1960 p5].
  • As a gift to the National Assembly she brought an illuminated Tablet of Bahá'u'lláh in Arabic. It was written in a circle in the centre of which was a lock of Bahá'u'lláh's hair. [CBN No 126 July 1960 p7]. iiiii
  • Piegan; Piikani First Nation; Blackfoot First Nation Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Archive
    1960 18 May The National Spiritual Assembly made a submission on Native education which was entered into the minute of proceeding and evidence of the Joint committee and the House of Commons on Indian Affairs on this date. [CBN No 126 July 1960 p6] [key] Ottawa, ON National Spiritual Assembly, submission; Native Americans
    1960 21 May Hand of the Cause Ruhiyyih Khánum visited the Piikani First Nation (Peigan Reserve), AB during her tour of Canada at the home of Councillor Samson Knowlton. During this visit she had the honour of being given a name by the chiefs of the tribe (Our Blessed Mother). [CBN No 126 July 1960 p5]
  • For details of the visit see [CBN No 129 October 1960 p3-4; BN No 356 November 1960 p2]. [key]
  • Piikani First Nation (Peigan Reserve), AB Hands of the Cause, Activities; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum
    1960 1 Jul Ben Whitecow and Louise Many Guns were married in the first Bahá'í marriage legally recognized in Canada in a Bahá'í service by the Spiritual Assembly of Calgary, Alberta. The Canadian Bahá'í News article noted the significance that it was a First Nations couple who had this honour in this unique event. “Thirty people attended from Edmonton, Lethbridge, Regina, Piikani First Nation (Peigan Reserve), AB, and Calgary. This event was unique in that it was the first legally recognized Baha’i marriage in Canada. It is significant that a First Nations couple should have this honour [Canadian Baha’i News 1961]. [key] Calgary, AB Ben Whitecow; Louise Whitecow; Louise Many Guns; Weddings; Recognition (legal); Native Americans; First Nations first Baha’i marriage legally recognized in Canada in a Baha’i service
    1960 12 Jul The passing of the Hand of the Cause Horace Holley in Haifa.
  • In 1948, as the secretary of the National Assembly of the United States and Canada he assisted with the formation of the independent National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Canada. [UC110]
  • A tribute to him was included as in insert to the January 1961 issue of the Canadian Bahá'í News.
  • Haifa Horace Holley; In Memoriam
    1960 Sep Peggy Ross, who had been serving as both an Auxiliary Board Member and secretary of the National Spiritual Assembly, had to resign her position as secretary to devote more time to her work as an Auxiliary Board Member. Audrey Westheuser took over the secretarial duties. At this point both she and Rowland Estall were serving on the National Assembly and as Auxiliary Board Members. iiiii Auxiliary Board; National Spiritual Assembly, election of; Auxiliary Board Members
    1960 (In the year) A series of twelve professional advertising mats with graphics and an explanation of the Faith were designed by Rod Willis and made available to all believers across Canada for local newspapers. [UC113] [key] Proclamation, newspapers
    1960 Sep (Later part) All the communities in the greater Vancouver area united to launch a Promulgation Campaign in their area. [CBN No 129 October 1960 p5]
  • They sent out about 1,500 kits to clergy and laymen and held a follow-up public meeting attended by 70 to 80 persons including three clergy. Doug Crofford spoke on "Christ and Bahá'u´lláh" and answered questions that followed. A series of panel discussion meetings were planned to begin on October 16th. [CBN No 130 November 1960 p5] [key]
  • Vancouver, BC Proclamation I; Promulgation Campaign; Doug Crawford
    1960 13 Nov In preparation for the election of the International Bahá'í Council, in November of 1960 the Hands in the Holy Land sent out voting kits, one for each member of every National or Regional Assembly. They were asked to return the completed ballots to Haifa prior to the counting of the votes on the 21st of April, 1961. The members of the National Spiritual Assembly of Canada cast their ballots during an Assembly meeting and they asked the friends to pray for their guidance. Friends in the Metropolitan Toronto area gathered at the Temple site for this purpose. [MoC245; CBN No 136 May 1961 p4] [key] BWC International Bahai Council
    1961 (In the year) The Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Whitehorse was incorporated. [Native Conversion, Native Identity: An Oral History of the Bahá'í Faith among First Nations People in the Southern Central Yukon Territory, Canada by Carolyn Patterson Sawin p98] [key] Whitehorse, YT Local Spiritual Assembly, incorporation
    1961 (In the year) Chief Samson Knowlton, then-chairman of the first Peigan Reserve Bahá'í Assembly, and an elected member of the Band Council for the Peigan Band of the Blackfoot Confederacy along with John Hellson, originally from Cornwall, England were part of a teaching team that visited many Reserves. Over sixty First Nations people became Bahá'ís in 1960-1962. The team carried letters of introduction to the chiefs of all the Six Nations Reserves in Ontario and Quebec and were welcomed with a special ceremony on some of the Reserves. Their itinerary included the following reserves: the Nanaimo Reserve in Nanaimo, B.C., the Squamish Reserve in Capilano, BC, the Mohawk Reserve in Ohsweken in Ontario, the Chippewa Reserve in Kettle Point, Ontario, the Mississauga Reserve in Curve Lake, the Mohawk Reserve in Caughnawaga, Quebec.” The teaching team gave copies of the small prayer book, Communion with God, which has “meant much to the new Indian Bahá'ís on the Reserves in Saskatchewan and Alberta (Canadian Bahá'í News July 1961; BN No 365 August 1961 p10).” iiiii Peigan Reserve, AB; Nanaimo Reserve, BC; Squamish Reserve, BC; Mohawk Reserve, ON; Chippewa Reserve, ON; Curve Lake, ON; Mohawk Reserve, QC Sam Knowlton; John Hellson; Teaching, Native
    1961 23 Jan Noel Wuttenee visited Piikani First Nation (Peigan Reserve), AB and is reported to have said:
      First Indian Bahá’í fire side I have been to and I am happy to see the Indians take to the sky once again with the strength and power of eagle wings. How far we will fly with the winds of Bahá’u’lláh’s teachings, once again we can cry out with the Eagles voice and be heard and live with a purpose.
    [The Distance Traversed a presentation by Bev Knowlton and Joan Young 2022] [key]
    Piikani First Nation (Peigan Reserve), AB Noel Wuttenee; Indigenous Teaching
    1961 Ridván The first Local Spiritual Assembly of Piikani First Nation (Peigan Reserve) was formed with Louise Whitecrow, Charles Strike-With-A-Gun, Rose Knowlton, Sam Yellow Face, Ben Whitecrow, Joyce McGuffie, Dale Olivier, Guy Yellow Wings and Chief Samson Knowlton [Canadian Baha’i News July 1961]. [key] Piikani First Nation (Peigan Reserve), AB Louise Whitecrow; Charles Strike-With-A-Gun; Rose Knowlton; Sam Yellow Face; Ben Whitecrow; Joyce McGuffie; Dale Olivier; Guy Yellow Wings; Chief Samson Knowlton; Local Spiritual Assembly, formation first Local Spiritual Assembly of Peigan Reserve
    1961 Ridván. The formation of the first spiritual assembly in Nanaimo, BC. [CBN No 149 Jun 1962 p5] [key] nanaimo, BC Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1961 28 - 30 Apr The fourteenth National Convention was held at the Westbury Hotel in Toronto. Those elected were: Angus Cowan, Rowland Estall, (chair) Glen Eyford, Lloyd Gardner, (vice-chair) Fred Graham, Douglas Martin, Harold Moscrop, (tres.) Peggy Ross, and Audrey Westheuser (sec'y). [CBN No 137 June 1961 p10]
  • See [CBN No 136 136 May 1961 p1] for the Message from the Hands in the Holy Land.
  • See [CBN No 140 September 1961 p1] for photo.
  • Toronto, ON National Convention; National Spiritual Assembly, election of; Angus Cowan; Rowland Estall; Glen Eyford; Lloyd Gardner; Fred Graham; Douglas Martin; Harold Moscrop; Peggy Ross; Audrey Westheuser
    1961 (Spring) Ron Parsons became a Bahá'í some time before July in 1961. [CBN No 138 July 1961 p3]
  • At the time he was a United Church minister in Strathmore, AB. He had first heard of the Faith while serving in Red Lake, ON in 1960. A parishioner had directed him to speak with Carol and David Bowie while he was doing visitation in Ear Falls where the Bowie family lived. Following his visit the Bowies sent him a copy of Christ and Bahá'u'lláh and on the next visit he left with the Kitáb-i-Íqán and subsequently was loaned The World Order of Bahá'u'lláh. Shortly after was transferred to Claresholm, AB and David put him in touch with Arthur and Lily-Ann Irwin who nurtured him into full acceptance of, and membership in, the Faith. [CBN No 127 August 1960 p4] [from and email correspondence with David Bowie 4 January 2020] iiiii
  • Red Lake, ON; Ear Falls, ON; Strathmore, AB Declaration; Carol Bowie; David Bowie; Ron Parsons; Arthur Irwin; Lily Ann Irwin
    1961 May Hand of the Cause Hasan M. Balyuzi (1908-1980) visited Canada where, in “addition to meeting the friends, he visited a number of Reserves, including First Nations of Ontario, the Poorman Reserve in Saskatchewan where he was honoured by a pow-wow, the Muscowpetung Reserve, the Peigan Reserve in Alberta, and First Nations people of British Columbia. His talks were ‘simple and direct’, appealing ‘to the hearts of the many who came to hear him’. Later he described these meetings as ‘very wonderful’, commending to British Bahá’ís the initiative of individuals upon whom ‘so much depends’, and expressing his confidence in the rapid acceptance of the Faith by the Native peoples.”[In Memoriam: Hasan M. Balyuzi” BW18p647; BN No 366 September 1961 118BE p9] https://hdcommittee.wordpress.com/2015/02/23/alberta-bahai-history-project-shareable-resources/
  • During May, in the course of a trip through Canada, Hand of the Cause Hasan Balyuzi visited a number of Indian Reserves. Accompanied by two members of the National Eskimo and Indian Teaching Committee of Canada, he stopped at the Poorman Reserve in Saskatchewan where a pow-wow was held in his honour and also at the Muscowpetung Reserve. Earlier he had visited Ontario Indians, and later he went on to the Peigan Reserve in Alberta, and to British Columbia. Mr. Balyuzi's talks were simple and direct, and appealed to the hearts of the many who came to hear him. At the Poorman Reserve, the chief and his wife walked three miles to meet him. There the Hand of the Cause, a relative of the Báb Himself, and thus a relative of beloved Shoghi Effendi, expressed gratitude to the Guardian for making the meeting possible. [Bahá'í News No 366 September 1961 118 BE p9]
  • Poorman Reserve, SK; Muscowpetung Reserve, AB; Piikani First Nation (Peigan Reserve), AB Hasan Balyuzi; Teaching, Native
    1961 Sep It was reported in the Canadian Bahá'í News that the National Assembly had made application to the Department of National Defence for recognition of the Bahá'í Faith on the list of religious denominations of the Armed Services. They received word that the Faith was so listed with the authorized abbreviation of "BWF" and that this will be used to designate those who wish to be so identified. [CBN No 140 September 1961 p6] [key] Armed Forces; Military; Recognition (legal)
    1961 Oct Edmund Many Bears (b. 1906 - d.14 March 1968) of the Siksika Blackfoot Nation declared as a Bahá'i. “He was instrumental in forming the Bahá'i.Local Spiritual Assembly of the Blackfoot Reserve in 1962. He served on Tribal Council and was a member of the Brave Dog Society.” (Native Baha’i) (“In Memoriam: Edmund Many Bears.” BW14p357-358.) Siksika Nation, AB; Blackfoot Reserve, AB Edmund Many Bears
    1962 (In the year) Native believer Shirley Lindstrom enrolled in the Faith in the Yukon. Months after becoming a Bahá'í she travelled alone to Yellowknife in the Northwest Territories to help establish the first Local Spiritual Assembly there. Later she move with her family to Saskatchewan where they remained for several year to work with the First Nations people a the Fort Qu'Appelle Bahá'í Institute. [Native Conversion, Native Identity: An Oral History of the Bahá'í Faith among First Nations People in the Southern Central Yukon Territory, Canada by Carolyn Patterson Sawin p97] [key] Shirley Lindstrom
    1962 Mar Some Statistics as of March, 1962:
    Montreal; 27
    Ottawa: 24
    Toronto: 35
    Hamilton: 30
    Winnipeg: 15
    Regina:26
    Edmonton:18
    Vancouver: 23
    Peigan Reserve (Piikani Nation): 27
    Pasqua Reserve (Pasqua First Nation):22
    Poorman Reserve (Kawacatoose First Nation): 59 {CBN No 146 Mar 1962 p4]

    Poorman Reserve (Kawacatoose First Nation): 74 This is the largest community in Canada. [CBN No 147 Apr 1962 p2] [key]
    Statistics
    1962 Mar Doris McLean, sister of Shirley Lindstrom, became a Bahá'í. One month later she and her cousin moved to Sitka Alaska to help form the first local assembly there. [Native Conversion, Native Identity: An Oral History of the Bahá'í Faith among First Nations People in the Southern Central Yukon Territory, Canada by Carolyn Patterson Sawin p91-92] [key] Yukon Doris McLean
    1962 Ridván The National Convention was held in Scarborough. [CBN No 146 March 1962 p1] [key] Scarborough, ON National Convention; National Spiritual Assembly, election of
    1962 May The Western Canada Bahá'í School was held at the Banff School of Fine Arts from August 12 – 19. It cost a dollar a day to register and room and meals cost $5.00 to $7.00 per day. Mrs. Betty Putters in Sherwood Park was in charge of registration. (May 1962. Summer Schools. U. S. Supplement. Baha’i News) Banff, AB Betty Putters; Summer School
    1962 May Jean Many Bears (b. 1910 – d. 1968) Jean and her husband Edmund were “instrumental in forming the Spiritual Assembly of the Blackfoot Reserve (Native Baha’i).” “In Memoriam: Jean Many Bears.” Baha’i World. Volume XIV 1963-1968 page 357-58. Blackfoot Reserve, AB Jean Many Bears; Edmund Many Bears
    1962 10 May The passing of F. St. George Spendlove (b. 23 April 1897 in Montreal) [BW13p895-899; Bahá'ís of Canada]
  • He was part of the community of early believers in Montreal where he learned about the Faith after returning from the war in Europe.
  • He was a curator of the Canadian Collection at the Royal Ontario Museum. The Face of Early Canada, published in 1958, was illustrated with pieces from this collection. A second book, Collectors’ Luck, followed in 1960. [BW13p895–899]
  • See Bahá'ís of Canada.
  • Montreal, QC; Toronto, ON George Spendlove; In Memoriam
    1962 22 May The first Athabascan Native north of the Arctic Circle to become a Bahá’í, Charley Roberts, enrolled. [BW15:455] [key] Charley Roberts; Athabascan first Athabascan Native Bahá’í north of the Arctic Circle
    1962 31 Jul The first spiritual assembly was formed in Kitchener, ON by declaration. Those on the Assembly were: Elfriede Emde, Elizabeth Rochester, George Marjanovich, Michael Rochester, Ida Borst, Walter Borst, Murat Sokolovie, Douglas Martin and Elizabeth Martin. [CBN No 152 September 1962 p1] [key] Kitchener, ON Local Spiritual Assembly, formation; Elfriede Emde; Elizabeth Rochester; George Marjanovich; Michael Rochester; Ida Borst; Walter Borst; Murat Sokolovie; Douglas Martin; Elizabeth Martin
    1962 (Late in the year) The first Inuit Bahá'í in Canada, David Kabloonak declared his faith in Baker Lake. [CBN No155 1962 p5; contributed by Leslie Cole] [key] Baker Lake, NU Native Teaching; David Kabloonak First Inuit Baha'i in Canada David Kabloonak
    1963 Mar At this time there were 1,500 enrolled Bahá'ís in Canada, 500 of these were First Nations. [CBN Special Editions May 1963] [key] Statistics
    1963 20 Apr The end of the Ten Year Crusade

    Canada started the Ten-year Crusade in 1953 with 30 local spiritual assemblies, by 1957 there were 19. "Hand of the Cause John Robarts enlisted the Bahá'ís of Canada in one great campaign of prayer and action, and we finished that Crusade with sixty-four Local Spiritual Assemblies." [BCVol 9 No8 October 1987 p18] [key]

    Ten Year Crusade; Statistics; John Robarts
    1963 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly announced that there would be no National Convention this year due to the fact that many of the participants would be returning from the historic meetings which were held in Haifa and in London. The National Teaching Committee wanted to make full use of those travellers returning to share the benefit of their experiences. [CBN No158 Mar 1963 p1]
  • For a list of delegates see CBN No 159 Apr 1963 p1]
  • Those elected by postal ballot were: Husayn Banani (vice), Lloyd Gardner (tres.), Rowland Estall (chair), Audrey Westheuser (sec'y), Peggy Ross, Glen Eyford, Angus Cowan, Douglas Martin, Michael Rochester. [CBN No161 June 1963 p1] [key]
  • National Convention; Husayn Banani; Lloyd Gardner; Rowland Estall; Audrey Westheuser; Peggy Ross; Glen Eyford; Angus Cowan; Douglas Martin; Michael Rochester; postal ballot
    1963 Number of Local Spiritual Assemblies in Canada: 64

    Incorporated Local Spiritual Assemblies: 20

    Localities where Bahá'í reside: 285

    Members: 2,186

    [from a pamphlet, The Bahá'í Faith and its World Community published by the NSA of Canada] [key]

    Canada Statistics
    1963 June (Mid) Tom Garraway arrived in Cambridge Bay.
  • Ethel Martens, then of Eastview, was also in Cambridge Bay for the summer on a special assignment for her job. [CBN No163 Aug 1963 p1] [key]
  • Cambridge Bay, NU Pioneer; Tom Garraway
    1963 11 - 18 Aug The Banff Summer School was held at the Banff School of Fine Arts. The theme was "The Advent of Divine Justice". [CBN No163 Aug 1963 p4] [key] Banff Banff Summer School
    1964 (In the year) The Yukon Territorial Government granted the right to perform legally recognized marriages to the Whitehorse local assembly. [Native Conversion, Native Identity: An Oral History of the Bahá'í Faith among First Nations People in the Southern Central Yukon Territory, Canada by Carolyn Patterson Sawin p98] [key] Whitehorse, YT Weddings; Recognition (legal)
    1964 30 May Charles W. Ryder - Assiniboine Saskatchewan Bahá'í declared during a Bahá'í sponsored International Powwow on the Red Lake Reservation in Minnesota. Reporting about the Powwow Bahá'í News August 1964 page 15 states: ...the first declaration at Red Lake and the acceptance of the Faith by a visiting Canadian Indian, Charles Ryder, former chief of the Assiniboines in Saskatchewan. In addressing the gathering Mr. Ryder stated that he had been hearing speeches about brotherhood for many years, but had never seen it until this Powwow. [BN No401 August 1964 p15] [key] Assiniboine, SK Charles Ryder; PowWow
    1965 25 Feb Because of the cost of adapting the Mount Pleasant property for Hazira use, the replacement of this property by the premises of the Free Magyar Reformed Church on Huron Street was authorized provided satisfactory financial arrangements can be made. The Temple Grounds Committee reported that no action could yet be taken on their option to purchase land in the Toronto area. Toronto, ON Hazira and Temple Properties Committee; Haziratu’l-Quds
    1965 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Iceland was formed in Reykjavik. Its members were Asgeir Einarsson, Kirsten Bonnevie, Florence Grindlay, Jessie Echevarria, Carl John Spencer, Charles Grindlay, Liesel Becker, Barbel Thinat and Nicholas Echevarria. [Bahá'í News No 417 10 December 1965 p10]
  • See Bahá'í Historical Facts for a photo.
  • Reykjavik, Iceland Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1965 Summer Winnifred Harvey opened the locality of Hull, QC. She moved from Eastview, ON (later Vanier and still later part of the Ottawa community). She immediately immersed herself in an intensive study of French. Hull was a major target in the development of French Canadian teaching. Hull, QC; Eastview, ON; Vanier, ON Winnifred Harvey; Outaouais Cluster
    1965 16 - 18 Jul International Indian Pow Wow Fort Qu'Appelle, Saskatchewan was the site of an International Indian Pow Wow. This event was jointly sponsored by the Canadian Bahá'í Western Reserves Teaching Committee and the American Indian Service Committee and attracted many participants from both countries: Native and non-Native, Bahá'í and not-yet Bahá'í . [Bahá'í News No. 87 MAY 1965 122BE] [key] Fort QuAppelle, SK International Indian Pow Wow
    1965 Early Sep Ron and Edna Nablo and family opened the locality of Lucerne, QC. This area was later known as Aylmer and still later became Gatineau. The city of Gatineau was formed in 2002 following the amalgamation of the municipalities of Aylmer, Buckingham, Gatineau, Hull and Masson-Angers. [CBN Issue 189 October 1965 p2]

    Don and Diana Dainty moved to Lucerne in June of 1967 [email from Catherine Carry dated 28 May 2020] [key]

    Lucerne, QC; Gatineau, QC Ron Nablo; Edna Nablo; Outaouais Cluster; Don Dainty; Diana Dainty
    1966 May The passing of Dr Stanley William Bolton (b. 24 March 1892 North Adelaide Township, ON) in Australia.

    Stanley Bolton was conscripted into the Canadian Armed Forces at the beginning of World War I and was wounded in France. After the war and upon release from service he found work with the Fuller Brush Company and met Mariette Germain Roy in 1922. They were married in 1923 and the couple moved to Australia in 1924, arriving in Sydney on September 24. Stanley was still employed by the Fuller Brush Company and worked to establish the business in Australia, travelling across several states in the process.

    The Bolton's first heard of the Bahá'í Faith when they met Hyde and Clara Dunn in 1925, but they did not become Bahá'ís until they met Keith Ransom-Kehler when she visited Australia in 1931. The Fuller Brush Company had closed down in 1929 due to Australian import restrictions and the Boltons moved to the United States in 1931, settling in Detroit where they assisted the local Bahá'í community.

    They were introduced to chiropractic because of the illness of their son. Both Stanley and Mariette became qualified chiropractors and established a practice in Sydney when they returned to Australia in 1934.

    In 1936 the Bolton’s bought three acres of land in Yerrinbool to be used to host Bahá'í Summer Schools. Hyde Dunn laid the cornerstone of the first building on the site on the 11th of October 1936. Siegfried Schopflocher visited the property shortly after the first building was completed and suggested that it be named Bolton Place. The property was officially opened at a ceremony chaired by Stanley during the second Australian and New Zealand National Convention on May 2nd, 1937. The Bolton's did not live on the property, but Stanley or Mariette traveled from Sydney to Yerrinbool every Wednesday from 1940 to 1943.

    The first Australian Bahá'í Summer School was held on the property from the 8th to the 23rd of January 1938, and has been held there every year since. Stanley served as Chairman of the Summer School and both he and his wife delivered talks during sessions. Stanley and Mariette personally managed all of the affairs of the Summer School until 1945 when they transferred the responsibilities of management to the National Spiritual Assembly of Australia and New Zealand. Stanley continued to serve as Secretary of the Summer School after the transfer, and he and Mariette were caretakers of the property until they left Yerrinbool, moving to Orange, in 1963. In 1949 the Bolton's began proceedings to legally transfer ownership of the Yerrinbool property to the National Spiritual Assembly, which were completed in March 1963.

    In August 1943 the Bolton's moved to Yerrinbool, and began hosting Summer School attendees in their home. They served as inaugural members of the Local Spiritual Assembly of Yerrinbool when it was established in 1948. In 1947 the Bolton's invited Frank Khan, a prominent member of the Australian Muslim community, to give a talk on Islam at the Summer School. Frank's family became the first Australian Muslims to become Bahá'í's in December 1948.

    His service included the Local Teaching Committee, the Summer School Committee, Temple Construction Committee or as a member of the National Spiritual Assembly, he was forthright and definite in both thought and deed. Of the twenty years, 1937 - 1958, he served on the National Spiritual Assembly for seventeen, frequently as chairman.

    He and Mariette attended the dedication of the Wilmette Temple in 1953 as representatives of Australia and New Zealand and had the bounty of going on pilgrimage to Haifa. They returned to Australia with a gift from the Guardian —a cream fez of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá [BW14p323-325; Find a grave] [key]

    Stanley Bolton; Knight of Bahaullah
    1966 12 Oct The passing of Nosrat Mehdi Firoozi in Geneva, NY. Born in Iran he emigrated to the United States in 1924. Mehdi was a frequent visitor to Canada, often called upon as a lecturer at summer schools and conferences. [Democrat & Chronicle 13OCT1966] [key] Geneva, NY Mehdi Firoozi; Travel Teaching
    1967 (In the year) Harvey Iron Eagle Saulteaux of the Pasqua First Nation, Saskatchewan, Canada declared as a Bahá'í in 1967. His grandfather was Chief Strong Eagle. [IndigenousBahais.com] [key] Pasqua First Nation Harvey Iron Eagle first to declare Pasqua First Nation
    1967 24 - 26 Mar The Arctic Policy Conference was held in Toronto. Present were 16 attendees, Hand of the Cause John Robarts, representatives of the National Spiritual Assembly, the Auxiliary Board, the National Pioneer Committee and individuals involved in the teaching work in the Arctic. It was decided to establish Bahá'í houses in Frobisher Bay (now Iqaluit) in the District of Franklin, Baker Lake in the District of Keewatin and Yellowknife in the District of Mackenzie. [SDSC278]
  • Photo of Bahá'í House in Baker Lake.
  • Toronto, ON; Frobisher Bay, NU; Baker Lake, NU; Yellowknife, NT; Iqaluit, NU Arctic Policy Conference; Bahai House; Hands of the Cause, Activities; John Robarts
    1967 Ridván The formation of the first Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Comox: The members were: Ed Crainey, Eric Hyde, Joan Stroub, Cliff Gardner, Rosemary Versteegh, Frank Versteegh (chairman) Olive Yorke, Maisie Hyde, and Novella Hyde. [CBN No 214 November 1967 p11] [key] Comox, BC Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1967 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly was formed in Haines Junction, YT. [Native Conversion, Native Identity: An Oral History of the Bahá'í Faith among First Nations People in the Southern Central Yukon Territory, Canada by Carolyn Patterson Sawin p98] [key] Haines Junction Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1967 27 - 30 Apr The site chosen for this year’s National Convention was Fort William. The National Assembly felt that, as Expo made Montreal unavailable, the Lake head would provide a location which was as close to the geographic centre of the country as could be secured. In this way travel costs could be kept to a minimum. Fort William had the further advantage of having much less expensive accommodation available.

    Those elected to the National Spiritual Assembly were: Douglas Martin (Secretary), Ronald Parsons; Michael Rochester (Vice-chairman), Suheil Bushrui, Rowland Estall, Donald Glen (Treasurer), Lloyd Gardner; Jameson Bond (Chairman), and, Angus Cowan. [CBN No 208 June 1967 p8] [key]

    Fort William, ON; Thunder Bay, ON National Convention; Douglas Martin; Ronald Parsons; Michael Rochester; Suheil Bushrui; Rowland Estall; Donald Glen; Lloyd Gardner; Jameson Bond; Angus Cowan
    1967 30 Jul - 5 Aug The Western Canada Bahá'í Summer School moved from Banff to the new Bahá’í-owned lakeside chalet Sylvan Lake, AB (100 miles north of Calgary). The was a large camping area, motels, and limited indoor sleeping accommodation. [CBN No 207 April 1967 p7]
  • Mrs. Beatrice A. Rinde of California conducted a course, Bahá'í Laws from Universal House of Justice
  • Sylvan Lake, AB Summer School
    1967 25 Oct The passing of Canadian pioneer and Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Catherine Huxtable (b. 6 January, 1932 Carlwood, Surrey, England) at her home in Jamestown, St Helena. Her life had been shortened due to muscular dystrophy. She, husband Cliff and son Gavin had arrived on St. Helena some nineteen months before. [LNW169, BW14p313-315]
  • See A Conqueror for St. Helena: A Tribute to Catherine Huxtable by W. G. Huxtable.
  • See A Love That Could Not Wait for the story of her marriage and pioneering experiences.
  • See Wikitree.
  • See Bahaipedia iiiii
  • Jamestown, St Helena Catherine Huxtable; pioneer; Cliff Huxtable; Gavin Huxtable; In Memoriam
    1967 29 Oct The launch of the Centenary of Bahá'u'lláh's proclamation to the kings and the rulers in Toronto. A 30-minute memorial service for Catherine Huxtable was added to the program that included an eulogy by Michael Rochester. [LNW176-179] [key] Toronto, ON Catherine Huxtable; Michael Rochester; Proclamation
    1967 19 Nov The dedication of the Bahá'í Institute at Ft. Qu'Appelle by Hand of the Cause Tarazu’llah Samandari during a four-day visit to Saskatchewan by him and his son. In honour of the event hand-lettered scroll was made by Barb Wild with the signature of Tarazu’llah Samandari and Mr Samandari penned a rendition of the Greatest Name.
  • The facility was two years in the making and was the only Institue of its kind in North America at the time. Its purpose was to become the focus for the teaching of First Nations people. The chalet-type building could accommodate 20 overnight guests on two stories. It had a large assembly hall, a library, a fully-equipped kitchen. [CBN No218 April 1968 p1]
  • The dedication was also attended by the Mozart Group. [Facebook posting] [key]
  • Fort QuAppelle, SK Tarazullah Samandari; Institute; Mozart Group
    1967 11 Dec The Bahá'í Campus Club was inaugurated at the University of New Brunswick. Moncton, NB Bahai associations; Universities
    1968 (In the year) The Ballad of Crowfoot, often referred to as Canada's first music video, was directed by Willie Dunn, a Mi’kmaq/Scottish folk singer and activist who was part of the historic Indian Film Crew, the first all-Indigenous production unit at the National Film Board. The film is a powerful look at colonial betrayals, told through a striking montage of archival images and a ballad composed by Dunn himself, about the legendary 19th-century Siksika (Blackfoot) chief who negotiated Treaty 7 on behalf of the Blackfoot Confederacy. The Indian Film Crew’s inaugural release, Crowfoot was the first Indigenous-directed film to be made at the NFB.

    This film was made during American filmmaker George Stoney's two-year assignment with the National Film Board of Canada, serving as Executive Producer of the "Challenge for Change" project.

    Some other films from this project were Cree Hunters of Mistassini and You Are on Indian Land.

  • Lyrics for The Ballad of Crowfoot.
  • To learn more listen to the podcast Why You Should Know the Indian Film Crew. (You can start at 20min40sec.)
  • The Ballad of Crowfoot; Willie Dunn; George Stoney; You Are on Indian Land; Cree Hunters of Mistassini
    1968 Apr An article honouring the Centenary of Bahá'u'lláh's Proclamation to the Kings and religious leaders of the world appeared in the April 1968 issue of Ebony Magazine. The article included a number of colour photographs taken during the recent Bahá'í Intercontinental Conference in Kampala, Uganda. Auxiliary Board Member Mrs. Beth McKenty was instrumental in getting the article and has worked with Ebony on the material.
  • In April 1965 Ebony carried a feature story on the Faith titled: "Bahá'í: A Way of Life for Millions."
  • The July 1965 issue of the magazine carried a quarter-page advertisement on the Bahá'í Faith which has been one of the most successful ads in terms of response. [National Bahá'í Review No 3 March 1968 p10] [key]
  • United States Ebony; Proclamation; Beth McKenty; Auxiliary Board Members
    1968 Ridván The members of the twenty-first National Assembly elected were: Jameson Bond, Ronald Parsons, Douglas Martin, Michael Rochester, Donald Glen. Angus Cowan, Tom Anaquod, Rowland Estall, and Lloyd Gardner.

    The delegates too the National Convention were asked to elect a replacement for Lloyd Gardiner who was appointed to the newly-created North American Board of Councillors which made him ineligible for membership on national or local administrative bodies. Ballots were sent out to all delegates, but their return was delayed by a mail strike. When the count was finally taken the result was a tied vote and the delegates were required vote again, making their choice between the two people who received the equal number of votes. The deadline for the return of this second balloting was delayed in order to allow time for those attending the Oceanic Conference in Palermo to return to their homes. The deadline was set for September 17th. Mr. Ed Muttart of Fort Qu’Appelle was selected. [CBN No 223 Sep/Oct 196 p9]. [key]

    National Convention; Jameson Bond; Ronald Parsons; Douglas Martin; Michael Rochester; Donald Glen; Angus Cowan; Tom Anaquod; Rowland Estall; Lloyd Gardner;
    1968 Ridván The formation of the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Lucerne, QC. The founding members were: Beatrice B Major, Hedda Rakovsky, Hubert Schuurman, Don Dainty, Ron Nablo, Olga M Earwaker, Suzanne Schuurman, Diana Dainty, and Edna Nablo. [from an email 4 November 2022 from National Archivist Ailsa Hedly Leftwich] Lucerne, QC Local Spiritual Assembly, formation; Outaouais Cluster; Ron Nablo; Hubert Schuurman; Edna Nablo; Don Dainty; Diana Dainty; Susanne Schuurman; Hedda Rutkowski; Olga M Earwaker; Olga M Earwaker; Beatrice Major the first Spiritual Assembly in Lucerne, QC
    1968 10 Jul The passing of Mariette Germaine Roy Bolton (b. 1900 Québec) in New South Wales, Australia. She was buried in the Macquarie Park Cemetery and Crematorium North Ryde, Ryde City, New South Wales, Australia.

    Mariette G. Roy was born into a Catholic French Canadian family of farmers. In 1923 she married Stanley Bolton and the couple emigrated to Sydney, Australia in 1924. She first heard of the Bahá'í Faith from the Dunns in 1925 and she and Stanley declared after meeting Keith Ransome-Kehler in 1931.

    The Bolton’s moved to Detroit in the United States in 1931. Their son Stanley Jr. fell ill and was treated by a chiropractor prompting the Boltons to move to Iowa and study chiropractic at Palmer College in Davenport. They established a chiropractic practice when they returned to Sydney in 1934.

    In 1936 the Bolton’s purchased land in Yerrinbool and built the first Australian Bahá'í Summer School on the property. Siegfried Schopflocher visited shortly after the first building was completed and suggested it be named 'Bolton Place'.

    The Boltons moved to Yerrinbool in 1943 and both Stanley and Mariette served on the first Yerrinbool Local Spiritual Assembly. Mariette and Stanley managed the Yerrinbool School themselves before turning over administration to the National Spiritual Assembly in 1945. They continued to serve as caretakers of the Summer School property until moving to Orange, NSW in 1963.

    Mariette and Stanley undertook a teaching trip to New Caledonia in February 1952. Her knowledge of French allowed her to teach the Faith effectively, and at least one local became a Bahá'í during her visit. They were among the first teachers to the Pacific Islands, a process which culminated in the formation of the National Spiritual Assembly of the South West Pacific Ocean, with its seat in Noumea, at Riḍván, 1971. [BN No 255 May 1952 p10; BN No 257 July 1952 p5]

    In 1953 she travelled extensively with Stanley, attending Intercontinental Teaching Conferences in Stockholm and Delhi, attending the dedication of the American House of Worship as representatives of the Australian National Spiritual Assembly, and making a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. She is believed to be the only French Canadian believer to have met the Guardian.

    She was a member of the National Spiritual Assembly of Australia and New Zealand serving as secretary from 1948 until 1951.

    She made teaching trips to the United States and Canada in 1957 and 1963 when she attended the Most Great Jubilee in London in that year. Her last teaching trip abroad was in 1968 when she visited Noumea, New Caledonia a few months prior to her death on July 10. She must surely be recognized as one of the most succesful Bahá’í teachers in Australia. [OBCC100n34; Find a grave; BW15p435-437] [key]

    Mariette Bolton the only French Canadian believer to have met the Guardian.
    1968 1 Sep The marriage of Cynthia Wrate to Reginald Newkirk in Lethbridge, AB. It was the first Bahá'í (only) marriage ceremony performed by the Lethbridge Assembly and the first interracial marriage in Lethbridge. (Source: email from Reggie Newkirk 25Sep2016) Lethbridge, AB Reggie Newkirk; Cynthia Wrate (Cynthia Newkirk, Cindy Newkirk); Marriage the first interracial marriage in Lethbridge. First Bahá'í marriage performed by the Lethbridge Assembly.
    1968 17 Sep The National Spiritual Assembly announced the result of the by-election held to elect a replacement for Lloyd Gardner, whose appointment to the North American Board of Counsellors made him ineligible for membership on national or local administrative bodies. The new member, elected by postal ballot, by the delegates to our last National Convention, was Mr. Ed Muttart of Fort Qu'Appelle, Saskatchewan. [CBN No 223 September-October 1968 p10] [key] Fort QuAppelle, SK National Convention; National Spiritual Assembly, election of; Ed Muttart; National Spiritual Assembly, By-election
    1968 28 Oct The Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Mississauga achieved incorporation status. The members were: Frederick Thorkildsen, Jacqueline Law, Ernest Barkes, Jean Ziegler, Barry Lavery, Valery Lavery; Isabelle Nikulka, Joyce barkes, and Beatrice Mines. [BN July 1970 p 9] [key] Mississauga, ON Local Spiritual Assembly, incorporation; Frederick Thorkildsen; Jacqueline Law; Ernest Barkes; Jean Ziegler; Barry Lavery; Valery Lavery; Isabelle Nikulka; Joyce Barkes; Beatrice Mines
    1969 (In the year) Karyne Hyde, the 16 year old daughter of Eric and Novella Hyde of Comox, BC, was awarded a scholarship by the Rotarians to study in Brazil. She was sent to Governador Valadares, a city of about 200,000 located some 900km north of São Paulo and enrolled the first year of study in Normal of Imaculate Conception Institute where all her studies were in Portuguese. During her stay she was billeted with one host family for a period of three months and then was assigned to another Rotarian host family. Living with different families enabled the exchange students to broaden their experience. [CBN No 228 April 1969 Jeunesse Oblige] [key] Comox, BC Karyne Hyde; Novella Hyde; Eric Hyde
    1969 1 Jan The Fredericton Bahá'í community became a registered charitable organization. Fredericton; NB Charitable organization
    1969 Feb The National Spiritual Assembly announced that a favourable offer was received for its Cummer-Bayview Temple property and their offer for a property for the Temple and the Hazírratu'l-Quds in Markham Township had both been concluded on the 15th of October, 1968. The new property was "just over 16 1/2 acres, beautifully contoured and wooded with large open areas, including and exceptionally fine house surrounded by landscaped grounds." [CBN No 224 November, 1968 p1; CBN No 26 January, 1969, p7-8]
  • See [MtC198-199] for a photo of the property at Cummer Avenue and Bayview Avenue.
  • The move was made from 15 Lola Road to the Willowdale location in January-February of 1969. The new address was Box 519, Willowdale 441, Ontario.
  • See [MtC198-199] for a photo.
  • Willowdale, ON; Toronto, ON Haziratul-Quds; National Centre; 15 Lola Road
    1969 Mar As of this date, the Auxiliary Board Members in Canada served in the following areas:

    Mr. R. Ted Anderson; Yukon and McKenzie Territories, Alberta, British Columbia, and shared Franklin District with Peggy Ross.

    Mr. Fred Graham; Ontario, Quebec, The Maritimes

    Mrs. Peggy Ross; Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Keewatin District, and shared Franklin District with Ted Anderson. [Bahá'í National Review Issue 15 March 1969 p3] [key]

    Canada Auxiliary Board Members; Ted Anderson; Fred Graham; Peggy Ross
    1969 Apr The incorporation of the Spiritual Assembly of Yellowknife. This marked the first time that a Local Spiritual Assembly had been granted incorporation status by the government of the North West Territories.
  • At the time of the incorporation the Assembly members were: Bernice Boss, Virginia Evans, Eileen Boyd, Helen Kelly, Jack Boyd, Noland Boss, Rose Mary Thrasher,Henning Jensen, Dan Kelly
  • The Assembly had first been formed in 1963, was lost and reformed in 1967. [CBN No 228 Apr 1969 p5] [key]
  • Yellowknife, NT Local Spiritual Assembly, incorporation; Bernice Boss; Rose Mary Thrasher; Henning Jensen, Dan Kelly; Virginia Evans; Eileen Boyd; Helen Kelly; Jack Boyd; Noland Boss
    1968 May The National Convention was held in Regina and was delayed by the fact that the members of the National Assembly were attending the International Convention in Haifa. Those elected to the National Spiritual Assembly were: Jameson Bond, Ronald Parsons, Douglas Martin, Michael Rochester, Donald Glen, Angus Cowan, Tom Anaquod, Rowland Estall, and Lloyd Gardner.
  • The delegates were asked to elect a replacement for Lloyd Gardiner. Due to his appointment to the newly-created North American Board of Councillors he was ineligible for membership on national or local administrative bodies. Ballots were sent to all delegates but the count was delayed by a mail strike. When the count was finally taken the result was a tied vote and the delegates were required to vote again, making their choice between the two people who received the equal number of votes. The deadline for the return of this second balloting was also delayed in order to allow time for those attending the Oceanic Conference in Palermo to return to their homes. The new deadline was set for September 17th and the results were made available shortly thereafter. [CBN No 222 August 1968 p8] [key]
  • Regina, SK National Convention; National Spiritual Assembly, election of; Jameson Bond; Ronald Parsons; Douglas Martin; Michael Rochester; Donald Glen; Angus Cowan; Tom Anaquod; Rowland Estall; Lloyd Gardner
    1969 23 - 24 Jun Dorothy Francis made a teaching trip to Spokane, WA. Her visit was preceded by articles in two local papers and announcements of her itinerary. During her time there she has two television interviews and excellent press coverage as well as public service announcements promoting the meeting at which she spoke. [Bahá'í National Review Issue 21 September 1969 p6] [key] Spokane, WA Dorothy Francis
    1969 27 Jul In a cable from the Hands of the Cause in the Holy Land it was announced that Mason Remey had been expelled from the Faith. [CBN No 128 September 1960 p1; MoC223]
  • In a subsequent message dated the 5th of August the names of eight others who had followed him were also made public. Five were members of the French National Assembly. [CBN No 128 September 1960 p1; MoC223-224]
  • 26 of the 27 existing National/Regional Assemblies had advised the Hands in the Holy Land that they had repudiate his claim to the Guardianship.
  • Covenant-breakers; Mason Remey
    1969 24 Nov The Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Halifax achieved incorporation status. The members were: Shirley MacDonald, Ruth McClung, John Edmonds, Joyce Edmonds, Fran Maclean, A. Russell McClung, Sarah Lynk, Keye Walford and Audrey Rayne. [BN July 1970 p 9] [key] Halifax, NS Local Spiritual Assembly; incorporation; Shirley MacDonald; Ruth McClung; John Edmonds; Joyce Edmonds; Fran Maclean; A. Russell McClung; Sarah Lynk; Keye Walford; Audrey Rayne
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