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TAGS: Bahai history by country; Jamal Effendi; Siyyid Mustafa Rumi
LOCATIONS: Indonesia; Netherlands
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Details of an early Bahá'í missionary journey to the the island of Celebes (now Sulawesi) in what was then to the Dutch East Indies, including the conversion of the king and queen of Boné.
In March 2006 the NSA of the United Kingdom suspended the "Association for Bahá'í Studies (English-speaking Europe)" and replaced it with the "Association for Bahá'í Studies (United Kingdom)". At that time the Bahá'í Studies Review was given a new editorial board and a new publisher, Intellect, and housed at where this article was provided as a free download. BSR has moved to yet a third website,, which no longer offers this PDF online.

Jamal Effendi and Sayyid Mustafa Rumi in Celebes:
The Context of Early Bahá'í Missionary Activity in Indonesia

by Jelle de Vries

published in Bahá'í Studies Review, 14, pages 23-37
London: Association for Bahá'í Studies English-Speaking Europe, 2007-12
Abstract: In the late 19th century Jamal Effendi and Sayyid Mustafa Rumi made a journey to the Dutch East Indies (now the Republic of Indonesia) to establish the Bahá'í Faith there. This paper presents the results of an attempt to recover more details of that journey by using Dutch colonial sources. It focuses on Jamal and Rumi's sojourn on the island of Celebes (now Sulawesi) as it was there that they achieved what might be considered to be one of their main successes: the conversion of the king and queen of Boné.


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