Bahá'í Library Online
. . . .
.
 

Search for location "Chicago"

  1. from the Chronology
  2. from the Chronology Canada
  3. from the Main Catalogue
Search on wikis:

from the Chronology

date event locations tags see also
1893 23 Sep First public reference in North America to the Bahá'í Faith. [SBBH1p76]
  • Reference was made to it in a paper entitled The Religious Mission of the English Speaking Nations by Rev. Henry H. Jessup, a retired missionary from north Syria, read by Rev George A. Ford at the World Parliament of Religions in Chicago. [AB63–4; BBD2412; BBR57; BFA1:323; BW2:230; GPB256; SBBH1:76, 88, 202]
  • See AB63–4, BW2:169 for text.
  • Historians have observed that, before this Parliament, "religion" was classified by many Americans into ethnic religion and universal religion. They considered there being only one universal religion: Christianity. In this view, all previous faiths were ethnic religions, and their purpose was to prepare the people for Christianity. Ethnic religions may have had portions of the truth, but only Christianity had all truth. This 1893 Parliament was a pivotal moment in the abolition of such classification, as representatives of "eastern" religions such as Swami Vivekananda and Anagarika Dharmapala promoted a new religious tolerance. [Paraphrased quote from Robert Stockman]
  • World Parliament of Religions 1893, a talk by Mr. Rothwell "Bud" Polk.
  • Chicago; United States World Parliament of Religions; Interfaith dialogue; Firsts, Other; Mentions; Henry Jessup; Christian missionaries; Bahai Faith, Early Western Accounts of
    1894. Feb Ibrahim George Kheiralla settled in Chicago. [BFA1:XXVII, AB65]
  • Owing to his work, the first Bahá'í community in North America was soon formed in Chicago with other groups soon forming in Philadelphia, New York City, Kenosha, Wisconsin and Ithaca, New York. [BBRSM:100; BW10:179; LDNW12]
  • See AY59-60 for a description of the teaching method used by Haddad and Kheiralla.
  • See Materials for the Study of the Babi Religion by E.G. Browne, Chapter 2, Ibrahim George Khayru'lláh and the Bahá'í Propaganda in America for an appreciation of what Kheiralla believed and taught.
  • Chicago; New York; Philadelphia; Kenosha; Ithaca; United States Ibrahim George Kheiralla; Anton Haddad; Teaching; Firsts, Other
    1894 5 Jun Thornton Chase became a Bahá'í in Chicago. [BBD53; BFA1:35–6]
  • For some time before he heard of the Bahá'í Faith, he had been a follower of the noble and mystical teachings of Emanuel Swedenborg. [SEBW3]
  • He was designated by `Abdu'l-Bahá as the first American believer. [BBD53; GPB257]
  • See BFA1:35 for his own account of how he became a Bahá'í.
  • See BFA1:33–7 for other Americans who became Bahá'ís around the same time.
  • He was given the name Thábit (Steadfast) by `Abdu'l-Bahá. [BBD53; GPB257]
  • He had been invited to join the Hearst pilgrimage in 1898 but was unable to go to the Holy Land until 1907. [AY61]
  • Chicago; United States Thornton Chase; First Bahais by country or area; Names and titles; Emanuel Swedenborg Thornton Chase in the newspapers (series of mentions especially 1893-7)
    1897 or 1900 Tablets, Communes and Holy Utterances, a collection of writings by Bahá'u'lláh, was published in Chicago. 23p. [BFA2:26]
  • It was the first prayer book and first compilation of Bahá'í writings published in the West. Most of the selections are from Bahá'u'lláh except for pages 18 to 21 which are from 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [BFA2:26]
  • It was probably translated by Anton Haddad and published by the Behais Supply and Publishing Board. [BFA2:26]
  • Collins gives the date as 1897. [BEL4.277]
  • Chicago; United States Compilations; Prayer texts; Anton Haddad; Publications; Publishing Trusts; First publications
    1897. 21 May Lua Getsinger became a Bahá'í in Chicago. She had been called Khayru’lláh’s best pupil. [BFA1:XXVII, AY59] Chicago; United States Lua Getsinger; Ibrahim George Kheiralla
    1899 (In the year) The Serpent by Thornton Chase, an 18-page pamphlet on the image of the serpent in the Bible, was published in Chicago. This was probably the first published essay written by an American Bahá'í. [BFA2:26] Chicago; United States Thornton Chase; First publications; Publications
    1900 (In the year) The publication of Prayers, Tablets, Instructions and Miscellany. The pilgrim's notes of the second party of American Bahá'ís to visit Akka, Palestine: Edward and Lua Getsinger, Arthur and Elizabeth Dodge and William and Anna Hoar.
  • This book "appeared at a time when Khayru'lláh's total alienation was no longer in doubt". [AB87]
  • Ali-Kuli Khan was with that group of pilgrims. When one looks at this small book or only 91 pages, one is amazed at how little these early Western Bahá'ís had of the Words and the Writings...and how deep their faith was that so little sufficed. [AB88]
  • Chicago; United States Prayers, Tablets, Instructions and Miscellany; Edward Getsinger; Arthur Dodge; William Hoar; Lua Getsinger; Elizabeth Dodge; Anna Hoar
    1900 Jan The Behais Publishing and Supply Board was created in Chicago. It was the property of four Chicao Bah´'ís, Thornton Chase, Arthur Agnew, Charles Greenleaf and Frank Hoffman. This same entity is now called the Bahá'í Publishing Trust. [BFA1:XXIX; BFA2p24-25] Chicago; United States Publishing Trusts
    1900 c. 16 Mar The Chicago community re-organized by selecting a ten-member Board of Council. Neither Kheiralla nor any of his supporters were on the Board. [BFA1:XXIX, 170; The Service of Women on the Institutions of the Baha'i Faith] Chicago; United States Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; LSA; Ibrahim George Kheiralla
    1900 4 Nov The Persian teachers Mírzá Asadu'lláh-i-Isfahání (1826-1930) and Hájí Hasan-i-Khurásání, a merchant from Cairo, arrived in America. Their task was to consolidate the American community and to address the effects of Kheiralla's disaffection. [BFA2p35–43]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá provided them with two translators, Mírzá Husayn Rúhí, a young Persian Bahá'í who had learned English in Egypt, and Mírzá Burzurg.
  • They spent three weeks in New York then spent two days in Johnstown, NY then relocated to Chicago where he stayed for eighteen months.
  • Mírzá Asadu'lláh did not accompany 'Abdu'l-Bahá to America, however, shortly after His return, Mírzá Asadu'lláh and his son insisted on going to the West and did so against 'Abdu'l-Bahá's wishes. Both he and his son were expelled from the Faith. [APD143; AY119; SoW Vol 5 # 17 19 Jan 1915 pg 263; 265]
  • The four stayed in New York and then left for Chicago arriving on the 29th of November. Asadu'lláh stayed in Chicago until 12 May 1902, Khurásání, and Rúhí returned to Egypt in mid-July, 1901. [BFA2p38]
  • Johnstown; NY; New York; Chicago; United States Haji Hasan-i-Khurasani; Mirza Asadullah-i-Isfahani; Mirza Husayn Ruhi; Mirza Burzurg; Covenant-breakers
    1901 15 May Mirza Assad'u'llah, received a Tablet from Abdul-Baha, in which He has positively declared to be necessary the establishment here of the House of Justice by election by the believers with order and just dealing. According to this blessed Announcement, our believers have elected those whom they deemed best fitted, and thus The House of Justice was established.The Chicago Bahá'ís elected a nine-man Board of Council for a term of five years. Those elected were: George Lesch, Charles H. Greenleaf, John A. Guilford, Dr. Rufus H. Bartlett, Thornton Chase, Charles Hessler, Arthur S. Agnew, Byron S. Lane and Henry L. Goodall. [BFA2:XXV, 44–7; The Service of Women on the Institutions of the Baha'i Faith]

    Only days after the election of the Chicago House of Justice, a Ladies' Auxilliary Board was organized at the suggestion of Mrs. Ella Nash and Mrs. Corinne True. This Board was later to be known as the Women's Assembly of Teaching. It appears that the Ladies' Auxilliary was able to maintain control of the funds of the Chicago Bahá'í community despite the election of the House of Justice.[The Service of Women on the Institutions of the Baha'i Faith]

    Chicago; United States Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; Local Spiritual Assembly, formation of; Ladies' Auxiliary Board; Ella Nash; Corinne True
    1901 20 May The number of members on the Board of Council was raised to 12. [BFA2:47] Chicago; United States Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; LSA
    1901 24 May The name of the Chicago Board of Council was changed to the House of Justice. [BFA2:48]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá requested that this name be changed a year later. [BFA2:49]
  • Chicago; United States Board of Council; House of Justice; Spiritual Assemblies; LSA
    1901 29 May The Bahá'í women of Chicago elected their own Board and held the first business meeting of the `Women's Auxiliary Board' or "Women's Teaching Assembly". [BFA2:XV, 49–50; SYH64-65] Chicago; United States Women
    1901. 12 Sep The publication of tablets revealed by 'Abdu'l-Bahá "To the House of Justice at Chicago, To the Ladies' Assembly of Teaching, To Mirza Assad'ullah and to other individuals, also one to the Believers in Persia." translated by Ali-Kuli Khan. [BEL3.159; Tablets Revealed by the Master Abdul Beha Abbas.] Chicago; United States 'Abdu'l-Baha, writings of
    1901 26 Nov The Day of the Covenant

    The Day of the Covenant is a Bahá'í holy day honouring the Covenant of Bahá’u’lláh, in particular, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá as the “Centre of the Covenant" and as such, the successor, the interpreter and the exemplar of the Bahá'í Faith. Bahá'u'lláh's Covenant also provided for the extension of this covenant to the Guardian and to the Universal House of Justice.
    The first celebration of the Day of the Covenant in North America was marked on this day in Chicago. It was sponsored by "The Chicago House of Justice" and the "Women's Assembly of Teaching". It was attended by both Mírzá Assad'ullah and Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl. It can be presumed that they had educated the community in the commemoration of this Holy Day. [BFA2p56-57]

  • Prior to this time some of the believers celebrated the birth of 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the 22nd of May. Others marked the 29th of May, the anniversary of the passing of Bahá'u'lláh and thusly, the day on which He acceded to the leadership of the Bahá'í community. 'Abdu'l-Bahá chose the day November 26th, as reckoned by the Gregorian calendar, as approximately half a year away from the day of Bahá'u'lláh's ascension, to commemorate His appointment of the Centre of the Covenant. This Holy Day is now celebrated on the 25th or 26th of November depending on the date of Naw-Rúz.
  • The day was know as Jashn-i-A'zam (The Greatest Festival) in the East because He was Ghusn-i-A'zam, the Greatest Branch or the "Most Might Branch" [GPB238, BFA2:XV, 56; SA247, Day of the Covenant by Christopher Buck, AB523]
  • Chicago; United States Day of the Covenant; Firsts, Other; Covenant (general); Holy Days; Abdul-Baha, Birth of; Bahaullah, Ascension of
    1902 (In the year) The publication of the fourth edition of The Revelation of Baha-ullah in a Sequence of Four Lessons by Isabella D. Brittingham. Bahai Publishing Society printed made a large number of printings of this book with small variations. [BEL7,587] Chicago,IL Isabella Brittingham; The Revelation of Baha-ullah
    1902 10 May The Chicago House of Justice (or the Board of Council) changed its name to the House of Spirituality. Membership was restricted to men. [BFA2:XV; SYH64] Chicago; United States House of Justice; House of Spirituality; Spiritual Assemblies; LSA
    1903 7 Mar Inspired by the news of the `Ishqábád Temple project, the Chicago House of Spirituality asked `Abdu'l-Bahá for permission to construct a Mashriqu'l-Adhkár. Two days later Mirza Asadu'lláh drafted a petition to be sent to 'Abdu'l-Bahá. His reply was received in late May and three other letters were received over the next several weeks containing statements about the Temple. [BFA2:XVI, 118; BW10:179; GPB348; DH4-5] Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Wilmette; Chicago; United States House of Spirituality; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; petition
    1903 30 May A letter from `Abdu'l-Bahá was received by the Chicago House of Spirituality giving His approval for the building of a Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in North America. [BFA2:119] Wilmette; Chicago; United States House of Spirituality; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); petition
    1903 7 Jun Eight days after `Abdu'l-Bahá's first Tablet arrived, a second Tablet arrived from Him approving the project. [BW10:179; CT41; GPB262, 349; MBW142] Wilmette; Chicago; United States House of Spirituality; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); petition
    1904 (In the year) The publication of The Book of Ighan (Kitáb-i-Íqán) by George V. Blackburne Co in New York. It had been translated by Ali Kuli Khan with assistance by Howard McNutt. This was the earliest translation into English of this book and was superseded by the publication of the translation by Shoghi Effendi. [BEL1.12]
  • A second edition was published in 1907 in Chicago by the Bahá'í Publishing Society and a third in 1915. [BEL1.13, 1.14]
  • The Book of Ighan.
  • Chicago; United States Kitab-i-Iqan (Book of Certitude); Ali Kuli Khan; Howard MacNutt
    1907 (In the year) The publication of A Call of Attention to the Behaists or Babists of America by August J Stenstrand. He was a member of the "Society of Behaists" founded by Ibrahim Kheiralla, and was voted out of that group in 1906 and became the only self-professed Azali in America. He published at least five of these booklets from 1907 to 1917. Chicago,IL A Call of Attention to the Behaists or Babists of America; August Stenstrand; Ibrahim Kheiralla
    1907 19 Jul The Chicago `Bahai Assembly' filed an affidavit of incorporation, the first Bahá'í community to acquire legal status. [BFA2:278]
  • The incorporation is in the name of the community rather than the governing body. [BFA2:278–9]
  • Chicago; United States Spiritual Assemblies; LSA; Incorporation; Recognition; Firsts, Other
    1907 26 Nov The first national Bahá'í conference was held in America. [BFA2:XVI; BW10:179]
  • At the invitation of the House of Spirituality of Chicago, nine Bahá'ís from various communities joined some ten from the Chicago area at a one-day conference to foster national cooperation on the Temple project and to choose a suitable site for the Temple. [BFA2:280; CT78; GPB262, 349]
  • M. Momen posits that this was probably the first Bahá'í convention. [BAHAISM xi. Bahai Conventions]
  • Chicago; United States Conferences; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, National; House of Spirituality; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); First conferences
    1908 (In the year) The publication of Daily Lessons Received at Acca January, 1908 by Helen S Goodall and Ella Goodall Cooper. Published by the Bahai Publishing Society in Chicago. Chicago, Il Daily Lessons Received at Acca January, 1908; Helen Goodall; Ella Goodall Cooper
    1908 Sep The Bahá'í Publishing Society was founded in Chicago. [BW10:179] Chicago; United States Bahai Publishing Society; Publishing Trusts
    1909 21 Mar `Abdu'l-Bahá laid the sacred remains of the Báb in their final resting place at the Shrine in Haifa. [AB126; BBD210; DH138; GBF103; GPB276]
  • See AB126–30, CT84 and GPB273–8 for details of the occasion and its history.
  • The Shrine was a simple rectangular structure of six rooms. [DH71, ZK284]
  • The marble sarcophagus used for the remains of the Báb was a gift from the Bahá'ís of Rangoon. [AB129; MC155]
  • For details of the sarcophagus see RB3:431.
  • BWC; Mount Carmel; Rangoon; Myanmar (Burma); Chicago; United States Bab, Shrine of; Bab, Sarcophagus for; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Marble; Gifts; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1909 21 Mar The first printing of Volume 1 of Tablets of 'Abdu'l-Bahá by the Bahá’í Publishing Society in Chicago.
  • Laura Dreyfus-Barney was credited as being one of the translators. [ABF9not53]
  • Chicago; United States Tablets of Abdul-Baha (book); Publications; Laura Clifford Barney
    1909 21 Mar On the same day as the interment of the sacred remains of the Báb on Mount Carmel the first American Bahá'í Convention opened in Chicago. [BFA2:XVII, 309; BW13:849; MBW142–3; SBBH1:146]
  • It was held in the home of Corinne True. [CT82–3]
  • It was attended by 39 delegates from 36 cities. [GPB262; SBBH1:146]
  • The Convention established the 'Bahá'í Temple Unity', incorporated to hold title to the Temple property and to provide for its construction. A constitution was framed and an Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity elected. This body became the future National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada. [BBD39; BBRSM:106; BW10:179; GPB349; PP397; SBBH1:146] iiiii
  • Chicago; United States; Canada Conventions, National; Corinne True; Bahai Temple Unity; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; First conventions; NSA; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship)
    1909 20 Aug Birth of Paul Haney, Hand of the Cause of God, in Chicago.
  • His given name was `Abdu'l-Bahá, bestowed upon him by `Abdu'l-Bahá Himself at his birth.
  • His mother was born Mary Ida Parkhurst. 'Abdul-Bahá gave her the name Mariam. [BW14p343-346]
  • Chicago; United States Paul Haney; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Mariam Haney
    1910 21 Mar The first issue of the Bahá'í News was published in Chicago. [BFA2:XVII; BW10:179; BWNS1289]
  • See BFA2:320–2, BW8:927 and SBBH1:116–17 for the magazine's development.
  • It was the first Bahá'í magazine published in the West. [BBD2 14]
  • Star of the West was published as Bahá'í News (Volume 1, Issues 1-19 from 21 March, 1910 until 2 March, 1911) and later under Star of the West /The Bahá'í Magazine (Volume 2 to Volume 25, 21 March, 1911 until 25 March,1935).
  • Its editors were Albert Windust and Gertrude Buikema. Others involved with its publication over its history were Albert and Emily Vail, Dr. Zia Baghdadi, Ahmad Sohrab, Edna M. True; with Horace Holley and Stanwood Cobb being singled out as early contributors. [Duane Troxel]
    Star of the West Published March 1910 to April 1935
              URL   (For cut 'n' paste)  
             Volume # / Dates (links)   
    Vol 1 (Mar 1910) - Vol 10 (Mar 1920)
    Vol 11 (Mar 1920) - Vol 20 (Mar 1930)
    Vol 21 (Apr 1930) - Vol 25 (Apr 1935)

    For an access to the Star of the West archives see http://www.starofthewest.info. This site is not searchable.

  • Chicago; United States Star of the West; Bahai News; - Periodicals; First publications; Publications; BWNS
    1910. 25 - 26 Apr The Second Annual Convention of the Bahá'í Temple Unity was held in Corinthian Hall, 17th Floor of the Masonic Temple at State and Randolph Streets.
  • Honoré Jaxon presented a report on his negotiations for the purchase of land for the Temple site. [BN Vol 1 Issue 4 17 May 1910 pg 19.
    • See SoW Vol 3 No 4 p5 for Dedication of the Mashrak-el-Azkar Site (Illustrated)—By Honoré J. Jaxon.
  • Chicago,IL Honore Jaxon; National Convention; Mashriqul-Adhkar; House of Worship
    1912 (In the year) The publication of The Brilliant Proof by Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl Gulpáygání in Chicago by the Bahai News Service, 1912. The first edition notes state that it was written December 28, 1911, in Syria, "by the pen of Mirza Abul Fazl Gulpaygan."
  • 239D93 says this book was written by Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl in answer to a London minister's criticism of the Cause.
  • The publication of this book marked the end of an early era of Bahá'í teaching in the West. As 'Abdu'l-Bahá continued his journeys in the United States and Canada, He delivered hundreds of public talks and private addresses which were tailored to Western audiences. The fresh outpouring of teachings which resulted from these encounters produced a new Bahá'í literature of the words of 'Abdu'l-Bahá in the West. Examples include the following: The Promulgation of Universal Peace: Talks Delivered by `Abdu'l-Bahá During His Visit to the United States and Canada in 1912, compiled by Howard MacNutt, (Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1922-25); Paris Talks: Addresses Given by `Abdu'l-Bahá in Paris in 1911-1912 (London: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1912); 'Abdu'l-Bahá in London.
  • Chicago; United States Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Criticism and apologetics; Proofs; Publications; Abdul-Baha, Travels of
    1912. 27 Apr - 2 May The Bahá'í Temple Unity held the 4th annual meeting in Chicago. [SoW Vol 2 No 18 February 7, 1912 p8] Chicago National Convention
    1912 28 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá gave private interviews in the morning then called on the Turkish Ambassador, Diya Pasha. [APD56-59] . He spent considerable time with the Turkish ambassador, Zia Pasha while in Washington. [AY86-87; Luminous Journey 36:45]
  • For a list of some of the well-known individuals whom the Khans brought into ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s presence see AY88.
  • During His time in Washington He toured the Library of Congress with the Parsons. He went to the Arlington National Cemetery to pay tribute to the graves of the parents of Agnes Parsons. [Luminous Journey 31:56]
  • At some point during His stay in Washington former president Theodore Roosevelt came to visit 'Abdu'l-Bahá at the Parsons' residence. Mahmud reports that this took place on April 25, after the reception at the Turkish Embassy. [Luminous Journey 34:26; MD]
  • Alice Pike Barney, the influential artist and thespian and an important member of the Washington arts scene, hosted a luncheon and two evening receptions at her studio for 'Abdu'l-Bahá. She had met Him earlier when she accompanied her daughter Laura to Akka in 1905. [Luminous Journey 34:59]
  • Ali Kuli Khan, one of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's former secretaries in Akka and who, by this time was the chargé d'affairs at the Persian Legation, tried to arrange a meeting for 'Abdu'l-Bahá at the White House and for Him to speak to the Congress but scheduling did not work out. He hosted receptions for 'Abdu'l-Bahá and arranged for prominent diplomats to met Him. [Luminous Journey 36:00]
  • At a meeting at the Persian Legation where a meal was being served, 'Abdu'l-Bahá and arranged for the place of honour on His right for African-American lawyer Louis George Gregory. At this time he was a thirty-seven-year-old, Fisk- and Howard-educated African American lawyer from Charleston, South Carolina. He was president of the Bethel Literary and Historical Association, the oldest African American organization in Washington and he was one of the most prominent members of the capital’s African American community. Even so, at this time in Washington where one third of the population was Black, it was expected that he would not eat with Whites. [Luminous Journey 38:36; 239Days Day 12]
  • At this time there were only about 15 Black Bahá'ís in the Washington Community and events were not fully integrated following the example in the segregated city. Pauline and Joseph Hannen held integrated gatherings and became proponents of racial integration. [Luminous Journey 42:00]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá left Washington for Chicago. [239D:46; AB184; SBR81]
    • Accompanying Him were Louise Mathew and Mrs Moss, a stenographer. [SYH62]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá arrived in Chicago some 12 hours late due to mechanical failure. [239D:47]
  • Washington DC; Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Ambassadors; Arlington National Cemetery
    1912 30 Apr Talk at Hull House, Chicago, Illinois where He spoke about racial unity. Hull House was a immigrant community centre, one of the earliest in Chicago, founded by Jane Addams of the National American Woman Suffrage Association. [PUP67, MD70; ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s Historic Meeting with Jane Addams by Ruth Moffet]
  • Talk at Fourth Annual Conference of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Handel Hall, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP69, MD71]
    • The NAACP’s co-founder, writer and civil rights activist W.E.B. Du Bois, was in correspondence with ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and published His talk as well as His photo in the organization’s magazine, The Crisis Vol. 4, No. 1 (May, 1912) pp14-16. [BWNS1310; Luminous Journey 45:04] iiiii
    • The website for the current day on-line magazine and a collection can be found in the Smithsonian Museum.
    • His talks in Chicago attracted such prominent Black people as Alain LeRoy Locke, Ida B. Wells and Robert Sengstacke Abbott, the founder of The Chicago Defender, the most influential Black newspaper. [Luminous Journey 45:26]
    • See FMH152 for the story of Grace Ober inviting Dr. Du Bois and 60 others from an NAACP Convention in Pittsburg 6-10 July, 1931, to their tenement flat for tea.
  • In the evening He greeted the closing session of the public meeting of the Bahá’í Temple Unity where more than a thousand people had gathered. After His address he donated 2,000 francs to the Temple Fund. The meeting was held in the Drill Hall, Masonic Temple, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP65, SYH67]
  • Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Conventions, National; Bahai Temple Unity; Abdul-Baha, Talks at other places; W.E.B. Du Bois; NAACP; BWNS
    1912 1 May `Abdu'l-Bahá laid the cornerstone of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in Wilmette. [SYH67-68, CT102; 239D:51; AB186; GPB288, 349; MBW143; Luminous Journey 47:00]
  • Talk at Dedication of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár Grounds. [PUP71]
  • The cornerstone had been offered by Mrs Nettie Tobin, a member of the Women's Teaching Assembly. [AB186]
  • See SYH65-66 for the story of how the Foundation Stone made it to the building site.
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá asked delegates from the various Bahá'í communities and Bahá'ís from different backgrounds each to dig the earth to lay the stone. Corrine True, Lua Getsinger and several other women turned the sod. After the stone had been laid 'Abdu'l-Bahá declared that "The temple is already built." [AB186–7; Luminous Journey 47:00]
  • Wilmette; Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Nettie Tobin; Foundation stones and groundbreaking; Abdul-Baha, Life of; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
    1912 2 May Talk at Hotel Plaza, Chicago, Illinois, [PUP72]
    • Talk to Federation of Women’s Clubs, Hotel La Salle, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP74]
    • Talk at Bahá’í Women’s Reception, Hotel La Salle, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP77]
    • Talk at Hotel Plaza, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP78]
    • Talk at Hotel Plaza, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP79]
    • A funeral was held for Corrine True's son Davis. Two days later 'Abdu'l-Bahá went to the cemetery and prayed for Davis. [Luminous Journey 49:48, SYH67]
    Chicago Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
    1912 3 May Talk at Hotel Plaza. [PUP83]
  • Talk at Hotel Plaza, Chicago, Illinois. Afterward He gave each child an envelope with a rose petal and invited all of them to Lincoln Park for a photograph. He asked for time alone and walked over to a statue of Abraham Lincoln at which He gazed for a while. [PUP84; Luminous Journey 51:25]
  • Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
    1912 5 May Talk at Children’s Meeting, Hotel Plaza, Chicago, Illinois. [PSBW134–5, PUP91]
  • Talk at Plymouth Congregational Church, 935 East Fiftieth Street, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP93; Luminous Journey 50:15]
  • Talk at All-Souls Church, Lincoln Center, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP97]
  • While in Chicago He revealed a special prayer for America, "O Thou kind Lord! This gathering is turning to Thee..... [Luminous Journey 50:25]
  • Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
    1912 6 May `Abdu'l-Bahá left Chicago, arriving in Cleveland the same day. [239D:57; AB189]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave interviews to reporters at the Euclid Hotel. [Luminous Journey 54:00]
  • Talk at the home of Dr. C. M. Swingle to an audience of forty. [PUP104; SoW Vol. 3, No. 6, pp. 5-6]
  • Talk at Euclid Hall to an audience of some 500 people. [PUP101; SoW Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 29-32.]
  • "The American continent gives signs and evidences of very great advancement; its future is even more promising, for its influence and illumination are far-reaching, and it will lead all nations spiritually." – Abdu’l-Baha, PUP104.
  • Both the Cleveland News and the Cleveland Plain Dealer carried articles on 'Abdu'l-Bahá's approval of marriage between the races. [SYH60]
  • Chicago; Cleveland; Ohio; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1912 12 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá left Buffalo for Chicago, passing by Niagara Falls and arriving at about 8PM at the LaSalle Station where He was received by the awaiting friends. Among them was Saichiro Fujita. [239D:142; MD257-259]
  • He went to the home of Corinne True by automobile. [239D:142; AB266]
  • Buffalo; Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Corinne True
    1912. 13 Sep The True home was inundated with visitors and among them, a group of black believers. 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk in the evening. The three large rooms on the ground floor were filled to capacity and He walked from room to room as He spoke. [MD260-262] Chicago Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Corinne True
    1912. 14 Sep In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá walked along the shores of Lake Michigan. In the afternoon He spoke to the Theosophical Society to a rousing response.
  • For pictures of outing in Lincoln Park see the photos between pages 278 and 279 of Mahmúd's Diary.
  • Chicago Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Corinne True
    1912 15 Sep In the morning`Abdu'l-Bahá spoke to Dr. William Frederick Nutt, a friend of Kheiralla. (Nutt later broke the Covenant) Observers say that both Dr. Nutt and the interpreter were left trembling after He made his remarks.
  • Shu'á'lláh, son of Mírzá Muhammad-'Ali was in America at the same time. The previous May he had written to the Kenosha Evening News decouncing 'Abdu'l-Bahá and proposing a meeting between himself and 'Abdu'l-Bahá to settle their differences. In July Kheiralla had written to the same newspaper in support of Shu'á'lláh. [MD264n277]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá, his party of six plus Fujita departed to Kenosha but they missed their train. He told His fellow travellers not to be concerned over this, as there would be a good reason for it; travelling on the next train they come across the wreckage of the first, which has been in a collision. [239D:145; AB267]
  • Upon arrival they were taken to the hall of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár where they were served lunch. After lunch they went to the home of Mrs Henry Goodale.
  • In the evening He spoke at the Congregational Church on the unity of the Manifestations. [MD226] Now called First Congregational Church of Kenosha, 5934 8th Avenue. ['Abdu'l-Bahá in America 1912- 2012]
  • Chicago; Kenosha; Wisconsin; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Trains
    1912 16 Sep In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá departed for Chicago
  • He gave a talk at Home of Mrs. Corinne True, 5338 Kenmore Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. The subject of this talk was The Covenant. [PUP320]
  • In the evening He told His party to pack and move to the hotel. [MD268]
  • Kenosha; Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Corinne True
    1912. 17 Sep Mírzá 'Alí-Akbar Nakhjavání arrived from Malden and was allowed to join the group along with Fujita. [MD270]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá and entourage left Chicago for Minneapolis at 10AM. The date of His departure was probably the 16th [239D:146; AB273] however, Muhmúd gives it as the 17th. [MD268]
  • They arrived late in the evening and stayed at the Plaza Hotel. [MD271]
  • Chicago; Minneapolis Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Ali Akbar Nakhjavani; Fujita
    1912 30 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá left Denver for Chicago. [239D:175] Denver; Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912 31 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá arrived in Chicago and gave a talk at the Plaza Hotel. The subject of this talk was The Covenant. [239D:176; PUP381].
  • It is likely that 'Abdu'l-Bahá encountered Rabindranath Tagore who was to become a well-known Bengali poet and musician who would reshape Bengali literature and music and be the first non-European to win the Nobel Prize in Literature. [Rabindranath Tagore: Some Encounters with Bahá'ís by Peter Terry; Wikipedia]
  • Chicago; United States; India Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places; Rabindranath Tagore
    1912 1 Nov Talk at Home of Mrs. Corinne True, 5338 Kenmore Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. The subject of this talk was The Covenant. [PUP383] Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Corinne True
    1912 4 Nov `Abdu'l-Bahá left Chicago and arrived in Cincinnati the same day. [239D:179] Chicago; Cincinnati; Ohio; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1916 Apr or May The first Chinese Bahá'í in China, Chen Hai An (Harold A. Chen), became a Bahá'í while studying at the University of Chicago through the efforts of Dr Zia Baghdádí. He returned to Shanghai that same year. [PH29-30; Video Early history of the Bahá'í Faith in China 6min40sec]
  • PH30 says this was 1919 but this is clearly a typographical error.
  • He returned to China in December 1916.
  • China; Chicago; United States First Bahais by country or area; Zia Bagdadi
    1916 May The publication of Tablets of Abdul-Baha abbas Volume III by the Bahai Publishing Society of Chicago. Chicago; IL Tablets of Abdul-Baha abbas
    1916 8 Sep The first five Tablets of the Tablets of the Divine Plan were published in Star of the West. [BBD219; SoW Vol 8 No 10 8 September 1916p87-91]
  • For editorial comment see SoW Vol 8 No 10 8 September 1916p86
  • After this, communication was cut off with the Holy Land. [BBD219]
  • Chicago; United States Tablets of the Divine Plan; Star of the West; Publications
    1917 (in the year) A Bahá'í Reading Room was established in Chicago by Luella Kirchner in 1917 or perhaps earlier and became the scene of an incident that exemplified a stage of evolution in the North American Bahá'í community. Because communications with 'Abdu'l-Bahá had been severed due to the war, the community was free to develop as it might. The Reading Room had become host to the "Harmonite Bahá'ís" - those who subscribed to the metaphysical interpretations of the Bahá'í Writings by W. W. Harmon.
          The situation came to a head when both the House of Spirituality and the Reading Room sent delegates to the Boston convention in April 1917. In November, during an event to commemorate the Centenary of the birth of Bahá'u'lláh in Chicago, the national community took up the affair and appointed an investigative committee consisting of Mason Remey (chair) as well as Emogene Hoagg, George Latimer and Louis Gregory. Their report tabled on the 9th of December found that the Reading Room (now calling themselves the Chicago Bahá'í Assembly), had been in violation for "mingling human ideas with the Word of God".
          The victory over the "dissenters" was not complete however. In addition to those who were attracted by Harmon's interpretations there were those leading Bahá'ís like Agnes Parsons and Joseph Hannen who objected to the way the committee had conducted it's investigation. However, at the April 1918 convention the report was unanimously approved by the delegates albeit with several absent delegates. Thus the balance between liberalism and authoritarianism was shifted to the latter with firm ideas about what constituted the Bahá'í belief. As a result in 1918 there was a proposal to establish a review procedure for Bahá'í publications, both old and new as well as measures to ensure doctrinal control at Green Acre. [SBBH1p189-194]
    Chicago; United States Review
    1918. (After the National Convention) The publication of the second edition of Compilation of the Holy Utterances of Bahaʼollah and Abdul Baha, Concerning the Most Great Peace, War and the Duty of the Bahais toward their Government, authorized the the Tenth Annual Convention of the Bahais of America held in Chicago.
  • The original.
  • The pdf.
  • Chicago; United States Compilation of the Holy Utterances of Bahaʼollah and Abdul Baha
    1918. 16 Oct During the years of the war the friends in the West had no communications with 'Abdu'l-Bahá and so were concerned for His safety and well-being. After the Battle of Haifa, on the 16th of October, the British Foreign Office in Palestine informed the British Consul-General in New York of His safety with a request that he publish the news. [BBR337 ]

    At a Feast held in the home of Mr and Mrs Leo Perron in Chicago it was decided to write a supplication to 'Abdu'l-Bahá asking Him to come to America. The idea was approved by the Spiritual Assembly and a letter was sent to all other assemblies to solicit signatures for the petition. In the early part of January all the signatures were received and sent to Akka along with the supplication. [SoW Vol 10 No 3 August 1, 1919 p168; p156]

    'Abdu'l-Bahá's response, translated by Shoghi Effendi, can be found on p154-155.

    Chicago,IL Petition; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
    1919 Feb The publication of Tablets of Abdul-Baha abbas Volume II Second edition. (The first edition was published in May 1915) It was published by the Bahai Publishing Society in Chicago. Chicago; IL Tablets of Abdul-Baha abbas
    1920 Apr Louis Bourgeois was selected as the architect for the Chicago House of Worship. [DP94; GPB303; SBBH1:145]
  • For details of the designs and selection process see DP76-100.
  • See CT159 for the source of inspiration for the design.
  • See FMH75-76 for details of a visit by Willard and Doris McKay to his home. He reported that "the inspiration for the Temple was from another realm and that he had been conscious, from the beginning, that Bahá'ulláh was the creator of the building."
  • Wilmette; Chicago; United States Louis Bourgeois; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Architecture; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Architects
    1921 (In the year) The publication of Abdul Baha in London; Addresses, & Notes of Conversations (American edition). Published by the Bahai Publishing Society in Chicago. Chicago,IL
    1922 (In the year) The publication of The Promulgation of Universal Peace: Talks Delivered by ‘Abdu’l‑Bahá during His Visit to the United States and Canada in 1912. Compiled by Howard MacNutt.
  • From the preface to the 1922 edition..."This treasury of His words is a compilation of informal talks and extemporary discourses delivered in Persian and Arabic, interpreted by proficient linguists who accompanied Him, and taken stenographically in both Oriental and Occidental tongue."
  • From the same preface is a letter from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to Howard MacNutt dated 13 April, 1919 approving his idea to publish the compilation of His talks in America and urging him to be most careful to reproduce the exact text as well as promising an "effulgent face" in the Abhá Kingdom as well as the praise and gratitude of the friends.
  • And again from the same source is a letter from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to Albert Windust written on the 20th of July, 1919 asking him to name the book The Promulgation of Universal Peace and to direct that the Introduction must be written by Howard MacNutt. Prior to His coming to America the friends were unclear about His station and their differences in understanding was a major source of disunity. On one extreme were those who believed that 'Abdu'l-Baha was a man who, through the application and complete obedience to the Faith, had earned a high station, like Christ's disciple Peter, implying that others could do the same. In the other camp were those who insisted that He was the return of Christ. Little wonder that they were confused because never in religious history had there been someone like 'Abdu'l-Bahá, one Who held the station of "The Mystery of God". Howard's failure to understand 'Abdu'l-Bahá's station and disobedience to Him and taken him precariously close to the company of Covenant-breakers but through 'Abdu'l-Bahá's unfailing love and guidance he was able to come to a true understanding. The Introduction to the 1922 edition was his testament to the station of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [DJT369-372]
  • The Promulgation of Universal Peace, although not "scripture", could be compared to Some Answered Questions in that it is a carefully transcribed record of His talks. Unlike that publication where He answered questions, in The Promulgation of Universal Peace it was 'Abdu'l-Bahá who chose the subject. Upon arrival in New York He said, "It is my purpose to set forth in America the fundamental principles of the revelation and teachings of Bahá'u'lláh." [PUPxii]
  • Chicago; New York; United States Promulgation of Universal Peace (book); Howard MacNutt; Publications
    1922 Apr To the United States and Canada Shoghi Effendi sent a message to transform the 'Executive Board' into a legislative institution. [CB293; CT160; ER211-12; PP56]
  • It had been functioning since 1909 concerned mostly with the construction of the Bahá'í House of Worship.
  • This year the elected members of the Executive Board Bahá'í Temple Unity were: Mountfort Mills. Annie L. Parmerton. Bernard M. Jacobsen. Arthur S. Agnew. Corinne True. William H. Hoar. Joseph H. Hannen. Roy C. Wilhelm.
  • He addressed his first letter to this body as the "National Spiritual Assembly of the United States" on December 23rd however in God Passes By pg333 he stated that the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States was not formed until 1925. [SETPE1p107, CT160, CoB293]
  • Chicago; United States Executive Board; Bahai Temple Unity; National Spiritual Assemblies; Spiritual Assemblies; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1922 25 Apr A National Spiritual Assembly was elected in the United States to replace the Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity. [SBR94]
  • The difference between this body and its forerunner was little more than a change in name. [DP122]
  • The conversion of the Bahá'í Temple Unity into the National Spiritual Assembly took four years; it was not until 1925 that Shoghi Effendi recognized the American national body as a National Spiritual Assembly. [CT161; DP121-2; GPB333]
  • The election procedure followed that used in the United States and not the current Bahá'í procedure: there was electioneering and candidates were nominated, with a straw poll taken to trim the number of eligible candidates. [CT160; DP122]
  • Chicago; United States National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Spiritual Assemblies; Executive Board; Bahai Temple Unity; Elections; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1927. Jan (Towards end of the month) Chicago held its first Race Amity Conference. Louis Gregory spoke. [SYH147] Chicago,IL Race Amity; Louis Gregory
    1928. Jan (toward the end of the month) The Chicago community held its first Race Amity Conference. Louis Gregory was a speaker at that gathering. [SYH147] Chicago,IL Race Amity Conference; Louis Gregory; Race (general); Race unity; Conferences, Race Amity
    1928 26–30 Apr The National Convention of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada was held in the Foundation Hall of the House of Worship for the first time. [BW2:180; CT167; BN No 24 June 1928]
  • Elected were Allen Mc Daniel (chair), Alfred Lunt (vise chair), Horace Holley (secretary), Carl Scheffler (treasurer), Roy Wilhelm, May Maxwell, Louis Gregory, Amelia Collins, and Nellie French. [USBN No 26 September, 1928]
  • See BW2:180 for a picture.
  • See FMH53-54]
  • Wilmette; Chicago; United States Conventions, National; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Firsts, Other; Allen McDaniel; Alfred Lunt; Horace Holley; Carl Scheffler; Roy Wilhelm; May Maxwell (Bolles); Louis Gregory; Amelia Collins; Nellie French
    1929. 25 Apr Shoghi Effendi made the sacrifice of a priceless carpet to be sold to contribute to the Mashriqu'lAdhkar Fund. Mr. George Spendlove, a believer exceptionally qualified by expert knowledge and experience was asked to undertake the responsible task of arranging for the sale of this rug. It was valued at some $20,000 "Am sacrificing the most valuable ornament of Baha'u'llah's Shrine in order to consecrate and reinforce the collective endeavors of the American believers speedily to consummate Plan for Unified Action. Appeal for unprecedented self-sacrifice."--Cablegram, April 25, 1929.

    "Soon. shipping silken carpet from Baha'u'llah's Shrine as crowning gift on altar of Bahá'í sacrifice."--Cablegram, April 28, 1929.

    "Moved by an impulse that I could not resist, I have felt impelled to forego what may be regarded as the most valuable and sacred possession in the Holy Land for the furthering of that noble enterprise which you have set your hearts to achieve. With the hearty concurrence of our dear Bahá'í brother, Ziaoullah Asgarzadeh, who years ago donated it to the Most Holy Shrine, this precious ornament of the Tomb of Bahá'u'lláh has been already shipped to your shores, with our fondest hope that the proceeds from its sale may at once ennoble and reinforce the unnumbered offerings of the American believers already accumulated on the altar of Bahá'í sacrifice." Letter, October 25, 1929.

    "Shoghi Effendi informs you that the rug can be offered for sale among Baha'is and nonBahá'í alike."-Soheil A/nan, December 12, 1929. [BN No 38 February 1930 insert]

    Chicago Mashriqul-Adhkar, Chicago; Funds
    1932 17 Feb The Chicago Bahá’í Assembly incorporated, the first local spiritual assembly in the world to do so. This set the pattern for other Assemblies. [GPB336, Century of LIght p57] Chicago; United States LSA; Incorporation; Recognition; Firsts, Other
    1937. (In the year) The marriage of Ruth Browne and Ellsworth Blackwell in Chicago. Theirs was the second United States inter-racial Bahá'í marriage. [from White and Negro Alike. Stories of Baha'i Pioneers Ellsworth and Ruth Blackwell]

    In a cablegram, in 1939, the Guardian asked American Bahá’ís, “White and Negro alike,” to arise and move to foreign lands, especially to countries in the Caribbean and in Central America. Ellsworth and Ruth Blackwell volunteered to give up jobs and leave their home in Chicago and go where the need was greatest. In 1940, they were the first Bahá’í pioneers to move to Haiti, where they spent more than half of the next thirty-five years. Here are stories, many told in their own words, of the victories, as well as the challenges, they experienced in Haiti and in periods when they returned to Chicago between 1940 and 1975.

    Chicago,IL Ruth Browne; Ruth Blackwell; Ellsworth Blackwell; marriage; interracial marriage
    1938. 27 Apr In a message addressed to the Thirtieth National Convention the Guardian announced:
      "As token my gratitude to such community entrusted beloved co-worker Mrs. Collins locks Bahá’u’lláh’s most precious hair arranged preserved by loving hands Greatest Holy Leaf to rest beneath dome of Temple nobly raised by dearly beloved believers in American continent." [BN Issue 116 June 1938 p1]
      "This is the Tablet read by Mrs. Thomas (Amelia) Collins in presenting at the Convention the Guardian's gift of locks of Bahá'u'lláh's Hair. The Tablet is shared with the believers with the Guardian's permission." [BN Issue 121 December 1938 p11] Though the translation had been approved by Shoghi Effendi, it was more recently (2001) sent to the Bahá'í World Center to verify its authenticity. The translation given here is an authorized translation from the BWC, approved for distribution. Translator not identified.
  • See also provisional translations of the remaining six Tablets of the Hair, that have been completed by Adib Masumian. There are a total of eleven Tablets of the Hair. [Adib Masumian's personal website]
  • Chicago,IL; United States Bahaullah, Writings of; Alvah-i-Shaarat (Tablets of the Hair); Amelia Collins; Conventions; Conventions, National; Gifts; Hair (general); Relics
    1938 1 May The National Convention was held in Chicago. Those elected to the National Spiritual Assembly were: Dorothy Baker, Allen McDaniel, Horace Holley, Roy Wilhelm, George Latimer, Seigfried Schopflocher, Amelia Collins, Harlan Ober, and Charles Ioas. [BN Issue 116 June 1938 p4]
  • Grace Roberts Ober, who had just given a report on a travel teaching trip to Louisville KY and on her work in Toronto where she had been the previous Fall, collapsed into the arms of the Convention chairman, Harlan Ober in view of the assembled delegates while ending her address. She was removed from the convention hall and passed away shortly thereafter. See TG75-76 and FMH273-274 for the background to this story.
  • Born in Thorold, ON of Sarah E. Wilson and the Rev Thomas Tempest Robarts, a cannon in the Anglican Church, Grace's life's work was that of a teacher.
  • During 'Abdu'l-Baha's tour of America she served as his household manager, going ahead to secure an apartment for him and acting as His housekeeper and hostess.
  • On July 17, 1912 she married Harlan Ober at 'Abdu'l-Bahá's suggestion. The legal marriage was conducted by Howard Colby Ives. [BW8p656-660]
  • Chicago; United States Grace Robarts Ober; In Memoriam; Dorothy Baker; Allen McDaniel; Horace Holley; Roy Wilhelm; George Latimer; Seigfried Schopflocher; Amelia Collins; Harlan Ober; Charles Ioas; National Convention; National Assembly, election of
    1942 (In the year) The publication of The Bahá'í Temple: House of Worship of a World Faith Commemorating Completion of Exterior Ornamentation 1942, by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada. Chicago; Il Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Dedications; Publications
    1943 (In the year) Margot Vandenbroeck-Levy (Galler) became a Bahá’í in Chicago, the first native Luxembourger to accept the Faith.
  • She returned to Luxembourg in 1948.
  • Chicago; Luxembourg Margot Vandenbroeck-Levy
    1953 3 – 6 May The All-America Intercontinental Teaching Conference was held in Chicago. [BW12:133]
  • For the texts of Shoghi Effendi’s messages to the conference see BW12:133–41 and MBW142–6.
  • Twelve Hands of the Cause were present. The Guardian was represented by Amatu'l-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum. [BW12:143; CBN No 82 November, 1956 p3]
  • At the conference, five members of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States resigned from that body in order to go pioneering: Elsie Austin, Dorothy Baker, Matthew Bullock, Mamie Seto and Dr William Kenneth Christian. [ZK102]
  • Extract from the second message to All-American Intercontinental Conference from Shoghi Effendi... [MBW150]
    .....the lands contributed in Latin America for a similar purpose approximate one-half of a million square meters, ninety thousand of which have been set aside near Santiago, Chile, for the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár of South America..
  • Chicago; United States; Santiago; Chile; America Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade; Teaching; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Pioneering; Elsie Austin; Dorothy Baker; Matthew Bullock; Mamie Seto; William Kenneth Christian; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Santiago; Purchases and exchanges
    1956. 9 Mar The passing of Albert R Windust (b. 28 March 1874 in Chicago) in Berrien County, Michigan. He was buried in the Mount Hope Cemetery, Chicago.

    Albert, in spite of his meagre education, was a deep student of the Writings, an able speaker, and a profound teacher of the Laws and Ordinances. His classes on the Covenant and Bahá’í Administration were most helpful both to newcomers and Bahá’ís of long association with the Faith. There was a freshness and vigor in his teaching; he radiated a love that reached the hearts. In his every-day life he demonstrated the power of the revealed Word of Bahá’u’lláh.

      “Deeply grieved passing much loved greatly admired staunch ardent promoter Faith, Albert Windust, Herald Covenant, whose notable services Heroic Formative Ages Faith unforgettable. Assure friends relatives fervently supplicating progress soul Kingdom.” – Shoghi [BW13p873-874
    ]

    At the age of fourteen Albert became an apprentice in the printing firm where his father worked. Later he became the first publisher of the Writings of the Faith in America. He printed booklets, early editions of prayers, and the Hidden Words of Bahá’u’lláh (16 March 1900 BFA2p25). In 1910 he founded and started printing the first Bahá’í monthly publication, Star of the West. He gathered and published the well-known three volumes of Tablets of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá from Tablets written to the Bahá’ís in North America. He also assisted Howard MacNutt in publishing Promulgation of Universal Peace. Albert also helped in the compilation and publication of the first five volumes of The Bahá’í World for the years 1926 to 1934.

    When his father died on May 21st, 1913 Albert wrote to 'Abdu'l-Bahá and asked Him to pray for him. 'Abdu'l-Bahá responded by sending a Tablet with a prayer. It was published in SoW Vol 11 Issue 19 p219 and has been printed in Spiritual Strength for Men p82-83 published by Kalimat Press and in Family Worship p66 compiled by Wendi Momen and published by George Ronald.

  • See also Prayer for Fathers by 'Abdu'l-Bahá as translated by Ahmad Sohrab.
  • Chicago,IL In Memoriam; Albert Windust
    1957 Oct Shoghi Effendi called for the convocation of a series of Intercontinental Conferences to be held successively in Kampala, Uganda (Regional Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Central and East Africa); Sydney, Australia (National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Australia); Chicago, United States (National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States of America,; Frankfurt, Germany (National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Germany and: Austria); and Djakarta, Indonesia (Regional Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of South-East Asia). [BW13:311–12; MBW125]

    The five-fold purpose of the International Conferences was:

    1. offering humble thanksgiving to the Divine Author of our Faith, Who has graciously enabled His followers, during a period of deepening anxiety and amidst the confusion and uncertainties of a critical phase in the fortunes of mankind,
    2. to prosecute uninterruptedly the Ten-Year Plan formulated for the execution of the Grand Design conceived by 'Abdu'l-Bahá,
    3. of reviewing and celebrating the series of signal victories won so rapidly in the course of each of the campaigns of this world-encircling Crusade,
    4. of deliberating on ways and means that will insure its triumphant consummation,
    5. and of lending simultaneously a powerful impetus, the world over, to the vital process of individual conversion -the preeminent purpose underlying the Plan in all its ramifications - and to the construction and completion of the three Mother Temples to be built in the European, the African, and Australian continents. [CBN No 94 Nov 1957 p1]
    BWC; Kampala; Uganda; Sydney; Australia; Chicago; United States; Frankfurt; Germany; Djakarta; Indonesia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade
    1961 3 Apr Corinne Knight True, Hand of the Cause of God, (b. 1 November 1861 Louisville, KY) passed away in Chicago. She was buried in Oak Woods Cemetery in Chicago. [BW13:846]
  • Find a Grave.
  • For her obituary see BW13:846–9.
  • For cables from the Custodians see MoC257.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed her among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
  • See also Rutstein, Corinne True George Ronald (1987).
  • See as well Lights of Fortitude p391-407.
  • Chicago; United States Corinne True; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Second Contingent
    1975. 4 - 8 Jul The Ridván Message contained the phrase, "EVIDENCES GATHERING CLOUDS WIDESPREAD OPPOSITION" and the Universal House of Justice called together all the 'high ranking officers' and 'senior administrative bodies' of the Faith in North America for special consultation on the future protection of the Cause" to be held in Wilmette. It was attended by the three Hands of the Cause for North America, Mr Sears, Mr Robarts and Mr Zikrullah Khadem; the four members of the Board of Counsellors, Velma Sherrill, Lloyd Gardner, Sarah Periera, and Edna True; all the members of the National Spiritual Assemblies of Alaska, Canada and the United States as well as representative of the National Assembly of Hawaii; all of the Auxiliary Board members in North America and special guest, Counsellor 'Azíz Yazdí of the International Teaching Centre.
  • Although the primary reason for gathering was to discuss the issue of the protection of the Faith there were opportunities for members of the three National Spiritual Assemblies and the Auxiliary Boards to share teaching ideas and to lear of the goals achieved in other areas. [BN Vol 52 No 8 August, 1975 p13-14, CBN Issue 287 Aug/Sept 1975 p1-4]
  • Wilmette; Chicago; United States Conference; Continental Conference for Protection
    1995 Jan By decision of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United State, the Wilmette Institute was established as an agency of the National Assembly.

    "The Wilmette Institute is a center of Bahá’í learning. Its programs aim to facilitate study and dialogue on the teachings and principles of the Faith to help individuals and communities apply learning and advance human civilization."

  • In 1998, the Wilmette Institute moved to a largely online study approach in order to provide educational classes to a broader student body. [Wilmette Institute]
  • Wilmette; Chicago; United States Wilmette Institute; Bahai study centers
    2008 6 – 7 Dec Regional Conferences were held in Portland, United States, Chicago, United States, Atlanta, United States and Almaty, Kazakhstan. [ Portand, Chicago, Atlanta, Almaty] Portland; United States; Chicago; United States; Atlanta; United States; Almaty; Kazakhstan Regional Conferences; BWNS
    2018 1 - 7 Nov More than 7,500 people attended the Parliament of the World’s Religions held at the Metro Toronto Convention Centre. This forum began in 1893 at the World Columbian Exposition in Chicago as an effort to promote an emerging international movement devoted to promoting dialogue among religions. Since that time, it has been held in Cape Town (1999), Barcelona (2004), Melbourne (2009) and Salt Lake City (2015). [Website] Bahá'í presenters were:
    • Bani Dugal: “The Equality of Women and Men: Divine Imperative for an Age of Transition.”
    • Hugh Locke: “Half the Sky, Half the Land: The Role of Women Farmers in Transforming Agriculture,”
    • Payam Akhavan: “Equality and Justice, Global Perspectives” and “Countering War, Hate, and Violence Assembly.”
    • Emily Wright: “Making Interreligious Chaplaincy Education Meaningfully Inclusive” and “A New Cup of Grace—A Ukulele Opera
    • Hooshmand Badee: “Interfaith Peacemaking Perspectives from Across the World.”
    • Nader Saiedi: Presenting the new documentary film The Gate: Dawn of the Bahá’í Faith.
    • Paul Hanley: “Man of the Trees: Richard St. Barbe Baker, the First Global Environmentalist.”
    • JoAnn Borovicka: “Amazing Faiths! An Interactive Workshop on Interfaith Dialogue.”
    • Robert Atkinson: “New Thoughts in Interfaith Spirituality.”
    • Robert Stockman: “The Characteristics of Bahá’í Interfaith Dialogue.”
    • Candace Hill: “From Shiraz to Chicago: Bahá’í Women of the East and the West”
    • Edward Price: “The Divine Curriculum: Understanding the Báb, Divine Educator for the Modern Era.”
    • Sovaida Maani Ewing: “Achieving World Peace: Bahá’í and Catholic Teachings.”
    • Jean Muza: “Bahá’í Civic Engagement: How to Maneuver in America’s Divisive Political Landscape.”
    • Robert Atkinson: “The Golden Rule as the Basis for a Global Justice System: An Interfaith Perspective with a Call to Action.”
    • Edward Price: “The Divine Curriculum Concept as a Framework for Interfaith Inclusion and Love.” [CBN-Preparation; CBN-Inclusion; CBN-Films]

      During the conference the Hindu Swami Agnivesh said that instead of spending trillions of dollars on the war system, the peoples of the world need to unite and create a world parliament based on an Earth Constitution. He said that “without a world government, we cannot solve our major world problems.” [History News Network 13 Feb 2022]

    Toronto; Canada; Chicago; Cape Town; Barcelona; Melbourne; Salt Lake City World Parliament of Religions

    from the Chronology Canada

    date event locations tags see also
    1893 11-27 Sep  The World Parliament of Religions, the largest of the congresses held in conjunction with the World Columbian Exposition, was the first formal inter-religious dialogue worldwide of Eastern and Western spiritual traditions. The conference included new religious movements of the time, such as Spiritualism and Christian Science. The latter was represented by its founder Mary Baker Eddy. Rev. Henry Jessup addressing the World Parliament of Religions was the first to mention the Bahá’í Faith in the United States (it had previously been known in Europe. A number of Canadians who attended sessions at the World Parliament of Religions in Chicago, Illinois in 1893 became Bahá’ís. Since then Bahá’ís have become active participants in the World Parliament of Religions. [OBCC1-2] World Parliament of Religions
    1893 23 Sep First public reference in North America to the Bahá'í Faith.
    • Reference was made to it in a paper entitled `The Religious Mission of the English Speaking Nations' by Rev. Henry H. Jessup, a retired missionary from north Syria, read by Rev George A. Ford at the World Parliament of Religions in Chicago. [AB63–4; BBD2412; BBR57; BFA1:323; BW2:230; GPB256; SBBH1:76, 88, 202]
    • See AB63–4, BW2:169 for text.
    • The Magee family of London, Ester and daughters Edith and Harriet heard of the Faith for the first time. [OBBC1]
    Rev. Henry H. Jessup, Ester Magee, Edith Magee, Harriet Magee, Mrs Jonathon Magee, Rev George A. Ford,
    1893 23 Sep Bahá'u'lláh’s recent passing in Akká was announced to the World Parliament of Religions, held in Chicago, in connection with the World’s Columbian Exposition, 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus’s arrival in the New World in 1492, Rev. George A. Ford of Syria read a paper written by Rev. Henry H. Jessup, D.D., Director of Presbyterian Missionary Operations in North Syria to the audience. In his paper Reverend Jessup called Bahá'u'lláh “a famous Persian Sage” and “the Bábí Saint” “the Glory of God” had died recently in Akká. Jessup described how Professor Edward Granville Browne of Cambridge University had visited and interviewed Bahá'u'lláh in Bahji just outside the fortress of Akka on the Syrian coast in April 1890 and that during those four interviews Bahá'u'lláh had expressed “sentiments so noble, so Christ-like” that the author of the paper, in his “closing words,” wished to share them with his audience. Jessup described Bahá'u'lláh as head of a group of Persians who “who accept the New Testament as the word of God, and Christ as the deliverer of man; who regard all natives as one, and all men as brothers.” Jessop closed his paper with these words,(Shoghi Effendi, God Passes By, page 256; (Jessup, Henry H., Ed. 1894. Neely, F. Tennyson Neely. 1894. “The Religious Mission of the English-Speaking Nations.” Neely’s History of the Parliament of Religions and Religious Congresses of the World’s Columbian Exposition. Chicago. pages 637-641.)

    “That all nations should become one in faith, and all men as brothers; that the bonds of affection and unity between the sons of men should be strengthened; that diversity of religion should, and differences of race, be annulled; what harm is there in this? Yet so it shall be. These fruitless strifes, these ruinous wars shall pass away, and the “most great peace” shall come. Do not you in Europe need this also? Let not a man glory in this, that he loves his country; let him rather glory in this that he loves his kind.” -Bahá'u'lláh

    1909 21 Mar "The first American Bahá'í Convention opened in Chicago. [BFA2:XVII, 309; BW13:849; MBW142–3; SBBH1:146]
  • It was held in the home of Corinne True. [CT82–3]
  • It was attended by 39 delegates from 36 cities. [GPB262; SBBH1:146]
  • The Convention established the 'Bahá'í Temple Unity', which was incorporated to hold title to the Temple property and to provide for its construction. A constitution was framed and an Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity elected. [BBD39; BBRSM:106; BW10:179; GPB349; PP397; SBBH1:146]"
  • National Convention; Corrine True; Bahai Temple Unity; Constitution; Executive Board of the Baha'i Temple Unity
    1944. 19 - 25 May An international celebration of the Centenary of the founding of the Faith was held at the House of Worship in Wilmette.
  • For a description of this event see BW10:158–61.
  • For the programme see BW10:162–70.
  • For a list of the countries participating in the conference see BW10:168.
  • This event was attended by a number of Canadian Bahá'ís. iiiii
  • Centenaries; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
    1953. 29 Apr - 1 May The Jubilee Celebration commemorating the Centenary of the birth of the Mission of Bahá'u'lláh was held in the Medinah Temple in Chicago. [CBN No 42 July, 1953 p2]
  • The House of Worship in Wilmette was consecrated in a simple ceremony for Bahá’ís only on the 1st of May with the public dedication on the following day. [BW12:143, 152; ZK93; CBN No43 Aug 1953 p2]
    • For details of the dedication see BW12:152–4.
    • A most wonderful and thrilling motion will appear in the world of existence,” are ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s own words, predicting the release of spiritual forces that must accompany the completion of this most hallowed House of Worship. “From that point of light,” He, further glorifying that edifice, has written, “the spirit of teaching … will permeate to all parts of the world.” And again: “Out of this Mashriqu’l-Adhkár, without doubt, thousands of Mashriqu’l-Adhkárs will be born.” “It marks the inception of the Kingdom of God on earth. [CoF69 Message of 21 March 1949]
  • Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Holy Year; Great Jubilee
    1953. 3 - 4- 5- 6- May The All-American Intercontinental Teaching Conference was held in Chicago for delifileration on plans designed to establish the Faith in all unoccupied territories of the West and also to adopt measures to assist other National Assemblies. Through the association in this Conference of the four National Spiritual Assemblies of the West, and the consecrated consultation of a great throng of Bahá'ís from Canada, the United States, Central America and South America, the dynamic spirit will be created for the launching of our role in the great World Crusade.
  • The Jubilee Program included the National Convention of the the Bahá'ís of the United States, a series of public meetings, the dedication of the House of Worship on the 2nd of may and an International Conference. The whole program ran from the 29th of April until the 6th of May. [CBN No 35 November 1952 p2]
  • All-American Intercontinental Teaching Conference; Teaching Conference
    1983. 4 - 7 Nov The eight annual conference for the Association for Bahá'í Studies was held in Palmer House in Chicago. The Executive Committee for the ABS was Bill Hatcher; Jane Goldstone; Christine Zerbinis; Douglas Martin; Peter Morgan; Glen Eyford; Nasser Sabet; Richard Gagnon; Hossain Danesh with Firuz Kazemzadeh and Dorothy Nelson as United States representatives. The 8th annual conference of the Association for Baha' Studies was held in Chicago with over 500 participants came from all parts of North America, Europe, the Middle East, Latin America, the Caribbean Islands, Australia, India and several African countries. Hand of the Cause of God Mr. Khadem attended as well as a number of representatives of the Institution of the Continental Board of Counsellors, members of many National Spiritual Assemblies, and a host of internationally reknowned scholars. A unique event at the conference was a special session held at the House of Worship, focussing on the situation of the Bahá'ís of Iran.

    The first plenary session of the conference focussed on the theme “New Dimensions in Development”, and comprised of three presentations: Dr. Glen Eyford, Professor of International Development, spoke on "Strategies-for Social Change", Dr. Joanna Macy, “A Spiritual Approach to Social Change” and Gustavo Correa's presentation was "FUNDAEC: Case Study of an Alternative for Rural Development".

    The second session: “Integrating Personal and Social Change —The Baha’i Paradigm” hosted the following speakers: Dr. Ervin Laszlo, “The Coming Transformation of Global Society and Today’s Action Imperative”, Shelia Banani, “Unity: The Ultimate Paradigm Shift” and Dr. Hossain Danesh, “Integrating Personal and Social Change”.

    Hand of the Cause of God, Mr. Khadem, presented the awards to the winners of the best papers: John and Helen Danesh, High School Category; Shirin Sabri, General Category; Susan Stiles, University Category.

    The theme for the third session was: “Elimination of Violence as a Prerequisite for World Peace”. Dr. Udo Schaefer, spoke on “Justitia Fundamentum Regnorum: On the Future of Penal Law”, followed by Mr. Brad Pokorny who spoke on “Disarmament and the Baha’i Faith”.

    The advances made by the Association during the year were highlighted; the establishment of branches of the Association for Bahá'í Studies in India, Colombia, Ireland, Austria and Switzerland and the finalization of plans for opening chapters of the Association at universities to take the place gradually of the existing Bahá'í Clubs. A proposed draft of the constitution for the campus charters has been prepared and is now under review by the World Centre. [CBN Vol 5 No 6 November/December 1983 p14]

    Bill Hatcher; Jane Goldstone; Christine Zerbinis; Douglas Martin; Peter Morgan; Glen Eyford; Nasser Sabet; Richard Gagnon; Hossain Danesh; Firuz Kazemzadeh; Dorothy Nelson; Mr. Khadem; Joanna Macy; Gustavo Correa; Ervin Laszlo; Ervin Laszlo; Shelia Banani; John Danesh; Helen Danesh; Shirin Sabri; Susan Stiles; Udo Schaefer; Brad Pokorny

    from the Main Catalogue

    1. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Encounter with Modernity during His Western Travels, by Wendi Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Abdu'l-Bahá's responses to the West's technology and innovations on the one hand, vs. its archaic racist and sexual philosophies on the other. [about]
    2. Activities of `Abdu'l-Bahá in Illinois, 1912 (1976). Two-page list of all the addresses of the places visited by Abdu'l-Bahá, April 29 - November 4, 1912. Includes link to Google map. [about]
    3. Address to the Theosophical Society, An, by Abdu'l-Bahá, in Theosophic Messenger, 14:3 (1912). [about]
    4. Bagdádi Family, by Kamran Ekbal, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (2014). Brief excerpt, with link to article offsite. [about]
    5. Bahai Movement, The: A paper read by Shoghi Effendi at Oxford, by Shoghi Effendi, in The Dawn, 1:1-8 (1923). Text of an address given to the Oxford University Asiatic Society, February 1921, before the passing of 'Abdu'l-Bahá and before Shoghi Effendi was appointed the "Guardian." [about]
    6. Chicago the Pagan, by Weimar Port (1953). 2-page description of the Bahá'í Temple in Wilmette, with a poem about it by Charles Collins published in the Chicago Tribune. [about]
    7. For the Betterment of the World, to the Glory of God: The Emergence of Bahá'í Houses of Worship, by Ann Boyles, in Bahá'í World (2019). Overiew of the concept and history of the Bahá'í House of Worship. [about]
    8. Greenleafs, The: An Eternal Reunion, by Emeric Sala, in Bahá'í News, 510 (1973). Brief bio of Elizabeth and Charles Greenleaf, who were members of the group of Midwest Bahá'ís which began with Thornton Chase in the 1890s in Chicago. [about]
    9. Highlights from the Fourth Bahá'í National Youth Conference: The Time is Now! (1977). Excerpts from the University of Illinois Assembly Hall in June-July 1977 with 3000 Bahá'í youth from 15 countries. [about]
    10. In Memoriam: Dr. Zia M. Bagdadi, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 7 (1936-1938) (1938). Biography of one-time editor of Star of the West. [about]
    11. Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
    12. Part of the Baha'i History of the Family of Charles and Maria Ioas, by Viola Tuttle and Margarite Ioas Ullrich (1978). Biographies of Charles and Maria: from his birth in 1859, their introduction to the Faith in 1898, experiences with 'Abdu'l-Bahá in 1912, and four Tablets from 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [about]
    13. Prayer for Fathers, by Abdu'l-Bahá, in Star of the West, 2:19 (1921). Tablet revealed for Albert Windust, first American publisher of the Bahá'í Writings and founder of Star of the West, on the occasion of his father's passing. [about]
    14. Rabindranath Tagore: Some Encounters with Bahá'ís, by Peter Terry (1992). 'Abdu'l-Bahá is alleged to have met India's poet laureate Tagore in Chicago in 1912. This article examines the historical sources for that story. [about]
    15. Tablets of the Hair, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Bahá'í News, 121 (1938). Translation of five of total eleven Tablets titled "alváḥ-i-sha‘arát". [about]
    16. "Wonderful True Visions": Magic, Mysticism, and Millennialism in the Making of the American Bahá'í Community, 1892-1895, by Richard Hollinger, in Search for Values: Ethics in Bahá'í Thought (2004). The early growth of the American, and especially the Chicago, communities was more gradual and eclectic than previously thought, and Kheiralla's influence was less crucial. [about]
     
    See all locations, sorted numerically or alphabetically.

    See all tags, sorted numerically or alphabetically.

    • Locations are simplified spellings used to find documents on a similar topic but with various titles.
    • Searches match parts of a location: searching for state will also show United States.
    • 1- and 2-letter words will not be searched.
    • Please contact us if you can help add locations.
    Home Site Map Forum Links Copyright About Contact
    .
    . .