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from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1893 23 Sep First public reference in North America to the Bahá'í Faith. [SBBH1p76]
  • Reference was made to it in a paper entitled The Religious Mission of the English Speaking Nations by Rev. Henry H. Jessup, a retired missionary from north Syria, read by Rev George A. Ford at the World Parliament of Religions in Chicago. [AB63–4; BBD2412; BBR57; BFA1:323; BW2:230; GPB256; SBBH1:76, 88, 202]
  • See AB63–4, BW2:169 for text.
  • Historians have observed that, before this Parliament, "religion" was classified by many Americans into ethnic religion and universal religion. They considered there being only one universal religion: Christianity. In this view, all previous faiths were ethnic religions, and their purpose was to prepare the people for Christianity. Ethnic religions may have had portions of the truth, but only Christianity had all truth. This 1893 Parliament was a pivotal moment in the abolition of such classification, as representatives of "eastern" religions such as Swami Vivekananda and Anagarika Dharmapala promoted a new religious tolerance. [Paraphrased quote from Robert Stockman]
  • Chicago; United States Henry H. Jessup; World Parliament of Religions; Interfaith dialogue; Firsts, Other; Mentions
    1894. Feb Ibrahim George Kheiralla settled in Chicago. [BFA1:XXVII, AB65]
  • Owing to his work, the first Bahá'í community in North America was soon formed in Chicago. [BBRSM:100; BW10:179]
  • See AY59-60 for a description of the teaching method used by Haddad and Kheiralla.
  • Chicago; United States Ibrahim George Kheiralla; Anton Haddad; Teaching; Firsts, Other
    1894 5 Jun Thornton Chase became a Bahá'í in Chicago. [BBD53; BFA1:35–6]
  • For some time before he heard of the Bahá'í Faith, he had been a follower of the noble and mystical teachings of Emanuel Swedenborg. [SEBW3]
  • He was designated by `Abdu'l-Bahá as the first American believer. [BBD53; GPB257]
  • See BFA1:35 for his own account of how he became a Bahá'í.
  • See BFA1:33–7 for other Americans who became Bahá'ís around the same time.
  • He was given the name Thábit (Steadfast) by `Abdu'l-Bahá. [BBD53; GPB257]
  • He had been invited to join the Hearst pilgrimage in 1898 but was unable to go to the Holy Land until 1907. [AY61]
  • Chicago; United States Thornton Chase; First Bahais by country or area; Names and titles; Emanuel Swedenborg Thornton Chase in the newspapers (series of mentions especially 1893-7)
    1897. 21 May Lua Getsinger became a Bahá'í in Chicago. She had been called Khayru’lláh’s best pupil. [BFA1:XXVII, AY59] Chicago; United States Lua Getsinger; Ibrahim George Kheiralla
    1899 (In the year) The Serpent by Thornton Chase, an 18-page pamphlet on the image of the serpent in the Bible, was published in Chicago. This was probably the first published essay written by an American Bahá'í. [BFA2:26] Chicago; United States Thornton Chase; First publications; Publications
    1900 or 1897 Tablets, Communes and Holy Utterances, a collection of writings by Bahá'u'lláh, was published in the United States. [BFA2:26]
  • It was the first prayer book and first compilation of Bahá'í writings published in the West. [BFA2:26]
  • It was probably translated by Anton Haddad and published by the Behais Supply and Publishing Board. [BFA2:26]
  • Collins gives the date as 1897. [BEL4.277]
  • Chicago; United States Compilations; Prayer texts; Anton Haddad; Publications; Publishing Trusts; First publications
    1900 Jan The Behais Publishing and Supply Board was created in Chicago. [BFA1:XXIX] Chicago; United States Publishing Trusts
    1900 c. 16 Mar The Chicago community re-organized by selecting a ten-member Board of Council. Neither Kheiralla nor any of his supporters were on the Board. [BFA1:XXIX, 170] Chicago; United States Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; Ibrahim George Kheiralla
    1900 4 Nov The Persian teachers Mírzá Asadu'lláh-i-Isfahání (1826-1930) and Hájí Hasan-i-Khurásání, a merchant from Cairo, arrived in America. Their task was to consolidate the American community and to address the effects of Kheiralla's disaffection. [BFA2p35–43]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá provided them with two translators, Mírzá Husayn Rúhí, a young Persian Bahá'í who had learned English in Egypt, and Mírzá Burzurg.
  • They spent three weeks in New York then spent two days in Johnstown, NY then relocated to Chicago where he stayed for eighteen months.
  • Mírzá Asadu'lláh did not accompany 'Abdu'l-Bahá to America, however, shortly after His return, Mírzá Asadu'lláh and his son insisted on going to the West and did so against 'Abdu'l-Bahá's wishes. Both he and his son were expelled from the Faith. [APD143; AY119; SoW Vol 5 # 17 19 Jan 1915 pg 263; 265]
  • The four stayed in New York and then left for Chicago arriving on the 29th of November. Asadu'lláh stay in Chicago until 12 May 1902, Khurásání, and Rúhí returned to Egypt in mid-July, 1901. [BFA2p38]
  • Johnstown; NY; New York; Chicago; United States Haji Hasan-i-Khurasani; Mirza Asadullah-i-Isfahani; Mirza Husayn Ruhi; Mirza Burzurg; Covenant-breakers
    1901 15 May The Chicago Bahá'ís elected a nine-man Board of Council for a term of five years. [BFA2:XXV, 44–7] Chicago; United States Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies
    1901 20 May The number of members on the Board of Council was raised to 12. [BFA2:47] Chicago; United States Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies
    1901 24 May The name of the Chicago Board of Council was changed to the House of Justice. [BFA2:48]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá requested that this name be changed a year later. [BFA2:49]
  • Chicago; United States Board of Council; House of Justice; Spiritual Assemblies
    1901 29 May The Bahá'í women of Chicago elected their own Board and held the first business meeting of the `Women's Auxiliary Board'. [BFA2:XV, 49–50] Chicago; United States Women
    1902 10 May The Chicago House of Justice changes its name to the House of Spirituality. [BFA2:XV] Chicago; United States House of Justice; House of Spirituality; Spiritual Assemblies
    1903 7 Mar Inspired by the news of the `Ishqábád Temple project, the Chicago House of Spirituality asked `Abdu'l-Bahá for permission to construct a Mashriqu'l-Adhkár. [BFA2:XVI, 118; BW10:179; GPB348] Ishqabad; Turkmenistan; Wilmette; Chicago; United States House of Spirituality; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
    1903 30 May A letter from `Abdu'l-Bahá was received by the Chicago House of Spirituality giving His approval for the building of a Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in North America. [BFA2:119] Wilmette; Chicago; United States House of Spirituality; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
    1903 7 Jun Eight days after `Abdu'l-Bahá's first Tablet arrives, a second Tablet arrived from Him approving the project. [BW10:179; CT41; GPB262, 349; MBW142] Wilmette; Chicago; United States House of Spirituality; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette
    1904 (In the year) The publication of Kitáb-i-Íqán (The Book of Certitude) by the Bahá'í Publishing Society in Chicago. It had been translated by Ali Kuli Khan with animation by Howard McNutt. This was the earliest translation into English of this book. [BEL1.12]
  • A second edition was published in 1907 and a third in 1915. [BEL1.13, 1.14]
  • THE BOOK OF IGHAN.
  • Chicago; United States KitabiIqan; THE BOOK OF IGHAN; Ali Kuli Khan; Howard McNutt; Z****
    1907 19 Jul The Chicago `Bahai Assembly' filed an affidavit of incorporation, the first Bahá'í community to acquire legal status. [BFA2:278]
  • The incorporation is in the name of the community rather than the governing body. [BFA2:278–9]
  • Chicago; United States Spiritual Assemblies; Incorporation; Recognition; Firsts, Other
    1907 26 Nov The first national Bahá'í conference was held in America. [BFA2:XVI; BW10:179]
  • At the invitation of the House of Spirituality of Chicago, nine Bahá'ís from various communities joined some ten from the Chicago area at a one-day conference to foster national cooperation on the Temple project and to choose a suitable site for the Temple. [BFA2:280; CT78; GPB262, 349]
  • M. Momen posits that this was probably the first Bahá'í convention. [BAHAISM xi. Bahai Conventions]
  • Chicago; United States Conferences; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, National; House of Spirituality; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; First conferences; Z****
    1908 Sep The Bahá'í Publishing Society was founded in Chicago. [BW10:179] Chicago; United States Bahai Publishing Society; Publishing Trusts
    1909 21 Mar `Abdu'l-Bahá laid the sacred remains of the Báb in their final resting place at the Shrine in Haifa. [AB126; BBD210; DH138; GBF103; GPB276]
  • See AB126–30, CT84 and GPB273–8 for details of the occasion and its history.
  • The Shrine was a simple rectangular structure of six rooms. [DH71, ZK284]
  • The marble sarcophagus used for the remains of the Báb was a gift from the Bahá'ís of Rangoon. [AB129; MC155]
  • For details of the sarcophagus see RB3:431.
  • BWC; Mount Carmel; Rangoon; Myanmar (Burma); Chicago; United States Bab, Shrine of; Bab, Sarcophagus for; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Marble; Gifts; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1909 21 Mar The first printing of Volume 1 of Tablets of 'Abdu'l-Bahá by the Bahá’í Publishing Society in Chicago.
  • Laura Dreyfus-Barney was credited as being one of the translators. [ABF9not53]
  • Chicago; United States Tablets of Abdul-Baha (book); Publications; Laura Clifford Barney
    1909 21 Mar On the same day as the interment of the sacred remains of the Báb on Mount Carmel the first American Bahá'í Convention opened in Chicago. [BFA2:XVII, 309; BW13:849; MBW142–3; SBBH1:146]
  • It was held in the home of Corinne True. [CT82–3]
  • It was attended by 39 delegates from 36 cities. [GPB262; SBBH1:146]
  • The Convention established the 'Bahá'í Temple Unity', incorporated to hold title to the Temple property and to provide for its construction. A constitution was framed and an Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity elected. This body became the future National Spiritual Assembly of the United States and Canada. [BBD39; BBRSM:106; BW10:179; GPB349; PP397; SBBH1:146]
  • Chicago; United States; Canada Conventions, National; Corinne True; Bahai Temple Unity; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; First conventions; NSA
    1909 20 Aug Birth of Paul Haney, Hand of the Cause of God, in Chicago.
  • His given name was `Abdu'l-Bahá, bestowed upon him by `Abdu'l-Bahá Himself at his birth.
  • Chicago; United States Paul Haney; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1910 21 Mar The first issue of the Bahá'í News was published in Chicago. [BFA2:XVII; BW10:179; BWNS1289]
  • See BFA2:320–2, BW8:927 and SBBH1:116–17 for the magazine's development.
  • It is the first Bahá'í magazine published in the West. [BBD2 14]
  • Star of the West is published as Bahá'í News (Volume 1, Issues 1-19 from 21 March, 1910 until 2 March, 1911) and later under Star of the West /The Bahá'í Magazine (Volume 2 to Volume 25, 21 March, 1911 until 25 March,1935).
  • Its editors were Albert Windust and Gertrude Buikema. Others involved with its publication over its history were Albert and Emily Vail, Dr. Zia Baghdadi, Ahmad Sohrab, Edna M. True; with Horace Holley and Stanwood Cobb being singled out as early contributors. [Duane Troxel]
    Star of the West Published March 1910 to April 1935
              URL   (For cut 'n' paste)  
             Volume # / Dates (links)   
    Vol 1 (Mar 1910) - Vol 10 (Mar 1920)
    Vol 11 (Mar 1920) - Vol 20 (Mar 1930)
    Vol 21 (Apr 1930) - Vol 25 (Apr 1935)

    For an access to the Star of the West archives see http://www.starofthewest.info. This site is not searchable.

  • Chicago; United States Star of the West; Bahai News; - Periodicals; First publications; Publications; BWNS
    1912 (In the year) The publication of The Brilliant Proof by Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl Gulpáygání in Chicago by the Bahai News Service, 1912. The first edition notes state that it was written December 28, 1911, in Syria, "by the pen of Mirza Abul Fazl Gulpaygan."
  • 239D93 says this book was written by Mírzá Abu'l-Fadl in answer to a London minister's criticism of the Cause.
  • The publication of this book marked the end of an early era of Bahá'í teaching in the West. As 'Abdu'l-Bahá continued his journeys in the United States and Canada, He delivered hundreds of public talks and private addresses which were tailored to Western audiences. The fresh outpouring of teachings which resulted from these encounters produced a new Bahá'í literature of the words of 'Abdu'l-Bahá in the West. Examples include the following: The Promulgation of Universal Peace: Talks Delivered by `Abdu'l-Bahá During His Visit to the United States and Canada in 1912, compiled by Howard MacNutt, (Wilmette, Ill.: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1922-25); Paris Talks: Addresses Given by `Abdu'l-Bahá in Paris in 1911-1912 (London: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1912); 'Abdu'l-Bahá in London.
  • Chicago; United States Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Criticism and apologetics; Proofs; Promulgation of Universal Peace (book); Paris Talks (book); Abdul-Baha in London (book); Bahai literature; Publications
    1912 28 Apr `Abdu'l-Bahá gave private interviews in the morning then called on the Turkish Ambassador. [APD56-59] . He spent considerable time with the Turkish ambassador, Zia Pasha while in Washington. [AY86-87]
  • For a list of some of the well-known individuals whom the Khans brought into ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s presence see AY88.
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá left Washington for Chicago. [239D:46; AB184; SBR81]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá arrived in Chicago. [239D:47]
  • Washington DC; Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Ambassadors
    1912 30 Apr Talk at Public Meeting Concluding Convention of Bahá’í Temple Unity, Drill Hall, Masonic Temple, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP65,]
  • Talk at Hull House, Chicago, Illinois. Hull House was a community centre, one of the earliest in Chicago, founded by the National American Woman Suffrage Association [PUP67, MD70]
  • Talk at Fourth Annual Conference of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Handel Hall, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP69, MD71]
  • The NAACP’s co-founder, writer and civil rights activist W.E.B. Du Bois, was in correspondence with ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and published His talk as well as His photo in the organization’s magazine, The Crisis Vol. 4, No. 1 (May, 1912) pp14-16. [BWNS1310] iiiii
  • The website for the current day on-line magazine.
  • See FMH152 for the story of Grace Ober inviting Dr DoBois and 60 others from an NAACP Convention in Pittsburg 6-10 July, 1931, to their tenement flat for tea.
  • Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Conventions, National; Bahai Temple Unity; Abdul-Baha, Talks at other places; W.E.B. Du Bois; NAACP; BWNS; Z****
    1912 1 May `Abdu'l-Bahá laid the cornerstone of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár in Wilmette. [239D:51; AB186; GPB288, 349; MBW143]
  • Talk at Dedication of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár Grounds. [PUP71]
  • The cornerstone had been offered by Mrs Nettie Tobin. [AB186]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá asked delegates from the various Bahá'í communities and Bahá'ís from different backgrounds each to dig the earth to lay the stone. [AB186–7]
  • Wilmette; Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Nettie Tobin; Foundation stones and groundbreaking; Abdul-Baha, Life of; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
    1912 2 May Talk at Hotel Plaza, Chicago, Illinois, [PUP72] Chicago Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
    1912 3 May Talk at Hotel Plaza, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP83]
  • Talk at Hotel Plaza, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP84]
  • Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
    1912 5 May Talk at Children’s Meeting, Hotel Plaza, Chicago, Illinois. [PSBW134–5, PUP91]
  • Talk at Plymouth Congregational Church, 935 East Fiftieth Street, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP93]
  • Talk at All-Souls Church, Lincoln Center, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP97]
  • Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places
    1912 6 May `Abdu'l-Bahá left Chicago, arriving in Cleveland the same day. [239D:57; AB189]
  • Talk at Euclid Hall, Cleveland, Ohio. [PUP101]
  • Talk at Sanatorium of Dr. C. M. Swingle, Cleveland, Ohio. [PUP104]
  • "The American continent gives signs and evidences of very great advancement; its future is even more promising, for its influence and illumination are far-reaching, and it will lead all nations spiritually." – Abdu’l-Baha, PUP104.
  • Chicago; Cleveland; Ohio; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1912 12 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá left Buffalo for Chicago, passing by Niagara Falls and arriving at about 8PM at the LaSalle Station where He was received by the awaiting friends. Among them was Saichiro Fujita. [239D:142; MD257-259]
  • He went to the home of Corinne True by automobile. [239D:142; AB266]
  • Buffalo; Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Corinne True
    1912. 13 Sep The True home was inundated with visitors and among them, a group of black believers. 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk in the evening. The three large rooms on the ground floor were filled to capacity and He walked from room to room as He spoke. [MD260-262] Chicago Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Corinne True
    1912. 14 Sep In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá walked along the shores of Lake Michigan. In the afternoon He spoke to the Theosophical Society to a rousing response.
  • For pictures of outing in Lincoln Park see the photos between pages 278 and 279 of Mahmúd's Diary.
  • Chicago Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Corinne True
    1912 15 Sep In the morning`Abdu'l-Bahá spoke to Dr. William Frederick Nutt, a friend of Kheiralla. (Nutt later broke the Covenant) Observers say that both Dr. Nutt and the interpreter were left trembling after He made his remarks.
  • Shu'á'lláh, son of Mírzá Muhammad-'Ali was in America at the same time. The previous May he had written to the Kenosha Evening News decouncing 'Abdu'l-Bahá and proposing a meeting between himself and 'Abdu'l-Bahá to settle their differences. In July Kheiralla had written to the same newspaper in support of Shu'á'lláh. [MD264n277]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá, his party of six plus Fujita departed to Kenosha but they missed their train. He told His fellow travellers not to be concerned over this, as there would be a good reason for it; travelling on the next train they come across the wreckage of the first, which has been in a collision. [239D:145; AB267]
  • Upon arrival they were taken to the hall of the Mashriqu'l-Adhkár where they were served lunch. After lunch they went to the home of Mrs Henry Goodale.
  • In the evening He spoke at the Congregational Church on the unity of the Manifestations. [MD226] Now called First Congregational Church of Kenosha, 5934 8th Avenue. ['Abdu'l-Bahá in America 1912- 2012]
  • Chicago; Kenosha; Wisconsin; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Trains
    1912 16 Sep In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá departed for Chicago
  • He gave a talk at Home of Mrs. Corinne True, 5338 Kenmore Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP320]
  • In the evening He told His party to pack and move to the hotel. [MD268]
  • Kenosha; Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Corinne True
    1912. 17 Sep Mírzá 'Alí-Akbar Nakhjavání arrived from Malden and was allowed to join the group along with Fujita. [MD270]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá and entourage left Chicago for Minneapolis at 10AM. The date of His departure was probably the 16th [239D:146; AB273] however, Muhmúd gives it as the 17th. [MD268]
  • They arrived late in the evening and stayed at the Plaza Hotel. [MD271]
  • Chicago; Minneapolis Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Ali Akbar Nakhjavani; Fujita
    1912 30 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá left Denver for Chicago. [239D:175] Denver; Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912 31 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá arrived in Chicago and gave a talk at the Plaza Hotel. [239D:176; PUP381].
  • It is likely that 'Abdu'l-Bahá encountered Rabindranath Tagore who was to become a well-known Bengali poet and musician who would reshape Bengali literature and music and be the first non-European to win the Nobel Prize in Literature. [Rabindranath Tagore: Some Encounters with Bahá'ís by Peter Terry; Wikipedia]
  • Chicago; United States; India Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at public places; Rabindranath Tagore
    1912 1 Nov Talk at Home of Mrs. Corinne True, 5338 Kenmore Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. [PUP383] Chicago; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Corinne True
    1912 4 Nov `Abdu'l-Bahá left Chicago and arrived in Cincinnati the same day. [239D:179] Chicago; Cincinnati; Ohio; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1916 Apr or May The first Chinese Bahá'í in China, Chen Hai An (Harold A. Chen), became a Bahá'í in Chicago through the efforts of Dr Zia Baghdádí. [PH29-30]
  • PH30 says this was 1919 but this is clearly a typographical error.
  • He returned to China in December 1916.
  • China; Chicago; United States First Bahais by country or area; Zia Baghdadi
    1916 8 Sep The first five Tablets of the Tablets of the Divine Plan were published in Star of the West. [BBD219; 5w7, 10:87-91]
  • For editorial comment see SW7, 10:86.
  • After this, communication was cut off with the Holy Land. [BBD219]
  • Chicago; United States Tablets of the Divine Plan; Star of the West; Publications
    1917 (in the year) A Bahá'í Reading Room was established in Chicago by Luella Kirchner in 1917 or perhaps earlier and became the scene of an incident that exemplified a stage of evolution in the North American Bahá'í community. Because communications with 'Abdu'l-Bahá had been severed due to the war, the community was free to develop as it might. The Reading Room had become host to the "Harmonite Bahá'ís" - those who subscribed to the metaphysical interpretations of the Bahá'í Writings by W. W. Harmon.
          The situation came to a head when both the House of Spirituality and the Reading Room sent delegates to the Boston convention in April 1917. In November, during an event to commemorate the Centenary of the birth of Bahá'u'lláh in Chicago, the national community took up the affair and appointed an investigative committee consisting of Mason Remey (chair) as well as Emogene Hoagg, George Latimer and Louis Gregory. Their report tabled on the 9th of December found that the Reading Room (now calling themselves the Chicago Bahá'í Assembly), had been in violation for "minling human ideas with the Word of God".
          The victory over the "dissenters" was not complete however. In addition to those who were attracted by Harmon's interpretations there were those leading Bahá'ís like Agnes Parsons and Joseph Hannen who objected to the way the committee had conducted it's investigation. However, at the April 1918 convention the report was unanimously approved by the delegates albeit with several absent delegates. Thus the balance between liberalism and authoritarianism was shifted to the latter with firm ideas about what constituted the Bahá'í belief. As a result in 1918 there was a proposal to establish a review procedure for Bahá'í publications, both old and new as well as measures to ensure doctrinal control at Green Acre. [SBBH1p189-194]
    Chicago; United States Chicago Reading Room Affair
    1918. (After the National Convention) The publication of the second edition of Compilation of the Holy Utterances of Bahaʼollah and Abdul Baha, Concerning the Most Great Peace, War and the Duty of the Bahais toward their Government, authorized the the Tenth Annual Convention of the Bahais of America held in Chicago.
  • The original.
  • The pdf.
  • Chicago; United States Compilation of the Holy Utterances of Bahaʼollah and Abdul Baha; Z****
    1920 Apr Louis Bourgeois was selected as the architect for the Chicago House of Worship. [DP94; GPB303; SBBH1:145]
  • For details of the designs and selection process see DP76-100.
  • See CT159 for the source of inspiration for the design.
  • See FMH75-76 for details of a visit by Willard and Doris McKay to his home. He reported that "the inspiration for the Temple was from another realm and that he had been conscious, from the beginning, that Bahá'ulláh was the creator of the building."
  • Wilmette; Chicago; United States Louis Bourgeois; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Architecture; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Design; Architects
    1922 (In the year) The publication of The Promulgation of Universal Peace: Talks Delivered by ‘Abdu’l‑Bahá during His Visit to the United States and Canada in 1912. Compiled by Howard MacNutt.
  • From the preface to the 1922 edition..."This treasury of His words is a compilation of informal talks and extemporary discourses delivered in Persian and Arabic, interpreted by proficient linguists who accompanied Him, and taken stenographically in both Oriental and Occidental tongue."
  • From the same preface is a letter from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to Howard MacNutt dated 13 April, 1919 approving his idea to publish the compilation of His talks in America and urging him to be most careful to reproduce the exact text as well as promising an "effulgent face" in the Abhá Kingdom as well as the praise and gratitude of the friends.
  • And again from the same source is a letter from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to Albert Windust written on the 20th of July, 1919 asking him to name the book The Promulgation of Universal Peace and to direct that the Introduction must be written by Howard MacNutt. Prior to His coming to America the friends were unclear about His station and their differences in understanding was a major source of disunity. On one extreme were those that believed that 'Abdu'l-Baha was a man who, through the application and complete obedience to the Faith, had earned a high station, like the Christ's disciple Peter, implying that others could do the same. In the other camp were those who insisted that He was the return of Christ. Little wonder that they were confused because never in religious history had there been someone like 'Abdu'l-Bahá, one Who held the station of "The Mystery of God". Howard's failure to understand 'Abdu'l-Bahá's station and disobedience to Him and taken him precariously close to the company of Covenant-breakers but through 'Abdu'l-Bahá's unfailing love and guidance he was able to come to a true understanding. The Introduction to the 1922 edition was his testament to the station of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [DJT369-372]
  • The Promulgation of Universal Peace, although not "scripture", could be compared to Some Answered Questions in that it is a carefully transcribed record of His talks. Unlike that publication where He answered questions, in The Promulgation of Universal Peace it was 'Abdu'l-Bahá who chose the subject. Upon arrival in New York He said, "It is my purpose to set forth in America the fundamental principles of the revelation and teachings of Bahá'u'lláh." [PUPxii]
  • Chicago; New York; United States Promulgation of Universal Peace (book); Howard MacNutt; Publications
    1922 Apr To the United States and Canada Shoghi Effendi sent a message to transform the 'Executive Board' into a legislative institution. [CB293; CT160; ER211-12; PP56]
  • It had been functioning since 1909 concerned mostly with the construction of the Bahá'í House of Worship.
  • He addressed his first letter to this body as the "National Spiritual Assembly of the United States" on December 23rd however in God Passes By pg333 he stated that the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States was not formed until 1925. [SETPE1p107, CT160, CoB293]
  • Chicago; United States Executive Board; Bahai Temple Unity; National Spiritual Assemblies; Spiritual Assemblies; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1922 25 Apr A National Spiritual Assembly was elected in the United States to replace the Executive Board of the Bahá'í Temple Unity. [SBR94]
  • The difference between this body and its forerunner was little more than a change in name. [DP122]
  • The conversion of the Bahá'í Temple Unity into the National Spiritual Assembly took four years; it was not until 1925 that Shoghi Effendi recognized the American national body as a National Spiritual Assembly. [CT161; DP121-2; GPB333]
  • The election procedure followed that used in the United States and not the current Bahá'í procedure: there was electioneering and candidates were nominated, with a straw poll taken to trim the number of eligible candidates. [CT160; DP122]
  • Chicago; United States NSA; Spiritual Assemblies; Executive Board; Bahai Temple Unity; Elections; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1928 26–30 Apr The National Convention of the Bahá’ís of the United States and Canada was held in the Foundation Hall of the House of Worship for the first time. [BW2:180; CT167]
  • See BW2:180 for a picture.
  • See FMH53-54]
  • Wilmette; Chicago; United States Conventions, National; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Wilmette; Firsts, Other
    1932 17 Feb The Chicago Bahá’í Assembly incorporated, the first local spiritual assembly in the world to do so. This set the pattern for other Assemblies. [GPB336, Century of LIght p57] Chicago; United States LSA; Incorporation; Recognition; Firsts, Other
    1938 1 May At the National Convention in Chicago, Grace Roberts Ober, who had just given a report on a travel teaching trip to Louisville Ky and on her work in Toronto where she had been the previous Fall, collapsed into the arms of the Convention chairman, Harlan Ober in view of the assembled delegates while ending her address. She was removed from the convention hall and passed away shortly thereafter. See TG75-76 and FMH273-274 for the background to this story.
  • Born in Thorold, ON of Sarah E. Wilson and the Rev Thomas Tempest Robarts, a cannon in the Anglican Church her life's work was that of a teacher.
  • During 'Abdu'l-Baha's tour of America she served as his household manager, going ahead to secure an apartment for him and acting as His housekeeper and hostess.
  • On July 17, 1912 she married Harlan Ober at 'Abdu'l-Bahá's suggestion. The legal marriage was conducted by Howard Colby Ives. [BW8p656-660]
  • Chicago; United States Grace Robarts Ober; In Memoriam
    1943 (In the year) Margot Vandenbroeck-Levy (Galler) became a Bahá’í in Chicago, the first native Luxembourger to accept the Faith.
  • She returned to Luxembourg in 1948.
  • Chicago Margot Vandenbroeck-Levy
    1953 3 – 6 May The All-America Intercontinental Teaching Conference was held in Chicago. [BW12:133]
  • For the texts of Shoghi Effendi’s messages to the conference see BW12:133–41 and MBW142–6.
  • Twelve Hands of the Cause were present. The Guardian was represented by Amatu'l-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum. [BW12:143; CBN No 82 November, 1956 p3]
  • At the conference, five members of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United States resigned from that body in order to go pioneering: Elsie Austin, Dorothy Baker, Matthew Bullock, Mamie Seto and Dr William Kenneth Christian. [ZK102]
  • Extract from the second message to All-American Intercontinental Conference from Shoghi Effendi... [MBW150]
    .....the lands contributed in Latin America for a similar purpose approximate one-half of a million square meters, ninety thousand of which have been set aside near Santiago, Chile, for the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár of South America..
  • Chicago; United States; Santiago; Chile; America Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade; Teaching; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Pioneering; Elsie Austin; Dorothy Baker; Matthew Bullock; Mamie Seto; William Kenneth Christian; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Santiago; Purchases and exchanges
    1957 Oct Shoghi Effendi called for the convocation of a series of Intercontinental Conferences to be held successively in Kampala, Uganda; Sydney, Australia; Chicago, United States; Frankfurt, Germany; and Djakarta, Indonesia. [BW13:311–12; MBW125] BWC; Kampala; Uganda; Sydney; Australia; Chicago; United States; Frankfurt; Germany; Djakarta; Indonesia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade
    1961 3 Apr Corinne True, Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in Chicago. [BW13:846]
  • For her obituary see BW13:846–9.
  • For cables from the Custodians see MoC257.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed her among the second contingent on the 29th of February, 1952. [MoCxxiii]
  • See also Rutstein, Corinne True George Ronald (1987)
  • Chicago; United States Corinne True; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Second Contingent
    1975. 4 - 8 Jul The Ridván Message contained the phrase, "EVIDENCES GATHERING CLOUDS WIDESPREAD OPPOSITION" and the Universal House of Justice called together all the 'high ranking officers' and 'senior administrative bodies' of the Faith in North America for special consultation on the future protection of the Cause" to be held in Wilmette. It was attended by the three Hands of the Cause for North America, Mr Sears, Mr Robarts and Mr Zikrullah Khadem; the four members of the Board of Counsellors, Velma Sherrill, Lloyd Gardner, Sarah Periera, and Edna True; all the members of the National Spiritual Assemblies of Alaska, Canada and the United States as well as representative of the National Assembly of Hawaii; all of the Auxiliary Board members in North America and special guest, Counsellor 'Azíz Yazdí of the International Teaching Centre.
  • Although the primary reason for gathering was to discuss the issue of the protection of the Faith there were opportunities for members of the three National Spiritual Assemblies and the Auxiliary Boards to share teaching ideas and to lear of the goals achieved in other areas. [BN Vol 52 No 8 August, 1975 p13-14, CBN Issue 287 Aug/Sept 1975 p1-4]
  • Wilmette; Chicago; United States Conference; Continental Conference for Protection
    1995 Jan By decision of the National Spiritual Assembly of the United State, the Wilmette Institute was established as an agency of the National Assembly.

    "The Wilmette Institute is a center of Bahá’í learning. Its programs aim to facilitate study and dialogue on the teachings and principles of the Faith to help individuals and communities apply learning and advance human civilization."

  • In 1998, the Wilmette Institute moved to a largely online study approach in order to provide educational classes to a broader student body. [Wilmette Institute]
  • Chicago; United States Wilmette Institute
    2008 6 – 7 Dec Regional Conferences were held in Portland, United States, Chicago, United States, Atlanta, United States and Almaty, Kazakhstan. [ Portand, Chicago, Atlanta, Almaty] Portland; United States; Chicago; United States; Atlanta; United States; Almaty; Kazakhstan Regional Conferences; BWNS
    2018 1 - 7 Nov More than 7,500 people attended the Parliament of the World’s Religions held at the Metro Toronto Convention Centre. This forum began in 1893 at the World Columbian Exposition in Chicago as an effort to promote an emerging international movement devoted to promoting dialogue among religions. Since that time, it has been held in Cape Town (1999), Barcelona (2004), Melbourne (2009) and Salt Lake City (2015). [Website] Bahá'í presenters were:
    • Bani Dugal: “The Equality of Women and Men: Divine Imperative for an Age of Transition.”
    • Hugh Locke: “Half the Sky, Half the Land: The Role of Women Farmers in Transforming Agriculture,”
    • Payam Akhavan: “Equality and Justice, Global Perspectives” and “Countering War, Hate, and Violence Assembly.”
    • Emily Wright: “Making Interreligious Chaplaincy Education Meaningfully Inclusive” and “A New Cup of Grace—A Ukulele Opera
    • Hooshmand Badee: “Interfaith Peacemaking Perspectives from Across the World.”
    • Nader Saiedi: Presenting the new documentary film The Gate: Dawn of the Bahá’í Faith.
    • Paul Hanley: “Man of the Trees: Richard St. Barbe Baker, the First Global Environmentalist.”
    • JoAnn Borovicka: “Amazing Faiths! An Interactive Workshop on Interfaith Dialogue.”
    • Robert Atkinson: “New Thoughts in Interfaith Spirituality.”
    • Robert Stockman: “The Characteristics of Bahá’í Interfaith Dialogue.” Candace Hill: “From Shiraz to Chicago: Bahá’í Women of the East and the West”
    • Edward Price: “The Divine Curriculum: Understanding the Báb, Divine Educator for the Modern Era.”
    • Sovaida Maani Ewing: “Achieving World Peace: Bahá’í and Catholic Teachings.”
    • Jean Muza: “Bahá’í Civic Engagement: How to Maneuver in America’s Divisive Political Landscape.”
    • Robert Atkinson: “The Golden Rule as the Basis for a Global Justice System: An Interfaith Perspective with a Call to Action.”
    • Edward Price: “The Divine Curriculum Concept as a Framework for Interfaith Inclusion and Love.” [CBN-Preparation; CBN-Inclusion; CBN-Films]
    Toronto; Canada; Chicago; Cape Town; Barcelona; Melbourne; Salt Lake City World Parliament of Religions; Z****

    from the main catalogue

    1. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Encounter with Modernity during His Western Travels, by Wendi Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Abdu'l-Baha's responses to the West's technology and innovations on the one hand, vs. its archaic racist and sexual philosophies on the other. [about]
    2. Chicago the Pagan, by Weimar Port (1953). 2-page description of the Baha'i Temple in Wilmette, with a poem about it by Charles Collins published in the Chicago Tribune. [about]
    3. Greenleafs, The: An Eternal Reunion, by Emeric Sala, in Bahá'í News, 510 (1973). Brief bio of Elizabeth and Charles Greenleaf, who were members of the group of Midwest Baha'is which began with Thornton Chase in the 1890s in Chicago. [about]
    4. Messages from the Universal House of Justice 1963-1986: Third Epoch of the Formative Age, by Universal House of Justice (1996). [about]
    5. Rabindranath Tagore: Some Encounters with Bahá'ís, by Peter Terry (1992). 'Abdu'l-Baha is alleged to have met India's poet laureate Tagore in Chicago in 1912. This article examines the historical sources for that story. [about]
    6. "Wonderful True Visions": Magic, Mysticism, and Millennialism in the Making of the American Bahá'í Community, 1892-1895, by Richard Hollinger, in Search for Values: Ethics in Bahá'í Thought (2004). The early growth of the American, and especially the Chicago, communities was more gradual and eclectic than previously thought, and Kheiralla's influence was less crucial. [about]
     
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