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1927 (In the year) Leonora Armstrong was the first Bahá'í to visit and speak about the Bahá'í Faith in Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Trinidad, Barbados, Haiti, British Guiana and Dutch Guiana (now Suriname). [Biographical Profile] Colombia; Venezuela; Ecuador; Trinidad and Tobago; Barbados; Haiti; British Guiana; Suriname Travel teaching; Leonora Holsapple Armstrong
1940. 13 May American Baha'i John Stearns sailed from Los Angeles to Guayaquil, Ecuador to take up his pioneer post. He took up residence in Quito and became the first established pioneer in Ecuador. [Heroes of God: History of the Bahá'í Faith in Ecuador, 1940-1979 p.vii; p1] Guayaquil; Ecuador Pioneer; John Stearns
1940 Dec Eduardo Gonzales, a university student, accepted the Faith and became the first native Bahá'í of Ecuador. He was accepted as a Bahá'í on the occasion of his 21st birthday on the 15th of October 1943. Eduardo (Les) Gonzalez performed outstanding service for the Cause both as an itinerant teacher abroad and pioneer to Spain and Venezuela. Sadly, in later years he became a Covenant-breaker and had to be ex-communicated.
  • He was not formally registered until his twenty–first birthday on 15 October 1941. . [Heroes of God: History of the Bahá'í Faith in Ecuador, 1940-1979 p4; 8; 24]
  • Ecuador Eduardo Gonzales; First believers by background; Indigenous people
    1942. 9 Jun - 15 Feb 1943 John Stearns began sponsoring a radio program in Quito under the auspices of his small business, "Kandy Kitchen", which presented classical music and readings from the Bahá'í Writings. These broadcasts came over short wave (32.05 meter, 9355 Kc) Monday evenings at 8:00 PM Eastern Standard Time. The broadcasts could be heard all over South America and occasionally in Spain.
    The Bahá'í Radio Hour, "Words and Music" was broadcasted every Sunday from 3:00 PM to 4:00 PM and a program called "Bahá'í Echo" three times a week Monday, Wednesday and Friday from 9:15 to 9:30 PM. [Heroes of God: History of the Bahá'í Faith in Ecuador, 1940-1979 p5]
    Quito; Ecuador Baha'i Radio; John Sterns
    1945 (Ridván) The first local spiritual assembly in Ecuador was established in Guayaquil. The founding members were: Eduardo Gonzalez Lopez, Luis Guillermo Molina DeFranc, Emilio Minervini, Jorge Sarco, Jorge Jalón Fer, Juan Luis Aguirre Tarpeau, Mme. Marie Constantine Claudet de Thomas, Else Jorgensen, and Lauro Sánchez. [Heroes of God: History of the Bahá'í Faith in Ecuador, 1940-1979 p17, 84] Guayaquil; Ecuador Local Spiritual Assembly
    1946. 14 Sep The first native Ecuadorian woman to accept the Faith was Judith Franco. [Heroes of God: History of the Bahá'í Faith in Ecuador, 1940-1979 p21] Quito; Ecuador Judith Franco
    1947. Ridván The first Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Quito was established. Those elected were: Hascle Coxnbleth, Chaixman, Eithel Santos, Recording Secretary, Hans Levy, Vice-chairman, Eloy Maran, Treasurer, Hans Dory, Secretary, Nelson Sanchez, Librarian, Rosario Vera B., Jose Elias Cedeño, ama Lais Alcivar Z. [Heroes of God: History of the Bahá'í Faith in Ecuador, 1940-1979 p.33] Quito; Ecuador
    1953. 23 May The Hand of the Cause of God, Mr. Valiollah Vargha, arrived in Guayaquil accompanied by Miss Eve Nicklin, a pioneer and the spiritual mother of Perú. He also visited Quito and left the country in early July to attend the conference in Stockholm. [Heroes of God pp53-54] Guayaquil; Ecuador; Quito; Ecuador Valiollah Vargha; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Eve Nicklin
    1953 11 Aug Virginia Orbison arrived in the Balearic Islands from a pioneer post in Spain and was named a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh for the Balearic Islands. [BW13:449]

    It was neither her first nor her last pioneer experience. Between 1942 and 1946 she pioneered to Chile, Argentina, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador and Brazil. After World War II she went to Madrid, Spain where she helped raise the first local spiritual assembly and she did the same thing in Barcelona the following year.

    In July of 1953 she went to the Stockholm Intercontinental Teaching Conference where she offered to pioneer to Mallorca in one of the Balearic Islands, She stayed about one year before returning to Barcelona in August of 1954 where she attended the Iberian Teaching Conference that was attended by 60 people. Late that nine, she and nine others were arrested by the police and interrogated for 18 hours. They had thought that the Bahá'í were Communists.

    In 1956 she moved to Portugal where she was elected to the first Iberian Regional Spiritual Assembly. After three years she was forced to leave by the authorities because of her Bahá'í activities, holding property and owning a telephone.

    She was asked to go to Luxembourg where she spent nine years but made little progress in establishing the Faith. She was then asked to got to Malaga, Spain and by 1972 Malaga had a local spiritual assembly so she pioneered to Margella in 1979.

    The National Spiritual Assembly asked her to write a history of the Faith in Spain which was completed in 1980.

    As was her wish, she passed to the Abha Kingdom in 1985, still a pioneer. [KoB346-347; Wikipedia]

    See also Also see Bahá'í World 19 pages 715-721 or 692-697 in the print version and Bahá'í News #586 January 1980 p2-5.

    Balearic Islands; Spain; Chile; Argentina; Bolivia; Peru; Ecuador; Brazil; Mallorca; Spain; Portugal; Luxembourg Virginia Orbison; Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954. 9 Apr Gayle Woolson and her companion, Rebecca Kaufman, arrived in the Galapagos Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW13:452] [Heroes of God p59] Galapagos Islands; Ecuador Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954. 29 May Haik (Haig) Kevorkian arrived in the Galápagos Islands and settled on the island of Santa Cruz. He was named a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh. Haig had been present in Guayaquil as an itinerant pioneer-teacher in 1945 when the first local Assembly of that city was formed. He returned in 1954 to fill the virgin goal of the Galapagos. [BW13:452; Heroes of God: History of the Bahá'í Faith in Ecuador, 1940-1979 p24; 61]
  • On March 8, 1955 on the island of Santa Cruz, Señor Moyses Mosquera Zevallos enrolled as the first believer of the Galapagos. He was a school teacher from the mainland of Ecuador working on the island. Later he was dismissed from his job and was forced to leave theGalapagos due to accusations made against him of immoral acts with some of his students in spite of the fact that the teaching space was such that his wife was constantly with him. He had been the victim of an attack by the parish priest[ibid p76]
  • Haig returned to his home in Buenos Aires, Argentina in January 1956. His family came from Turkey but he was born in Syria on October 1, 1916 and came to Argentina as a youth with his family. He married his fiancée Miss Aurora de Eyto on October 19, 1957. His wife reported that he had colds continuously after returning from the islands, and on August 3, 1970 Haig passed away at .the age of 54. [ibid p75]
  • Galapagos Islands; Ecuador Knights of Bahaullah; Islands; Haik Kevorkian; Haig Kevorkian
    1955. 8 Jan Señor Moyses Mosquera Zevallos became the first believer of the Galapagos Islands to accept the Faith. As a result of his becoming a Bahá'í he was persecuted by the priest and both he and his wife lost their jobs as teachers. He was wrongfully accused of immoral acts with some of his students in spite of the fact that the teaching space was such that his wife was constantly with him.

    Moses was dismissed from his position because of the influence of the priest but he was asked to return to Naranjal because of the demands of the parents of his students. He remained at this school until his retirement during the late 1970's. [Heroes of God: History of the Bahá'í Faith in Ecuador, 1940-1979 by Helen Basset Hornby p69; 77]

    Santa Cnuz; Galapolos; Ecuador
    1958. 22 - 25 Apr The second Annual Regional National Convention for the South American countries of Brazil, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela was held in Guayaquil. This was the highlight of the year for Ecuador being that it was their first time to host a National Convention. The delegates for Ecuador were: Juan Luis Aguirre and Alberto Carbo Medina from Guayaquil community and Gayle Woolson and Guillermo Sotomayer from Quito. At the time Ecuador still had only two local assemblies, four isolated centers and only two new believers for the year. [Heroes of God: History of the Bahá'í Faith in Ecuador, 1940-1979 by Helen Bassett Hornby p96] Guayaquil; Ecuador; Latin America Conventions, National
    1961 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Ecuador was formed. [BW13:258] Ecuador National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1972 Mar A thousand children attended a Bahá'í school in Esmeraldas, Ecuador. [BW15:237] Esmeraldas; Ecuador
    1977 Jul The first Bahá'í summer school of Ecuador was held in Cuenca. [BW17:170] Cuenca; Ecuador
    1977. 14 Sep The first Spiritual Assembly of the Galapagos was established on the island of Santa Cruz. The members of this first local Spiritual Assembly of Puerto Oyora, Santa Cruz, Galapagos were: Sr. Catlos Patino, Sr. Golo Paredes, Sta. Nilda Pena, Srta. Ester Margarlta Panedei, Sr. Gonzalo Salinas, Sra. Luzmila Villacis de Salinas, Sra. Vilma de Arguello, Sra. Soila Robaliino, and Sr. Victor Hugo Arguello. . [Heroes of God: History of the Bahá'í Faith in Ecuador, 1940-1979 p82] Puerto Oyora; Santa Cruz; Galapagos; Ecuador Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1977 12 Oct The first Bahá'í educational and cultural radio station, HCRN-1 Radio Bahá'í del Ecuador, made its inaugural broadcast at 1420kHz, 20 watts, in Spanish and Quechua from studios in Otavalo. [BBD193; BW17:169, 215–17; BW19:120; VV77; Mess63-86p373]
  • Radio Bahá'í was first housed in the Amatu'l-Bahá Ruhiyyih Khanum Institute in Otavalo. [BW18p226]
  • For pictures see BW17:216, 218 and VV77.
  • Full time programming (six hours a day) was initiated on the 12th of December, 1977. The 1 kiloWatt transmitter was located at Cahas, 20km south of Otavalo. [Radio Bahá'í Ecuador p23, 52]
  • On December 12th, 1979, programming was initiated in the short wave band on 2340 kHz in the 120-metre band. The 1 kilowatt transmitter was located about 30 km north of Otavalo at an altitude of 10,000 feet. In 1982 the transmission frequency was switched to 4990 kHz on the 60-meter band. [Radio Bahá‘Í Ecuador p205 note 23]
  • For further details on this radio station see Radio Bahá'í Ecuador by Kurt Hein.
  • See as well the compilation entitled Use of Radio and Television in Teaching attached to the message from the Universal House of Justice dated 25 May 1975.
  • Pictures
  • Otavalo; Cahas; Ecuador Bahai radio; Bahai-owned radio; Firsts, Other; Education
    1979 Oct The first Bahá'í summer school for Quechua-speakers was held in Cachaco, Imbabura, Ecuador. [BW17:170] Cachaco; Imbabura; Ecuador First summer and winter schools
    1979 29 Dec Rahmatu'lláh Muhájir, Hand of the Cause of God and Knight of Bahá'u'lláh, passed away in Quito, Ecuador. (b. 4 April 1923 in 'Abdu'l-'Azím) [BW18:486, 651]
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
  • For his obituary see BW18:651–9.
  • See BWNS353 for news of the commemoration of the 25th anniversary of his passing in Quito.
  • See also Dr Muhajir: Hand of the Cause of God, Knight of Bahá'u'lláh by Írán Furútan Muhájir.
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • For stories about Dr Mahájir see Bahá'í Memories.
  • See Academic Wikipedia.
  • See Rahmatu'llah Muhajir: Hand of the Cause of God the Treasure of All Humanity by Richard Francis.
  • A photo.
  • See as well LoF455-461.
  • The 25th anniversary of Rahmatu'lláh Muhájir's death was marked in Ecuador by a Growth and Victories conference and graveside ceremony, including a talk by his daughter Gisu Mohadjer Cook. BWNS353]
  • Quito; Ecuador; Abdul-Azim; Iran Rahmatullah Muhajir; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; Knights of Bahaullah; In Memoriam; Hands of the Cause, Third Contingent; BWNS
    1982 6 – 8 Aug A Bahá'í International Conference to mark the fiftieth anniversary of the passing of the Greatest Holy Leaf was held in Quito, Ecuador, attended by some 1,450 Bahá'ís from 43 countries. [BW18:100; VV61]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW18:157–8.
  • For a pictorial report see BW18:141–3.
  • Quito; Ecuador Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf)
    1984 (In the year) The publication of Heroes of God: History of the Bahá'í Faith in Ecuador, 1940-1979 by Helen Bassett Hornby. Ecuador Bahai history by country; Helen Hornby
    2004. 30 Dec - 2 Jan The "Growth and Victories" conference was held Otavalo, Ecuador in honour of the Hand of the Cause of God Rahmatu'llah Muhajir who passed away in Quito. (1923-79). Bahá'ís attending the conference came from a range of South American countries as well as from Australia, Canada, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Among those attending were his daughter, Gisu Mahajir Cook who spoke about the life of her father.
  • A member of the Continental Board of Counsellors, Eloy Anello of Bolivia, spoke on the topic "The Life of Dr. Muhajir". [BWNS353; BW33p98 ]
  • Otavalo; Ecuador Hands of the Cause; Rahmatullah Muhajir; Conferences
    2016 (End of the Five Year Plan) The Preparation for Social Action programme that was implemented at the beginning of the Five Year Plan was expanded to seven additional countries: Cambodia, Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ecuador, Panama, the Philippines and Vanuatu.
  • Over 10,000 had participated in the programme with about 1,800 among these who had studied all of the texts available.
  • In addition some 1,700 individuals serving institutions and agencies of the Fatih in 25 countries had studied a selection the the materials in a seminar setting. [5YPSumPage94-95]
  • Preparation for Social Action was implemented as a course of study at the New Era High School and Senior Secondary in Panchgani.
  • Cambodia; Central African Republic; Congo, Democratic Republic of (DRC); Ecuador; Panama; Philippines; Vanuatu Five Year Plan (2011-2016); Teaching Plans; Preparation for Social Action
    2008 22 – 23 Nov Regional Conferences were held in Quito, Ecuador, New Delhi, India, Kolkata, India, and Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of the Congo. [BWNS673] Quito; Ecuador; New Delhi; India; Kolkata (Calcutta); Lubumbashi; Congo, Democratic Republic of (DRC) Conferences, Regional; BWNS

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    from the Main Catalogue

    1. 1970-1995: Newspaper articles archive (1970-1995). Collection of newspaper articles from 1970-1995. [about]
    2. Bahá'í Consultation and Freireian Dialogue in Development: A Comparative Perspective, by Adel Salmanzadeh, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). The potential Bahá'í contribution to the development process; case study of Bahá’í consultation in development practice with the 'Radio for Development' (Ecuador); conflict between privileging the global market vs. human communities; sustainability. [about]
    3. Biografía de Clemencia Pavón Mejía, by Miriam Zuleta (2022). Biografía de Pavón Mejía (1931-2020), una miembra de la Asamblea Espiritual Nacional de los Bahá’ís del Ecuador. [about]
    4. Carmen Olimpia Ballesteros Sosa y Vicente Quiñonez de Esmeraldas: Epitafios, by National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Ecuador (2020/2021). Messages from the NSA of Ecuador honoring the lives of Carmen Olimpia Ballesteros Sosa (-2020) and Vicente Quiñonez de Esmeraldas (-2021). [about]
    5. Excerpt from an interview with Raúl Pavón, by Kurt Hein, in Radio Bahá'í Ecuador: A Bahá'í Development Project (1988). Excerpt from an interview with Kurt Hein, 5 January 1982, Otavalo, Ecuador. [about]
    6. Guidance for Bahá'í Radio from the Bahá'í World Centre (1990). Selection of guidance received from the Bahá'í World Centre on Bahá'í radio from May, 1980 to December, 1989, on four major themes: administration; programming, training and production; finance and technical matters. [about]
    7. Heroes of God: History of the Bahá'í Faith in Ecuador, 1940-1979, by Helen Bassett Hornby (1984). First book (in English) on the first four decades of the Faith in Ecuador. [about]
    8. In Memoriam: Salomon Pacora Estrada (Pacora Blue Mountain) 1899-1969, by Boris Handal (2022). Short bio of the first known Bahá'í of Inca descent, who served as a pioneer in Ecuador. [about]
    9. Recuerdos de los amigos del Consejero Raúl Pavón Mejía: Padre de la enseñanza a los indígenas en Ecuador, by Various (2008). Compendium of stories and testimonies from the many friends who shared life and Faith with this renowned teacher to the indigenous peoples of Ecuador. Includes five pages of poetry, at end. [about]
    10. Reseña Biográfica de la Vida de la Sra. Isabel Pavón de Calderón: Biographical Summary of the Life of Mrs. Isabel Pavón de Calderón, by Clemencia Pavon de Zuleta (2009-03). Biografía de Pavón de Calderón (1929-2000), una miembra de la Asamblea Espiritual Nacional de los Bahá’ís del Ecuador y Consejero Continental. [about]
    11. Story of Mr. Rufino Gualvisí, by Ralph Dexter (2020-07). Biography of a well-known travel teacher in Ecuador. English and Spanish text by Dexter; includes section by Isabel Pavon de Calderón; includes photographs. [about]
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