Bahá'í Library Online
. . . .
.

Search for location "Edirne"

from the chronology

date event locations tags see also
1863 16 Aug - 1 Dec Bahá'u'lláh in Constantinople

             "spot that art situate on the shores of the two seas" [KA217] 

Upon arrival He and His family were driven to the residence of Shamsi Big near the Sharif Mosque. They stayed here about one month. His companions were given accommodation elsewhere in the city. [BKG197, 204; GPB157–61, HDBFXXVIII]

  • See BKG197–204 for an account of Bahá'u'lláh's stay.
  • His arrival in Constantinople and stay of about 5 years marked the first time in history that a Manifestation of God had set foot in the European continent. [Message from the Universal House of Justice dated 2 June, 1982 addressed To the Friends gathered at the International Conference in Dublin.]
  • Among the works Bahá'u'lláh revealed in Constantinople was Mathnaví-i-Mubárak. [RB2:29–54]
  • It was during Bahá'u'lláh's stay in Constantinople that the conciliatory attitude of the authorities changed to that of hostility as a direct consequence of the intrigues and misrepresentations of the Persian Ambassador. [ALM16]
  • News was brought to Bahá'u'lláh by Shamsí Big of the possibility that He would be transferred to Adrianople. [BKG199]
  • Bahá'u'lláh refused to leave, on pain of martyrdom, but Mírzá Yahyá and his comrades, cowardly and fearful, persuaded Him to go. [BKG201–3]
  • Sultán ‘Abdu'l-‘Azíz issued an edict banishing Bahá'u'lláh to Adrianople. It was issued "less than four months after the arrival of the exiles."[GPB159–60; RB2:57]
  • The decision was taken to further exile Bahá'u'lláh in part due to the machinations of the Persian Ambassador Mírzá Husayn Khán and his accomplice, Hájí Mírzá Hasan-i-Safá whose government was continually pressing the Turkish forces to arouse hostility against HIm. [GPB159}
  • See BBIC:34, note 68, BKG201 and GPB159 for reasons for the edict.
  • On the same day Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawh-i-‘Abdu'l-‘Azíz-Va-Vukalá, a Tablet addressed to the Sultán. When the Grand Vizier perused it he turned pale. The text of this Tablet has been lost. [BKG206; GPB160]
  • "...Sultán 'Abdu'l-'Azíz, the self-styled vicar of the Prophet of Islám and the absolute ruler of a mighty empire. So potent, so august a personage was the first among the sovereigns of the world to receive the Divine Summons, and the first among Oriental monarchs to sustain the impact of God's retributive justice." [GPB158]
  • Istanbul; Edirne; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Mathnaviyi-i Mubarak; Shamsi Big; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Sultan Abdul-Aziz; Lawh-i-Abdul-Aziz-Va-Vukala; Grand Viziers; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Writings of; Z^^^^
    1863. 1 Dec Bahá'u'lláh and His companions left Constantinople for Adrianople. Carriages, wagons and pack animals were provided as well as ox-carts for their possessions. [BKG204; GPB161; RB2:427; ALM22]
  • His departure has been described by Shoghi Effendi as the event that "closes the opening scene of one of the most dramatic episodes in the ministry of Bahá'u'lláh". [GPB162]
  • The journey took twelve days and they passed through the following villages en route: [BKG204; GPB161; The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953 :Information Statistical & Comparative p43]
    • chik-Chakmachih Three hours from Constantinople - spent one night [N7N21]
    • Buyúk-Chakmachih Arrived about noon. [N&N23]
      • Picture of the bridge at Buyúk-Chakmachih (Büyükçekmece) which Bahá’u’lláh and His companions crossed on their way from Constantinople to Adrianople.
      • Map.
    • Salvarí The procession left at midnight in the pouring rain and intense cold.
    • Birkás
    • Bábás
    • Bábá-Iskí
  • See BKG204–5, GPB161 and RB2:62 for the rigours of the journey. The winter was extremely cold and the travellers were not clad for freezing weather.
  • Istanbul; Edirne; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Winter; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1863. 12 Dec Bahá'u'lláh in Adrianople

    Bahá'u'lláh and His companions arrived in Adrianople (the "remote prison")("The Land of Mystery" (GPB174). It would be here where the sun of His revelation would ascend to its zenith, where He proclaimed the Message of His revelation to the whole world. [BKG206; GPB161; RB2:62]

  • Picture.
  • This was the furthest point from His native land that Bahá'u'lláh reached and the first time in known history that a Manifestation of God had lived on the European continent. [BKG217]
  • See BKG218–19, 221–2; GPB161–2 and MRHK179–96 for a description of the houses Bahá'u'lláh lived in during this period.
  • See BKG219–20 for the hardships of the first winter.
  • Edirne; Adrianople; Turkey; Europe Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Bahaullah, Houses of, Banishment of; Firsts, Other; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Land of Mystery
    1863 Dec Bahá'u'lláh and His party spent three nights in the Khán-i-'Aráb caravanserai. [BKG218] Edirne; Adrianople Baha'u'llah, Houses of; Z^^^^
    1863. c. 12 - 21 Dec Bahá'u'lláh and His family stayed for one week at a house in the Murádíyyih quarter of the city, in the north-eastern section near Takyiy-i-Mawlavi. The house was located on high ground with a good view of the city and close to the Muradiyyih mosque. The rest of the exiles remained at the inn. [BKG218] During this time He revealed:
  • Kitáb-i-Badí' (The Wonderous or Unique Book) .
  • Edirne; Adrianople Bahaullah, Writings of; Baha'u'llah, Houses of; Z^^^^
    1863. c.22 Dec - 22 Jun or 22 Oct Bahá'u'lláh and His family spent about six to ten months in another house in the Murádíyyih quarter near the Takyiy-i-Mawlaví. Those who were still in the caravanserai moved to the house thus vacated. Next door to this house a place was rented for Áqáy Ridá, Mírzá Yahyá and their families. [BW19p584; BKG221]

    During this time He revealed the following:

  • Lawh-i-Sayyáh (Tablet of the Traveller. [BKG220] (Leiden list suggests "following Separation, February - June 1867]
  • Lah-i-Naqtih (Tablet of the Point). [BKG220]
  • Edirne; Adrianople Bahaullah, houses of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Z^^^^
    1864 Apr Sulaymán Páshá, a Súfí, succeeded Muhammad Pásháy-i-Qibrisí as Governor of Adrianople. Both were admirers of Bahá'u'lláh. [CH59, BBR487; BKG254] Edirne; Adrianople; Turkey Sulayman Pasha; Sufism; Muhammad Pashay-i-Qibrisi; Governors
    1864. 15 Aug Birth of Mírzá Díyá'u'lláh, the third son of Bahá'u'lláh and Mahdi-‘Ulyá. [BKG222] Edirne; Adrianople; Turkey Mirza Diyaullah; Bahaullah, Family of; Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum); Births and deaths
    1864. (between Jun and Oct) Bahá'u'lláh and His family moved to the house of Amru'lláh (The Cause of God) located to the north of the Mosque of Sultán Salím and close to it. They occupied the upper floor, Mírzá Muhammad-Qulí and his family the middle one and some of the attendants were housed on the ground floor. Other houses were found in the same quarter, one for Áqáy-i-Kalím and his family and one for Mírzá Yahyá and his. [BKG221, ALM35]
  • Picture - The Mosque of Sultan Salim.
  • Picture - The interior of the mosque.
  • Picture - The interior of the mosque.
  • It was while they were in this house that Mírzá Yahyá, a discontent since the early days in Baghdad, began to rebel more openly with support from Siyyid Muhammad-i-Isfahani. It was the "first major internal convulsion which seized a newly re-arisen community and which threatened to cause an irreparable breach in the ranks of its members". Bahá'u'lláh designated this period and the time following as Ayyám-i-Shidád (Days of Stress) . [BKG223-233; GPB163]
  • Edirne; Adrianople House of Amrullah; Bahaullah, Houses of; Bahaullah, Life of; Z****
    1864. c. During time in Adrianople At some point near the end of His life the Báb had consigned His remaining papers, His seal, His qalam-dán (pencil-box) and His last Tablets to Mírzá 'Abdu'l-Karím Qazvíní with instructions to deliver them to Mírzá Husayn-'Alí Núrí should something happen to Himself. In His last Tablets, Mírzá Husayn-'Alí Núrí was referred to again and again as "Him Whom God shall make Manifest" also, He was referred to as "Bahá'u'lláh". Mírzá 'Abdu'l-Karím Qazvíní fulfilled this trust and these items remained in the possession of Bahá'u'lláh until the days of Adrianople. When Mírzá Yáhyá asked permission to see these articles Bahá'u'lláh consented but they were never returned. Yahyá kept these items as a support of his claim to leadership asserting that the Báb had given them to him. [CH49] Edirne; Adrianople; Turkey Bab, Life of; Bahaullah, Life of; Bab, Writings of; Mirza Abdul-Karim Qazvini; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Box with writings; Boxes; Relics
    1864 c. After years of imprisonment in Tehran, Àbdu'r '-Rasúl-Qumí visited Bahá'u'lláh in Adrianople then took up residence in Baghdad, caring for the garden of the House of Bahá'u'lláh. He was well-known to the Muslims and a target of their attacks. One morning as he was carrying skins of water from the Tigris River he was ambushed by a number of attackers and was mortally wounded. He managed to disperse the assailants, drag himself to the garden where he watered the flowers for the last time.

    His name was mentioned in many Tablets of Bahá'u'lláh, consoling his family. His son was appointed caretaker of the pilgrims in 'Akká and he served in this capacity until the days of Shoghi Effendi. [FAA8]

    Baghdad; Iraq; Edirne; Adrianople; Turkey; Akka House of Bahaullah (Baghdad); Abdur-Rasul-Qumi; Gardeners; Caretakers; Murders
    1864. Dec Death of Governor Sulaymán Páshá of Adrianople. He was succeeded by ‘Árif Páshá, who was not well-disposed to Bahá'u'lláh and His followers. [BBR487] Edirne; Adrianople; Turkey Governors; Sulayman Pasha; Arif Pasha; Bahaullah, Life of
    1864 c. During the time in Adrianople In their efforts to discredit Bahá'u'lláh and His companions, the followers of Azál made complaints to the authorities. They alleged that they had insufficient means of livelihood, blaming Bahá'u'lláh for depriving them of their share of the allowances. Àqá Ján Kajkuláh, instigated by Siyyid Muhammad, wrote to dignitaries and government representatives with the false accusation that Bahá'u'lláh had made an alliance with Bulgaria for the purpose of conquering Constantinople.
  • The Persiana ambassador in Constantinople took advantage of the disturbance in Turkey to inform Persian Consuls in Iraq and in Egypt that the Turkish government had withdrawn protection for the Bábí sect. This news precipitated malice and mischief in both countries. [FAA7]
  • Edirne; Adrianople Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Aqa Jan Kajkulah; Siyyid Muhammad-i-Isfahani; Antichrist
    1864 Dec Mírzá Yahyá began his attempts on Bahá'u'lláh's life about one year after the arrival of the exiles. He invited Bahá'u'lláh to a feast and shared a dish, half of which was laced with poison. Bahá'u'lláh was ill for 21 days following this attempt and was left with a shaking hand for the rest of His life.
  • Bahá'u'lláh was attended by a foreign Christian doctor named Shíshmán who died shortly after seeing Him. Bahá'u'lláh intimates that the doctor has sacrificed his life for Him.
  • On another occasion he poisoned the well which provided water for the family and companions of Bahá'u'lláh. [BKG225]
  • Mírzá Yahyá tried to convince the barber, Ustád Muhammad-'Alíy-i-Salmání, to assassinate HIm. This enraged the barber and, contrary to Bahá'u'lláh's instructions, disclosed Mírzá Yahyá's intentions to the community thus causing further discontent. [CH60, BKG225–30, CB82–3, GPB165-166 and RB2:158–61]
  • Edirne; Adrianople; Turkey Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Bahaullah, Attempts on; Poison; Sacrifice
    1865. c. 1865 Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Arabic Tablet of Ahmad (Lawh-i-Ahmad) for Ahmad, a believer from Yazd. [RB2:107]
  • The Tablet may have been revealed as early as 1864
  • See RB2:107–66 for the story of Ahmad.
  • See Bahá'í News pg 541 (March 1967) for A Flame of Fire: The Story of the Tablet of Ahmad by A.Q. Faizi. Part 2 of the story is found in the April 1967 edition. It is also found at Bahá'í Library.
  • See RB2:119–26 for an analysis of the Tablet.
  • Shoghi Effendi states that the Tablet has a special potency and significance. [DG60]
  • See "Ahmad, The Flame of Fire" by Darius Shahrokh.
  • See Learn Well This Tablet by H. Richard Gurninsky, published by George Ronald Publisher, Oxford, 2000.
  • Edirne; Adrianople; Turkey; Yazd; Iran Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Lawh-i-Ahmad (Tablet of Ahmad (Arabic)); Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1965 - 1866 Prior to and during the crisis that was to follow, Bahá'u'lláh began revealing Tablets at a prodigious rate. From about this time until approximately June, 1867 when He transferred His residence to the house of ‘Izzat Áqá, Bahá'u'lláh had revealed the following Tablets among numerous others:
  • The Lawḥ-i-Nuqṭih (The Tablet of the Point)
  • The Lawḥ-i-Aḥmad-i-Arabí (The Tablet of Ahmad, Arabic), revealed in honour of Ahmad of Yazd.
  • The Súriy-i-Aṣḥáb (Tablet of the Companions) addressed to Mírzá Áqáyi-Muníb
  • The Lawḥ-i-Sayyáḥ (Tablet of the Traveller) (Note there are several Tablets with this name revealed at different times to different recipients.)
  • The Súriy-i-Damm (The Tablet of Blood) addressed to Nabíl-i-A'zam
  • The Súriy-i-Ḥajj (Tablet of Pilgrimage) for pilgrimage to the House of the Báb
  • The Lawḥu’r-Rúḥ (Tablet of the Spirit)
  • The Lawḥu’r-Riḍván
  • The Lawḥu’t-Tuqá (The Tablet of Piety or the Fear of God)
    [GPB171; N&N23-29; BW13p1061-1062]
  • Edirne; Adrianople Suriy-i-Amr; Lawḥ-i-Nuqṭih; Lawḥ-i-Aḥmad; Suriy-i-Aṣḥab; Lawḥ-i-Sayyaḥ; Suriy-i-Damm; Suriy-i-Ḥajj; Lawḥu’r-Ruḥ; Lawḥu’r-Riḍvan; Lawḥu’t-Tuqa;   or---SuriyiAmr; LawḥiNuqṭih; LawḥiAḥmad; SuriyiAṣḥab; LawḥiSayyaḥ; SuriyiDamm; SuriyiḤajj; LawḥurRuḥ; LawḥurRiḍvan; LawḥutTuqa; Bahaullah, Writings of; Z****
    1866 c. Mar The Most Great Separation

    Mírzá Yáhyá's behaviour could no longer be tolerated or concealed. Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Súriy-i-Amr (Súrih of Command) as a direct order to him. [CH60, 83, CB84; GBP166; BKG223-245]

  • This was the formal announcement to the nominee of the Báb of the station of ‘Him Whom God shall make manifest' and a summons for him to pay allegiance to His Cause. [CB83–4; RB2:161]
  • Bahá'u'lláh directed his amanuensis to take the Tablet to Mírzá Yáhyá. Upon receipt he became very angry and a "jealous fire consumed him". He responded, after a requested day's respite, by claiming that he was the recipient of a divine revelation and all must turn to him. [CH60, BKG230; CB84; GPB166–7; RB2:162]
  • Shoghi Effendi described this event as "one of the darkest dates in Bahá'í history and was the signal for the open and final rupture between Bahá'u'lláh and Mírzá Yahyá. [GPB167]
  • The announcement that Bahá'u'lláh was the Promised One spread quickly to Iraq and to Persia. The followers were happy for the clarification and glad to be rid of Yáhyá. Only the express command of Bahá'u'lláh prevented them from ridding the world of such nefarious traitor. [CH61]
  • It is believed that Yáhyá's conduct and accusations precipitated the next exile. [CH61]
  • Edirne; Adrianople; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Suriy-i-Amr (Surih of Command); Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Most Great Separation; Firsts, other; Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Z^^^^
    1866. Mar Khurshíd Páshá took up the governorship of Adrianople. [BBR487; BKG233] Edirne; Adrianople Khurshid Pasha; Governors
    1866 c. Mar Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawh-i-Bahá in honour of Khátún Ján, a believer and close friend of Táhirih. [RB2:171, 179]
  • It was probably revealed just before He took up residence in the house of Ridá Big. [RB2:171]
  • This was the first Tablet in which Bahá'u'lláh used the term ‘people of Bahá' to refer to His followers, to distinguish them from the ‘people of the Bayán'. [RB2:179]
  • Edirne; Adrianople; Turkey Lawh-i-Baha; Khatun Jan; Rida Big; Firsts, Other; Bahaullah, Writings of
    1866. 10 Mar Bahá'u'lláh and His family withdrew from the house of Amru'lláh, the residence shared with the exiles, and went to the house of Ridá Big. [BKG230; GPB167; RB2:162]
  • He stayed in this house for about one year. [GPB168]
  • See BKG235 for a description of the house of Ridá Big.
  • Bahá'u'lláh went into isolation for two months. He ordered that all of the family's goods should be divided. He even hed delivered to him certain relics he had long coveted such as the seals, rings and manuscripts in the handwriting of the Báb. The companions were to choose between Himself and Azal. This has become known as the ‘Most Great Separation'. [BBRSM67; BKG230–2; GPB167–8; RB2:162]
  • See BKG231–2, GPB167 and RB2:163 for the effect of this.
  • See BBRSM59–60 for a description of Azal's leadership.
  • The continued efforts of Mírzá Yahyá and Siyyid Muhammad sullied the reputation of Bahá'u'lláh in Adrianople and in the capital. In addition, temporary beach had been made in the ranks of the supporters. [GPB170]
  • Mírzá Yahyá sent messengers to Persia with false accounts of the events. He sent one of his wives to the authorities claiming that Bahá'u'lláh had deprived him of his fair share of the allowances. [BKG233]
  • Edirne; Adrianople; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; House of Amrullah; Rida Big; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Most Great Separation
    1867 (In the year) Birth of Mírzá Badí'u'lláh, fourth son of Bahá'u'lláh and Mahd-i‘Ulyá in Adrianople. [BKG247] Edirne; Adrianople; Turkey Mirza Badiullah; Bahaullah, Family of; Mahd-i-Ulya (Fatimih Khanum); Births and deaths
    1867. c. Mar Bahá'u'lláh moved back to the now empty house of Amru'lláh. [GPB168]
  • He stayed for about three months. [GPB168]
  • BKG239 says that within six months of Bahá'u'lláh's return to the house the owner sold it.
  • Edirne; Adrianople; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Houses of; House of Amrullah
    1867. c. Jun (or later) Bahá'u'lláh rented the house of ‘Izzat Áqá where He and His family lived until their departure from Adrianople. [BKG239; GPB168]
  • See BKG241 for a description of this house.
  • Picture.
  • Edirne; Adrianople; Turkey Bahaullah, Houses of; Bahaullah, Life of; House of Izzat Aqa; Houses
    1867. c. Aug Bahá'u'lláh refused to draw the allowance granted Him by the Ottoman government. [RB2:327]
  • Mírzá Yahyá had twice petitioned the government to convince it that he ought to be the recipient of the allowance. [RB2:327]
  • Bahá'u'lláh sold some of His belongings to provide the necessities for Himself and His dependents. [RB2:327]
  • Edirne; Adrianople; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Ottoman government; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal)
    1867 Sep "The Most Great Idol" was cast out of the community.

    Mírzá Yahyá's henceman, Siyyíd Muhammad, convinced Yahyá to challenge Bahá'u'lláh to to face-to-face encounter in the mosque of Sultán Salím in a distant part of the city, believing that Bahá'u'lláh would not show. Bahá'u'lláh immediately set out to walk to the appointed mosque. Upon learning this Mírzá Yahyá postponed the interview for a day or two. Bahá'u'llah returned to His home and revealed a Tablet to be delivered to Siyyíd Muhammad when he produced a sealed note stating that should Mírzá Yahyá fail to appear at the trysting-place, he would produce a document refuting Yahyá's claims. Neither were forthcoming and the Tablet to Siyyid Muhammad remained undelivered.

    Prior to this the community had been divided however this incident firmly established His ascendency. The Covenant of the Báb had prevailed [GPB168-170]

  • A period of prodigious activity ensued. Bahá'u'lláh later stated in the Lawh-i-Siraj, "In those days the equivalent of all that hath been sent down aforetime unto the Prophets hath been revealed." [GPB171]
  • Edirne; Adrianople The Most Great Idol; Mirza Yahya; Siyyid Muhammad
    1867 Sep - Aug 1868 Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Kitáb-i-Badí‘, the Munájátháy-i-Síyám (Prayers for Fasting), the first Tablet to Napoleon III, the Lawh-i-Sultán written to Násiri'd-Dín Sháh, and the Súriy-i-Ra'ís. [BKG245; GBP172]
  • See RB2:370–82 for details of the Kitáb-i-Badí'.
  • Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Súriy-i-Ghusn (Tablet of the Branch) in which ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's future station was foreshadowed. [BBD218; BKG250; GPB177]
  • See RB2:338–9 for a description of the Tablet.
  • Edirne; Adrianople; Turkey Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Suriy-i-Muluk (Surih to the Kings); Kitab-i-Badi (Wondrous Book); Munajathay-i-Siyam (Prayers for Fasting); Lawh-i-Napulyun (Tablet to Napoleon III); Lawh-i-Sultan (Tablet to Nasirid-Din Shah); Suriy-i-Rais (Tablet to Sultan Ali Pasha); Suriy-i-Ghusn (Tablet of the Branch); Abdul-Baha, Life of; Firsts, Other; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1867 Sep Thinking that He will not accept Mírzá Yahyá, prodded on by Mír Muhammad, challenged Bahá'u'lláh to a public confrontation in the mosque of Sultán Salím. In the end, it was Mírzá Yahyá who did not appear. [BKG239–41; GPB168–9; RB2:291–300, SDH22]
  • The incident gained Bahá'u'lláh respect in the eyes of the people. [RB2:289]
  • See [RB2:304] for a picture of the mosque.
  • Edirne; Adrianople; Turkey Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Mir Muhammad; Bahaullah, Life of; Confrontation; Mosques; Challenges
    1867 Sep - Aug 1868 In this period the extent of the Faith was enlarged with expansion in the Caucasus, the establishment of the first Egyptian centre and the establishment of the Faith in Syria. [GPB176]
  • While Nabil was in Khorasan in spring 1866, at his suggestion, the greeting Alláh-u-Abhá (God is the most Glorious) was adopted by the followers of Bahá'u'lláh, replacing the old salutation of Allāho Akbar (God is the Greatest), which was common among the Bábis. This was a significant action that gave group identity to the Bahá'ís and was a sign of their independence from the Bábís and the Azális, a Bábí faction that considered Mírzá Yaḥyā Ṣobḥ-e Azál as the legitimate successor to the Báb. The greeting Alláh-u-Abhá superseded the Islamic salutation and was simultaneously adopted in Persia and Adrianople. [BKG250; GPB176, “Nabil-e aʿzam Zaranadi, Mollā Mohammad,” by Vahid Rafati, Encyclopædia Iranica,]
  • The phrase ‘the people of the Bayán', which now denotes the followers of Mírzá Yahyá, was discarded and is replaced by the term ‘the people of Bahá'. [BKG250; GBP176]
  • Caucasus; Egypt; Syria; Khurasan; Iran; Edirne; Adrianople; Turkey Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Nabil-i-Azam; People of the Bayan; People of Baha; Allah-u-Abha; Greatest Name; Most Great Separation
    1867. c. 15 - 21 Dec During His short stay at this house Bahá'u'lláh also revealed the Súriy-Mulúk (Súrih of Kings). [BKG245; GPB171–2; RB2:301-336; BW19p584]
  • This is described by Shoghi Effendi as ‘the most momentous Tablet revealed by Bahá'u'lláh', in which He, ‘for the first time, directed His words collectively to the entire company of the monarchs of East and West'. [GPB171]
  • See GPB172–5 and RB2:301–25 for a description of the content of the Tablet.
  • Tablet to the Kings (Súratu'l-Mulúk): Tablet study outline by Jonah Winters.
  • An Introduction to the Súratu'l-Haykal (Discourse of The Temple) by Mohamad Ghasem Bayat.
  • In The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953: Information Statistical & Comparative p41 Shoghi Effendi dated this tablet as "1863". Given the intense activity of that year an assumption was made that it was revealed near the end of the year in either Constantinople or Adrianople.

    Chronological list of significant events related to Bahá'u'lláh's historic pronouncement in the Súriy-i-Múlúk

    • Fall of the French Monarchy (1870)
    • Virtual extinction of the Pope's Temporal Sovereignty (1870)
    • Assassination of Sultán 'Abdu'l-'Azíz (1876)
    • Assassination of Násiri'd-Dín Sháh (1896)
    • Overthrow of Sultán 'Abdu'l-Hamíd II (1909)
    • Fall of the Portuguese Monarchy (1910)
    • Fall of the Chinese Monarchy (1916)
    • Fall of the Russian Monarchy (1917)
    • Fall of the German Monarchy (1918)
    • Fall of the Austrian Monarchy (1918)
    • Fall of the Hungarian Monarchy (1918)
    • Fall of the Turkish Monarchy (1922)
    • Collapse of the Caliphate (1924)
    • Fall of the Qájár Dynasty (1925)
    • Fall of the Spanish Monarchy (1931)
    • Fall of the Albanian Monarchy (1938)
    • Fall of the Serbian Monarchy (1941)
    • Fall of the Italian Monarchy (1946)
    • Fall of the Bulgarian Monarchy (1946)
    • Fall of the Rumanian Monarchy (1947) [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953: Information Statistical & Comparative p41-42]
  • Edirne; Adrianople; Turkey Suriy-i-Muluk (Surih to the Kings); Tablets to kings and rulers; History (general); Summons of the Lord of Hosts (book); Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; Peace; World peace (general); Z^^^^
    1868. 26 Jul Bahá'u'lláh was banished to 'Akká

    Sultán `Abdu'l-`Azíz, at the instigation of his Prime Minister, Ali Pasha, issued a firmán condemning Bahá'u'lláh to perpetual banishment. [BKG283–4; GPB179, 186; RB2:401–2]

  • See RB2:402 for a list of those included in the edict.
  • BKG261, GPB181 and RB2:403 indicate that it was not until the party reached Gallipoli that they were informed that their ultimate destination was `Akká.
  • BBD40 says that it was because of the disloyal Mírzá Yahyá's plotting against Bahá`u`lláh that the Turkish authorities condemned Him to perpetual imprisonment in `Akká.
  • Edirne; Istanbul; Turkey; Baghdad; Iraq; Gallipoli; Akka Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Sultan Abdul-Aziz; Khurshid Pasha; Firmans; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1868. Aug One morning without warning Bahá'u'lláh's house was surrounded by soldiers. The inhabitants were rounded up and taken to government headquarters. They were told to make ready for their departure for Gallipoli. [BKG255; GPB179; RB2:403]
  • The party was given three days to prepare for the journey. It it had been rumoured that they were to be separated, Bahá'u'lláh to one place, 'Abdu'l-Bahá to another and the friends to still another place. [CH62]
  • One of the companions, Karilá'í Ja'far was so grieved by the threatened separation that he attempted to kill himself. He was prevented from do so but was too ill to travel. Bahá'u'lláh refused to leave until the Governor in Adrianople made a promise to care for him until he was well enough to travel. He joined the friends in 'Akká forty days after their arrival. [CH62, RoB1p97-98]
  • The Consuls of European powers offered assistance to Bahá'u'lláh and were prepared to ask the intervention of their governments. Bahá'u'lláh refused these offers. [BKG255, 257–8]
  • Western accounts of this incident suggest that Bahá`u`lláh asked for such assistance. [BBR187–91]
  • The next day the goods of the Bahá'ís were sold or auctioned for very low prices. [BKG255, 258]
  • Group and individual photographs were taken of the Bahá'í and Azalí exiles in Adrianople, including one of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Edirne; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1868. 12 Aug Bahá'u'lláh, His family and companions, escorted by a Turkish captain and a number of soldiers, set out for Gallipoli. [BKG260; GPB180; RB2:409]
  • En route they passed through the villages of Uzún-Kuprí and Káshánih before reaching Gallipoli after 4 days. [The Bahá'í Faith 1844-1953: Information Statistical & Comparative p44]
  • N&N23 says the Lawh-i-Ra'ís (Tablet of Ra'ís) was revealed in Káshánih.
  • Edirne; Gallipoli; Turkey Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Banishment of; Bahaullah, Writings of; Z^^^^
    1877 – 1878 As a result of the war between Russia and Turkey some 11 million people were freed from the Turkish yoke. Adrianople was occupied. [BKG262; GPB225]
    • See BKG460 for the Siege of Plevna.
    Edirne (Adrianople); Plevna; Turkey; Russia Wars; History (general)

    from the main catalogue

    1. Azálí-Bahá'í Crisis of September, 1867, The, by Juan Cole, in Studies in Modern Religions, Religious Movements, and the Babi-Bahá'í Faiths, Moshe Sharon, ed. (2004). On the history of a fateful weekend during which the Bábí movement in the nineteenth-century Middle East was definitively split into the Bahá'í and Azalí religions. [about]
    2. Bahá'í Faith in Turkey, The, by John Walbridge, in Essays and Notes on Babi and Bahá'í History (2002). Includes bios of individuals from Turkey who figure prominently in Baha'i history. [about]
    3. Contribution to the Topography of 19th Century Adrianople, A, by Alexandra Yerolimpos, in Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre, 1-2 (1993). Overview of the layout, the ethnic neighbourhoods, and history of Adrianople, including the period of Baha'u'llah's stay there. No mention of Baha'is. [about]
    4. Journey Motif in the Bahá'í Faith, The: From Doubt to Certitude, by Roshan Danesh, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 22 (2012). The process of individual spiritual growth lies at the heart of human purpose. Bahá’u’lláh speaks about the collective spiritualization of humanity — creating new patterns of community and social relations — as the "journey" of the human body politic. [about]
    5. Lifetime with Bahá'u'lláh, A: Events in Baghdad, Istanbul, Edirne and ‘Akká while in the Company of Bahá'u'lláh, by Aqa Husayn Ashchi, in Witnesses to Babi and Bahá'í History, vol. 14 (2007). One-third of a lengthy primary-source history, annotated by translator. [about]
    6. Revelation of Baha'u'llah volume 2: Adrianople, 1863-1868, by Adib Taherzadeh (1977). Link to formatted book (offsite). [about]
    7. Surah of God, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Bahá'í Studies Bulletin, 6:4-7:2 (1992). Includes essay about the "Most Great Separation"(1866) and historical events in Baha'u'llah's household in the mid-1860s. [about]
    8. Tablet of the Nightingale and the Owl (1863). The Tablet of the Nightingale and the Owl is a short story, which reads like a fairy tale, about the search for the Beloved. [about]
    9. Tablet to Ashraf, by Bahá'u'lláh (2016). Guidance to three men who later became martyrs, news to share about Baha'u'llah, and comments on the nature of his revelation. [about]
    10. Tablets concerning the Divine Test, by Bahá'u'lláh (2000). Baha'u'llah's writings about the divine test between Baha'u'llah and Mirza Yahya at the Sultan Selim Mosque in Edirne in September, 1867, which led to the final schism between the Baha'is and the Azali Babis. [about]
     
    See all locations, sorted numerically or alphabetically.
    • Locations are simplified spellings used to find documents on a similar topic but with various titles.
    • Searches match parts of a location: searching for state will also show United States.
    • 1- and 2-letter words will not be searched.
    • Please contact us if you can help add locations.
    • See also all tags, sorted numerically or alphabetically.
    Home Site Map Forum Links Copyright About Contact
    .
    . .