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1863. 12 Dec Bahá'u'lláh in Adrianople

Bahá'u'lláh and His companions arrived in Adrianople (the "remote prison")("The Land of Mystery" (GPB174). It would be here where the sun of His revelation would ascend to its zenith, where He proclaimed the Message of His revelation to the whole world. [BKG206; GPB161; RB2:62]

  • Picture.
  • This was the furthest point from His native land that Bahá'u'lláh reached and the first time in known history that a Manifestation of God had lived on the European continent. [BKG217]
  • See BKG218–19, 221–2; GPB161–2 and MRHK179–96 for a description of the houses Bahá'u'lláh lived in during this period.
  • See BKG219–20 for the hardships of the first winter.
  • Edirne; Adrianople; Turkey; Europe Bahaullah, Life of; Bahaullah, Bahaullah, Houses of, Banishment of; Firsts, Other; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Land of Mystery
    1864. 27 Mar Birth of A. L. M. Nicolas, who later became an important European scholar on the life and teachings of the Báb, in Rasht. [BBR516] Rasht; Iran; Europe A.L.M. Nicolas; Births and deaths
    1912 Dec-Jun 1913 `Abdu'l-Bahá's second visit to Europe. Europe Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Life of; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
    1914 (Middle of the year) The defection of Dr Amín Faríd, `Abdu'l-Bahá's translator while in America, became known publicly. [AB407]
  • For his activities against `Abdu'l-Bahá see AB230, 402, 407–9.
  • Dr. Aminu'lláh Faríd had caused difficulties in Europe. [Concerning Covenant-breakers: Excerpt by 'Abdu'l-Bahá translated by Ahang Rabbani] iiiii
  • United States; Europe Amin Farid; Covenant-breakers
    1914 28 Jul The Great War (1914–18) broke out in Europe. (28 July, 1914 to 11 November, 1918)

    Austria declared war on Serbia.

    Europe; Austria; Serbia World War I; War (general); History (general)
    1914 4 Aug England declared war on Germany. United Kingdom; Germany; Europe World War I; War (general); History (general)
    1917 6 Apr The United States entered World War I.
  • See CF36 for Shoghi Effendi's opinion of its participation in the war.
  • Europe; United States World War I; War (general); History (general); Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1922 5 Apr Shoghi Effendi left the affairs of the Faith in the hands of the Greatest Holy Leaf and departed the Holy Land for Europe, accompanied by his eldest cousin. [PP57]
  • See BA25 for his reasons for his departure.
  • Haifa; Europe Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline
    1923 Jan The Guardian sent `Abdu'l-Husayn, Ávárih, to Europe to deepen the believers. [CB335; SBR68; EJR223]
  • For his life and eventual Covenant-breaking see CB334-42 and PP120.
  • Europe Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Avarih (Abdul-Husayn); Covenant-breakers
    1925 Of the 38 localities where Bahá'ís resided in Europe, 26 were in Germany. [BBRSM182] Europe; Germany Statistics
    1925 (Spring) The International Bahá’í Bureau was established in Geneva by Jean Stannard under the direction of Shoghi Effendi. [BW4:257]
  • For the history and work of the Bureau see BW4:257–61, BW6:130–5, BW7:108–13, BW11:507–8.
  • Its function was to act as intermediary between Haifa and other Bahá’í centres. [BBD118; BW4:261]
  • Geneva; Switzerland; Europe International Bahai Bureau; Jean Stannard; Firsts, Other
    1938 (In the year) Shoghi Effendi remained in Europe for the year owing to terrorist activities in Palestine. [PP219] Europe; Palestine Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; History (general)
    1939 3 Sep World War II began with Britain and France declaring war on Germany after Germany invaded Poland. Europe; Germany; United Kingdom; France; Poland World War II; History (general); War (general)
    1945 8 May The war in Europe ended.
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s response see MA80–1, PP185 and UD175.
  • For the war’s effect on the Bahá’í community worldwide see BW17:80.
  • See CF36 for Shoghi Effendi’s opinion of the significance of the role of the United States in the war.
  • Europe World War II; War (general); History (general)
    1948 22 – 26 May The first Bahá’í European Conference was held in Geneva. [BW11:51]
  • For details of the conference see BW11:51–2.
  • Geneva; Switzerland; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International
    1949 5 – 7 Aug The second European Teaching Conference was held in Brussels. [BW11:52] Brussels; Belgium; Europe Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Conferences
    1950 4–30 Jul The third European Teaching Conference was held in Copenhagen. [BW12:49]
  • 177 Bahá’ís from 22 countries attended.
  • Copenhagen; Denmark; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International
    1953 19 Apr Shoghi Effendi announced plans to build a House of Worship in Frankfurt. [BW13:733; LDG191–2]l
  • For the difficulties in pursuing the project see BW13:733–7.
  • Langenhain; Frankfurt; Germany; Europe Mashriqul-Adhkar, Langenhain; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1953 21 – 26 Jul The European Intercontinental Teaching Conference was held in Stockholm. [BW12:167; CBN No 46 November, 1953 p4]
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s message to the conference see BW12:167–71.
  • For a report of the conference see BW12:171–8.
  • Fourteen Hands of the Cause were present. [BW12:171]
  • 374 Bahá’ís from 30 countries attended, of these 110 come from the ten goal countries. [BW12:171]
  • Stockholm; Sweden; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade; Teaching; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities
    1953 Aug Amír Húshmand Manúchihrí arrived in Liechtenstein and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW13:453] Liechtenstein; Europe Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Sep Ada Schott, Elizabeth Hopper, Sara Kenny and Ella Duffield arrived in the Madeira Islands and were named Knights of Bahá’u’lláh. BW13:453] Madeira Islands; Portugal; Europe Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 7 Oct William Danjon Dieudonné arrived in Andorra and was named a Knight of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW12:449]
  • He continued to live in the country.
  • Andorra; Europe Knights of Bahaullah
    1958 25–29 Jul The fourth Intercontinental Conference was held at the mid-point of the Crusade and convenesdin Frankfurt, Germany. [BW13:327]
  • Amelia Collins, who had been designated by the Guardian as his representative, attended, accompanied by ten other Hands of the Cause. [BW13:327]
  • For the message of the Custodians to the conference see MC102–6.
  • For a report of the conference see BW13:327–9.
  • Frankfurt; Germany; Europe Amelia Collins; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade
    1960 20 Nov The cornerstone of the fifth House of Worship was laid in Langenhain, Germany, by Hand of the Cause of God Amelia Collins. [BW13:739; MC238, 245, 249–50]
  • See also MoC14–15, 236.
  • Langenhain; Frankfurt; Germany; Europe Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Langenhain; Foundation stones and groundbreaking; Amelia Collins
    1964 4 Jul The House of Worship in Langenhain, Germany, was dedicated. [BW14:483–4]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW14:485–6.
  • For pictures see BW14:482, 483, 485, 491.
  • For a description of the teaching conference accompanying the dedication see BW14:586–8.
  • See also MC14–15; PP432–4.
  • See this brief film on Vimeo on the life of Anneliese Bopp and her part in the building of this Temple.

    Specifics

      Location: Frankfurt, Germany (near the village of Langenhain in the Taunus Hills)
      Foundation Stone: 20 November 1960 by Hand of the Cause Amelia Collins representing the World Centre. She placed Sacred Dust from the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh in the foundations.
      Construction Period: 1960-1964
      Site Dedication:4 July 1964 Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum represented the Universal House of Justice.
      Architect: Teuto Rocholl (plans approved by Shoghi Effendi)
      Seating:450 – 600
      Dimensions: Diameter at the base: 158ft, Inner diameter: 23m (69ft), Inner height of the dome: 24m (72ft). Height 20.5m (93ft)
      Cost:
      Dependencies: A home for the aged.
      Note: The construction of this temple was delayed by legal roadblocks instigated by church opposition, both Protestant and Catholic.
      References: BW14p483, BW14p483-484, BW18p104, CEBF241
  • Langenhain; Frankfurt; Germany; Europe Mashriqul-Adhkar (House of Worship); Mashriqul-Adhkar, Quick facts; Mashriqul-Adhkar, Langenhain; Amelia Collins; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Teuto Rocholl; Architects; Boxes containing dust, earth or plaster; Bahaullah, Shrine of; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1969 3 – 6 Apr The first European Youth Conference opened in Madrid, Spain. [BW15:329] Madrid; Spain; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International
    1970 25 Dec - 1971 3 Jan The First International Bahá’í Youth Winter School took place in Salzburg, Austria, attended by 600 people from 25 countries. [BW15:332]
  • For picture see BW15:332.
  • Salzburg; Austria; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Conferences, First
    1971 Apr The International Bahá’í Youth Conference took places at Oteppe-Namur, Belgium, launching a two-year youth campaign for Europe. [BW15:333–4]
  • For picture see BW15:334.
  • Oteppe-Namur; Belgium; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth
    1971 31 Jul - 11 Aug The European Youth Conference took place in Fiesch, Switzerland, attended by 1,200 youth from 50 countries. [BW15:336–8]
  • About 200 people enrolled in the Bahá’í Faith during the conference. [BW15:336]
  • For pictures see BW15:337.
  • Fiesch; Switzerland; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth
    1975 9 – 12 Jul The first International Bahá’í Youth Conference of Iceland took place in Njardvik with youth from nine countries. [BW16:301] Njardvik; Iceland; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences
    1976 3 – 6 Aug An International Teaching Conference was held in Paris, attended by some 5,700 Bahá’ís. [BW17:81; DM416; VV33]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:131–2.
  • For the message of Kurt Waldheim, Secretary-General of the United Nations, see BW17:140.
  • For pictures see BW17:109, 117–19.
  • Paris; France; Europe Kurt Waldheim; United Nations; United Nations, Secretary-Generals; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching
    1977 Jun At the behest of the Universal House of Justice, two conferences were held for Persian-speaking Bahá’ís resident in Europe, one in Germany and one in London. [BW17:194] Germany; London; United Kingdom; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Conferences, Persian-speaking Bahais; Persian diaspora
    1983 (In the year) The Association for Bahá’í Studies, English-Speaking Europe, was established in the Republic of Ireland.
  • Responsibility for the Association was transferred to the United Kingdom in 1989.
  • Ireland; United Kingdom; Europe Bahai Studies, Associations for
    1985 6 – 9 Jul The European Bahá’í Youth Conference was held in Antwerp, Belgium, in July 1985, and was attended by some 1,450 youth from 45 nations. The youth addressed the European Parliament and the Council of Europe in letters which told of their resolve to put into action the International Youth Year themes of ‘Participation, Development and Peace’. The youth spoke of programs in which Bahá’ís were supporting the themes, including human rights education and social and economic development projects. [BW19:301]
  • For picture see BW19:315.
  • Antwerp; Belgium; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth; International Youth Year; European Union
    1986 18 – 24 Jul The European Bahá’í Youth Movement is launched at the Bahá’í Youth School, Landegg Conference Centre, Switzerland. [BINS157:9–10; BINS158:10] Landegg; Switzerland; Europe Youth; Landegg Academy
    1988 3 – 7 Aug The first Iberian Youth Conference was held in Lisbon, attended by 120 Bahá’ís from nine European countries. [BINS181:6] Lisbon; Portugal; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth
    1989 Jul - Aug Five European Regional ‘Peace Moves’ Youth Conferences were held in different parts of the continent. Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; Peace
    1989 1 – 2 Jul The first European Bahá’í Women’s Conference was held at De Poort Conference Centre, the Netherlands. [BINS203:2] Groesbeek; Netherlands; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Conferences, International; De Poort; First conferences
    1989 4 – 6 Nov The European Bahá’í Youth Council, comprised of seven youth and appointed by the Universal House of Justice to coordinate those European youth activities that have a continental impact, met for the first time, in London. [BINS213:4; BW93–4:121] London; United Kingdom; Europe European Bahai Youth Council; Youth
    1989 18 Dec - 1990 2 Jan During the Youth Winter School in Traben-Trarback participants from 12 countries including East Germany, Romania, Hungary and the Soviet Union gathered for the first time since the Second World War. [BINS215:2] Traben-Trarback; Germany; Eastern Europe; Soviet Union; Russia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; Conferences, International; Winter schools; First conferences
    1990 (In the year) The Italian Association for Bahá'í Studies was established in Rome. [BINS232:5]
  • It lapsed in 1991 but was re-established in 1992.
  • Rome; Italy; Europe Bahai Studies, Associations for
    1990 (In the year) The formation of the European Bahá'í Business Forum in France with members from 26 countries in Europe and elsewhere. [VV115]
  • Formed by a group of Bahá'ís active in business and management meeting in Chamonix, France, due to concern about the decline of ethics and values in business.
  • Forum created to promote the moral and spiritual wisdom and principles of the great religious traditions of the world (sources included Judaism, Hinduism, and Christianity as well as the 19th century revelation of Bahá'u'lláh) such as adherence to the principles of justice, respect, trustworthiness, integrity and unity.
  • Beginning as an informal network, its membership grew requiring the election of a Governing Board.
  • Members have attached importance to sharing their broad experience and to contributing to the improvement of management in emerging free-market economies of Central and Eastern Europe. [ebbf]
  • Chamonix; France; Europe European Bahai Business Forum (EBBF); Business; ebbf
    1990 21 Mar The first local spiritual assembly formed in Eastern Europe since the Second World War was elected in Cluj, Romania. [AWH73; BINS221:4] Cluj; Romania; Eastern Europe LSA; Firsts, Other
    1990 Ridván The launching of a subsidiary Two Year Plan for the Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc countries. [Ridván Message 1992]. Goals were:
    1. attraction of numerous supporters
    2. great increase in the translation, publication and dissemination of Bahá'í literature
    3. the extension of the administrative order in the region by the erection of local and national spiritual assemblies [AWH71]
    Eastern Europe; Soviet Union; Russia Teaching Plans, National
    1990 22 Nov – 6 Dec The First European Bahá'í Youth Encounter was held in the Canary Islands, attended by over 150 people from eight countries. [BINS239:1] Canary Islands; Europe Youth; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International
    1991 15 – 21 Jul The first European Bahá'í Youth Conference of Romania was held in Neptune. [BINS253:9; VV74]
  • For picture see VV74.
  • Neptune; Romania; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International
    1992 2 – 5 Jan The first European Conference on Bahá'í Activities in Universities was held in Brno, Czechoslovakia. [BINS263:2]
  • BINS290:2 gives a second report of this event, incorrectly implying it was held in January 1993.
  • Brno; Czechoslovakia; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Conferences, Other; Universities Find ref
    1993 Aug The first International Bahá'í Youth Conference of Belarus was held, attended by 164 people from 16 countries. [BINS299:8; BINS306:7; BW93–4:123] Belarus; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth
    1993 Oct The first European Bahá'í Medical Conference was held in De Poort, Netherlands, attended by people from 26 countries. [BW93–4:104–5] Groesbeek; Netherlands; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Health; Conferences, International; First conferences; Health; De Poort
    1994 Jul 20 – 25 The European Bahá'í Youth Council sponsored five regional ‘Shaping Europe' conferences, in Berlin, Bucharest, St Petersburg, Barcelona and Wolverhampton, United Kingdom. [BINS323:3–5; BW94–5:177–8, 189] Berlin; Germany; Bucharest; Romania; St Petersburg; Russia; Barcelona; Portugal; Wolverhampton; United Kingdom; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth
    1995 Jun 8 – 11 The first European Bahá'í Conference on Law and International Order was held at De Poort Conference Centre, Netherlands. [BINS345:4] Groesbeek; Netherlands; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Conferences, Law; Laws; First conferences; De Poort
    2009 2 – 3 Jul More than 20 members of the European Bahá'í Business Forum participated in the Global Ethics Forum, held at United Nations headquarters in Geneva. [BWNS722] Geneva; Switzerland; Europe European Bahai Business Forum (EBBF); Business; BWNS
    2011 - 2016 (The Five Year Plan) The annual number of seminars for undergraduate students offered by the Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity rose from 21 at the start of the Plan to 39. More than 4,000 youth in more than 60 countries were served.
  • The seminar for university graduates and for young professionals, first offered in North America in 2008, was extended to Australia, Europe, Latin America and south and Southeast Asia over the duration of the Plan. As of this date more than 700 individuals had taken part. [The Five Year Plan 2011-2016: Summary of Achievements and Learning pg113]
  • Australia; Europe; Latin America; Southeast Asia; South Asia; North America Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity; statistics; Z****

    from the main catalogue

    1. 100 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Europe, by Graham Hassall and Seena Fazel, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 8 (1998). Overview of the first 100 years of the Bahá'í Faith in Europe, including growth and the distinctive aspects of this community, external affairs, the role of women, and Bahá'í studies. [about]
    2. 'Abdu'l-Bahá in the West: A Biographical Guide of the People Associated with His Travels, by Jan Teofil Jasion: Review, by Anne Gordon Perry, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 25:3 (2015). [about]
    3. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Encounter with Modernity during His Western Travels, by Wendi Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Abdu'l-Baha's responses to the West's technology and innovations on the one hand, vs. its archaic racist and sexual philosophies on the other. [about]
    4. Abdu'l-Baha's Travels, by Betty Hoff Conow (1970). [about]
    5. Andalusí Theosophy: A Recontextualization, by Vahid Brown, in Lights of Irfan, Volume 7 (2006). [about]
    6. Bahá'í Communities by Country: Research Notes, by Graham Hassall (2000). Brief notes on the history of Baha'i activities and the dates of NSA formation in Africa, China, Australia, and elsewhere. [about]
    7. Baha'i House of Worship in Europe, The, by Massrouri M. and et al. (2005). Brochure about the history and architectural design, with photos, of the Baha'i Temple in Hofheim am Taunus, Germany. [about]
    8. Biography of Napoleon: Tablet to Napoleon III (Lawh-i-Napulyún), in Encyclopedia Britannica (1999). Biography of Napoleon III, to whom Bahá'u'lláh wrote two Tablets. [about]
    9. Choice of the West for Abdu'l-Bahá's Epoch-Making Trip, The, by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Reasons for Abdu'l-Baha choosing Western nations for the climax of his ministry, and results he achieved in Europe and the United States. [about]
    10. Diary of H.M. the Shah of Persia, during his tour through Europe in 1873, The, by Nasir al-Din Shah (1874). Contains no mention of the Babi or Baha'i Faiths, but is useful for historical context, and a window into the Sháh's worldview. [about]
    11. Europe, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 1:1 (1991). [about]
    12. Europe, Eastern, and the Soviet Union, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 3.1 (1993). [about]
    13. European Bahá'í Archives Workshop (2001). Essays and handouts from a workshop on preservation of source material. Includes forms for archivists, historians, local and national assemblies, archiving methods, oral history guidelines, organizational schemes, and compilations from the Writings. [about]
    14. European Bahá'í Youth Conference in Innsbruck, by Universal House of Justice (1983). Challenges facing European Baha'i Youth, followed by consolation to Baha'i youth in light of the 1983 martyrdoms of young Baha'is in Iran. [about]
    15. Germany, France, Italy, and Switzerland, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). Compilation of new perspectives on the future of European civilization. Includes introduction by Julio Savi. [about]
    16. History of the Intellectual Development of Europe, by John William Draper (1864). A selection of excerpts from the book. Contains no mention of the Baha'i Faith, but is of interest partly because Abdu'l-Baha referred to this book in Secret of Divine Civilization. [about]
    17. Islamic Contributions to Civilization, by Stanwood Cobb (1963). Overview of the many inventions and sciences which were developed by or transmitted by Islamic people and nations. [about]
    18. Journal Diary of European Baha'i Travels: April - November 1948, by Charles Mason Remey (1948). A record of Remey's visits across Europe, from England to Germany. Includes coverage of Bahá'í participation in the first U.N. convention on Human Rights, held in Geneva. [about]
    19. Journey Motif in the Bahá'í Faith, The: From Doubt to Certitude, by Roshan Danesh, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 22 (2012). The process of individual spiritual growth lies at the heart of human purpose. Bahá’u’lláh speaks about the collective spiritualization of humanity — creating new patterns of community and social relations — as the "journey" of the human body politic. [about]
    20. Light of Divine Guidance: Volume 1, by Shoghi Effendi (1982). [about]
    21. Light of Divine Guidance: Volume 2, by Shoghi Effendi (1985). [about]
    22. Migrants and Refugees in Europe, by Universal House of Justice (2015). Principles to guide the response of the Bahá’í community to the dramatic social changes concerning the 2015 influx into Europe of people fleeing conflict in the Middle East, especially Syria. [about]
    23. Netherlands: History of the Baha'i Faith, by Will C. van den Hoonaard (1993). [about]
    24. Ridván 1996 (Four Year Plan) - To the Followers of Bahá'u'lláh in Europe: Bahá'í Era 153, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Country-specific portion of the annual message to the Bahá'ís of the world: Europe. [about]
    25. Spiritual Growth, Essential Requisites for, by Universal House of Justice (1983). Letter to Europe, its historically-recent turn away from religion, six ways to improve spirituality, and the importance of prayer and meditation. [about]
    26. Tablet on the Debasement of Persia, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1923). Short comment by Abdu'l-Baha on the present debasement of Persia and its future glory, date unknown, shared by the Guardian in a letter to the US NSA in 1923. [about]
    27. Women and Religious Change: A case study in the colonial migrant experience, by Miriam Dixson, in Australian Bahá'í Studies, vol. 2 (2000). The story of Margaret Dixson, and one woman's growth from Anglicanism, via numerology and astrology, to commitment to the world ideals of the Baha'i Faith. [about]
     
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