Bahá'í Library Online
. . . .

Search for location "France"

  1. from the Chronology
  2. from the Chronology Canada
  3. from the Main Catalogue
Search on wikis:

from the Chronology

date event locations tags see also
1865 (In the year) French diplomat Joseph Comte de Gobineau published Religions et les Philosophies dans l'Asie Centrale, over half of which is devoted to a study of the Bábí movement. He relied heavily on the Násikhu't-Taváríkh (The History to Abrogate All Previous Histories) written by Lisánu'l-Mulk. Bahá'u'lláh had condemned this account as "a falsification of history, one which even an infidel would not have had the effrontery to produce". [SUR36-37]
  • "The Comte de Gobineau's work with its obvious parallels drawn between the life and martyrdom of the Báb with that of Jesus Christ, was the most influential volume in carrying the story to Western minds. The English poet and cultural critic Matthew Arnold, in A Persian Passion Play, wrote that the chief purpose of Gobineau's book was to give a history of the career of Mirza Ali Mahommed…the founder of Bâbism, of which most people in England have at least heard the name. The notion that most people in England, in Arnold's view, were aware of the Báb indicates how deeply His fame had penetrated into far-off societies." [Tales of Magnificent Heroism: The impact of the Báb and His followers on writers and artists by Robert Weinberg.
  • Gobineau's work was written when Mírzá Yahyá was still known as the nominal head of the Bábí Faith between 1855 and 1858 when Gobineau was First Secretary and Chargé d'Affaires of the French Legation. Two embassy employees during his time there were ardent supporters of Mírzá Yahyá, one of whom was his brother-in-law. (He served as the Ambassador from March 1862 until September 1863.). iiiii
  • This work attracted a number of other European intellectuals, including E. G. Browne of Cambridge, who eventually became the most prolific western writer and researcher of the Bábi religion. [BBR17, MCS483; 500; 512
  • France; Iran Comte de Gobineau; Babism; Edward Granville Browne; Mirza Yahya (Subh-i-Azal); Matthew Arnold
    1865. 17 May The first international standards organization, the International Telegraph Union, was established in Paris where delegates were gathered in conference from 20 European states. The mandate was to help connect telegraphic networks between countries. The Union was tasked with implementing basic principles for international telegraphy which included the use of the Morse code as the international telegraph alphabet, the protection of the secrecy of correspondence, and the right of everybody to use the international telegraphy.

    In 1906 Berlin was the host of a conference to consider radiotelegraph standards. It was attended by representatives of 29 nations and culminated in the International Radiotelegraph Convention. An annex to the convention eventually became known as ITU Radio Regulations. At the conference it was also decided that the Bureau of the International Telegraph Union would also act as the conference's central administrator. The name International Telecommunication Union was adopted in 1932 to reflect its expanded responsibilities over radio and the telephone. On 15 November 1947, the ITU entered into an agreement with the newly created United Nations to become a specialized agency within the UN system.

    The mandate of the ITU has broadened with the advent of new communications technologies. It promotes the shared global use of the radio spectrum, facilitates international cooperation in assigning satellite orbits, assists in developing and coordinating worldwide technical standards, and works to improve telecommunication infrastructure in the developing world. It is also active in the areas of broadband Internet, optical communications (including optical fibre technologies), wireless technologies, aeronautical and maritime navigation, radio astronomy, satellite-based meteorology, TV broadcasting, amateur radio, and next-generation networks.

    Based in Geneva, Switzerland with regional offices on every continent. the ITU's global membership included 193 countries as well as more than 1,000 businesses, academic institutions, and international and regional organizations. [ITU Website]

    Geneva; Switzerland; Paris; France; Berlin; Germany United Nations; International relations; International Standards ITU Website];</i> ; </i> "></i>; </b> "> </b>
    1870 19 Jul – 1871 10 May Franco-Prussian War was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia. The conflict was caused by Prussian ambitions to extend German unification and French fears of the shift in the European balance of power that would result if the Prussians succeeded.
  • See KA90 for Bahá'u'lláh's reference to this and KAN121 for `Abdu'l-Bahá's interpretation.
  • Germany; France Franco-Prussian War; War (general); History (general); Napoleon III
    1870 1 - 2 Sep Battle of Sedan. Napoleon III suffered defeat at the hands of Kaiser Wilhelm I. It resulted in the capture of Emperor Napoleon III and large numbers of his troops and for all intents and purposes decided the war in favour of Prussia and its allies, though fighting continued under a new French government. Napoleon went into exile in England, where he died in 1873.
  • Bahá'u'lláh referred to this in KA86.
  • Sedan; France; Germany; United Kingdom Franco-Prussian War; War (general); History (general); Napoleon III; Kaiser Wilhelm I; Kitab-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book)
    1873. 12 Apr Birth of Hippolyte Dreyfus, the first French Bahá'í, in Paris. Named by Shoghi Effendi a Disciple of `Abdu'l-Bahá. Paris; France Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; First Bahais by country or area; Births and deaths
    1882 (In the year) Bahá'u'lláh's Tablet of Maqsud was revealed following the invasion of Egypt by the French and British forces. In this Tablet He strongly denounced European imperialism and proposed an international peace conference to be attended by the world's major heads of state in response to this situation. Egypt; France; United Kingdom Bahaullah, Writings of; Lawh-i-Maqsud (Tablet of Maqsud); Imperialism/Colonialism; History (general)
    1889 (In the year) The publication of La religion de Bab, réformateur persan du XIXe siècle by M Clément Huart in Paris The book can be downloaded at no charge from here. Paris; France M Clément Huart; Publication
    1899 Spring After May Bolles returned from pilgrimage in 1899 she was the lone Bahá'í in Paris but soon established the first Bahá'í group on the European continent. The list of those who enrolled in the Faith before 1902 include: Edith MacKaye (the first to believe), and by the New Year of 1900, Charles Mason Remey and Herbert Hopper were next to follow. Then came Marie Squires (Hopper), Helen Ellis Cole, Laura Barney, Mme. Jackson, Agnes Alexander, Thomas Breakwell, Edith Sanderson, and Hippolyte Dreyfus, the first French Bahá'í. Emogene Hoagg and Mrs. Conner had come to Paris in 1900 from America, Sigurd Russell at fifteen years old returned from ‘Akká a believer, and in 1901, the group was further reinforced by Juliet Thompson, Lillian James, and "the frequent passing through Paris of pilgrims from America going to the Master . . . and then again returning from the Holy Land." These are but a few, for "in 1901 and 1902 the Paris group of Bahá'ís numbered between twenty-five and thirty people with May Bolles as spiritual guide and teacher. [BW8p634; BFA2:151–2, 154–5; GBP259-26/a>; AB159; BBRSM106; SBBH1:93] Paris; France May Maxwell (Bolles); Thomas Breakwell; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Laura Clifford Barney; Charles Mason Remey; Herbert Hopper; Marie Squires (Hopper); Helen Ellis Cole; Mme. Jackson; Agnes Alexander; Edith Sanderson; Emogene Hoagg; Mrs Conner; Sigurd Russell; Juliet Thompson; Lillian James
    1899. 3 Dec Charles Mason Remey became a Bahá'í in Paris through May Bolles. [BFA2:151–2] Paris; France Charles Mason Remey; May Maxwell (Bolles)
    1900 26 Nov Agnes Baldwin Alexander wrote to `Abdu'l-Bahá declaring her belief in Bahá'u'lláh. [BFA2:159; SBR176; PH32]
  • She had heard of the Bahá'í Faith from Charlotte Dixon while staying in a pension in Rome. She stayed in Rome for three months studying prophecies then travelled to Paris for further study with May Bolles for another three and one half months. [BFA2:159; SBR176]
  • She left Paris in the Spring of 1901 for London, New England, Oakland, Ca and finally Honolulu. On returning to Hawaii in December 1901 she became the first Bahá'í to set foot in Hawaii. [BFA2:159–60; SBR177]
  • Rome; Italy; Paris; France; Oakland; California; London; United Kingdom; Honolulu; Hawaii Agnes Alexander; May Maxwell (Bolles); Charlotte Dixon
    1901 summer Thomas Breakwell, an Englishman living in the United States, learned of the Bahá'í Faith in Paris from May Bolles. Within three days he became a believer and immediately wrote to `Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB74–5; BW7:707]
  • For May Bolles' own account see BW7:707–11.
  • He is the first male British Bahá'í. [BFA2:154]
  • He is designated by Shoghi Effendi the `first English believer'. [GPB259]
  • He is the first Western Bahá'í to pay Huqúqu'lláh. [BW7:710]
  • See also AB74–80; BFA2:154; SEBW6572.
  • Paris; France Thomas Breakwell; May Maxwell (Bolles); Huququllah; First Bahais by country or area; Firsts, Other
    1901 (In the year) Hippolyte Dreyfus heard of the Bahá'í Faith from May Bolles in Paris and soon after accepted it. [AB81–2]
  • He was designated by Shoghi Effendi the `first Frenchman to embrace the Faith'. [GPB259]
  • He was the first European Bahá'í to visit Iran. [AB81]
  • After his marriage to Laura Clifford Barney they adopted the surname Dreyfus-Barney. [AB81]
  • Paris; France Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; May Maxwell (Bolles); Laura Clifford Barney
    1902 (In the year) The publication of Le Livre des Sept Preuves in Paris by A. L. M. Nicolas. It was a French translation of the Báb's Dalá'il-i-Sab'ih. [BBR39]
  • It may be downloaded here.
  • English translation The Seven Proofs by Peter Terry.
  • Paris; France Bab, Writings of; Dalail-i-Sabih (Seven Proofs); A.L.M. Nicolas; Translation; Publications
    1902 13 Jun Thomas Breakwell died from tuberculosis in Paris. (b. 31 May, 1872 in Woking) [AB77; BBD46; SEBW70]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá appeared to know this without being told. [AB78-9; SEBW70]
  • See AB79, SEBW71–2, SWAB187–9 and the Utterance Project for `Abdu'l-Bahá's eulogy.
  • Shoghi Effendi designated him one of three`luminaries shedding brilliant lustre on annals of Irish, English and Scottish Bahá'í communities', together with John Esslemont and George Townshend. [MBW174]
  • See wikipedia for an account of his life.
  • See Cimetière de Pantin for the location of his resting place c/w photos.
      Thomas Breakwell died in relative obscurity, a victim of tuberculosis in a poor quarter of the city of Paris. His earthly remains now lie in the communal charnel house at the cemetery of Pantin. It was not until the summer of 1997 that a dignified but suitably modest monument to mark his resting place was finally unveiled to the world. [The Life of Thomas Breakwell by Rajwantee Lakshiman-Lepain p10-11]
  • See The Life of Thomas Breakwell by Rajwantee Lakshiman-Lepain. iiiii
  • See the narration of the Tablet of Visitation for Thomas Breakwell by Àbdu'l-Bahá in Arabic with English subtitles. The transliteration and recitation of the Tablet was by Adib Masumiam with the design and editing of the video by Violetta Zein.
  • For the story of the revelation of the Tablet see Memories of Nine Years in Akká by Youness Afroukhteh as translated by Riaz Masrour, p. 132-137)
  • Woking; United Kingdom; Paris; France Thomas Breakwell; In Memoriam
    1902 (In the year) Since the assassination of the Sháh's father in 1896 the Bahá'í community in Iran had been scapegoated and the oppression was increasing. In 1902 Muzaffar al-Din Sháh and his prime minister were in Paris staying at the Elysèe Palace Hotel. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had a petition for him and Lua Getsinger was asked to deliver it. She and Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney requested an audience with the Sháh but they were refused by the prime minister. She was told that he was not receiving anyone as his son was gravely ill and likely to die. Lua asked if he would see her the following day should his son be healed and consent was granted. That night the Bahá'ís of Paris held a prayer vigil till dawn. As promised, Lua was granted access and put the petition directly in the Sháh's hand. She heard him say that he would do all that was within his power but in 1903 a savage rash of persecution broke out and, upon the advice of his prime minister, the Sháh did nothing believing that it was better to let the restless population vent rage on the Bahá'ís then on the rich and powerful foreigners who might have been victimized. The prime minister was replaced in mid-1903 and the persecutions eased. In 1907 the Sháh did intervene on behalf of the Bahá'ís. [Find a grave; LDNW18-19]
  • For other accounts see The Flame p66-70 and LGHC59-60.
  • See article by Mariam Haney entitled In Behalf of the Oppressed. [SoW Vol 15 No 8 November, 1924 p230]
  • Paris; France Persecution, Iran; Lua Getsinger; Muzaffarid-Din Shah; Shahs; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Petitions
    1903. 9 Feb Lua Getsinger made an attempt to take a message from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to Eugénie, former Empress of France but she refused to meet her just as her husband, Napoleon III, had rejected two messages from Bahá'u'lláh. [LGHC80-81] Paris; France Lua Getsinger; Eugenie de Montijo; Napoleon III; Travel teaching
    1905 (In the year) The first publication of The Seven Valleys in the West. It was translated from Persian into French by Hippolyte Dreyfus and Chirazi and was bound with The Hidden Words (Les Paroles cachées). This French translation was further translated into English by Julie Chanler in 1933 (or 1936), accounts differ. [About the Seven Valleys and the Four Valleys; Collins1.112] France; United States Haft Vadi (Seven Valleys); Bahaullah, Writings of; Translation; Publications; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney
    1905 (In the year) A.L.M. Nicolas published his book Seyyed Ali dit le Bab. It was the first work by a western author dedicated entirely to the Báb, His movement and His teachings. (Conflict: See 1865)

  • English translation A Prophet of Modern Times by Peter Terry.

    It is "(a) history of the Bábí movement up to 1852. Nicolas gives a list of sources for this book on pp. 48-53. It is interesting to note that among his oral sources are four of the leading Bahá'ís of that period, who had been designated by Bahá'u'lláh as 'Hands of the Cause': Mírzá 'Alí-Muhammad, 'Ibn-i-Asdaq: Mullá 'Al-Akbar-i-Sháhmírzádí, Hají Akhund; Mírzá Muhammad-Táqíy-i-Abharí, 'Ibn-i-Abhar; and Mírzá Hasan-i-Adíb. The other two oral sources named are Siyyid 'Ismu'lláh, who was presumably Siyyid Mihdíy-i-Dihají, and Mírzá Yahyá, Subh-i-Azál." [BBR38-39]

  • The preamble to his book has an image that is supposedly of the Báb, but the portrait does not seem to be an authentic representation.

  • William Miller also reproduced Nicolas's image on page 17 of his polemical work, The Bahá'í Faith: Its History and Teachings. (South Pasadena, CA: William Carey Library, 1974). [‘The Bab in the World of Images', Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 19, June 2013, 171–90.]
  • See also WOB83 for other missionaries who wrote polemics against the Bahá'í Faith.
  • Paris; France Bab, Writings of; A.L.M. Nicolas; Criticism and apologetics; William McElwee Miller; Babism; First publications; Publications
    1905 (In the year) The publication of Le Beyan Arabe in Paris by A. L. M. Nicolas. It was a French translation of the Arabic Bayán. [BBR39]
  • English translation The Arabic Bayán by Peter Terry.
  • Paris; France Bab, Writings of; Bayan-i-Arabi (Arabic Bayan); A.L.M. Nicolas; Translation; Publications
    1907 (In the year) Lady Blomfield and her daughter Mary learned of the Faith at a reception in Paris. [CH1–2; ER95; SBR22; SEBW101, SCU17]
  • For accounts of Lady Blomfield's life see ER88–97 and SEBW101–10.
  • Paris; France Lady Blomfield; Mary Blomfield
    1907. Easter Having obtained 'Abdu'l-Bahá's permission to publish in 1906, Laura Barney travelled to Paris to work on Some Answered Question by Easter Ethel Rosenberg come from London had settled into the same hotel and the collaboration began. [AB82; EJR85] Paris, France Some Answered Questions; Ethel Rosenberg; Laura Clifford Barney
    1910. 18 - 29 May The Paris International Air Navigation Conference of 1910, also known as the Conférence internationale de navigation aérienne, was the first diplomatic conference to consider formulating international aviation law. It was proposed by the French government who were concerned about aircraft from foreign nations flying over their territory and was attended by representatives from 19 European nations. The conference went into recess in June 1910 but did not reconvene due to differences of opinion and then later the outbreak of the First World War. Hence, no agreement was signed. Its deliberations, however, influenced the development of international aviation law.

    For obvious reasons, the treatment of aviation matters was a subject at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. The conference was the first political effort to develop the doctrines of international law relating to aerial navigation. Delegates disagreed about the right of foreign aircraft to fly over national territory. It was resolved to create an Aeronautical Commission charged to prepare a convention on international aerial navigation. The result was the creation of the International Commission for Air Navigation under the authority of the League of Nations. This Paris Convention was the first successful attempt at common regulation of international air navigation and laid the foundations of air law.

    A proposal was formally taken up by France and submitted to the other principal Allied powers who received it favourably. This action then resulted in the drawing up of the International Air Convention, which was signed by 26 of the 32 Allied and Associated powers represented at the Paris Peace Conference and was ultimately ratified by 38 States. It should be noted that this Convention took over all the principles that had already been formulated by the Conference that had been held in 1910 in Paris. The Convention was ultimately in force for thirty-three States by 1940.

    The U.S. government extended an invitation to 55 States to attend an International Civil Aviation Conference in Chicago in 1944. Known then and today more commonly as the ‘Chicago Convention', this landmark agreement laid the foundation for the standards and procedures for peaceful global air navigation. It set out as its prime objective the development of international civil aviation "…in a safe and orderly manner", and such that air transport services would be established "on the basis of equality of opportunity and operated soundly and economically." On 4 April 1947, upon sufficient ratifications to the Chicago Convention, the International Civil Aviation Authority came into being. The first official ICAO Assembly was held in Montreal in May of that year. On 3 October 1947 the ICAO became a UN specialized agency.

    Today the ICAO has 193 Members States with headquarters located in the Quartier international de Montréal of Montreal, Quebec, Canada with seven Regional Offices throughout the world. [Chicago Convention; 1919 Paris Convention; ICAO website]

    Paris, France; Chicago, USA; Montreal, Canada United Nations; International relations; International Standards
    1911 - 1914 The publication of Le Beyan Persan in Paris by A. L. M. Nicolas. It was a French translation of the Persian Bayán and was published in four volumes. [BBR39] Paris; France Bab, Writings of; A.L.M. Nicolas; Bayan-i-Farsi (Persian Bayan); Translation; Publications
    1911. 9 Aug When 'Abdu'l-Bahá was about to depart on his first voyage to the West, He wrote to Albert Smiley, host of the annual Lake Mohonk Conference on International Arbitration. On the 22nd of August, 1911 while in Thonon-les-Bains, France, He wrote to H.C. Phillips, secretary of the Mohonk arbitration institution. These letters were unique because He usually didn't initiate correspondence. He was, undoubtedly, making arrangements to speak at their annual conference as Ali Kuli Khan had recently done.
  • The letter. [SoW Vol 2 No 15 December 12, 1911 p3]
  • While crossing the Atlantic on the S.S. Cedric He told a newspaperman, "I am going to America at the invitation of the Peace Congresses of that place, as the fundamental principles of our Cause are universal peace, the oneness of the world of humanity and the equality of the rights of men..." When the ship docked in New York and the plank was lowered, the press clambered aboard to interview him and he told them, "Our object is... the unity of mankind... I have come to America to see the advocates of universal peace..." [Who Will Bell the Cat: The Story of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Visit to Lake Mohonk by Janet Ruhe-Schoen]
  • These meetings at Lake Mohonk were instrumental in the creation of the Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague, Netherlands. [Wikipedia]
  • Egypt; Thonon-les-Bains; France; Lake Mohonk Albert Smiley; H.C. Phillips; Ali Kuli Khan; Lake Mohonk Conference on International Arbitration; Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 11 Aug The beginning of `Abdu'l-Bahá's first Western tour [AB139]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá departed from Egypt with a party of four on the S. S. Corsica for Marseilles, Thonon-les-Bains and London. [AB139; GPB280; SBR22, SoW Vol 2 no.10 8 September, 1911 p7]
  • Subsequent research has shown that the ship was not the S.S. Corsica as stated in GPB280 but rather the L'Orenoque. See 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Paris page 6 note 47.
  • See BW1:130 for a list of cities He visited between 1911 and 1913.
  • It is believed that funds for ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's teaching journeys to the West were provided by an oil-rich believer in Baku, Áqa Músá Naqiof (alternate spelling Musa Naghiyev)(yet another alternate spelling Báqirof) (1849-1919). [AY11; ABF295note684]
  • Baku; Alexandria; Egypt; Marseilles; Thonon-les-Bains; France; London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha in Egypt; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; S. S. Corsica; Orenoque; Ships; Funds; Donations; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Musa Naghiyev; Musa Naqiof
    1911 16 Aug After four and half days of travel over 2500 kilometres L'Orénoque arrived in Marseilles, France's major port on the Mediterranean. 'Abdu'l-Bahá was met by Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney who had recently married (28 April). He and his wife would be 'Abdu'l-Bahá's constant companions in France and would later be in His company in England and the eastern United States. They had already met 'Abdu'l-Baha in Palestine and Laura stayed there between 1904 and 1906. [ABF8]
  • He stayed at the Hôtel Louvre de la Paix at 53, la Canebière (today a C&A department store). [ABF9]
  • Thus began His first trip to France. It lasted 4 days.
  • Marseilles; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Laura Clifford Barney; Orenoque; Ships
    1911 18 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá had an exchange of telegrams with Wellesley Tudor Pole from the Theosophical Summer School in Derbyshire, England where he had just presented a lecture on the Bahá'í Faith. [ABF9-10, SoW Vol 2 no10 p.7] Marseilles; France; Derbyshire; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Wellesley Tudor Pole; Theosophical Society
    1911 19 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent a telegram to Charles Mason Remey in America inviting him to join Him in Europe. [SoW vol2 no.12 (16 October 1911) p9, ABF10] Marseilles; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Charles Mason Remey
    1911 20 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá and His party left Marseilles and traveled by train to Geneva, arriving late in the day and checking into the Hôtel de la Paix. Marseilles; France; Geneva; Switzerland Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911. 21 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá and His party took a ferry from Geneva to Thonon-les-Bains and were met by Laura Dreyfus-Barney. They stayed at the Hôtel du Parc. He wrote to His sister, Bahíyyih Khánum. It was she that He had placed in charge of the affairs of the Faith in His absence. [ABF12-13, LTDT172-173]
  • About this time He also wrote to His wife, Munírih Khánum. [ABF14]
  • This was His first visit to Switzerland. It lasted just one day.
  • Geneva; Switzerland; Thonon-les-Bains; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Bahiyyih Khanum (Greatest Holy Leaf); Munirih Khanum
    1911 22 Aug The Master sent for Juliet Thompson who had been waiting in London for His permission to join Him. [DJT157, ABF14-15]
  • See LGHC140-142 for Juliet's letter to Lua Getsinger, then teaching in California at 'Abdu'l-Bahá's request.
  • See SoW Vol 2 No 14 November 23 1911 p9 for her account of her time with 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Switzerland.
  • Thonon-les-Bains; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Juliet Thompson
    1911 23 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá went for a carriage ride in the nearby hills. ["With 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Switzerland" by Juliet Thompson, SoW Vol 2 no 14 (Nov 23, 1911) p9-13, ABF15]
  • Later that day, by chance, 'Abdu'l-Bahá encountered the Persian prince, Sultán-Mas'ud Mírzá Zillu's-Sultán (1850-1918), the eldest son of Násirid-/dín Sháh, (1850-1918) in the Parc Hotel. He was in voluntary exile in Europe accompanied by his four sons. At various times, he had been the governor or governor-general of various provinces in Iran from 1862 to 1907 and had persecuted the Bahá'ís zealously. He was responsible for ratifying the execution of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs in 1879. Upon meeting 'Abdu'l-Bahá he presented his excuses but 'Abdu'l-Bahá forgave him by saying "All those things are in the past. Never think of them again." [DJT172-3, ABF17; ABW411]
  • Annie Boylan arrived in Thonon-les-Bains from America by way of Lausanne. 'Abdu'l-Bahá is reported to have told her that the building of the Shrine of the Báb was the fulfillment of the prophecy that "the Lord would come and rebuild the temple that had been torn down". He added that the Tomb of the Báb and that of Bahá'u'lláh were considered the first Mashriqu'l-Adhkar. [SoW vol 11. no. 1 (March 21, 1920) p1-15, ABF18] iiiii
    • Annie Boylan had been on pilgrimage in October of 1908. [WMSH60]
  • Thonon-les-Bains; France; Isfahan; Iran Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Zillus-Sultan; Annie Boylan; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1911 22 Aug - 3 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá took up residence at Thonon-les-Bains on Lake Leman (Lake Geneva). [AB140; GPB280; SBR219]
  • While there He encountered Zillu's-Sultán, the eldest son of the Sháh of the time, Násirid-Dín Sháh. It was he who had ratified the execution of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs and at least 100 others. The whole family was in exile in Geneva at this time. 'Abdu'l-Bahá was very courteous to this man who had been such an inveterate enemy of the Cause. [DJT172, AY19, GPB201] .
  • The Master sent for Juliet Thompson who had been waiting in London for His permission to join Him.
  • During His stay he had a visit from Annie Boylan, a member of the New York community that was experiencing disharmony. Unaware of Bahá'í election procedures, a group that was unhappy with the disunity and ineffectiveness of the Council had organized a vote to be rid of several of its Council members. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had written to the community a short time before recommending that the Council be expanded from 9 to 27 members so that all factions could be represented. He also recommended that women be included on the Council and that the name be changed to "the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of New York". This apparently addressed the problem of disunity because the New York community went on to contribute significantly to the progress of the Faith on a national level. [DJT181, BFA2p338]
  • Horace Holley, who lived at Quattro Torri, Siena, Italy at the time, along with his wife Bertha Herbert and baby daughter Hertha, visited 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the 29th and 30th of August. Please see his Religion for Mankind p 232-237 for a pen portrait of 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • He met with Elizabeth Stewart and Lillian Kappes who were on their way to Tehran. [find reference]
  • It would appear that He returned to Marseilles and travelled to London by sea. [SCU22-23]
  • Thonon-les-Bains; Lake Leman; Marseilles; France; Switzerland; Italy; London; United Kingdom; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; Unity; Zillus-Sultan; Persecution; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Juliet Thompson; Horace Holley; Elizabeth Stewart; Lillian Kappes; Ships
    1911 24 Aug Tammaddun'ul-Mulk and Juliet Thompson arrived in Thonon-les-Bains from London via Geneva. She had landed in Southampton on board the Lusitania from America on the 25th of July.

    Juliet Thompson had been in Paris in 1899 and had been part of the nascent Bahá'í community there along with May Maxwell and Lua Getsinger. In addition, she had met 'Abdu'l-Bahá in 'Akká in 1909.

  • She, like many others, was anxious to know when He might come to America. He replied that the unity of the believers would be His invitation. There had been strong differences of opinion among the believers in America and one of those points was in their understanding of the station of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. Some believed Him to be an ordinary man who, through spiritual practice, had attained HIs station, implying that all could do the same. Others insisted that He was the return of Christ. The differences among the believers in New York was such that an election for the New York Bahá'í Board of Council had been influenced to excluded one of the incumbents. 'Abdu'l-Bahá insisted that the Board be increased to 19 members to ensure his re-election. [ABF19]
  • London; United Kingdom; Thonon-les-Bains; France Tammaddunul-Mulk; Juliet Thompson; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911. 25 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá spent the morning with Juliet Thompson, part of the afternoon with Bahrám Mírzá and then visited the Gorges du Pont du Diable on the Dranse river at Le Jotty some 15 km south of Thonon-les-Bains. He travelled by automobile and was accompanied by Juliet and the Dreyfus-Barneys. [ABF27-28, DJT174-178]
  • See Images of the Gorges du Pont du Diable.
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Juliet discussed dreams. He instructed her to write down her dream and said dreams were of three types: (1) those caused by some bodily disorder, (2) symbolic dreams and (3) dreams in which future events are clearly foretold. [ABF32]
  • Thonon-les-Bains; Le Jotty; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Gorges du Pont du Diable; Dreams and visions
    1911. 26 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk to those gathered at the hotel on the theme of unity. Present was Annie Boylan, a New York believer who had made the journey to present her case against another New Yorker, Howard MacNutt whom she believed was unfit to serve the Cause. [ABF31-33, DJT180-184] Thonon-les-Bains; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Howard MacNutt; Annie Boylan
    1911 27 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá and His party took a ferry to Vevey, a resort town on the other side of Lake Geneva (Lake Leman). Vevey was the location of the Dreyfus summer home and it was near here that Lady Blomfield and her daughters finalized the translation of Paris Talks [ABF33-44, DJT186, SoW vol 2 no 14]
  • He took a room at the Park Hôtel Mooser where He took some rest and also met Edith Sanderson and her mother. With the assembled friends He discussed immortality and divorce.
  • The party returned by ferry to Thonon-les-Bains, stopping at Évian-les-Bains. [DJT196-197]
  • In the afternoon He met with Lillian Frances Kappes and Elizabeth Harnill Stewart who had just arrived from America on their way to teach at the Tarbiyát School for girls in Iran. The school for boys had been in operation since 1897 and the school for girls was just being established in. [ABF43, SoW vol 2 no 18, SoW vol 2 no 14] Perhaps it was at this time He delivered the talk that has been entitled, "The oneness of humanity and of religions". ['Abdu'l-Bahá Speaks]
  • Thonon-les-Bains; Vevey; Switzerland; Evian-les-Bains; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Lady Blomfield; Edith Sanderson; Lillian Kappes; Elizabeth Stewart; Tarbiyat School; Bahai schools; Paris Talks (book)
    1911 28 Aug In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá's visitor was Sultán-Husayn Mírzá, the eldest son of Zillu's-Sultán. Between 1879 and 1906 he had served as either governor or deputy governor of Khuzestán, Lorestán, Yazd, Fárs, Burujerd and Kurdistan. He was responsible for the martyrdoms in Yazd in 1891 and again in 1903. He had been exiled with his father in 1908.
  • As a footnote, in his latter years he became a devoted Bahá'í. [DJT206]
  • Later He gave a talk in Arabic that was published in its entirety by the leading Egyptian newspaper, Al-Ahram. [ABF45-48, SoW vol 5 no 10, Far Stretching River (translation by Mohsen Enayat)]
  • Thonon-les-Bains; France; Yazd; Iran Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Sultan-Husayn Mirza; Mohsen Enayat; Seven martyrs of Yazd; Seven martyrs; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Yazd upheaval
    1911 29 Aug Horace Holley and his wife Bertha arrived from Italy with their baby daughter Hertha. They stayed two days. He described their experience in A Pilgrimage to Thonon published in 1911 and in Religion for Mankind p232-237. [ABF49-51; Collins7.1220] Thonon-les-Bains; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Horace Holley
    1911 30 Aug 'Abdu'l-Bahá spent the morning in Thonon-les-Bain and took the ferry to Geneva after dinner. He stayed at the Hôtel de la Paix located at 11, Quai du Mont-Blanc. [ABF5154, DJT208]
  • This marks the end of 'Abdu'-Bahá's second stay in France. It lasted 9 days.
  • Thonon-les-Bains; France; Geneva; Switzerland Horace Holley; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 3 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk that has been entitled, "Eleven essentials: the Bahai principles as taught by Abdu'l-Baha in London". ['Abdu'l-Bahá Speaks]

    He left London for Paris. [AB154; SBR25, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p22]

  • See ABL113 for details of His last day in London. He left from Victoria Station.
  • He was accompanied by many Bahá'ís from England who attended many of the public meeting at which He spoke in Paris. This group included Marion Jack, Ethel Rosenberg, Lady Bloomfield and her two daughters. [NBAD47, SYH42]
  • He remained in Paris for nine weeks. [AB159; GPB280]
  • For details of His visit see AB159–68.
  • For `Abdu'l-Bahá's talks given in Paris see PT.
  • London; United Kingdom; Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Marion Jack; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of
    1911 4 Oct The start of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's third stay in France. It lasted 2 month and 9 days.
  • It is quite probable that 'Abdu'l-Bahá stayed with Hippolyte and Laura Dreyfus-Barney at 15, rue Greuze for a couple of nights before moving to the apartment at 4, avenue de Camoēns which had been prepared for Him by them. The apartment was in a building that was relatively new having been built in 1910. It was one block away from the Trocadéro Gardens and the Eiffel Tower stood just across the River Seine. It had a drawing room that could easily accommodate 75-100 people and came with a French maid who performed the domestic functions and who answered the bell. The apartment was purchase by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of France in 1996. [ABF62, 65, 68-71, 85 Sur les pas de 'Abdu'l-Bahá à Paris by Paul Hakim, SoW Vol 2 No 14 p3-4]
  • Some members of His entourage stayed at the Grand Hötel de Passy (now Hötel Passy-Eiffel) some ten minutes walk away. [ABF84]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Avenue de Camoens
    1911 5 Oct 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk at 46, avenue de Malakoff (today avenue Raymond Poincaré) at the home of Edith Sanderson and her mother Margaret Sanderson. [ABF62; The Holy Spirit is the source of Life] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Edith Sanderson
    1911 6 Oct 'Abdu'l-Bahá invited a number of Persian students then in Paris to His apartment. [ABF63-65] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 14 Oct 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk at the home of Hippolyte and Laura Dreyfus-Barney. This was the first of His Parisian talks which were published. [ABF68] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Paris Talks (book)
    1911 15 Oct In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk at His apartment at #4 Avenue de Camoens. During the talk Muhammad Qazvíní and Siyyid Hasan Taqízásih entered the room. The former had written an introduction for and was the force behind the publication of Kitáb-i-Nuqtatu'l-Káf, a book that supposedly was an early history of the Faith but in reality was heavily biased to the the views of Mírzá Yahya. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had had Mírzá Abdu'l-Fadl write a refutation to the book. Both men had additional dinner engagements with 'Abdu'l-Bahá during His visit. ['Abdu'l-Bahá's Meetings with Two Prominent Iranians, World Order, Fall 1998 Vol 30, no 1 pp35-46, ABF71-76]
  • In the afternoon all were invited to meet Him at #22 rue Ledru- Rollin pré-Saint-Germais-sur-Seine outside the walls of Paris. The purpose was to visit a project run by Mons. V. Ponsonaille and his wife to provide some comfort to the poor children in an underprividged quarter of the city. For an account of this event see Glimpses of Abdul'Bahá in Paris by Alice Beede.[ABF76-79; SYH45]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Kitab-i-Nuqtatul-Kaf; Criticism and apologetics; Mirza Abul-Fadl Gulpaygani; Muhammad Qazvini; Siyyid Hasan Taqizasih
    1911 16 Oct 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk before a group of English Bahá'ís which was given the title The Duty of Kindness and Sympathy towards Strangers and Foreigners. [PT15-17]
  • In the evening He spoke at the Dreyfus-Barney home. [ABF79-82]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 17 Oct In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke in HIs apartment about doing the will of God and not just speaking about it. [SoW Vol 2 no 16 December 31, 1911 p3]
  • In the afternoon He met again with some students and others at the Hôtel de Passy. [ABF84-85]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 18 Oct In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk entitled, The Power and Value of True Thought Depend upon Its Manifestation in Action. [PT17-19, ABF85-87, SoW Vol 2 no 16 December 31, 1911 p3-4] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 19 Oct In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke of healing. God is the Great Compassionate Physician Who Alone Gives True Healing. [PT19-21, ABF87-89; SoW Vol 2 No 16 December 31, 1911 p4] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 20 Oct In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke of the relationship between East and West, The Need for Union Between the Peoples of the East and West. [PT21-22,ABF89-90]
  • The evening talk was given at the Dreyfus-Barney home. God Comprehends all: He Cannot be Comprehended. [PT23-27, ABF9295]
  • The talk, The Sun of Truth, shown as being given on the 22nd of October, was perhaps delivered this day. [PT20-33, ABF100-102]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 21 Oct News of the Battle of Benghazi (17 October) was headline news. It was one of the opening salvos of the Turko-Italian War and began on the 17th of October when Italian invasion forces began their bombardment of the Turkish garrison. The Turks were forced to abandon the city and there were many lives lost, Italians, Turks and civilians.
  • His talk, The Pitiful Causes of War, and the Duty of Everyone to Strive for Peace. [ABF96-100 PT28-30; Colonialism, Nationalism and Jewish Immigration to Palestine: Abdu´l-Baha's Viewpoints Regarding the Middle East by Kamran Ekbal p18]
  • See as well SoW Vol 2 No 14 November 23, 1911 p5 for His talk on the Battle of Benghazi.
  • The talk was attended by Remi de Gourmont, literary critic, essayist, poet and writer. The following day his editorial, "Le Béhhaïsmie: les idées dujour" was published in the newspaper Le France. [ABF95n287, 98]
  • Paris; France; Benghazi; Libya; Turkey; Italy Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; War (general); History (general); Peace; Remy_de_Gourmont; Imperialism/colonialism
    1911 23 Oct In the morning He gave a talk, The Light of Truth is now Shining Upon the East and West. [PT33-35; ABF103-104; SoW Vol 2 No 16 December 31, 1911 p5] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 24 Oct In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk, The Universal Love. [PT3539, ABF104-108] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 25 Oct In the morning He spoke of His imprisonment. The Imprisonment of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [PT39-41; ABF108-109; SoW Vol 2 No 16 December 31, 1911 p6] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 26 Oct In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk at His apartment. God's Greatest Gift to Man. [PT41-43]
  • A different version of the same talk was recorded by Mary Hanford Ford. [ABF111-112]
  • In the evening 'Abdu'l-Bahá was driven to 59, avenue de La Bourdonnais by Hippolyte Dreyfus where He spoke at the Société théosophique of Paris. This talk was reported in a number of French newspapers and was published in Talks by Abdul Baha Given in Paris p117-124. [ABF1113-118]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 27 Oct In the afternoon 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk at His apartment on the relation between God and man entitled, The Clouds that Obscure the Sun of Truth. [ABF1118-119, PT43-45]
  • A second talk was given at His apartment, The Benefits of God to Man. [ABF120-121, PT49-51].
  • In the evening He spoke at the Dreyfus-Barney home. He spoke about how religious leaders have mislead their congregations into denying the divinity of other Manifestations. Religious Prejudices. [ABF121-124, PT45-49]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 28 Oct 'Abdu'l-Bahá's morning talk at His apartment was on the theme that God was the creator of all existence and therefore all men are as brothers. It was named, Beauty and Harmony in Diversity. [ABF125-126, PT51-54] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 29 Oct The title for 'Abdu'l-Bahá's morning talk was Worldly riches do not help Spirit. [ABF133, SoW vol 2 no 16 p4-5]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá was invited to dinner at 29, rue Brézin, the home of Madeleine Jenny Sacy, the widow of French Bahá'í Gabriel Sacy (1858-1903). He had known Sacy in Egypt where he died unexpectedly. Sacy had been a Syrian Christian who, upon becoming a Bahá'í had a remarkable faculty for interpreting the prophecies of the Old and New Testaments. Colonialism, Nationalism and Jewish Immigration to Palestine: Abdu'l-Baha's Viewpoints Regarding the Middle East by Kamran Ekbal. p7 says that he carried messages from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to Leo Tolstoy in 1901.
  • That same day He spoke at the home of the sister of Hippolyte Dreyfus, Yvonne and Paul Mayer May at 21, boulevard Beauséjour. [ABF135]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Gabriel Sacy
    1911 30 Oct His morning talk was titled The True Meaning of the Prophecies Concerning the Coming of Christ. [ABF136-139, PT54-57] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 31 Oct 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke at His apartment on the theme of The Holy Spirit, the Intermediary Power between God and Man. [ABF139-141, PT57-59] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 1 Nov His talk this day, the Feast of All Saints, was The Two Natures in Man. [ABF143-144, PT60-62] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 2 Nov 'Abdu'l-Bahá's morning talk in His apartment concerned Material and Spiritual Progress. [ABF146-149, PT62-64] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 3 Nov The morning talk in His apartment was on The Evolution of Matter and Development of the Soul. [ABF149-151, PT64-67]
  • The Persian students who had been frequent visitors paid one last visit before departing for their place of study.
  • In the evening He spoke at the Dreyfus-Barney home on the evolution of matter and the development of the soul. [ABF152]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 4 Nov In the morning at His apartment 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke about The Spiritual Meetings in Paris. [PT67-68, ABF152-153] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 5 Nov 'Abdu'l-Bahá delivered an address entitled The Two Kinds of Light. [ABF155-156, PT68-70] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 6 Nov This morning's talk at His apartment was Spiritual Aspiration in the West. [ABF161-163, PT70-72]
  • In the evening He spoke at the studio of Edwin and Josephine Scott at 17, rue Boissonade, American artists living in Paris. The lecture has been called Lecture Given at a Studio in Paris. [ABF163-165, PT72-74]
  • Another version of the lecture, this time entitled, Aims and Ambitions of Bahaies: Spoken by Abdul Baha in Paris, November 6th, 1911 was published in Star of the West. It was submitted by Madame d'Ange d'Astre, considered to be the first French Bahá'í from a Catholic background. [SoW Vol 2 no 14 23 November 1911 p15; SYH46]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 7 Nov His morning talk was on Bahá'u'lláh. [ABF165-169, PT75-79] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 8 Nov His morning talk at His apartment was Good Ideas Must Be Carried into Action. [ABF169-170, PT79-81] Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 9 Nov The morning talk at 4, avenue de Camoëns was on The True Meaning of Baptism by Water and Fire. [ABF171-172, PT81-83]
  • In the afternoon He was invited to speak to the Alliance Spiritualiste at Salle de l'Athénée, 21, rue du Vieux-Colombier. Discourse at "l'Alliance Spiritualiste was the title given to His talk. The meeting was attended by about 40 people. Spiritualism was a religion founded in part on the writings of the Swedish mystic Emmanuel Swedenborg (1699-1772). [PT83-88; SoW Vol 2 No 17 Janurary 19, 1912 p2; SYH41]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Emmanuel Swedenborg
    1911 10 Nov In the morning He gave a talk at His apartment on the The First Principle—Search after Truth. [PT135-137; ABF180-181, SoW Vol 3 no1 p3-4]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk later entitled The Evolution of the Spirit at 15 Rue Greuze, Paris, the home of the Dreyfus-Barneys. [Paris Talks p88-94; ABF182-186]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1911. 18 Nov In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke in His apartment on The Eleventh Principle—The Power of the Holy Spirit. [PT163-166; ABF209-210; SoW Vol 3 No 2 April 9, 1912 p6-7]
  • In the evening He spoke in the home of Monsieur Dreyfus. The talk has been entitled "Involvement of the faithful in political life, and showing justice in all walks of life. ['Abdu'l-Bahá Speaks]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other
    1911. 1 Dec In the evening in the home of Hippolyte and Laura Dreyfus Barney at 15 Rue Greuze 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave His last talk in Paris for this trip. [PT168-172; ABF240-243; SoW Vol 2 No 16 December 31, 1911 p6]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke about the future of Paris. He said that He could see the day when Paris is "bathed in the light of the Holy Spirit". [SYH48]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks other; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Laura Clifford Barney
    1911 2 Dec `Abdu'l-Bahá left Paris for Marseilles by train from the Gare de Lyon arriving late in the day. Little is known about His stay in that city save for one talk. [ABF246]
  • See ABF256-260 for some of the places that 'Abdu'l-Baha visited while in Paris for which the visits are undated. Included in the list is His visit to the Senat of the French Republic [PUP72].
  • There are also a number of undated talks and fragments of talks the have been published in a variety of sources. [ABF261-264]
  • See ABF264-268 for a list of persons with whom 'Abdu'l-Bahá had undocumented visits.
  • Paris; Marseilles; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Life of
    1911 6 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk on materialism at a meeting of theosophists, possible at 25, Boulevard Baille. For the text of this talk see ABF247-254. Marseilles; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Theosophical Society
    1911 7 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá departed Marseilles for Egypt on board Le Portugal. It travelled to Beirut via Alexandria and Port Said and reached Alexandria on the 12th of December. [ABF255-256; AB167; GPB280; SBR25]
  • Letter from Ahmad Sohrab. [SoW Vol 2 No 16 December 31, 1911 p9]
  • Marseilles; France; Alexandria; Egypt Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha in Egypt; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Ships
    1912. 11 Apr Hippolyte and Laura Dreyfus Barney sailed on the SS Kaiserin Auguste Victoria from Cherbourg for New York to be with 'Abdu'l-Bahá for a few months. [ABF285]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá had invited Louisa Mathew to come to America and accompany Him. [Documentary: 'Abdu'l-Baha's Initiative on Race from 1921: Race Amity Conferences 34:00]
  • Cherbourg; France; New York; United States Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney
    1912 18 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk at which E. G. Browne was present. He visited `Abdu'l-Bahá several more times while in London. [SoW Vol III no19 2Mar1913 p4, AB346, ABTM277-278]
  • Hájí Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardakání (Hájí Amín) arrived in London from Paris with three young Persian. He spoke neither English nor French and had had some difficulty in getting from Paris to London. He crossed the English Channel and then found himself back in Paris. His second attempt was successful. [SoW Vol III no19 2Mar1913 p4, AB346–7, ABTM278]
  • London; United Kingdom; Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Edward Granville Browne; Haji Amin (Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani)
    1913 21 Jan `Abdu'l-Bahá left London for Paris. [AB371]
  • The visit to Paris lasts several weeks. [AB372; SBR220]
  • London; United Kingdom; Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1913. 23 Jan The start of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's third visit to France. It lasted 2 months and 9 days.
  • After His morning talk He visited and had lunch with Natalie Clifford Barney, the sister of Laura Dreyfus Barney and the daughter of Alice Pike Barney, probably at her salon at 20, rue Jacob.
  • On this day, or perhaps the next, He met the famous French philosopher and writer, Henri Bergson. (Nobel prize for literature 1928). He was a professor at the College de France. 'Abdu'l-Bahá impressed him with His simple proof for the existence of God. [ABF302-304, Bahá'íes de France]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Natalie Clifford Barney; Henri Bergson
    1913 6 Feb `Abdu'l-Bahá visited Versailles. [AB376] Paris; Versailles; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1913 17 Feb For the text of an interview, originally published in Abdul Baha on Divine Philosophy, with Pasteur Monnier during which 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke on the relationship between the Bahá'í Faith and Christianity, see Bahá'í Studies Review, vol. 3:1 (1993), with notes by Khazeh Fananapazir.
  • Pasteur Henri Monnier (b. 1871) was the "Professor á la Faculté libre de théologie protestante de Paris", Vice-president of the Protestant Federation of France and Pastor of the Etoile Church [from International Who's Who, 1st ed.]
  • Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Christianity; Interfaith dialogue; Henri Monnier, Pasteur; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of
    1913 30 Mar `Abdu'l-Bahá traveled from Paris to Stuttgart. [AB379]
  • He told His attendants to wear European dress and to discard their oriental headgear. [AB379]
  • He did not tell the Bahá'ís of Stuttgart of His arrival in advance. [AB379]
  • The party arrived on the 1st of April and took rooms in Hotel Marquardt, near the train station. Then He asked His attendant to telephone the Bahá'ís to announce His arrival and invite them to the hotel. [AB379-380]
  • Paris; France; Stuttgart; Germany Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Baqir-Uf; Baqiroff
    1913. 1 Apr 'Abdu'l-Bahá departed for Stuttgart from Gar de l'Est accompanied by Siyyid Ahmad-i-Báqiroff, Mirza Ahmad Sohrab, Siyyid Asadu'llah-i-Qumi, and Mahmúd Zarqání. It was His first trip to Germany and it lasted for 7 days. [ABF537-538] Stuttgart; Germany; Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1913 1 May `Abdu'l-Bahá left Stuttgart and returned to Paris. [AB391]
  • The start of 'Abdu'l-Bahá's fourth and last visit to France. It lasted 1 month and 12 days.
  • Stuttgart; Germany; Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1913. 9 Jun Paul and Mirra Richard paid one last visit to 'Abdu'l-Bahá at His hotel arriving at 9:30PM. There were 19 documented encounters/visits of this couple with 'Abdu'l-Bahá during His stays in Paris, many of them alone with Him in the latter part of His day ending at midnight. On a number of occasions He asked her to speak, other times He would send her to a meeting as the speaker and on at least one occasion she spoke on His behalf when he was too ill to attend. This was remarkable considering that neither Mirra nor her husband considered themselves as Bahá'ís. [ABFsee index]
    A short biography: Blance Rachel Mirra Alfassa (b. 21 February 1878, d. 17 November 1973 Pondicherrry, India). She was the daughter of Sephardic Jews from Turkey and Egypt. She studied art at the Academy des Beaux Arts in Paris. In 1897 she married the French painter Henry François Morisott and they had a son (b.1898). They divorced in 1908 and she married the French lawyer Paul Antoine Richard. Around 1905 she became involved with the occult movement, first in France and from 1906-10907 in Algeria. In 1914 she and Paul left for India and met the Indian mystic Sri Aurobindo at Pondicherry. They returned to France briefly 1915-1916 and from 1916 to 1920 she and Paul were in Japan. In 1920 they returned to Pondicherry and from then until the end of her life she was associated with Sri Aurobindo's ashram. After his passing in 1950 she became the head and was know as "the Mother". [ABF339n815]
    Two of her books are Words of Long Ago by The Mother (Mirra Richard) Sri Aurobindo Ashram Publications 1994 and The Mother-Collected Works Vol 2-Words of Long Ago.
    Paul Richard's biographical book was called Without Passport: The Life and Work of Paul Richard covers the period from his birth to 1919. He was a lawyer in the Paris Court of Appeals and it is likely that he learned of the Faith from Hippolyte Dreyfus.
    Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Mirra Alfassa
    1913 12 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá left Paris for Marseilles, arriving the same evening. [AB395]

    In total 'Abdu'-Bahá spent about 171 days in Paris.

    3 October to 2 December 1911 - 60 days          
     21 January to 30 March 1913 - 69 days          
           1 May to 12 June 1913 - 42 days          
                          Total   171 days          
  • See David Merrick's map for the places visited by 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Paris.
  • See PG117-118 for 'Abdu'l-Bahá continuing concern for Paris in 1919.
  • Paris; Marseilles; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1913 13 Jun `Abdu'l-Bahá left Marseilles on the S. S. Himalaya for Port Said. Sailing with Him were: Mirza Ali-/akbar Nakhjavani, Mirza Ahmad Sohrab, SIyyid Asadu'llah-i-Qumi and Mahmud Zarqani. [AB395; ABF667-669]
  • He sent a telegram to Haifa instructing the many pilgrims awaiting His return to come to Port Said. Because of the great numbers who came, there wasn't sufficient hotel accommodations and a large tent was erected on the roof in which to hold meetings. [SoW Vol 4 No 7 p121]
  • Marseilles; France; Port Said; Egypt Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha in Egypt; S. S. Himalaya; Ships; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Pilgrims; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline
    1913. 16 - 21 July The 6e Congrès International du Progrès Religieux (Chrétiens Progressifs et Libres-Croyants) [6th International Congress of Religious Progress (Progressive Christians and Free Believers)] was held in Paris. Over twenty of the clergy that 'Abdu'l-Bahá had met in His travels in Britain, Canada, the United States and France attended. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's photograph was published amongst those invited to attend and inserted in the proceedings of the Congress. Hippolyte Dreyfus presented the Bahá'í address. [ABF411note 977] Paris; France International Congress of Religious Progress; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney
    1914 (In the year) 'Abdu'l-Bahá was forced to expel Tammaddun'ul-Mulk for corrupt behaviour. He was from Shiraz and had been living in Paris for several years. He had been part of His entourage in 1911. [ABF19] Shiraz; Tihran; Iran; Paris; France Tammaddunul-Mulk; Covenant-breakers
    1919 18 Jan The commencement of the Paris Peace Conference in Versailles.
  • Ali Kuli Khan was named as a member of Persia's Peace Delegation to the Versailles. [SUP45]
  • Paris; Versailles; France Paris Peace Conference; Peace
    1919 28 Jun The Treaty of Versailles was concluded. The United States never signed the Treaty of Versailles, never joined the League of Nations which President Wilson's foes derisively referred to as ‘Wilson's League'. The USA made separate treaties with Germany and the other Central Powers. Wilson died on the 3rd of February, 1924. [AY160-169; US Office of the Historian]

    Shoghi Effendi's tribute is as follows:

    "To ... President ... Woodrow Wilson, must be ascribed the unique honour, among the statesmen of any nation, whether of the East or of the West, of having voiced sentiments so akin to the principles animating the Cause of Bahá'u'lláh, and of having more than any other world leader, contributed to the creation of the League of Nations—achievements which the pen of the Centre of God's Covenant acclaimed as signalizing the dawn of the Most Great Peace, whose sun, according to that same pen, must needs arise as the direct consequence of the enforcement of the laws of the Dispensation of Bahá'u'lláh." [CoF36]

    Versailles; France Treaty of Versailles; Peace treaties; Woodrow Wilson; League of Nations; History (general); World War I; War (general); World peace (general); Peace; Most Great Peace
    1920 20 Apr Shoghi Effendi left Haifa for France with the intention of taking up his study of English at Oxford University. As instructed by 'Abdu'l-Bahá he stayed in a sanitarium in Neuilly (Maison d'Hydrothérapie et de convalescence du Parc de Neuilly, 6 Boulevard du Château, Neuilly-sur-Seine) before leaving for England in July. [SEO58]
  • See AY179-186 for and account of Shoghi Effendi's stay in the Paris area. According to Marzieh Gail he was probably in the area from about the 9th of April until the 13th of July.
  • Haifa; Oxford; United Kingdom; Neuilly; France Shoghi Effendi at Oxford; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Balliol College (Oxford University)
    1920. 11 Jun Shoghi Effendi made application to Balliol College at Oxford University as a non-collegiate student for a period of two years. [PG134] Neuilly; France; Oxford; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi at Oxford; Balliol College (Oxford University); Universities; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline
    1920. 19 Jul Shoghi Effendi departed from France two weeks after receiving 'Abdu'l-Bahá's permission to study at Oxford. According to Dr J. Fallscheer, the German woman physician that 'Abdu'l-Bahá had engaged to attend to the ladies of His household, 'Abdu'l-Bahá had decided to send Shoghi Effendi to England while he was still in high school. [PG137-138] Paris; France; Oxford; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi at Oxford; Balliol College (Oxford University); Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Fallscheer, Dr J.
    1928 20 Dec Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney, (b. 12 Apr 1873, Paris, France, d. 20 Dec 1928, Paris, France), Disciple of Abdu'l-Bahá, passed away in Paris. He was buried in Cimetiere de Montmartre in Paris. [UD84–5; BN No 29 January 1929 p2]
  • See Find a grave for a succinct biography.
  • For Shoghi Effendi's eulogy of him see BW3:210–14 and UD84–5.
  • Shoghi Effendi's letter to his widow.
  • See Biography of Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney by Laura Clifford Barney and Shoghi Effendi, edited by Thomas Linard.
  • Paris; France Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam
    1936 (In the Year) The publication of Massacres de Babis en Perse by A.L.M. Nicolas. Paris; France A.L.M. Nicolas; Massacres de Babis en Perse; Publications
    1936 (Fall) Lorol Schopflocher departed for Europe to do teaching work in Sweden, Norway, Denmark, England, France and Geneva, Switzerland. [BN No107 April 1937 p2] Sweden; Norway; Denmark; United Kingdom; France; Geneva; Switzerland Travel teaching; Lorol Schopflocher
    1939 28 Feb The passing of Louis Alphonse Daniel Nicolas, signing A.L.M. Nicolas , (b. March 27 , 1864 in Rasht, Iran) in Paris. He was an historian and French orientalist, official interpreter of the Legation French abroad, and France's consul general in Tabriz.
          After reading Gobineau's Trois ans en Asie, 1855-1858 he checked all the information Gobineau had written in his book, corrected some of it, and then began to translate the writings of the Báb. Attracted by this young doctrine, he converted to Bábism and thus became the first Western Bábí. He was the first to translate works of the Báb into French: The Arabic Bayán and the Persian Bayán, and wrote various works, including Seyyed Ali Mohamed dit le Báb (1905), an Essai sur le Chéikhisme (1911) and several articles in newspapers such as Review of the Muslim World. Nicolas became knight of the Legion of Honour in 1909.
  • Moojan Momen says of him, "No European scholar has contributed so much to our knowledge of the life and teachings of the Báb as Nicholas. His study of the life of the Báb and his translations of several of the most important books of the Báb remain of unsurpassed value." [BBR36]
  • His important collection of manuscripts were auctioned and the items relevant to the Bahá'í and Bábí Faiths were purchased by the Bahá'í World Centre.
  • See BW8p885-887 for An Interview with A. L. M. Nicolas of Paris by Edith Sanderson.
  • See a short biography by Nader Nasiri Moghaddam in Encyclopaedia Iranica Online.
  • A chronological list of his publications:
    • Le Livre des Sept Preuves [Dalá'il-i-Sab'ih translated from Persian into French], Paris, 1902, 68 pp.
    • A propos de deux manuscrits 'Bábís' de la Bibliothèque Nationale, Revue de l'Histoire des Religions, Paris, volume 47, 1903, pp. 58-73
    • Le Béyan Arabe [Bayán al-'arabiyya translated from Arabic into French], Paris, 1905, 235 pp.
    • Seyyed Ali Mohammed dit le Báb [biography of the Báb, selections translated into English in this volume], Paris, 1905, 458 pp.
    • En Perse: Constitution [translation by A.L.M. Nicolas], Revue du Monde Musulman, Paris, volume 1, 1907 (décembre 1906), p. 86-100
    • Sur la Volonté Primitive et l'Essence Divine d'après le Báb, Revue de l'Histoire des Religions, Paris, volume 55, 1907, pp. 208-212
    • Essais sur le Chéïkhisme, 4 volumes :
    • Cheïkh Ahmed Lahçahi, Paris, volume 1, 1910
    • Séyyèd Kazem Rechti, Paris, volume 2, 1914
    • Le Chéïkhisme. La Doctine, Paris, volume 3, 1911 [extract from Revue du Monde Musulman]
    • La Science de Dieu, Paris, volume 4, 1911
    • Le Club de la fraternité [translation of an article by Atrpet by A.L.M. Nicolas], Revue du Monde Musulman, Paris, volume 13, 1911, pp. 180-184
    • Le Dossier russo-anglais de Seyyed Ali Mohammed dit le Báb, Revue du Monde Musulman, Paris, volume 14, 1911, pp. 357-363
    • Le Béyan Persan [Bayán-i-fársí translated from Persian into French], four volumes, 1911-1914
    • Abdoul-Béha et la situation, Revue du Monde Musulman, Paris, volume 21, 1912, pp. 261-267
    • Le Béhahis et le Báb, Journal Asiatique, Paris, volume 222, 1933, pp. 257-264
    • Qui est le successeur du Báb? Paris, 1933, 16 pp.
    • Quelques Documents relatifs au Babisme, Journal Asiatique, Paris, volume 224, 1934, pp. 107-142
    • Le Báb astronome, Revue de l'Histoire des Religions, Paris, volume 114, 1936, pp. 99-101
    • Massacres de Babis en Perse, Paris, 1936, 42 pp.

      [A Short Biography of A. L. M. Nicholas by Peter Terry 2008]

  • Rasht; Iran; Paris; France A.L.M. Nicolas; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Translation; First believers; Nader Nasiri Moghaddam; Edith Sanderson
    1939 3 Sep World War II began with Britain and France declaring war on Germany after Germany invaded Poland. Europe; Germany; United Kingdom; France; Poland World War II; History (general); War (general)
    1940 25 May After having obtained a visa for Britain in Rome, Shoghi Effendi and Rúhíyyih Khánum left for England. They entered France at Menton and then travelled to Marseilles and eventually to St. Malo. A few days later the Italians enter the war against the Allies. [PP179] Rome; Italy; Menton; Marseilles; France; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; World War II
    1940 2 Jun Shoghi Effendi, Rúhíyyih Khánum and Sutherland Maxwell left St Malo, France, for England and arrived the next morning In Southhampton. The following day St. Malo was occupied by the Nazis. Shoghi Effendi seemed acutely aware of the danger to himself and to the Faith should he fall into the hands of the Nazis because the Cause had already been banned in Germany and his inveterate enemy, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, was allied with them. [PP 179–80]
  • Their passage from St Malo to Southhampton took place on the same day as the history troop evacuation from Dunkirk was in full swing when every available vessel was involved in moving troops from France to England.
  • St Malo; France Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; World War II
    1948. 9 Dec The crime of genocide was defined in international law in the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide. The Genocide Convention was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 9 December 1948. The Convention entered into force on 12 January 1951. By April 2022, 153 nations have ratified the Genocide Convention and over 80 nations have provisions for the punishment of genocide in domestic criminal law.

    Every year on 9 December, the United Nations marks the adoption of the Genocide Convention, which is also the International Day of Commemoration and Dignity of the Victims of the Crime of Genocide and of the Prevention of this Crime. [Ratification of the Genocide Convention]

    The crime of genocide has three elements: 1. Acts of genocide committed with, 2. intent to destroy, in whole or in part, 3. a national, ethnic, racial or religious group. For more detailed information see Genocide Watch. On that site Dr Gregory Stanton lists the ten states of genocide: Classification, Symolization, Discrimination, Dehumanization, Organization, Polarization, Preparation, Persecution, Extermination and Denial. [Ten Stages]. iiiii

    Paris; France Persecution; Genocide; United Nations
    1953. 30 Apr Messages from Shoghi Effendi regarding a victory in France:
      "Finally share the heart-warming news of the impending establishment of the long-overdue Hazíratu'l-Quds in the French capital through the conclusion of an agreement to purchase a nine thousand pound property situated in the best residential quarter of the city. Kiyani's spontaneous, generous contribution is solely responsible for the achievement of the great victory of the establishment of the institution designed to serve as the administrative headquarters of both the present Paris Assembly and the projected French National Spiritual Assembly." [MBWp141]

      "The second Ḥaẓíratu'l-Quds to be acquired during this period was one in Paris, destined to become the national administrative headquarters of the French Bahá'í community. This achievement was announced in the Guardian's cablegram to the Forty-Fifth Annual Bahá'í Convention of the United States Bahá'ís on April 30, 1953, as follows: "Heart-warming news (of the) impending establishment (of the) long overdue Ḥaẓíratu'l-Quds (in the) French capital through (the) conclusion (of an) agreement (to) purchase (a) nine thousand pound property situated (in the) best residential quarter (of the) city." The acquisition of this property was made possible by the spontaneous and generous contribution of a single believer, Mr. Hussayn Quli Kiyani, recently come to Paris from Persia. The formal dedication of the Paris Ḥaẓíratu'l-Quds took place on July 4, 1953, with Dr. Ugo Giachery, Hand of the Cause of God, coming from Rome to assist in the ceremonies." [BW12p55]
    Paris; France Haziratul-Quds; Hussayn Quli Kiyani; Ugo Giachery
    1953 29 Oct Opal Jensen arrived on Réunion Island from the United States and was named a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW13:455]
  • She was later declared a Covenant-breaker.
  • Reunion; France Knights of Bahaullah; Covenant-breakers
    1954 25 Mar Leland Jensen arrived on Réunion Island from the United States and ws named a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW13:455]
  • He was later declared a Covenant-breaker.
  • Reunion; France Leland Jensen; Knights of Bahaullah; Covenant-breakers
    1954. 1 Nov The members of the Algerian National Liberation Front initiated an armed conflict on French targets to start the Algerian War, also known as the Algerian Revolution or the War of Independence which lasted until 1962 and lead to the independence of Algeria from France. This decolonization war was marked by guerrilla warfare, war crimes, and civil strife. The conflict ended with the signing of the Évian Accords.

    The war had a profound human cost, with estimates of Algerian casualties ranging from 400,000 to 1.5 million, alongside 25,600 French soldiers and 6,000 Europeans. The war also saw the perpetration of war crimes, including massacres, rape, torture, the destruction of villages, and the displacement of over 2 million Algerians. Upon independence, approximately 900,000 European-Algerians fled to France. The FLN targeted the Harkis, Algerian Muslims who served with the French army, for retribution, with many facing brutal violence. About 90,000 Harkis found refuge in France, where they and their descendants form a significant community​. [Wikipedia]

    Algeria; France Imperialism/colonialism; History (general)
    1955 8–15 Feb The first people to become Bahá'ís in Réunion, Paul and Françoise Tayllamin (8 Feb) and Jean Donat and Julien Araye (15 Feb), enrolled. Reunion; France First Bahais by country or area
    1955 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly in Réunion was formed. Reunion; France Local Spiritual Assembly
    1958 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of France was formed. [BW13p274]
  • For the message of the Custodians to the French National Convention see MC86–9.
  • France National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1960 30 Apr – 10 May Twenty–four national spiritual assemblies and five national conventions sent messages of support to the Custodians, repudiating the claim made by Charles Mason Remey to be the second Guardian. [MC199–202]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly of France voted to recognize Remey's claim. [MC203]
  • BWC; Haifa; France National Spiritual Assembly; Custodians; Charles Mason Remey; Covenant-breakers; Guardianship
    1960 5 May Hand of the Cause Abu'l-Qásim Faizí was sent by the Custodians to France to meet with the National Spiritual Assembly and Bahá'ís of France. He was accompanied by Auxiliary Board Member Dr Aziz Navidi. [MC197]
  • Initially eight of the nine members of the National Spiritual Assembly accepted the claim of Mason Remey.
  • After consultation, five members of the assembly continued to support Charles Mason Remey in his claim to be the second Guardian and resigned from the assembly. The five members who sided with Remey were: Joel Marangella, Bernard Fillon, Donald Harvey, Monir Derakhchan and Jaques Soghomonian. The four that remained true to the Covenant were A-M Barafroukhteh, Alain Tamenne, Sara Kenny, and Henriette Samimy. Even though some or maybe all of this group had voted to accept Remey they changed their vote after the meeting with Mr. Faizi. The national assembly was dissolved. [MC203]
  • See SETPE2P236-244 for an account of Mason Remey's defection and ultimate end.
  • BWC; Haifa; France Guardianship; Covenant-breakers; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Abul-Qasim Faizi; National Spiritual Assembly; Charles Mason Remey; Joel Marangella
    1971 (In the year) The first Gypsies, six adults and six youth, the first to become Bahá'ís in France, enrolled at a campsite near Le Bourget airport. France First believers by background
    1972 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Réunion was formed with its seat in St Pierre. [BW15:199]
  • For picture see BW15:155.
  • The "Mother Assembly", the National Spiritual Assembly of the Indian Ocean, was left with the Chagos Archipelago, Comoros with the formation of the National Spiritual Assemblies of Réunion, Madagascar and Mauritius. [BN no608 November 1981 p11]
  • St Pierre; Reunion; France National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1974 18 Aug Laura Clifford Dreyfus-Barney, (b. 30 Nov 1879, Cincinnati, Hamilton County, Ohio, USA) passed away in Paris. [BW16:296]
  • For her obituary see BW16:535–8.
  • She was buried at Cimetiere de Passy, Paris, City of Paris, Île-de-France, France.
  • She is best known for having compiled the Bahá'í text Some Answered Questions from her interviews with `Abdu'l-Bahá during her visit to Akka between 1904 and 1906. [Wikipedia]
  • See Laura Barney's Discipleship to ‘Abdu'l-Bahá: Tracing a Theological Flow from the Middle East to the United States, 1900–1916 by Layli Maria Miron in The Journal of Bahá'í Studies 28.1-2 2018.
  • She was the only Western woman to have been designated as "Amatu'l-Bahá" (Handmaid of Bahá) by 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [Some Answered Questions" and Its Compiler by Baharieh Rouhani Ma'ani published in Lights of Irfan, 18, pages 445; M9YA314]
  • At the end of the war she placed her faith in the League of Nations and represented the International Council of Women in that body, playing an important role in cultural exchange. She was the only woman named by the League Council to sit on the Sub-Committee of experts on Education, a post which she held for many years, beginning in 1926. On 23 July 1925 she was appointed Chevalier de la Legion d'Honneur. In that same year she formed under the aegis of the League of Nations the ‘Liaison Committee of Major International Organizations to promote through Education better Understanding between Peoples and Classes' and became a permanent member of the committee as well as its liaison officer. In 1934 she became a member of the Advisory Committee of the League of Nations on Teaching; she was also a member of the French Committee on Intellectual Co-operation. [BW15p537]
  • See A Glimpse into the Life of Laura Dreyfus-Barney by Mona Khademi for a brief biography of Laura Barney and her family.
  • My Interview with Laura Dreyfus-Barney by Jack McLean (1967)
  • See The Life of Laura Barney by Mona Khademi published by George Ronald in 2022.
    • See page 67-71 for an account of her recording of the "table talks" of 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
    • See page399 for her listing in Who's Who in America.
  • Paris; France Laura Clifford Barney; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Amatul-Baha (title); Some Answered Questions
    1976 3 – 6 Aug An International Teaching Conference was held in Paris, attended by some 5,700 Bahá'ís. [BW17:81; DM416; VV33]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice see BW17:131–2.
  • For the message of Kurt Waldheim, Secretary-General of the United Nations, see BW17:140.
  • For pictures see BW17:109, 117–19.
  • Paris; France; Europe Kurt Waldheim; United Nations; United Nations, Secretary-Generals; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, International; Teaching
    1984 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Martinique was formed with its seat in Fort-de-France. [BW19:62, 155]
  • See BW19:523 for picture.
  • Fort-de-France; Martinique National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1987. 15 Feb The passing of Eleanor Hollibaugh (b. 17 February 1897 in Hastings, Nebraska) in Montraux, Switzerland. She was a pioneer to La Paz, Bolivia but when she had to return for reasons of health, she settled in Reno, Nevada. At the end of World War II the European Teaching Committee asked her to join fellow American Dagmar Dole in Copenhagen, Denmark. In 1949 they asked her to move to the Netherlands and in 1958, again at their request, she moved to France where she remained until 1960 when the Committee requested that she go to Switzerland. [BW20p868-871] Find a Grave. Hastings; Nebraska; Montreux; Switzerland; La Paz; Bolivia; Reno; Nevada; Amsterdam; Netherlands; Copenhagen; Denmark; Nancy; Dijon; France In Memoriam; Eleanor Hollibaugh
    1990 (In the year) The formation of the European Bahá'í Business Forum in France with members from 26 countries in Europe and elsewhere. [VV115]
  • Formed by a group of Bahá'ís active in business and management meeting in Chamonix, France, due to concern about the decline of ethics and values in business.
  • Forum created to promote the moral and spiritual wisdom and principles of the great religious traditions of the world (sources included Judaism, Hinduism, and Christianity as well as the 19th century revelation of Bahá'u'lláh) such as adherence to the principles of justice, respect, trustworthiness, integrity and unity.
  • Beginning as an informal network, its membership grew requiring the election of a Governing Board.
  • Members have attached importance to sharing their broad experience and to contributing to the improvement of management in emerging free-market economies of Central and Eastern Europe. [ebbf]
  • See The History of EBBF: Twenty-Five Years of Contributing to the Discourse of Ethics in Business by Francois Couillard.
  • Under advice from the Universal House of Justice, EBBF changed its name from European Bahá'í Business Forum to the less parochial name Ethical Business Building the Future. [The above, pg45]
  • Chamonix; France; Europe European Bahai Business Forum (EBBF); Business; Ethical Business Building the Future (EBBF)
    1990 1 - 2 Sep The European Bahá'í Business Forum was formed at a meeting in Chamonix, France, attended by people from eight countries. [BINS244:8; VV115]
  • For picture see VV115.
  • Chamonix; France European Bahai Business Forum (EBBF); Business; Ethical Business Building the Future (EBBF)
    1993 (In the year) EBBF was registered in Paris as an official non-profit association. Its statutes provided that membership was open to Bahá'ís and non-Bahá'ís alike. [ebbf] Paris; France European Bahai Business Forum (EBBF); Business; Ethical Business Building the Future (EBBF)
    1993 15 Apr The passing of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Stanley Theodore Bagley, (b.2 February, 1912 in Bertrand, Missouri). He had been a pioneer to Belgium, France, Guadeloupe, Martinique, the United States as well as Sicily where he and his family, wife Florence, son Gerry and daughters Susan and Carol, received the Knighthood for their service. [BW93-94p319; BWIM63-65] United States; Belgium; France; Guadeloupe; Martinique; Sicily Knights of Bahaullah; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Stanley Bagley
    1994 May 22 The first Bahá'í Children and Youth Conference of Martinique was held in Fort-de-France, attended by 22 people. [BINS318:4–5] Fort-de-France; Martinique Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth
    2019. 11 Oct ‘Ali Nakhjavani, (b. 19 September, 1919 in Baku, Azerbaijan) former member of the Universal House of Justice (1963-2003), passed away in Molsheim, Alsace, France. He was 100 years old. The Universal House of Justice requested all National Assemblies that memorial services be held for him. [BWNS1361]
  • After his father's death when he was two years old, his family was advised by 'Abdu'l-Bahá to move to Haifa where he grew up. In 1939 he received the Bachelor of Arts degree with distinction from the American University of Beirut, and then in the early 1940s he relocated to Iran, residing first in Tehran, then Tabriz and finally in Shiraz. In 1950 he was elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís Iran where he served until the following year.
  • In 1951 he and his family moved to Uganda to assist with the development of the Bahá'í community in that country. He made his living as a teacher and lecturer. During his early years there, Enoch Olinga became a Bahá'í, and in 1953 Mr Nakhjavání and his wife Violette, along with Mr Olinga and two other Bahá'ís, travelled from Uganda to Cameroon to help spread the Bahá'í Faith in that country.
  • From 1954-61 he was a member of the Auxiliary Board in Africa, and later from 1956 to 1961 he was served on the Bahá'í National Spiritual Assembly of Central and East Africa.
  • In 1961 he was elected to the International Bahá'í Council and so moved to Haifa. In 1963 he was elected to the Universal House of Justice during its inaugural convention, and served as a member of that body until 2003. [Find a grave]
  • For a video tribute to Mr Nakhjavani see YouTube.
  • See Shoghi Effendi: The Range and Power of His Pen by ‘Ali Nakhjavani.
  • Baku; Azerbaijan; Beirut; Lebanon; Molsheim; France Ali Nakhjavani; In Memoriam; American University of Beirut; Enoch Olinga; Violette Nakhjavani; International Bahai Council; Auxiliary Board Members

    from the Chronology Canada

    no results

    from the Main Catalogue

    1. Abdu'l-Baha in Britain and France (1911-1913) (2018). Annotated, detailed map of places and dates (link offsite). [about]
    2. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Encounter with Modernity during His Western Travels, by Wendi Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Abdu'l-Bahá's responses to the West's technology and innovations on the one hand, vs. its archaic racist and sexual philosophies on the other. [about]
    3. 'Abdu'l-Baha's Meeting with Two Prominent Iranians, by Muhammad Qazvini, in World Order, 30:1 (1998 Fall). Muhammad Qazvini's and Siyyid Hasan Taqizadeh's descriptions of their 1911 meetings with `Abdu'l-Bahá in Paris. Preceded by a brief biography of Abdu'l-Bahá. [about]
    4. 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the World Stage, by Iraj Ghanooni (2022). A contrast of the spiritual purpose of ‘Abdu'l-Bahá's first visit to Paris with the secular aims of some famous Iranian contemporaries who went there around the same time; includes philosophical discussions and an analysis of two talks by ‘Abdu'l-Bahá. [about]
    5. Account of How I Became a Bahá'í and My Stays in Paris in 1901 and 1937, An: Written at the Request of Mrs. Laura Dreyfus-Barney, by Agnes Baldwin Alexander (1958). Alexander's account of her acceptance of the Bahá'í teachings in Rome in 1900 and subsequent meetings with the Bahá'í group in Paris. [about]
    6. Babi and Bahá'í Religions 1844-1944: Some Contemporary Western Accounts, by Moojan Momen (1981). A lengthy collection of first-hand reports and mentions of the Bábí and Bahá'í religions in contemporaneous accounts and newspapers. [about]
    7. Bahá'í Studies in Europe, by Peter Terry (1981). Interviews with and bios of individuals engaged in study of the Bábí and Bahá'í religions, and descriptions of archives, in Austria, Belgium, Denmark, England, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Norway, Switzerland, Sweden, and Wales, 1980-81. [about]
    8. Bibliographie des ouvrages de langue française mentionnant les religions babie ou baha'ie (1844-1944), in Occasional Papers in Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Studies, 3 (1997-06). Bibliography of French works mentioning the Bábí or Bahá'í Religions, 1844-1944. [about]
    9. Causeries d'Abdu'l-Bahá à Paris, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1987/2016). [about]
    10. Colonialism, Nationalism and Jewish Immigration to Palestine: Abdu'l-Baha's Viewpoints Regarding the Middle East, by Kamran Ekbal (2014). Abdu'l-Bahá was opposed to the cultural and political colonialism of foreign powers and their militaries. In spite of the Bahá'í principle of abstaining from politics, exceptions can be made in the face of tyranny and injustice. [about]
    11. Divine Simplicity: Remembering the last Hand of the Cause of God, 'Ali-Muhammad Varqa, by Jack McLean (2008-09-18). Biography of Dr. Varqa, partly based on interviews with people who knew him in Iran. [about]
    12. Encyclopaedia Iranica: Selected articles related to Persian culture, religion, philosophy and history, by Encyclopaedia Iranica, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (1982-2023). Sorted, categorized collection of links to over 170 articles. [about]
    13. Germany, France, Italy, and Switzerland, by Abdu'l-Bahá and Shoghi Effendi, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 4:1 (1994). Compilation of new perspectives on the future of European civilization. Includes introduction by Julio Savi. [about]
    14. Glimpse of Abdu'l-Bahá in Paris, by Alice R. Beede, in Star of the West, 2:18 (1912-02-07). Short account of a brief meeting in Paris, and brief speech by Abdu'l-Bahá. [about]
    15. Guardian's Wartime Travels, The, by Harry Liedtke (2016). Brief chronology of world events 1938-1940 juxtaposed with Shoghi Effendi's travels in 1940, when he left Haifa for England nine months after the beginning of the war. [about]
    16. Inayat Khan's meeting with 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Paris, by Inayat Khan (1913). One-paragraph recounting of Khan, the founder of "Universal Sufism," meeting with Abdu'l-Bahá in 1913. [about]
    17. Interview with A.L.M. Nicolas of Paris: Translator of many important works of the Báb, by Edith Sanderson, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 8 (1938-1940) (1942). Nicolas' life, his encounter with the Bábí movement, his motivations and translation efforts. [about]
    18. Journal Diary of European Baha'i Travels: April - November 1948, by Charles Mason Remey (1948). A record of Remey's visits across Europe, from England to Germany. Includes coverage of Bahá'í participation in the first U.N. convention on Human Rights, held in Geneva. [about]
    19. Les religions et les philosophies dans l'asie centrale, by Joseph Arthur Gobineau (1866/1900). A lengthy early account of Bábí history by French Orientalist and diplomat Comte de Gobineau, who served as France's envoy to Iran in 1855-1863. [about]
    20. Letter to the Ecole des Jeunes May Bolles Maxwell Conference, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum (1997-12-19). [about]
    21. Life of Thomas Breakwell, The, by Rajwantee Lakshiman-Lepain (1998). Breakwell (1872–1902) was a religious seeker who became a Bahá'í in Paris in 1901, the first Englishman to become a Bahá'í as well as the first westerner to contribute to the Huqúqu'lláh. [about]
    22. Mayflowers in the Ville Lumière: The Dawning of Bahá'í History in the European Continent, by Julio Savi, in Lights of Irfan, 12 (2011). In intellectual and artistic Paris of the fin de siècle, a young American becomes the catalyst for the spiritual awakening of a group of early believers. The paper examines the mysterious ways through which they came to recognize the dawn of the new era. [about]
    23. Memories of the Sojourn of 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Paris, by Lady Sarah Louisa Blomfield, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 6 (1934-1936) (1937). Memoir of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s four-month stay in Paris in 1911. Notes taken by the author's daughters were later published as the book Paris Talks. [about]
    24. My Interview with Laura Dreyfus-Barney, by Jack McLean (2007). Brief interview with the compiler of Some Answered Questions, conducted in Paris in 1967. [about]
    25. Napoleão III: Breve biografia e excertos da epístola revelada por Bahá'u'lláh, by Marco Oliveira (2004-07-19). Short biography of Napoleon III and several paragraphs of one of the Tablets revealed by Bahá'u'lláh to Napoleon III. [about]
    26. New Cycle of Human Power, A: Abdu'l-Bahá's Encounters with Modernist Writers and Artists, by Robert Weinberg, in Bahá'í World (2021-01). On the impact of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá on a number of individuals who were at the cultural vanguard of a society undergoing rapid, radical change. [about]
    27. Nine Days to Istanbul, by Jeanne de Corrales (1981/1992). An incredible story of a mid January 1963 train journey. [about]
    28. Paris Talks, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1972). Transcribed from translations of talks given by ʻAbdu'l-Bahá while in Paris in 1912; not yet compared to Persian originals and so unauthenticated. [about]
    29. Paris Talks: Study Guide (2024). A lengthy study guide of subjects such as the nature of humankind, the soul, the Prophets, the establishment of world peace, the abolition of prejudice, equality, the harmony of science and religion, and the cause of war, from Abdu'l-Bahá's Paris talks. [about]
    30. Preliminary Bibliography of works in French making mention of the Babí or Bahá'í religions (1945–2000), by Thomas Linard, in Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 1 (2007). [about]
    31. Quelques Rencontres Importantes entre les Communautés Protestante et Bahá'íe en France, by Jan T. Jasion (2019-11). History of the relationship between the Faith in France and the Protestant community, 1870-1913 (with photographs). [about]
    32. Questions and Answers 1950-51, by Mirra Alfassa (1951/1972). Recollections of Abdu'l-Bahá speaking about sacrifice and suffering by a leading spiritual collaborator of Sri Aurobindo. [about]
    33. Sabiduria de 'Abdu'l-Bahá, La, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1996). Spanish translation of Paris Talks. [about]
    34. Seyyèd Ali Mohammed, dit le Bâb, by A.L.M. Nicolas (1905). The first detailed biography of The Bab written in a Western language. [about]
    35. Tablet of Maqsud, by Universal House of Justice (2001-05-01). Date of the revelation of the Tablet of Maqsúd and its mention of "Two great powers." [about]
    36. Talk Given by Abdu'l-Baha to Theosophists at Marseille, by Abdu'l-Bahá, in Abdu'l-Bahá in France, 1911-1913 (2017). Text of a talk on materialism and philosophy, adapted from a newspaper article. [about]
    37. "Two Great Powers" in the Lawh-i Maqsud, by Ismael Velasco (2014). On the identity of the two countries that arose against the followers of Moses, referenced by Bahá'u'lláh — likely Russia and France or Russia and Germany. [about]
    38. Wisdom and Wit of Roger White, The: Two Reviews, by Marzieh Gail and Hilda Phillips, in dialogue magazine, 1:4 (1987). Reviews of White's books One Bird One Cage One Flight and A Sudden Music. [about]
    39. Words of Long Ago, by Mirra Alfassa (1912/1978). Transcript of a talk The Mother delivered to some Bahá'ís in Paris in 1912 by request of Abdu'l-Bahá; reflections inspired by the departure of Abdu'l-Bahá from Paris in June 1913. [about]
    See all locations, sorted numerically or alphabetically.

    See all tags, sorted numerically or alphabetically.

    • Locations are simplified spellings used to find documents on a similar topic but with various titles.
    • Searches match parts of a location: searching for state will also show United States.
    • 1- and 2-letter words will not be searched.
    • Please contact us if you can help add locations.
    Home Site Map Links Copyright About Contact
    . .