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from the Chronology

date event locations tags see also
1888 (In the year) Jamál Effendi, accompanied by Hájí Faraju'lláh-i-Tafrishí, embarked on a long journey to the East visiting Burma, Java (Indonesia), Siam (Thailand), Singapore, Kashmir, Tibet, Yarqand, Khuqand in Chinese Turkistan, and Afghanistan. [EB123–4; PH22] Myanmar (Burma); Java; Indonesia; Siam (Thailand); Thailand; Singapore; Kashmir; India; Tibet; Yarqand; Khuqand; Chinese Turkistan; China; Afghanistan Jamal Effendi; Haji Farajullah-i-Tafrishi
1914 Spring Laura and Hippolyte Dreyfus Barney started their teaching trip to China and French Indonesia. They visited the German colony of Qingdao, China with a plan to travel up the Yangzi river (and overland) to Kunming, Yunnan Province. However due to the outbreak of the first world war they returned to Europe, escaping from Qingdao thanks to Hippolyte's adroitness. They returned to France in time for him to assume his military obligations. [Iranica] China; French Indonesia Laura Clifford Barney; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney
1951. (In the year) Khadaram and Parvin Payman were the first pioneers in Indonesia. [PH62] Indonesia Khadaram Payman; Parvin Payman
1953 Oct Elly Becking arrived in Dutch New Guinea and was named a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW13:451] Dutch New Guinea; Indonesia Knights of Bahaullah
1954 Feb Rahmatu'lláh and Írán Muhájir arrived in Mentawai Islands and were named Knights of Bahá'u‘lláh. [BW13:454]
  • For the story of their pioneering activity see Muhájir, Dr Muhajir, Hand of the Cause of God, Knight of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Mentawai Islands; Indonesia Rahmatullah Muhajir; Iran Muhajir; Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 Feb Rahmatu'lláh Muhájir and Irán Muhájir arrived the Mentawai Islands and received the accolade "Knight of Bahá'u'lláh".[BS13p454] Mentawai Islands; Indonesia Knights of Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause
    1957 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of South East Asia was formed with its seat in Djakarta. [BW13:289,302]
  • Its area of jurisdiction was Borneo, Indo-China, Indonesia, Malaya, Sarawak, Siam, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Philippines, Dutch New Guinea, Mentawai Islands, Cocos Islands, Portuguese Timor and Brunei.
  • A subsidiary Six-Year Plan was formed. [BW13:302]
  • This assembly was dissolved in 1964. [BW14p99]
  • Djakarta; Indonesia National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1957 Oct Shoghi Effendi called for the convocation of a series of Intercontinental Conferences to be held successively in Kampala, Uganda (Regional Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Central and East Africa); Sydney, Australia (National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Australia); Chicago, United States (National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States of America,; Frankfurt, Germany (National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Germany and: Austria); and Djakarta, Indonesia (Regional Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of South-East Asia). [BW13:311–12; MBW125]

    The five-fold purpose of the International Conferences was:

    1. offering humble thanksgiving to the Divine Author of our Faith, Who has graciously enabled His followers, during a period of deepening anxiety and amidst the confusion and uncertainties of a critical phase in the fortunes of mankind,
    2. to prosecute uninterruptedly the Ten-Year Plan formulated for the execution of the Grand Design conceived by 'Abdu'l-Bahá,
    3. of reviewing and celebrating the series of signal victories won so rapidly in the course of each of the campaigns of this world-encircling Crusade,
    4. of deliberating on ways and means that will insure its triumphant consummation,
    5. and of lending simultaneously a powerful impetus, the world over, to the vital process of individual conversion -the preeminent purpose underlying the Plan in all its ramifications - and to the construction and completion of the three Mother Temples to be built in the European, the African, and Australian continents. [CBN No 94 Nov 1957 p1]
    BWC; Kampala; Uganda; Sydney; Australia; Chicago; United States; Frankfurt; Germany; Djakarta; Indonesia Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade
    1958 14 Sep A week before the fifth Intercontinental conference is due to convene in Djakarta, Indonesia, the government withdrew the permit to hold the conference. [BW13:331]
  • For the story of why the permit was revoked see DM83–5.
  • The cancellation of the conference in Djakarta began a period of severe repression of the Faith in Indonesia which eventually led to the Faith being banned in 1962. [DM85, 88]
  • Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Conferences, Intercontinental; Ten Year Crusade
    1958 21 Sep Hand of the Cause Leroy Ioas arrived in Indonesia and was plunged into negotiations regarding the holding of the conference.
  • He met with local Bahá'ís and anointed them with attar of roses as they passed to the room to view the portrait of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW13:331–2]
  • Indonesia Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Leroy Ioas
    1961 (In the year) The military government in Indonesia issued instructions to local authorities to ban all Bahá'í activities and to confiscate all Bahá'í property. [MoC329] Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1962 (In the year) The administrative institutions of the Faith were banned in Indonesia by President Sukarno. [BW19:41]
  • BW15:174 says this was in 1964, other indications are that it was around the time of the International Convention. [Servants of the Glory page 30]
  • Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Other; Persecution
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Indonesia was formed with its seat in Djakarta and comprising Indonesia, the Mentawai Islands, Portuguese Timor and West Irian. [BW14p99] Djakarta; Indonesia; Mentawai Islands; Portuguese Timor; West Irian National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1972 (In the year) In Indonesia the Attorney-General confirmed the 1962 ban on Bahá'í administrative institutions and added a further prohibition against organized Bahá'í teaching activities. [BW19:41] Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1972 19 Jun The government of Indonesia re-affirmed the ban on the Bahá'í Faith.
  • Following this a number of Bahá'ís lost their jobs.
  • Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1974 (In the year) Owing to the failure of the Indonesian Bahá'ís to obtain religious liberty, the Universal House of Justice instructed that the national convention not be held. Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Bans; Persecution; Conventions, National
    1975 (In the year) Owing to the continuing ban on Bahá'í activities and institutions, the national spiritual assembly and all local spiritual assemblies were disbanded in Indonesia. Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1975 (In the year) In Indonesia several Bahá'ís were arrested, given light sentences and released for violating the 1962 and 1972 bans on Bahá'í activity. [BW19:41]
  • A few months later four Bahá'ís were sentenced to five years' imprisonment; they remained in prison for the full five years. [BW19:41]
  • Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    1984 (In the year) Four Bahá'ís, one of whom had already spent five years in prison, were imprisoned in Indonesia, convicted of membership in a banned religious organization, with teaching the Bahá'í Faith and with insulting Islám. [BW19:42]
  • The prison terms ranged from one to five years. [BW19:42]
  • Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Arrests; Persecution, Court cases; Court cases; Persecution
    1985 Jul Three Bahá'í youths in Mentawai were imprisoned for having married according to Bahá'í law. [BW19:42] Mentawai Islands; Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights
    2000. Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Indonesia with its seat in Jakarta was restored. A ban had been imposed on Bahá'í activities in August 1962 that severely restricted the actions of the Indonesian Bahá'í community. [Ridván Message 2001] Jakarta; Indonesia National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    2002 (In the year) The Indonesian Ulema Council (MUI) issued a fatwa (edict) that banned Bahá'ís from burying their dead relatives in public cemeteries. Religious violence targeting the Indonesian Bahá'í community began during the Suharto regime that restricted the official religions to only five. Bans on the Faith had been issued earlier in the 1960s and the 1970s. [The Jakarta Post August 8, 2014] Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Bans; Persecution
    2014 (In the year) The Baha'i International Community opened a Regional Office in Jakarta. The Office engaged inter-governmental associations such as ASEAN as well as various governmental agencies, civil society organizations and research institutes in the region with a view to convening gatherings, creating spaces devoted to collective inquiry, and meaningful discussion of contemporary issues in the region of Southeast Asia.
  • The present work of the Office is built on the long-time presence of the Baha'i Faith in this part of the world, dating back more than a century to the 1870s. Today, Baha'is are present in all Southeast Asian countries and are actively working for the spiritual and social advancement of their neighborhoods and villages. [BIC website; BIC News]
  • Jakarta; Indonesia Bahai International Community
    2014 8 Aug The official ban on the Bahá'í Faith in Indonesia was lifted. [The Jakarta Post August 8, 2014] Jakarta; Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Bans; Persecution

    from the Chronology Canada

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    from the Main Catalogue

    1. Humanity of Evil, The: Bahá'í Reflections on the film The Act of Killing, by Bernardo Bortolin Kerr (2014). The theology of evil throughout history and in Bahá'í thought; ways in which people de-humanize and become alienated from their own selves; on forgiveness and merciful love in the face of justice and punishment. [about]
    2. Indonesian Bahá'í Community's Perspective on Gender Equality, by Samsul Hidayat, in Al-Albab, 12:1 (2023). On the concept of gender equality in Indonesian context from a Bahá'í perspective; Bahá'ís view gender differences only from biological factors; differences are due to the cultures of the people, not patriarchal ideology like in the Indonesian tradition. [about]
    3. Jamal Effendi and Sayyid Mustafa Rumi in Celebes: The Context of Early Bahá'í Missionary Activity in Indonesia, by Jelle de Vries, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 14 (2007-12). Details of an early Bahá'í missionary journey to the the island of Celebes (now Sulawesi) in what was then to the Dutch East Indies, including the conversion of the king and queen of Boné. [about]
    4. Jamál Effendi and the early history of the Bahá'í Faith in South Asia, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 9 (1999). Includes maps on Jamal Effendi's journeys in India, and journeys in Southeast Asia. [about]
    5. Politics of Recognition, Society, and Law, The: The Role of Muslim Society and the Kubu Raya Local Government in the Struggle of the Bahá'ís, by Ali Akhbar Abaib Mas Rabbani Lubis and Sulaiman, in Millah: Journal of Religious Studies, 21:3 (2022-11). The experience of Bahá'ís in Indonesia, specifically the region of Kubu Raya, West Kalimantan, where they face rejection in society and restrictions on civil rights; relationships between the Baha’is and the majority Muslim community and local government. [about]
    6. References to the Bahá'í Faith in the U.S. State Department's Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, by United States Department of State (1991-2001). Excerpts from the State Department's annual compilation of Country Reports on Human Rights Practices on discrimination against the Bahá'í Faith and persecution of its adherents in twenty countries. [about]
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