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from the Chronology

date event locations tags see also
1953 Jul Eskil Ljungberg of Sweden, aged 67, arrived in the Faroe Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW13:451]
  • He was the only Bahá'í on the islands for over a decade.
  • For the story of his life see BW19:658–61.
  • Faroe Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Jul Jack Huffman and Rose Perkal arrived on the Kodiak Islands and were named Knights of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW13:453] Kodiak Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Jul Jenabe and Elaine Caldwell arrived in the Aleutian Islands and were named Knights of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW13:449] Aleutian Islands Jenabe Caldwell; Elaine Caldwell; Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Aug Edythe MacArthur arrived in the Queen Charlotte Islands (now Haida Gwaii) and was named a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW13:455; BWIM143-145] Queen Charlotte Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 11 Aug Virginia Orbison arrived in the Balearic Islands from a pioneer post in Spain and was named a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh for the Balearic Islands. [BW13:449]

    It was neither her first nor her last pioneer experience. Between 1942 and 1946 she pioneered to Chile, Argentina, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador and Brazil. After World War II she went to Madrid, Spain where she helped raise the first local spiritual assembly and she did the same thing in Barcelona the following year.

    In July of 1953 she went to the Stockholm Intercontinental Teaching Conference where she offered to pioneer to Mallorca in one of the Balearic Islands, She stayed about one year before returning to Barcelona in August of 1954 where she attended the Iberian Teaching Conference that was attended by 60 people. Late that nine, she and nine others were arrested by the police and interrogated for 18 hours. They had thought that the Bahá'í were Communists.

    In 1956 she moved to Portugal where she was elected to the first Iberian Regional Spiritual Assembly. After three years she was forced to leave by the authorities because of her Bahá'í activities, holding property and owning a telephone.

    She was asked to go to Luxembourg where she spent nine years but made little progress in establishing the Faith. She was then asked to got to Malaga, Spain and by 1972 Malaga had a local spiritual assembly so she pioneered to Margella in 1979.

    The National Spiritual Assembly asked her to write a history of the Faith in Spain which was completed in 1980.

    As was her wish, she passed to the Abha Kingdom in 1985, still a pioneer. [KoB346-347; Wikipedia]

    See also Also see Bahá'í World 19 pages 715-721 or 692-697 in the print version and Bahá'í News #586 January 1980 p2-5.

    Balearic Islands; Spain; Chile; Argentina; Bolivia; Peru; Ecuador; Brazil; Mallorca; Spain; Portugal; Luxembourg Virginia Orbison; Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 28 Aug Mildred Clark, a pioneer in Norway, and Loyce Lawrence (née Drugan), a nurse and hospital matron, arrived in the Lofoten Islands and were named Knights of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW13:453]
  • Mrs Lawrence began teaching the Saami.
  • Lofoten Islands; Norway Knights of Bahaullah; Sami people
    1953 Sep Brigitte Hasselblatt arrived in Shetland and was named a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW13:455] Shetland Islands; Scotland; United Kingdom Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Sep Gertrude Eisenberg arrived in Las Palmas and is named a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh for the Canary Islands. [BW13:450] Las Palmas; Canary Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Sep Evelyn Baxter arrived in the Channel Islands and was named Knights of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW13:450] Channel Islands Evelyn Baxter; Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Sep Brigitte Lundblade (nee Hasselblatt), (b. 1923 - d. 17 May 2008) arrived in the Shetland Islands and was later honoured with being named as Knight of Bahá'u'lláh. [Bahaipedia] Shetland Islands; Scotland; United Kingdom Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Sep Kathleen Weston arrived in the Magdalen Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW13:453] Magdalen Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Sep Diá'i'lláh Asgharzádih arrived in the Channel Islands and was named Knights of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW13:450] Channel Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Diaillah Asgharzadih
    1953 Sep Elsa Grossman arrived in the Frisian Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW13:452] Frisian Islands Elsa Grossmann; Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Oct Helen Robinson arrived on Baranof Island and was named a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW13:449] Baranof Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Oct Ursula von Brunn arrived in the Frisian Islands and was named Knights of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW13:452] Frisian Islands Ursula von Brunn; Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Oct The arrival of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Edith Danielson in the Cook Islands. [BWNS265] Cook Islands; Pacific Knights of Bahaullah; BWNS
    1953 Oct Charles Dunning arrived in the Orkney Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW13:455] ul>
  • In probably it was October of 1954 Harold and Marzieh Gail depart from St Matthew's Quay in Aberdeen destined to pay a visit to Charles Dunning in Kirkwall. On the island the diminutive Charles Dunning is referred to as "a wee chappie". [OPOP55-59]
  • Orkney Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Oct Earle Render arrived in the Leeward Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW13:453] Leeward Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Oct Salvador and Adela Tormo arrived on the Juan Fernandez Islands and were named Knights of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW13:452] Juan Fernandez Islands; Chile Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 13 Oct Esther Evans and Lillian Middlemast arrived in Castries, St Lucia, and were named Knights of Bahá'u'lláh for the Windward Islands. BW13:457] Castries; St Lucia; Windward Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 14 Oct Edith M. Danielsen arrived on Aitutaki Island, 150 miles north of Rarotonga, before leaving for Avarua, Rarotonga, five days later and was named a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh for the Cook Islands. [BW13:450]
  • For the story of her life see BW19:625–6.
  • Cook Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 16 Oct Benjamin Dunham Weeden and his wife Gladys (née Anderson) arrived in Antigua and were named Knights of Bahá'u'lláh for the Leeward Islands. [BW13:453]
  • For the story of Ben Weeden's life see BW15:478–9.
  • For the story of Gladys Weeden's life see BW18:692–6.
  • Antigua; Leeward Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 18 Oct George and Marguerite (Peggy) True arrived on Tenerif with their 12-year-old son Barry and were named Knights of Bahá'u'lláh for the Canary Islands. [BW13:450; BW19p634] Tenerif; Canary Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands; George True; Peggy True; Margarite True; Barry True
    1953 29 Oct Gladys (‘Glad') Irene Parke and Gretta Stevens Lamprill arrived in Papeete from Australia and were named Knights of Bahá'u'lláh for the Society Islands, French Polynesia. [BW13:455]
  • For the story of Gladys Parke's life see BW15:457–8.
  • For the story of Gretta Lamprill's life see BW15:534–5. She was the inaugural secretary of the Hobart LSA, a secretary of the NSA of Australia and New Zealand and a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh for the Society Islands. She was known as the "Mother of Tasmania".
  • Papeete; Society Islands; French Polynesia Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Oct Geertrui Ankersmidt arrived in the Frisian Islands and was named Knight of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW13:452] Frisian Islands; Netherlands Knights of Bahaullah; Gertrud Ankersmidt
    1953 Oct Bertha Dobbins arrived in Port Vila on the island of Efate from Adelaide, Australia, and was named a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh for the New Hebrides Islands (Vanuatu). [BW13:454] Port Vila; Efate; New Hebrides Islands (Vanuatu) Bertha Dobbins; Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1953 Nov The arrival of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Dr. K. M. Fozdar on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. [PH57; BWNS271] Andaman and Nicobar Islands Knights of Bahaullah; BWNS
    1953 Nov Dr Khodadad M. Fozdar, an Indian of Parsi background, arrived in the Andaman Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW13:449]
  • For the story of his life see BW13:892–3.
  • Andaman and Nicobar Islands; India Khodadad M. Fozdar; Knights of Bahaullah
    1953 Dec Jean and Tove Deleuran arrived in the Balearic Islands and were named Knights of Bahá'u'lláh in December. [BW13:449] Balearic Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands; Jean Deleuran; Tove Deleuran
    1954 (In the year) The first person to become a Bahá'í in the Balearic Islands, C. Miguel, enrolled. Balearic Islands First Bahais by country or area; Islands
    1954 (In the year) The arrival of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Violet Noehnke on the Admiralty Islands, now Manus Province in Papua New Guinea. [BWNS307, BWNS312] Admiralty Islands; Manus Province; Papua New Guinea Knights of Bahaullah; BWNS Find date
    1954 Jan The arrival of Knight of Bahá'u'lláh Dulcie Dive in the Cook Islands. [BWNS265] Cook Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands; BWNS
    1954 Jan Charles M. Ioas arrived in the Balearic Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW13:449] Balearic Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 3 Jan Howard and Joanne Menking arrived in the Cape Verde Islands and were named Knights of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW13:450] Cape Verde Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 Jan Munír Vakíl, a former general in the Iraqi army, settled on one of the Kuria-Muria Islands in the Arabian Sea and was named a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW13:453]
  • For the story of the hardships of his pioneering post see ZK99–101.
  • Kuria-Muria Islands; Oman Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 Jan Virginia Breaks arrived on the island of Truk and was named a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh for the Caroline Islands. [BW13:450; MBW57] Truk; Caroline Islands Virginia Breaks; Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 18 Jan Mrs Dulcie Burns Dive arrived in the Cook Islands from Australia and was named a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW13:450, 925] Cook Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 Feb Grace Bahovec arrived in the Baranof Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW13:449] Baranof Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 Feb Rahmatu'lláh and Írán Muhájir arrived in Mentawai Islands and were named Knights of Bahá'u‘lláh. [BW13:454]
  • For the story of their pioneering activity see Muhájir, Dr Muhajir, Hand of the Cause of God, Knight of Bahá'u'lláh.
  • Mentawai Islands; Indonesia Rahmatullah Muhajir; Iran Muhajir; Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 Feb Bernard H. Guhrke arrived on the Kodiak Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW13:453] Kodiak Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 Feb Gail Avery arrived in the Baranof Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW13:449] Baranof Islands Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 Feb David Schreiber, an American, arrived in Antigua and was named a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh for the Leeward Islands. [BW13:453] Antigua; Leeward Islands Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 Feb Rahmatu'lláh Muhájir and Irán Muhájir arrived the Mentawai Islands and received the accolade "Knight of Bahá'u'lláh".[BS13p454] Mentawai Islands; Indonesia Knights of Bahaullah; Hands of the Cause
    1954 10 Feb John Leonard arrived in the Falkland Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW13:451] Falkland Islands Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 21 Feb Charles (‘Chuck') and Mary Dayton from the United States, settled in Charlotte Amalie, on St Thomas, and wre named Knights of Bahá'u'lláh for the Leeward Islands. [BW13:453] Charlotte Amalie; St Thomas; Leeward Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 Mar Greta Jankko arrived in the Marquesas Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW13:454] Marquesas Islands Greta Jankko; Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 1 Mar Alvin J. Blum and his wife, Gertrude (née Gewertz), arrived in Honiara and were named Knights of Bahá'u'lláh for the Solomon Islands. They were accompanied by their eight-year-old daughter Keithie. [BW13:456; BWNS291] Solomon Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 4 Mar The arrival of Knights of Bahá'u'lláh Elena (Marsella) and Roy Fernie in Kiribati (Gilbert Islands). They had come from the National Spiritual Assembly of Panama. [BWNS301, BW13:452]
  • They had left their home in Panama and their service on the National Spiritual Assembly of Panama to pioneer. They arrived on the island of Abaiang (aka Charlotte Island, of the Gilbert Islands), on March 4, 1954 and for this service they were named Knights of Baha'u'llah. About the first of June 1954, former Catholic seminarian and mission teacher Peter Kanere Koru became the first convert on the island.
  • Their teaching work brought opposition from the Roman Catholic priest who told his congregation not to attend the Bahá'í meetings. He began to criticize them in the Roman Catholic newsletter and actually contributed to the knowledge of the Faith because the newsletter had a wide distribution.
  • The priest persisted in his opposition by informing his bishop who asked the government to send the Fernies away and to send Peter Kanere, a native Bahá'í, back to his native island of Tabiteuea. At the time, to be a registered religious organization required a membership of at least 100 believers so the government-approved sending the Fernies away however, in a single night some 300 people registered. A certificate of registration was issued on the 24th of September, 1955, but not before they managed to exile Roy Fernie. Elena continued the teaching work on her own and was responsible for firmly establishing the Faith on Abaiang.
  • Meanwhile, Peter Kanere, back on his home island, managed to teach a Protestant minister who was under discipline of his church at the time. Together they spread the Faith on Tabiteuea. [Island Churches: Challenge and Change by Makisi Finau page 101]
  • For more details on the life of Roy Fernie see Bahaipedia.
  • See also The Origins of the Bahá'í Faith in the Pacific Islands: The Case of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands by Graham Hassall.
  • And Bahá'í Faith in the Asia Pacific: Issues and Prospects also by Graham Hassall.
  • Elena Maria Marsella published The Quest for Eden in 1966.
  • Tabiteuea; Kiribati; Gilbert Islands Knights of Bahaullah; First Bahais by country or area; Islands; BWNS
    1954 Apr Kay Zinky arrived in the Magdalen Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW13:453] Magdalen Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 Apr Robert B. Powers, Jr., a member of the U.S. armed forces at the Navy Air Station, arrived in Guam and was named a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh for the Mariana Islands. [BW13:454] Guam; Mariana Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954. 9 Apr Gayle Woolson and her companion, Rebecca Kaufman, arrived in the Galapagos Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW13:452] [Heroes of God p59] Galapagos Islands; Ecuador Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 May Elinore Putney arrived in the Aleutian Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá'u‘lláh. [BW13:449] Aleutian Islands; Alaska; United States; Russia Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 2 May Cynthia R. Olson of Wilmington, Delaware, settled in Barrigada, the largest village in Guam, and was named a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh for the Mariana Islands. [BW13:454; BWNS303] Barrigada; Guam; Mariana Islands; Oceania Knights of Bahaullah
    1954. 29 May Haik (Haig) Kevorkian arrived in the Galápagos Islands and settled on the island of Santa Cruz. He was named a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh. Haig had been present in Guayaquil as an itinerant pioneer-teacher in 1945 when the first local Assembly of that city was formed. He returned in 1954 to fill the virgin goal of the Galapagos. [BW13:452; Heroes of God: History of the Bahá'í Faith in Ecuador, 1940-1979 p24; 61]
  • On March 8, 1955 on the island of Santa Cruz, Señor Moyses Mosquera Zevallos enrolled as the first believer of the Galapagos. He was a school teacher from the mainland of Ecuador working on the island. Later he was dismissed from his job and was forced to leave theGalapagos due to accusations made against him of immoral acts with some of his students in spite of the fact that the teaching space was such that his wife was constantly with him. He had been the victim of an attack by the parish priest[ibid p76]
  • Haig returned to his home in Buenos Aires, Argentina in January 1956. His family came from Turkey but he was born in Syria on October 1, 1916 and came to Argentina as a youth with his family. He married his fiancée Miss Aurora de Eyto on October 19, 1957. His wife reported that he had colds continuously after returning from the islands, and on August 3, 1970 Haig passed away at .the age of 54. [ibid p75]
  • Galapagos Islands; Ecuador Knights of Bahaullah; Islands; Haik Kevorkian; Haig Kevorkian
    1954 Jun Shawqí Riyád Rawhání (Shoghi Riaz Rouhani), an Iranian from Egypt, arrived in Las Palmas and was named a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh for the Canary Islands. [BW13:450] Las Palmas; Canary Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 19 Jun The first Canary Islander to become a Bahá'í, Sr. José Jacinto Castillo y Gonzalez, enrolled. Canary Islands First Bahais by country or area
    1954 5 Jul Violet Hoehnke, an Australian, arrived in Papua New Guinea and was named a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh for the Admiralty Islands. [BW13:449] Papua New Guinea; Admiralty Islands Knights of Bahaullah
    1954 7 Aug Marcia Steward de Matamoros Atwater arrived in the Marshall Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW13:454] Marshall Islands Marcia Atwater; Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1954 28 Aug Mihribán Suhaylí (Mehraban Sohaili) arrived on the Comoro Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW13:450] Comoro Islands Mihriban Suhayli (Mehraban Sohaili); Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1955 Mar The first person to become a Bahá'í in the Solomon Islands, William Gina, a 43-year-old Solomon Islander from the Western Solomon Islands, enrolled. Solomon Islands; Oceania First Bahais by country or area
    1955 Oct Daniel Haumont arrived in the Loyalty Islands and was named a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW13:453] Loyalty Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1956 7 Apr The first indigenous person to become a Bahá'í in Micronesia, 22-year-old Joe Erie Ilengelkei from Palau, Caroline Islands, enrolled. Palau; Caroline Islands Joe Erie Ilengelkei
    1957 Jul Margaret Bates and her daughter Jean Frankel of the United States arrived in the Nicobar Islands and were named Knights of Bahá'u'lláh. [BW13:454; PH63] Andaman and Nicobar Islands Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1959 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of the South Pacific Islands was formed with its seat in Suva, Fiji. [BN No 267 MY 1953 P1]
  • Its area of jurisdiction comprised of ten island groups: Samoa, Fiji, New Caledonia, New Hebrides, Loyalty Islands, Gilbert and Ellice Islands, Marshall Islands, Cook Islands, Solomon Islands, and Tonga. [BW13:308]
  • For the letter of the Custodians to the national convention see MC151–5.
  • In 1963 the Universal House of Justice announced that the Assembly was to be dissolved and succeeded by a National Spiritual Assembly of the South Pacific Ocean, and a National Spiritual Assembly of the South West Pacific Ocean, with the new Assemblies being formed the following year.
  • Suva; Fiji; Samoa; New Caledonia; New Hebrides Islands (Vanuatu); Loyalty Islands; Gilbert and Ellice Islands; Marshall Islands; Cook Islands; Solomon Islands; Tonga National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1959 Sep Clifford and Catherine Huxtable arrived in the Gulf Islands and were named Knights of Bahá'u'lláh (albeit on 14 September 1969 see LNW101). [BW13:457] Gulf Islands Clifford Huxtable; Catherine Huxtable; Knights of Bahaullah; Islands
    1961 (In the year) Knud Jensen (of mixed Danish, St Thomanian parentage), the first local person to become a Bahá'í in the Virgin Islands, enrolled. Virgin Islands; United States First Bahais by country or area
    1961 8 Jul Georges and Emma Wayenece, originally from Mare on the Loyalty Islands and the first Loyalty Islanders to become Bahá'ís, enrolled in Nouméa. [BW17:415]
  • Mrs Wayenece was the first Melanesian woman of the New Caledonia and Loyalty Islands area to become a Bahá'í. [BW17:415]
  • Noumea; Loyalty Islands Georges Wayenece; Emma Wayenece
    1961 Oct The first summer school to be held on Rarotonga Island took place. Rarotonga; Cook Islands First summer and winter schools; Summer schools; Islands
    1962 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of the Loyalty Islands was formed in Nouméa. Noumea; Loyalty Islands Local Spiritual Assembly
    1963 1 Nov The first person on Saipan to become a Bahá'í, Patience Robinson, enrolled. Saipan; Northern Mariana Islands First Bahais by country or area
    1964 Ridván The existing National Spiritual Assembly of North West Africa that had been formed in 1956 was split into two regions, the Spiritual Assembly of West Africa and the "new" North West Africa region with its seat in Tunis included the following countries: Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Mauritania, Rio de Oro, Spanish Sahara, Ifni, Madeira, Canary Islands. [BW14p96]
  • The seat of the National Spiritual Assembly of North West Africa was transferred from Tunis (1963-1967) to Rabat (1967-1974). [BW14p97]
  • Tunisia; Algeria; Morocco; Mauritania; Rio de Oro; Spanish Sahara (Western Sahara); Ifni; Madeira; Canary Islands National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1964 Ridván The existing National Spiritual Assembly of North West Africa that had been formed in 1956 was split into two regions, the "new" North West Africa region and the Spiritual Assembly of West Africa with its seat in Monrovia.

    This latter assembly, Spiritual Assembly of West Africa, Ivory Coast; Mali, and Upper Volta, had jurisdiction over the following countries: Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Gambia, Senegal, Portuguese Guinea, and Cape Verde Islands. [BW14p96; BN No 393 Dec 1964 p2 ]

    Monrovia; Liberia; Sierra Leone; Guinea; Gambia, The; Senegal; Portuguese Guinea (Guinea Bissau); Cape Verde Islands; Ivory Coast; Mali; Upper Volta National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of South and West Africa that was formed in 1956, was altered and two additional national assemblies were formed, Indian Ocean, and South Central Africa. South and West Africa remained.

    The National Spiritual Assembly of the Indian Ocean was formed with its seat in Port Louis had jurisdiction over the following countries: Mauritius, Chagos Archipelago, Rodriguez Island, Malagasy Republic, (formerly Madagascar; name changed in 1958) Seychelles Islands, Comoro Islands, and Reunion Island. [BW14p96; BW15:195]

    Port Louis; Mauritius; Chagos Archipelago; Rodriguez Island; Malagasy Republic (Madagascar); Seychelles; Comoro Islands; Reunion National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1964 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of the South Pacific Islands was dissolved and the territory divided into two National Spiritual Assembly areas, South Pacific Ocean and South West Pacific Ocean. The National Spiritual Assembly of the South West Pacific Ocean was formed with its seat in Honiara and comprising the Solomon Islands, the New Hebrides Islands, New Caledonia and the Loyalty Islands. [BW14p99] Honiara; Solomon Islands; New Hebrides Islands (Vanuatu); New Caledonia; Loyalty Islands National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1964 Ridván The Regional Spiritual Assembly of the South Pacific Islands was dissolved and the territory divided into two National Spiritual Assembly areas, South West Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean. The National Spiritual Assembly of the South Pacific Ocean was formed with its seat in Suva comprising the Gilbert and Ellice Islands, Nauru Island, Fiji, Western Samoa, American Samoa, Tonga and Cook Islands. [BW14p99] Suva; Jiji; Gilbert and Ellice Islands; Nauru Island; Fiji; Western Samoa; American Samoa; Tonga; Cook Islands National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1964 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Indonesia was formed with its seat in Djakarta and comprising Indonesia, the Mentawai Islands, Portuguese Timor and West Irian. [BW14p99] Djakarta; Indonesia; Mentawai Islands; Portuguese Timor; West Irian National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1965 (In the year) The first pioneer to the San Andrés and Providencia Islands settled there briefly. San Andres and Providencia Islands First travel teachers and pioneers
    1965 (In the year) Emma Reinert, the first Faroese to become a Bahá'í, enrolled. Faroe Islands First Bahais by country or area
    1965 Aug Thaddeus Smith, Clara Smith, Nando Valle, Evert Scott, Gloria Scott, Thomas Seymour and Lawrence Jebbers, the first to become Bahá'ís in the Cayman Islands, enrolled in George Town owing to the efforts of Ivan A. Graham, a Jamaican Bahá'í. George Town; Cayman Islands First Bahais by country or area; Islands
    1966 (In the year) Florence Parry, the first to become a Bahá'í in the West Leeward Islands, enrolled. West Leeward Islands Florence Parry
    1967 (In the year) Mr O. T. Shelton arrived on St Eustatius in the West Leeward Islands, the first pioneer to the island. West Leeward Islands First travel teachers and pioneers
    1967 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Leeward, Windward and Virgin Islands was formed with its seat in Charlotte Amalie. [BW14:93; Ridván 1966 Charlotte Amalie; Leeward Islands; Windward Islands; Virgin Islands National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1967 Ridván The existing National Spiritual Assembly of North West Africa that had been formed in 1956 and was split into two regions in 1964 was again divided. The Spiritual Assembly of the North West Africa region with its seat moved to Rabat now included the following countries: Morocco, Mauritania, Rio de Oro, Spanish Sahara, Ifni, Madeira, and the Canary Islands. [BW15p188] Rabat; Morocco; Mauritania; Rio de Oro; Spanish Sahara (Western Sahara); Ifni; Madeira; Canary Islands National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1968 Ridván The first local spiritual assembly of the Cayman Islands was formed in George Town. George Town; Cayman Islands Local Spiritual Assembly
    1968. Ridván The formation of the first Local Spiritual Assembly of Kirkwall in the Orkney Islands. A special celebration was held in a hotel in Kirkwall, and Philip Hainsworth came and represented the National Spiritual Assembly. [Uk Bahá'í Histories] Kirkwood,Orkney Islands
    1968 Jul Christian and Elanzo Callwood, Norris Duport and Ethien Chinnery, the first people to become Bahá'ís on the island of Jost Van Dyke in the British Virgin Islands, enrolled. Jost Van Dyke; British Virgin Islands First Bahais by country or area; Islands
    1968 Dec George Howard arrived on Union Island, the first person to take the Bahá'í Faith to the Grenadine Islands. Grenadine Islands George Howard
    1970 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Tonga and the Cook Islands was formed with its seat in Nuku'alofa. [BW15:275]
  • For picture see BW15:146.
  • Nukualofa; Cook Islands; Pacific National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1971 (In the year) The first Pingelapese to become a Bahá'í enrolled in the East Caroline Islands. East Caroline Islands First believers by background
    1971 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Solomon Islands was formed with its seat in Honiara. Previously it had been administered by the National Spiritual Assembly of the South West Pacific Ocean. [BW15:269] Solomon Islands; Oceania National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1972 (In the year) Derek and Sally Dacey, the first resident pioneers on Montserrat in the East Leeward Islands, arrived at their pioneer post. East Leeward Islands First travel teachers and pioneers
    1972 Oct The first local spiritual assembly in the Falkland Islands was formed. [BW15:650] Falkland Islands Local Spiritual Assembly
    1973 (In the year) The first local spiritual assembly in the Faroes was formed in Tórshavn. Torshavn; Faroe Islands Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1973. Ridván The formation of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Leeward and Virgin Island. [BW15p702] Charlotte Amalie; St. Thomas ; Virgin Islands National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1974 (In the year) The National Spiritual Assembly of the Leeward and Virgin Islands held its first annual National Teaching Conference. [BW16:187] Leeward Islands; Virgin Islands Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; Teaching; First conferences
    1974 11 – 18 Aug The first Teaching Conference of the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions of Europe took place in Tórshavn, Faroe Islands. [BW16:110]

    The conference was seen as an historic one in that it was the first to which participants had come to order to discuss the whole area of the European Arctic and sub-Arctic stretching from Finland in the west in Greenland in the east, from Svalbard in the extreme north to the Scottish islands in the south.

    Iceland is the only country in Europe that has planned and systematically carried out, year by year, a program of proclamation (now in its fourth year) that has taken the Faith throughout the entire country, north, south, east and west. (Betty Reed, Continental Board of Counsellors for Europe) [BN No 525 8 December 1974 p11]

    Torshavn; Faroe Islands; Arctic Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Teaching; First conferences; Circumpolar regions
    1975 Feb The first Bahá'í Women's Conference of the Solomon Islands took place at Auki, Malaita Island, attended by more than 90 women. [BW16:282] Solomon Islands; Oceania Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Women; Women; First conferences
    1975 29 Mar The first Bahá'í Youth Conference of the Canary Islands was held in Santa Cruz. [BW16:313] Santa Cruz; Canary Islands Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences
    1977 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Marshall Islands was formed with its seat in Majuro. [BW17:174]
  • See letter sent on behalf of the Universal House of Justice dated 23 June 1995 regarding "Marshall Islands population statistics".
  • Majuro; Marshall Islands National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1977 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the New Hebrides was formed with its seat in Port Vila. Since 1964 it had been administered by the National Spiritual Assembly of the South West Pacific Ocean. With the name change it became the National Spiritual Assembly of Vanuatu on 30 July 1980. [BW17:xxviii,186, 341]
  • With the independence of New Hebrides the National Spiritual Assembly of the South West Pacific Ocean was renamed the National Spiritual Assembly, Bahá'ís of New Caledonia and Loyalty Islands.
  • Port Vila; New Hebrides Islands (Vanuatu) National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1978 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Mariana Islands was formed. [BW17:174–176, 348; DM348, 386]
  • For picture see DM387.
  • Mariana Islands National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1978 Ridván The first local assembly in the British Virgin Islands was formed on Tortola. Tortola; British Virgin Islands Local Spiritual Assembly
    1981 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Leeward Islands was formed with its seat in St John's, Antigua. [BW18:107, 171]
  • The National Spiritual Assembly of the Virgin Islands was formed. It has jurisdiction over both the British Virgin Islands and U.S. Virgin Islands. [Virgin Islands, U.S. and British by Patricia Paccassi; BN No 605 August 1981 p5]
  • St Johns; Antigua; Leeward Islands National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1981 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of Kiribati was formed. Since 1967 they had been part of the Assembly of the Gilbert (Kiribati) and Ellice (Tuvalu) Islands. [Wikipedia] Kiribati; Gilbert Islands National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1984 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands was formed with its seat in Port Blair. [BW19:62, 162]
  • See BW19:520 for picture.
  • Port Blair; Andaman and Nicobar Islands National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1984 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Canary Islands was formed with its seat in Santa Cruz. [BW19:62, 169]
  • See BW19:520 for picture.
  • Santa Cruz; Canary Islands National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1985 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Cook Islands was formed with its seat in Rarotonga. It was formerly in a union with Tonga and so this left the formation of the National Spiritual Assembly of Tonga with its seat in The National Spiritual Assembly of Tonga and the Cook Islands was formed with its seat in Nuku'alofa. [BW15:275]. [BW19:62, 168]
  • French Polynesia, which had been under the direction of the National Spiritual Assembly of New Caledonia was transferred to the newly-elected National Assembly of the Cook Islands.
  • Rarotonga; Cook Islands; Nuku’alofa; Tonga National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1985 Jul Three Bahá'í youths in Mentawai were imprisoned for having married according to Bahá'í law. [BW19:42] Mentawai Islands; Indonesia Persecution, Indonesia; Persecution, Other; Persecution; Human rights
    1986 3 – 4 Aug The Honourable Sir Thomas David, Prime Minister of the Cook Islands, at his request, consulted with the Universal House of Justice at the Bahá'í World Centre about world peace, ‘the most concrete response to date by a political leader to the Peace Statement'. BINS157:1; VV88]
  • For picture see VV86.
  • Haifa; BWC; Cook Islands Prominent visitors; Universal House of Justice
    1988 Jul Nearly 50 people became Bahá'ís in Saipan, Mariana Islands. [BINS181:5]
  • Later reports indicated that 91 people have enrolled by October 1988.
  • Saipan; Mariana Islands
    1989 7 Jan A week-long teaching project was launched in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands resulting in 43 enrolments and the re-formation of two local spiritual assemblies. [BINS191:7] Andaman and Nicobar Islands Local Spiritual Assembly, re-formed; teaching
    1990 (In the year) Amata Kabua, President of the Marshall Islands, visited the Bahá'í World Centre. [BW94–5:83] Marshall Islands; Oceania; BWC Amata Kabua; Presidents; Prominent visitors; Islands
    1990 22 Nov – 6 Dec The First European Bahá'í Youth Encounter was held in the Canary Islands, attended by over 150 people from eight countries. [BINS239:1] Canary Islands; Europe Youth; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International
    1991 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the West Leeward Islands was formed. [AWH86; BINS246:1; VV113] iiiii West Leeward Islands National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1991 Ridván The National Spiritual Assembly of the Leeward Islands that was formed in 1981 was renamed the National Spiritual Assembly of the East Leeward Islands following the splitting of this region. [East Leeward Islands by Patricia Paccassi] Antigua; East Leeward Islands National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1993 Jul The first Bahá'í Youth Symposium of the Marshall Islands was held in Majuro, attended by youth from six island groups. [BW93–4:124] Majuro; Marshall Islands
    1993 26 Nov The National Spiritual Assembly of the Marshall Islands signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the Majuro local government in which the operation of administration of five elementary schools was legally handed over to the National Spiritual Assembly.
  • President Amata Kabua was the first head of state to respond to the Peace Statement of the Universal House of Justice. [BINS307:4–5; BW93–4:101, CBN Vol 7 no 1 May/June 1994 p29]
  • Marshall Islands Education; Promise of World Peace (statement); Recognition (legal)
    2005. 1 Dec The president of the Republic of the Marshall Islands, Kessai Note, and his wife, Mary Note, paid an official visit to the Bahá'í World Centre. [One Country; BWNS410] BWC; Marshall Islands Visitation
    2016 7 May The passing of Jenabe Esslemont Caldwell, 89 in Wailuku, Hawaii. (b. August 7, 1926 in Butte, Montana). He and his wife Elaine were named Knights of Bahá'u'lláh for pioneering to the Aleutian Islands in July, 1953 where they started a king crab and salmon cannery. They sponsored the Bahá'í­ singing group Windflower that toured Europe, including the United Kingdom, in the 1980s. He was the author of the books: The Story of the Báb & Bahá'u'lláh, From Night to Knight, Follow the Instructions and Reflections. He is well-known for his mass teaching successes. [Bahaipedia] Butte; Montana; Aleutian Islands; Wailuku; Hawaii Jenabe Caldwell; Elaine Caldwell; Knights of Bahaullah; Windflower (group); Mass teaching

    from the Chronology Canada

    date event locations tags see also
    1953. 22 Sep Kathleen Weston MacLeod moved from her pioneering post in Charlottetown to the Magdalene Islands. She was followed by her husband Ernest. Although she was qualified as a nurse she was unable to work at the Catholic hospital and so took a job as a temporary replacement for the teacher in an English school. The local minister launched a rumour campaign against her and so she called a meeting of the parents of her school to reveal that she was a Bahá'í and to explain the tenants of the Faith. They expressed their overwhelming support for her in oppositions to the minister's efforts to have her teacher's permit revoked and to have her leave the Island.

    Because she was not able to find employment she departed on the 22nd of December and was replaced by Kay Zinky in February 1954. She was an American from Colorado Spring, Colorado, whose husband, a non-Bahá'í, supported her during her stay of one year, until February 1954. Margaret and Larry Rowdon with their daughter Ayn arrived in the summer of 1954. They stayed until 1969. During this time the rest of their children, Leslie, Ruth, Devin, Karen and Bret were born. [CBN No 49 Feb 1954 p2; CBN No 54Jul 1954 p2] [CBN Vol 18 No 1 May 2005 p24-26; HB25; BW13:453; KoB278-280]

    The first person to declare on the Magdalens was Carole Bates, originally from Nova Scotia. [HB116]

    Magdalen Islands, QC Kathleen Weston; Knights of Bahaullah; Kay Zinky; Margaret Rowdon; Larry Rowdon; Ayn Rowdon; Carole Bates; Ernest MacLeod
    1954. 14 Jan Miss Greta Jankko sailed from Vancouver on the S.S.Oronsay - destination the Marquesas Islands in French Polynesia. [CBN No49 February 1954 p2]
  • Greta Jankko arrived March 5th after visiting friends in San Francisco, Samoa and Papeete. She reported a warm hospitality from the friends wherever she went. [CBN No51 Apr 1954 p4]
  • Greta Jankko reportedly left the island for Finland. [CBN No61 Feb 1955 p2]
  • Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia Pioneer; Greta Jankko
    1955. Sep (or earlier) Canadian Bahá'í News No 68 Sep 1955 p3 reported that Margaret and Larry Rowdon and family arrived in the Magdalen Islands and settled in Grindstone. Grindstone,Magdalen Islands Larry Rowdon; Margaret Rowdon; Magdalen Islands
    1987. 31 Dec The passing of Bill Waugh (b. 18 March 1904 Verdun, QC). He was buried in the Cap-aux-Meules cemetery.

    Bill was well-known in Quebec and the Maritimes for his ten years of service at the Laurentian Bahá'í School at Beaulac, Quebec, his travel teaching in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, and his wholehearted participation in regional activities when the Magdalens were a part of the Prince Edward Island teaching region.

    He served Bahá'í communities across Canada from Saanich, B.C., Beloeil, Quebec, and lastly to the Magdalen Islands where Bill, his wife Percilla and daughter Barbara pioneered for the last fifteen years of his life. [BC Vol 10 No 1 March 1988 p15]

    Magdalen Islands, QC; Verdun, QC In Memoriam; Bill Waugh; Laurentian Bahai School
    1994. (In the year) The publication of Hidden Bounties: Memories of Pioneering on the Magdalen Archipelago by Larry Rowdon. It was published by Nine Pines Publishing in Manotick, ON.
      Larry Rowdon was born in St Catherines, ON in 1923. He was educated in Canada and abroad, serving with the Canadian Armed Forces and gravely wounded in the Normandy landings in 1944. He became a Bahá'í in 1951 while living in Kingston, ON, then later with his wife Margaret and their year-old daughter Ayn, pioneered (1954-1969 to the Magdalen Islands. This is the story of the early part of their lives, living and raising a family on this archipelago. [CBN No 24 December 1951 p3; CBN No 68 Sep 1955 p3]
    • See a book review by Will C. van den Hoonaard.
    Magdalen Islands, QC Larry Rowdon; Margaret Rowdon; Ayn Rowdon; Hidden Bounties; Nine Pines Publishing

    from the Main Catalogue

    1. Bahá'í Communities by Country: Research Notes, by Graham Hassall (2000). Brief notes on the history of Bahá'í activities and the dates of NSA formation in Africa, China, Australia, and elsewhere. [about]
    2. Bahá'í Horizons in the 21st Century, by David S. Ruhe (1993-06-14). Informal notes transcribed from a talk closing a 1993 Conference on Social and Economic Development in Orlando, Florida, offering an overview of Bahá'í activities at the turn of the millennium. [about]
    3. Hoahania, Hamuel, by Graham Hassall, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 20 (1986-1992) (1999). Short biography of an early Pacific islander convert to the Bahá'í Faith. [about]
    4. Islands of the North Sea, by Bahá'u'lláh and Abdu'l-Bahá, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 6 (1996). [about]
    5. Lonely road to native title determination, A, by Walter Waia, in Australian Bahá'í Studies, vol. 2 (2000). A personal account of the Saibai Island Native Title Claim: a story of an Indigenous Australian who "walked a learning road to fulfill his obligations to his family, his clan and to the community." [about]
    6. Love That Could Not Wait, A: The Remarkable Story of Knights of Baha'u'llah Catherine Heward Huxtable and Clifford Huxtable, by Jack McLean (2016). The story of the Canadian Knights of Bahá'u'lláh, Catherine Heward Huxtable and husband Cliff Huxtable, who opened the southern Gulf Islands of British Columbia to the Bahá'í Faith in October, 1959. [about]
    7. Marshall Islands population statistics, by Universal House of Justice (1996-06-23). Populations of the Marshall Islands, and explanation of a directive by the Universal House of Justice that teachers travel to an island that was uninhabitable because of radiation. [about]
    8. Origins of the Bahá'í Faith in the Pacific Islands: The Case of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands, by Graham Hassall, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 16:1-4 (2006). The introduction of the Bahá’í Teachings to the Gilbert and Ellice Islands in the 1950s and the consequent disturbance of the delicate church-state relationship operating at that time. Similar interactions may have occurred in other colonial environments. [about]
    9. Ridván 1996 (Four Year Plan) - To the Followers of Bahá'u'lláh in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Sri Lanka: Bahá'í Era 153, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Country-specific portion of the annual message to the Bahá'ís of the world: South-east Asia. [about]
    10. Virgin Islands, U.S. and British, by Patricia Paccassi (1995). [about]
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