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1845. 1 Nov The Times of London carried an item on the arrest and torture of Quddús, Mullá Sádiq-i-Khurásání, Mullá `Alí-Akbar-i-Ardistání and Mullá Abú-Tálib in Shíráz in June. This was the first known printed reference to the Revelation in the Western press. A similar article was reprinted on 19 November. [First newspaper story of the events of the Bábí Faith compiled by Steven Kolins; B76–7; BBR4, 69]
  • See In was in the news.... In this blog by SMK, he has provided an extensive list of English newspaper articles on the persecution of the Báb and the Bábís in 1845 and 1846.
  • Shiraz; Iran; London; United Kingdom Quddus; Ismullahul-Asdaq (Mulla Sadiq Khurasani); Mulla Ali-Akbar-i-Ardistani; Mulla Abu-Talib; Times (newspaper); Newspaper articles; Firsts, Other; Mentions First newspaper story of the events of the Bábí Faith
    1855 5 Mar Birth of John Henry Hyde Dunn, Hand of the Cause, in London. [Bahá'í Chronicles] London; United Kingdom John Henry Hyde Dunn; birth; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1869. 12 May Birth of Clara Davis Dunn, Hand of the Cause, in London. London; United Kingdom Clara Dunn; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths
    1889 Jun E. G. Browne gave a paper on the Bahá'í Faith (`Bábism') at the Royal Asiatic Society, London. London; United Kingdom Edward Granville Browne; Royal Asiatic Society
    1891. 15 Feb First public lecture in the West on the Bahá'í Faith was given by E. G. Browne at the Southplace Institute, London.
  • He spoke to the Pembroke College Literary Society in England (Martletts), at which the Faith was discussed at length.
  • London; United Kingdom Edward Granville Browne; Southplace Institute; Firsts, Other find reference
    1891 after 19 May Bahá'u'lláh revealed the Lawh-i-Times, Tablet to the Times in which He recounted the circumstances of the martyrdoms in Yazd. [RB4:348–50, BW18p976-7] Akka; London; United Kingdom; Yazd; Iran Bahji; Times (newspaper); Newspapers; Media; Lawh-i-Times (Tablet to the Times); Bahaullah, Writings of; Bahaullah, Life of; Persecution, Iran; Persecution, Deaths; Persecution; Seven martyrs of Yazd; Seven martyrs; Bahaullah, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1895. c. summer Miss Marion Brown became a Bahá'í in London, the first European to accept the Bahá'í Faith. [BFA1:37] London; United Kingdom Marion Brown; First Bahais by country or area
    1900 26 Nov Agnes Baldwin Alexander wrote to `Abdu'l-Bahá declaring her belief in Bahá'u'lláh. [BFA2:159; SBR176]
  • She had heard of the Bahá'í Faith from Charlotte Dixon while staying in a pension in Rome. She stayed in Rome for three months studying prophecies then travelled to Paris for further study with May Bolles for another three and one half months. [BFA2:159; SBR176]
  • She left Paris in the Spring of 1901 for London, New England, Oakland, Ca and finally Honolulu. On returning to Hawaii in December 1901 she became the first Bahá'í to set foot in Hawaii. [BFA2:159–60; SBR177]
  • Rome; Italy; Paris; France; Oakland; California; London; United Kingdom; Honolulu; Hawaii Agnes Alexander; May Maxwell (Bolles); Charlotte Dixon
    1901 22 Jan The passing of Queen Victoria.
  • Of all the leaders addressed by Bahá'u'lláh only she is reputed to have made a courteous reply. [CBM47; PDC65]
  • See CBM47–8 for Bahá'u'lláh's prophecy concerning the success of her reign.
  • London; United Kingdom Queen Victoria; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1902 8 May May Bolles married Sutherland Maxwell in London and moved to Montreal later in the year. [BW8:635; GPB260, BFA2:156 ] London; United Kingdom; Montreal; Canada May Maxwell (Bolles); Sutherland Maxwell
    1910 (In the year) The publication of God’s Heroes: A Drama in Five Acts by Laura Clifford Barney, (London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner, 1910). The play, based on the life of the Báb, centred on Táhirih. London Laura Clifford Barney; God's Heroes:
    1911. 26 - 29 Jul The First Universal Races Congress was held at the University of London. It was the first important conference in which the British Bahá'ís participated. It was an international symposium on the theme of the brotherhood of humankind and attracted leading politicians, theologians and scholars from the whole of the British Empire and from Europe as well as North America. During the Congress itself there were several presentations from Bahá'ís including the reading of a letter from 'Abdu'l-Bahá who was in Egypt at the time. [NBAD45]
  • See 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Letter and here.
  • See SoW Vol II No 9 for a report by Wellesley Tudor-Pole, an article by Thorton Chase as well as the letter from 'Abdu'l-Bahá to the conference. See as well Speech for the Universal Races Congress translation and comments by Senn McGlinn.
  • A translation was published in "The Christian Commonwealth" on August 2, 1911.
  • A bibliography of the presentations, papers and contributions and secondary literature by Ralph Dumain can be found here.
  • A paper by Dr W E B DuBois entitled The Negro Race in the United States of America (pp348-364)was also presented at this conference.
  • Note that in 'Abdu'l-Bahá's First Tablet to The Hague He mentions the fact that a fellow Persian passed words or ideas from Bahá'u'lláh or Himself as his own work.
  • London; United Kingdom Conferences, Racial amity; Race amity; Race (general); Race unity; Firsts, Other
    1911 11 Aug The beginning of `Abdu'l-Bahá's first Western tour. [AB139]
  • `Abdu'l-Bahá departed from Egypt with a party of four on the S. S. Corsica for Marseilles, Thonon-les-Bains and London. [AB139; GPB280; SBR22, SoW Vol 2 no.10 8 September, 1911 p7]
  • Subsequent research has shown that the ship was not the S.S. Corsica as stated in GPB280 but rather the L'Orenoque. See 'Abdu'l-Bahá in Paris page 6 note 47.
  • See BW1:130 for a list of cities He visits between 1911 and 1913.
  • It is believed that funds for ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s teaching journeys to the West were provided by an oil-rich believer in Baku, Áqa Músá Naqiof (alternate spelling Musa Naghiyev)(yet another alternate spelling Báqirof) (1849-1919). [AY11; ABF295note684]
  • Baku; Alexandria; Egypt; Marseilles; Thonon-les-Bains; France; London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha in Egypt; Abdul-Baha, Basic timeline; S. S. Corsica; Orenoque; Ships; Funds; Donations; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Musa Naghiyev; Musa Naqiof
    1911 22 Aug - 3 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá took up residence at Thonon-les-Bains on Lake Leman (Lake Geneva). [AB140; GPB280; SBR219]
  • While there He encountered Zillu's-Sultán, the eldest son of the Sháh of the time, Násirid-Dín Sháh. It was he who had ratified the execution of the King of Martyrs and the Beloved of Martyrs and at least 100 others. The whole family was in exile in Geneva at this time. 'Abdu'l-Bahá was very courteous to this man who had been such an inveterate enemy of the Cause. [DJT172, AY19, GPB201] .
  • The Master sent for Juliet Thompson who had been waiting in London for His permission to join Him.
  • During His stay he had a visit from Annie Boylan, a member of the New York community that was experiencing disharmony. Unaware of Bahá'í election procedures, a group that was unhappy with the disunity and ineffectiveness of the Council had organized a vote to be rid of several of its Council members. 'Abdu'l-Bahá had written to the community a short time before recommending that the Council be expanded from 9 to 27 members so that all factions could be represented. He also recommended that women be included on the Council and that the name be changed to "the Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of New York". This apparently addressed the problem of disunity because the New York community went on to contribute significantly to the progress of the Faith on a national level. [DJT181, BFA2p338]
  • Horace Holley, who lived at Quattro Torri, Siena, Italy at the time, along with his wife Bertha Herbert and baby daughter Hertha, visited 'Abdu'l-Bahá on the 29th and 30th of August. Please see his Religion for Mankind p 232-237 for a pen portrait of 'Abdu'l-Bahá.
  • He met with Elizabeth Stewart and Lillian Kappes who were on their way to Tehran. [find reference]
  • It would appear that He returned to Marseilles and travelled to London by sea. [SCU22-23]
  • Thonon-les-Bains; Lake Leman; Marseille; France; Switzerland; Italy; London; United Kingdom; New York; United States Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Board of Council; Spiritual Assemblies; Unity; Zillus-Sultan; Persecution; Mirza Muhammad-Hasan (King of Martyrs); Mirza Muhammad-Husayn (Beloved of Martyrs); King of Martyrs and Beloved of Martyrs; Juliet Thompson; Horace Holley; Elizabeth Stewart; Lillian Kappes; Ships
    1911 24 Aug Tammaddun'ul-Mulk and Juliet Thompson arrived in Thonon-les-Bains from London via Geneva. She had landed in Southampton on board the Lusitania from America on the 25th of July.

    Juliet Thompson had been in Paris in 1899 and had been part of the nascent Bahá'í community there along with May Maxwell and Lua Getsinger. In addition, she had met 'Abdu'l-Bahá in 'Akká in 1909.

  • She, like many others, was anxious to know when He might come to America. He replied that the unity of the believers would be His invitation. There had been strong differences of opinion among the believers in America and one of those points was in their understanding of the station of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. Some believed Him to be an ordinary man who, through spiritual practice, had attained HIs station, implying that all could do the same. Others insisted that He was the return of Christ. The differences among the believers in New York was such that an election for the New York Bahá'í Board of Council had been influenced to excluded one of the incumbents. 'Abdu'l-Bahá insisted that the Board be increased to 19 members to ensure his re-election. [ABF19]
  • London; United Kingdom; Thonon-les-Bains; France Tammaddunul-Mulk; Juliet Thompson; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 4 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá arrived in London accompanied by His secretary, Mírzá Mahmúd and Khusraw, His servant. [ABL53, AB140; GBP280; SBR22, 148, BW4p378, In the Footsteps of the Master p.5]
  • CH149 says He arrived 8 September and 3 September as per the UK Bahá'í site.
  • Those Bahá'ís who assembled to meet him were listed as: Lady Blomfield (in whose home at 97 Cadogan Gardens He stayed), Mrs Thornburg-Cropper, Miss Ethel Rosenberg, Miss Gamble, Miss Herrick, Mrs Scaramucci, Miss Elsie Lee, Mr Catanach, Mr Cuthbert, Mr and Mrs Jenner, Miss Yandell, Miss Julia Culver, Mrs Stannard, Mr and Mrs Eric Hammond, The Rev Harrold Johnston, The Rev Cooper Hunt, Miss Juliet Thompson, Mrs Louise Waite, Mrs Movius, Mrs Claudia Coles, Mr Mountfort Mills, Mr Mason Remey and Miss Drake Wright. Mr and Mrs Dreyfus-Barney provided translation. In addition there were a number of Persians who took the opportunity to meet Him. [BW4p377]
  • As described by Lady Blomfield those who came to see him were: "Ministers and missionaries, Oriental scholars and occult students practical men of affairs and mystics, Anglican-Catholics and Nonconformists, Theosophists and Hindus, Christian Scientists and doctors of medicine, Muslims, Buddhists, and Zoroastrians. There also called: politicians, Salvation Army soldiers, and other workers for human good, women suffragists, journalists, writers, poets and healers dress-makers and great ladies, artists and artisans, poor workless people and prosperous merchants, members of the dramatic and musical world, these all came; and none were too lowly nor too great to receive the sympathetic consideration of this holy Messenger, who was ever giving His life for others' good." In addition there was a representation from the Bramo-Somaj Society, a Hindu reform group. [CH150-152]
  • See BW4p377 where Lady Blomfield reported that Prince Jalalu'd-Dawlih entreated to be received by 'Abdu'l-Bahá and when in His presence fell prostrate and implored pardon for his crimes. (see 1891 19 May) [BW4p377]
  • Among the list of visitors were: Professor Edward Granville Browne, Mr Tudor-Pole, Emmeline Pankhurst, a British political activist and leader of the British suffragette movement who helped women win the right to vote. [BW4p377]
  • See BW4p381 for the story of a homeless, suicidal man who had seen a picture of 'Abdu'l-Bahá in a newspaper in a shop window.
  • See BW4p382-383 for the story of the persistent journalist who imposed upon the appointment of two ladies from Scotland who had journeyed all that day and intended to make the return voyage that same evening.
  • For details of His stay in England see AB140–58 and GPB283–5.
  • It is implied that 'Abdu'l-Bahá was attended by Dr Lutfu-lláh Hakím while in London. [BW4p380]
  • During His stay in London 'Abdu'l-Bahá received death threats by anonymous letter and he was advised to give up He planned journey to Egypt. He ignored them. [BW4p 387]
  • During His stay in London He had professional photographs of Himself taken by the Irish photographer, James Lafayette (1853-1923). "...to have a picture of oneself is to emphasise the personality, which is merely the lamp, and is quite unimportant. The light burning within the lamp has the only real significance." [SBR25, BW4p383-384, ABF84]
  • London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Pictures and portraits; Portraits; Abdul-Baha, Death threats to; Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper; Ethel Rosenberg; Juliet Thompson; Louise Waite; Mountfort Mills; Charles Mason Remey; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Jalalud-Din-Dawlih; Mirza Mahmud-i-Zarqani; Khusraw; Edward Granville Browne; Wellesley Tudor Pole; Emmeline Pankhurst; Lutfullah Hakim; James Lafayette
    1911 5 Sep ‘Abdu’l-Bahá was interviewed by the editor of The Christian Commonwealth, Mr Albert Dawson, and later met with the Rev R. J. Campbell. The Christian Commonwealth was a weekly newspaper. On 13 September it printed, on its front cover, an article which included the interview between ‘Abdu’l-Bahá and Rev R. J. Campbell that had taken place on 5 September. The following week the front cover had another article, entitled ‘The Vanishing of the Veil’, about ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s visit to St John’s, Westminster. Other issues also had substantial articles about His visits. [In the Footsteps of the Master p.7] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Interviews; Newspaper articles
    1911. 8 Sep In the morning He received a small party in Lady Blomfield's drawing room. [SoW Vol 2 No 12 October 16, 1911 P3]

    'Abdu’l-Bahá visited the home of Miss Ethel Jenner Rosenberg for a Unity meeting at White Lodge, 8 Sunnyside, Wimbledon (since demolished). [ABL44-45, In the Footsteps of the Master p.9]

    London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Ethel Rosenberg
    1911 10 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá gave His first public address in the West in the City Temple Church in Holborn, London to an audience of over 2,000 people. He proclaimed that “This is a new cycle of human power…the gift of God in this enlightened age is the knowledge of the oneness of mankind and the fundamental oneness of religion.” [ABL17-20, AB140; BW2:227; GPB283–4, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p11]
  • He spoke at the invitation of The Reverend R J Campbell. Mr. Wellesly Tudor-Pole read the translation. [CH154]
  • Dialogue between Rev Campbell and 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [SoW Vol 2 No 11 27 September 1911 p3, 4-7]
  • For the text of His talk see AB140–2.
  • For the words He wrote in the pulpit Bible see AB145. The church was bombed in World War II and the pulpit Bible was destroyed. The church was rebuilt in 1958.
  • For a photo see BWNS792.
  • SoW Vol 2 No 11 27 September 1911 p3, 7-8.
  • London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches; Firsts, Other; BWNS
    1911. 11 Sep Mrs. Thornburgh-Cropper gave an “At Home” to the believers and between fifty and sixty were present to meet Him. [SoW Vol 2 No 12 October 12, 1911 p2] London; United Kingdom: Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper
    1911. 13 Sep (or possibly 14 Sep) Mrs Thornburgh-Cropper gave a reception for ‘Abdu’l-Bahá at her home 31 Evelyn Mansions, Carlisle Place, Victoria for about 45 people. [ABL46-47, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p12] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper
    1911 17 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá addressed the congregation of St John's, Westminster, His second address to a Western audience. He also met with members of the Salvation Army who were singing outside. [ABL21-25, AB145; SBR8, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p13]
  • For text of His talk see AB147–8.
  • He spoke at the invitation of Archdeacon of Westminster, Albert Wilberforce, grandson of famed abolitionist William Wilberforce. The invitation had been extended to Him during a private audience in the home of Lady Blomfield. [CH153-154]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá sent an invitation to the Archdeacon asking him to meet with Him. He turned Him down with a message, "We are all one behind the veil." 'Abdu'l-Bahá replied, "...and the veil is thinning quite." When Wilberforce met with 'Abdu'l-Bahá he found that there was no separation between them. [Ahmad Sohrab's Diary - The Great Tour p99]
  • See also Star of the West Vol. II No. 12, p. 12.
  • Westminster; London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at churches
    1911. 22 Sep ‘Abdu’l-Bahá visited the home of Misses Marion Jack and Elizabeth Herrick, at 10 Cheniston Gardens, Wright's Lane (sometimes given as 137a High Street, Kensington. About 80 people were present. [ABL48-49, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p14; SoW Vol 2 No 12 October 16, 1911 p5]
  • The talk was stenographically recorded and published as Discourse by 'Abdu'l-Bahá at the Unity Meeting of Misses Jack and Herrick. September 22nd, 1911. For full text see NBAD233-234.
  • London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at homes; Elizabeth Herrrick; Marion Jack; Publications
    1911 30 Sep `Abdu'l-Bahá addressed the Theosophical Society in London, His last talk in England on this visit. He met the Theosophical society at their new Headquarters at the express request of their president Mrs. Annie Besant. After a general history of the movement and sympathetic words of welcome by Mr. A. P. Sinnett, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá rose and delivered to the crowded assembly an address upon the distinctive notes of the Bahá’í teaching, warmly commending the eagerness of the Society in its search for Truth. The tenants of the Society were a belief in the brotherhood of man and the equality of all religions. [ABL26-30, 58 AB152, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p.19] iiiii London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Talks at other places; Theosophical Society; Annie Besant
    1911 1 Oct A young Persian couple asked 'Abdu'l-Bahá to marry them. The union was blessed at the Higher Thought Centre, 10 Cheniston Gardens, Kensington. The bride, Regina Núr Mahal Khánum, had travelled from Baghdad to meet and marry her bridegroom, Mírzá Yuhanna Dáwud. [AB:77, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p.20] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour
    1911 2 Oct Abdu’l-Bahá breakfasted with the Lord Mayor of London at the Mansion House, City of London. The Lord Major of London at the time of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s visit was Sir Thomas Vezey Strong (1858-1920). He was a teetotaler and a temperance advocate. He traded in paper and was the holder of a number of honours. [In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p.20; SoW Vol 2 No 12 October 16, 1911 p4] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Mayor of London; Mayors
    1911 3 Oct `Abdu'l-Bahá left London for Paris. [AB154; SBR25, In the Footsteps of 'Abdu'l-Bahá p22]
  • See ABL113 for details of His last day in London. He left from Victoria Station.
  • He was accompanied by many Bahá'ís from England who attended many of the public meeting at which He spoke in Paris. This group included Marion Jack. [NBAD47]
  • He remained in Paris for nine weeks. [AB159; GPB280]
  • For details of His visit see AB159–68.
  • For `Abdu'l-Bahá's talks given in Paris see PT.
  • London; United Kingdom; Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, First Western tour; Marion Jack; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of
    1912 16 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá and his entourage departed Liverpool for London by train from the Lime Street Station. When they arrive at Euston Station they are met by a group of about 50 Bahá'ís. He is taken by motorcar to the home of Lady Blomfield at 97 Cadogan Gardens which she again offered to Him during His stay in London. After resting He gave a talk to newspaper reporters and later gave a talk to the gathering of Bahá'ís. [AB343, ABTM276] Liverpool; London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Trains; Cars; Lady Blomfield
    1912 17 De A Bahá'í arrived from Ireland to see 'Abdu'l-Bahá, possibly Joan Waring, after travelling all day and all night.
  • He made comments on the character of the American people.
  • In the afternoon He spoke to a large gathering at Caxton Hall in Westminster. [SoW Vol III no 19 2Mar1913 p3-4, ABTM276-277]
  • London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912 18 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá gave a talk at which E. G. Browne was present. He visited `Abdu'l-Bahá several more times while in London. [SoW Vol III no19 2Mar1913 p4, AB346, ABTM277-278]
  • Hájí Abu'l-Hasan-i-Ardakání (Hájí Amín) arrived in London from Paris with three young Persian. He spoke neither English nor French and had had some difficulty in getting from Paris to London. He crossed the English Channel and then found himself back in Paris. His second attempt was successful. [SoW Vol III no19 2Mar1913 p4, AB346–7, ABTM278]
  • London; United Kingdom; Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Edward Granville Browne; Haji Amin (Abul-Hasan-i-Ardikani)
    1912 19 Dec Hájí Amín, the Trustee of the Huqúqu'lláh, presented 'Abdu'l-Bahá with a gift from a poor workman in 'Ishqábád. He had nothing monetary to offer so he gave Hájí Amín his mid-day meal, two small loaves of bread and an apple wrapped in a handkerchief. 'Abdu'l-Bahá took the offering tenderly, ate a small piece of the stale bread and gave the rest to be passed around to the rest of the table. [SoW Vol III No 19 2Mar1913 p5, ABTM278] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Gifts; Huququllah; Haji Amin
    1912. 20 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá interviewed E. S. (Ethel Stefana) Stevens who had come from Southhampton to meet Him. Three years prior she had spent 3 or 4 months in 'Akka and Haifa gathering material for her book, published in 1911, about the second coming of Christ. [SoW Vol III no 19 2Mar1913 p6] Mountain of God]
  • He discussed the question of "spiritual communication" and gave the prerequisites. [SoW Vol III no 19 2Mar1913 p6]
  • In the evening He was driven to Westminster for a meeting at the Palace Hotel, His first public talk since returning to London. [SoW Vol III no 19 2Mar1913 p6, [SoW Vol III no 17 19Jan1913 p510]
  • London; Westminster; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Ethel Stevens
    1912 21 or 22 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá witnessed His first dramatic performance. It was a mystery Christmas play entitled Eager Heart written by Miss Alice Buckton and performed at the Church House, Westminster before an audience of 1,200. [SoW Vol III no 19 2March1913 p 7, CH154, AB34]
  • He is reported to have said, perhaps on another occasion, "The stage will be the pulpit of the future". [Quoted by Loulie Mathews in The Magazine of the Children of the Kingdom, Vol 4, No. 3 (June 1923, p69]
  • Star of the West, Vol. 19 no. 11 Feb1929, p.341 quotes 'Abdu'l-Bahá as saying: "drama is of the utmost importance. It has been a great educational power in the past; it will be so again,". [BW1994-1995p255]
  • Westminster; London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Drama; Arts
    1912 c. Dec On another occasion He gave an outline for a play to his hostess for the evening, Mrs Gabrielle Enthoven, which He called Drama of the Kingdom. It was put to print by Lady Blomfield's daughter, Mary Basil Hall, approved by the Reviewing Committees for the National Assemblies of both the British Isles and the United States and Canada. It was published in 1933. In 1994 a production based on this outline was premiered in Perth, Australia entitled The Face of Glory: A Musical Rendezvous with the Soul. [CH155-156, Bahá'ís and the Arts: Language of the Heart by Ann Boyles, also published in 1994-95 edition of The Bahá'í World, pp. 243-272] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Abdul-Baha, Writings and talks of; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Drama; Mary Basil Hall; Lady Blomfield; Publications
    1912 24 Dec `Abdu'l-Bahá received many expensive Christmas gifts; He turned them all away by returning them and asking the donors to sell them and give the money to the poor.
  • That evening He visited the Salvation Army Shelter in Westminster. That night there were 1,000 men present. After His talk He departed but not before leaving twenty gold sovereigns and many handfuls of silver with Col Spencer for a similar dinner to be held on New Year's Eve. [ABTM282-283]
  • London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Charity and relief work; Gifts
    1912. 25 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá paid a visit to Lord Lamington who was deeply touched by the message of peace and goodwill. [PG141] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Lord Lamington
    1912. 26 Dec 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke about prayer, evil, and the progress of the soul in a talk at 97 Cadogan Gardens. [PT176-179] London; United Kingdom: Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1912. 29 Dec In the morning 'Abdu'l-Bahá received a visit from the Maharajah or Jhalawar. [ABTM283]
  • In the afternoon He spoke at the home of Miss Annie Gamble. [SoW Vol. 9 No 2 9Apr1918 p 24]
  • In the evening He gave a talk at the King's Weigh House Methodist Church hosted by Rev E W Lewis. [SoW Vol. 4 No 17 19Jan1914 p284-285]
  • London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Maharajahs
    1912. 30 Dec The 19 Day Feast was held at the home of Mrs Robinson. [AB352] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1913. 4 Jan 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke about The Four Kinds of Love in an address at 97 Cadogan Gardens. [PT179181] London; United Kingdom: Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1913. 5 Jan The Master spoke at the home of Miss Herrick's to some 150 people. He gave a very "spiritual" lecture about the negligence of the people about God and their submerging in the sea of materialism.
  • Elizabeth Herrick lived in London with Mrs Thornburgh-Cropper and authored Unity Triumphant:The Call of the Kingdom. London: The Unity Press, 1925. She owned and operated a hat shop under the name Madame Corelli at 137a High Street in Kensington. [Ahmad Sohrab's Diary, Edinburgh, 1913]
  • London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1913 10 Jan `Abdu'l-Bahá returned to London departing from Waverly Station at 11 AM and arriving at Euston Station at 7 PM. He returned to the home of Lady Blomfield at 97 Cadogan Gardens. She devotedly placed her whole apartment at His disposal, whilst she herself (certainly in 1913) stayed a few moments away with Lady Elcho in 62 Cadogan Square (now likely 58). [AB368, SCU109-113, Ahmad Sohrab's Diary, Edinburgh, 1913, David Merrick p8] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1913. 11 Jan 'Abdu'l-Bahá was most anxious that follow-up be done in Scotland. In and interview with Miss Buckton and Miss Schepel He encouraged them to go as soon as possible. [Ahmad Sohrab's Diary, Edinburgh, 1913, David Merrick p17]
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke at Caxton Hall in Westminster and after entertained a small crowd of people at His residence where He recounted stories of Bahá'ulláh's suffering. [AB368, ABTM299]
  • London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1913. 12 Jan He attended a dinner party at the home of Sir Richard and Lady Shapely, St. Martin's Lane, London. Dinner was followed by a talk. [PT173-176; AB369, ABTM299] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1913. 13 Jan 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke at Cadogan Gardens on the darkness of superstitions and imitations. [AB369, ABTM299] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Superstitions
    1913. 14 Jan 'Abdu'l-Bahá spoke in the East End of London at a Congregational Church. [CH168, AB369, ABTM299] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour; Churches
    1913 16 Jan `Abdu'l-Bahá returned to London and spoke at 97 Cadogan Gardens. He spoke about the diversity of those entering the Faith and the recommended way to conduct a meeting. [AB370, ABTM302-303] London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1913 19 Jan 'Abdu'l-Bahá was the guest of Rev Dr R J Campbell for luncheon. A number of divines had also been invited. [AB371]
  • Subsequently Rev Campbell made a tour of America and 'Abdu'l-Bahá made a request that the Bahá'í community show him every courtesy. [SoW Vol 2 No 18 February 7, 1912 p10]
  • London; Woking; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1913 20 Jan Dr Felix Mosscheles held a reception for 'Abdu'l-Bahá in his home that was attended by a number of notable people.
  • 'Abdu'l-Bahá was the guest of a Rajput prince who gave a dinner party for Him.
  • In the evening He spoke at the Higher Thought Centre, His last engagement in London. [AB371]
  • London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1913 21 Jan `Abdu'l-Bahá left London for Paris. [AB371]
  • The visit to Paris lasts several weeks. [AB372; SBR220]
  • London; United Kingdom; Paris; France Abdul-Baha, Travels of; Abdul-Baha, Second Western tour
    1914 (Early to middle of the year) The defection of Dr Amín Faríd, (b. 1882, d. 1953)`Abdu'l-Bahá's translator while in America, became known publicly. His mother was a sister of Munirih Khanum, wife of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. [AB407]
  • For his activities against `Abdu'l-Bahá see AB230, 402, 407–9.
  • Dr. Aminu'lláh Faríd travelled to Europe in defiance of the wishes of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. In the absence of Lady Blomfield in London, a meeting at the Kingsway Hall had been arranged for him. Dr Lutfu'lláh prevented Dr Farid from speaking. Mason Remey and George Latimer were in London at the time. 'Abdu'l-Bahá also sent Dr Habibu'lláh Khudákhsh (later called Dr Mu'ayyad) and 'Azíz'lláh Bahádur to go to Europe to counter his activities. They were in Stuttgart when the war broke out. He recalled all four to the Holy Land (Sep-Oct). [AB407-409; Concerning Covenant-breakers: Excerpt by 'Abdu'l-Bahá translated by Ahang Rabbani] iiiii
  • Laura and Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney were dispatched to the United States where Mrs Chevalier had been acting as Dr Farid's emissary. [AB408]
  • For a description of his activities as a young man in 'Akká see M9YA108.
  • United States; London; United Kingdom; Stuttgart; Germany Ameen Fareed (Amin Farid); Covenant-breakers; Lutfullah Hakim; Charles Mason Remey; George Latimer; Habibullah Khudakhsh; Habib Muayyad; Azizllah Bahadur; Laura Clifford Barney; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney; Chevalier, Mrs
    1920. mid July - mid October Shoghi Effendi arrived in England to take up his studies at Oxford.
  • He spent one week in London. He brought with him Tablets from the Master for Lady Blomfield, Lord Lamington and Major Tudo-Pole.
  • 21 July: Shoghi Effendi met Dr. Esslemont at a meeting of the believers Lindsay Hall in Notting Hill Gate. The meeting was also attended by Mr and Mrs Ober visiting from America.
  • 22 July: Dr Esslemont called on Shoghi Effendi at his hotel and they went to Miss Grand's home were the Obers were staying.
  • 23 July: Dr Esslemont met Shoghi Effendi at Miss Rosenberg's and together they went to the Grand home where some 17 people were introduced to the Faith. [PG141]
  • 26 July: Dr Esslemont came to London to meet Shoghi Effendi and they both visited Miss Herrick. [PG142]
  • He relocated to Oxford and stayed at the Randolph Hotel. He met with professors and looked for tutors. [PG142]
  • Probably in the early days of August Shoghi Effendi met with Lord Lamington. [PG142]
  • Although it was still the long vacation Shoghi Effendi started his work with the assistance of a tutor. [PG142]
  • 10-15 September: Shoghi Effendi visited Dr Esselemont at the sanitorium where he practiced in Bournemouth. They were joined by Shoghi Effendi's sister Rúhangíz and by a Persian believer Aflátún. [PG142-143]
  • London; Oxford; Bournemouth; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi at Oxford; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1921. 20 Jun - 3 Oct Shoghi Effendi at Oxford - The Long Vacation 1921

  • Those students who wished to continue their studies during the vacation were required to move to an annex situated near Manchester College known as Holywell Annexe.
  • Shoghi Effendi met with Edna True at her hotel in London as she was passing through. [PG178]
  • He visited Dr. Esslemont in Bournemouth probably around the 20th of July for two weeks. [PG179]
  • 26 July: He went to London to meet his sister and went with her to Mrs Thornburgh-Cropper's. [PG179]
  • At some point during the vacation he visited Crowborough. [PG179]
  • Obedient to the instructions of the Master he spent some time during the break in rest in Torquay in August, at least from the 10th to the 29th of the month. [PG179-180]
  • 25 September (approx.) He travelled to London to sent his sister to Scotland to resume her studies. She had been staying with Mrs Thornburg-Cropper (at 20 Bloomsbury Square?). While there he met with Lady Blomfield. [PG181]
  • 1 to 6 October: Shoghi Effendi and his friend Díyá'u'lláh Asgharzádih travelled to Manchester, a community of some thirty believers. They stayed at the home of Jacob Joseph where a meeting of the community was held that evening. The group sent a letter to the Master which Shoghi Effendi translated the following day. He also sent a report of the situation in Manchester to the Master. [PG182-190]
  • See PG206-207 for a photo of Shoghi Effendi with the Manchester Bahá'ís and with the Joseph brothers.
  • See PG193 for a subsequent note from Shoghi Effendi to the friends in Manchester.
  • See PG193-194 for the Master's response to their joint supplication dated 18 October, 1921 and excerpts from Tablets to individuals.
  • Oxford; London; Bournemouth; Torquay; Manchester; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi at Oxford; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1921 29 Nov A cable was sent to London with news of `Abdu'l-Bahá's passing. Shoghi Effendi was summonsed to the office of Wellesley Tudor Pole, probably at at 61, St. James St. in London, and learned of his grandfather's passing about noon after seeing the cable on Tudor Pole's desk. [GBF13]
  • See GBF13, PG199 and PP39-40 for Shoghi Effendi's reaction.
  • Oxford; London; United Kingdom Abdul-Baha, Life of; Abdul-Baha, Passing of; Shoghi Effendi at Oxford; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Wellesley Tudor Pole
    1921. 1 Dec - 7 Dec Dr Esslemont made a trip from Bournemouth to London to visit Shoghi Effendi and offer support. He invited him back to Bournemouth where he stayed from the evening of the 2nd of December until the morning of the seventh. [PG199]
  • Shoghi Effendi wrote to a Bahá'í student in London describing his reaction to the news of the Master's passing. It would appear he had reconciled himself to the situation. [PG100; PP40-41]
  • See PG201 for the observations of others.
  • On the 7th of December he received a cable from the Greatest Holy Leaf urging him to return to the Holy Land. He left for London immediately. [PG100]
  • London; Bournemouth; United Kingdom Esslemont; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1921 16 Dec Shoghi Effendi left England for Haifa in the company of Lady Blomfield and his sister Rouhangeze [Rúhangíz]. Lady Blomfield stayed on in the Holy Land for several months to assist Shoghi Effendi in his new role as the Guardian. [GBF13-14; PP42; SBR66]
  • Due to passport difficulties Shoghi Effendi could not leave sooner. [GBF13; PP42; SBR66; PG202]
  • London; United Kingdom; Haifa Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Lady Blomfield; Rouhangeze (Ruhangiz); Shoghi Effendi, Family of
    1922 (Late May) The communities of London, Manchester and Bournemouth elected a Bahá'í Spiritual Assembly for England. [ER213; SBR28, 67]
  • This was also known as the Spiritual Assembly for London and the All-England Bahá'í Council. [ER2 13; SBR67]
  • See ER213 and SBR28 for membership.
  • The social centre of the London group was Ethel Rosenburg with Mrs Thornburgh-Cropper and later Lady Blomfield also playing significant roles. The group in Manchester came from the working- or lower middle-class background with Edward Hall and other men in leadership positions. The group in Bournemouth developed around Dr. Esslemont. In addition to these centres there were a few scattered isolated believers. [SBBH5p220]
  • London; Manchester; Bournemouth; United Kingdom Spiritual Assemblies; All-England Bahai Council
    1923 Ridván The formation of the National Spiritual Assembly of Britain. [GPB333]
  • The election was by postal ballot. [ER228]
  • For the membership of the first Assembly see ER228 and SBR71.
  • See also ER223-31 for the election and functioning of the Assembly.
  • London; Britain National Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1924 22 Sep - 3 Oct The conference `Some Living Religions within the British Empire' was held in London. [BW2:225; ER233; GPB342]
  • For details of the planning of the conference and its outcome see ER231-5.
  • For Shoghi Effendi's attitude to the conference see UD17, 19, 21-2, 245.
  • Two papers about the Bahá'í Faith were read at the conference, one by Horace Holley read by Mountfort Mills and the other by Rúhí Afnán. [BW2:225; ER232-3; SBR73]
  • For texts of the papers see BW2:227-42.
  • Note that a paper was delivered by Richard St. Barbe Baker. As a result of attending the conference he met a Bahá'í and dedicated the rest of his life in service to the Cause. [Bahá'í Chronicles]
  • London; United Kingdom Conferences, Other; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Horace Holley; Mountfort Mills; Ruhi Afnan; Afnan; Richard St Barbe Baker; Interfaith dialogue
    1929 9 Sep The British Bahá’ís opened their new centre, at Walmar House, Upper Regent Street, London. [PSBW46–7] London; United Kingdom Bahai centres
    1930 17 Nov Ethel Rosenberg, (b.6 August, 1858, Bath) Disciple of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá, ‘England’s outstanding Bahá’í pioneer worker’, passed away in London. She was buried in Gap Road Cemetery, Wimbledon, England. [BW4:118–119, 262-263; ER274–5; Find a grave]
  • She became a Bahá’í around 1899 and went on her first pilgrimage in 1901.
  • While ‘Abdu’l-Bahá was in London, Ethel Rosenberg was His social secretary, arranging appointments for the Master.
  • ‘Abdu’l-Bahá asked Ethel Rosenberg and a number of other people to form a committee to decide what to do about collecting funds and publishing Bahá’í books. Their first published book was ‘Abdu’l-Bahá in London.
  • She made her third pilgrimage in November 1921, but arrived just after ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’s passing. Shoghi Effendi sent her home with instructions to call for the election the first National Spiritual Assembly of England. She served on this body for a number of years. Shoghi Effendi named her an ‘Apostle of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá’. [In the Footsteps of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá p9]
  • For her obituary see BW4:262–3.
  • For her biography see Weinberg, Ethel Jenner Rosenberg and SEBW55–64.
  • London; United Kingdom Ethel Rosenberg; In Memoriam; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; Births and deaths
    1931 May The passing of Mrs Claudia Coles in London. (b. 1863 or 1866 in Charleston, South Carolina). She accepted the Faith in Washington DC and moved to London in 1920. She was elected to the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the British Isles many times and often served as secretary. [BW4264-265]
  • See tribute from Shoghi Effendi.
  • See Portraits of Some Bahá’í Women by O.Z. Whitehead, GR, Oxford, 1996 pages 29-48.
  • Washington DC; United States; London; United Kingdom Claudia Coles; In Memoriam
    1936 3–16 Jul The World Congress of Faiths was held in London under the auspices of the World Fellowship of Faiths. [GPB342; GT123]
  • Shoghi Effendi was asked in a personal letter from the chairman of the Congress, Sir Francis Younghusband, to contribute a paper, a task Shoghi Effendi delegated to George Townshend. [GT123; UD104]
  • George Townshend read the paper Bahá’u’lláh’s Ground Plan of World Fellowship, which had been approved by Shoghi Effendi. [BW7:635; GT132–3]
  • For text of the paper see BW6:614–19.
  • For the conference programme see BW7:634–45.
  • London; United Kingdom World Congress of Faiths; Francis Younghusband; George Townshend; Interfaith dialogue; Shoghi Effendi, Life of
    1938 15 Mar Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper (Maryam Khánum), the first Bahá’í of the British Isles, passed away in Kensington, London.
  • She was known to her friends as Minnie and first heard of the Bahá’í Faith in 1898 when she was 41.
  • She was an American living in London and had been married to an Englishman.
  • Shortly after reading about the Báb in an encyclopedia, by coincidence, she was invited by her friend Phoebe Hearst to be part of the first group of Western Bahá’í pilgrims to visit ‘Abdu’l-Bahá in the Holy Land.
  • She is considered to be the first person to become a Bahá’í in the UK and throughout her life was a very active member of the community.
  • She was a member of the first elected National Spiritual Assembly of England (later Great Britain).
  • She made her motor-car available to ‘Abdu’l-Bahá during His visits. [SBR30, BW4p375, In the Footsteps of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá p9]
  • For details of her life see BSR17–30.
  • For her obituary see BW8:649–51.
  • Notes: It is possibly she, rather than her mother, Mrs Thornburgh, who is referred to as a Disciple of ‘Abdu’l-Bahá in BW3:84–5. The picture is not that of Mrs Thornburgh-Cropper.
  • London; United Kingdom Mary Virginia Thornburgh-Cropper; Disciples of Abdul-Baha; In Memoriam
    1939 31 Dec Lady Sara Louisa Blomfield, entitled Sitárih Khánum, (b. 1859) passed away in London. She was buried in Hampstead Cemetery, Borough of Camden, London. [BW8:651; SEBW109]
  • For details of her life see SEBW101–110, Daily Note from Bahá'í History and Bahá'í Chronicles.
  • For her obituary see BW8:651–6.
  • Find a grave.
  • London; United Kingdom Lady Blomfield; In Memoriam
    1940 15 May Shoghi Effendi determined to go to England; he and Rúhíyyih Khánum left Haifa for Italy en route to London. [PP 178]
  • For the difficulties and dangers of this journey see PP178–80.
  • A few days after their arrival Rúhíyyih Khánum traveled to Genoa to meet her father, Sutherland Maxwell who had arrived on the S.S. Rex from Montreal. After the passing of his wife, Mr. Maxwell had been invited by Shoghi Effendi to come and live in Haifa. [PP178]
  • Haifa; Genoa; Italy; London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; World War II; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1948 (In the year) The first publication of The Pattern of Bahá'í Life in London by the Bahá'í Publishing Trust. Reprints were subsequently done in 1953, 1963 and 1983. [BEL4.189-4.190]
  • It was a selection of passages dealing with Bahá'í moral teaching and personal qualities, arranged under categories of purity, kindliness and radiance.
  • It was fully revised in 1990 on behalf of the Universal House of Justice by the National Spiritual Assembly of India. [Details]
  • London; United Kingdom Pattern of Bahai Life (compilation); Compilations
    1950. 26 Mar - 10 Apr The British Community needed 22 declarations to complete the goals of their Six Year Plan. The National Spiritual Assembly of Canada sponsored a trip by John Robarts to lend his assistance. During his 13 day stay he visited London, Manchester, Blackpool, Blackburn, Sheffield, Oxford, Dublin, Belfast, Glasgow and Edinburgh and witnessed 18 declarations. By April 10th the goal had been won. [CBN No 13 May, 1950 p4] London; Manchester; Blackpool; Blackburn; Sheffield; Oxford; Dublin; Belfast; Glasgow; Edinburgh John Robarts
    1957 4 Nov Passing of Shoghi Effendi

    Shoghi Effendi passed away in London of coronary thrombosis after a bout of Asian influenza. [CB377; PP446 BW13:207-225]

    • The 1957 influenza pandemic (the "Asian flu") was a category 2 flu pandemic outbreak of avian influenza that originated in China in early 1956 lasting until 1958. It originated from a mutation in wild ducks combining with a pre-existing human strain. A vaccine for H2N2 was introduced in 1957, and the pandemic slowed down. There was a second wave in 1958, and H2N2 went on to become part of the regular wave of seasonal flu. Estimates of worldwide deaths vary widely depending on the source, ranging from 1 million to 4 million, with WHO settling on "about two million". [Sino Biological website]
  • He was in London to purchase some furniture to complete the interior of the International Archives Building at the time of his passing. [PP445]
  • For a tribute to Shoghi Effendi written by Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum see BW13:58–226.]
  • See also Rabbání, The Guardian Of The Bahá’í Faith and The Priceless Pearl.
  • London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Shoghi Effendi, Travels of; International Bahai Archives; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; - Basic timeline, Condensed; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; Appointed arm; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Covenant (general)
    1957 9 Nov The funeral of Shoghi Effendi took place in the Great Northern Cemetery, London. [BW13:222; PP448]
  • See BW13:222 for details of the funeral service.
  • See BW13:222–5 and PP449–50 for a description of the funeral.
  • For an a account of the funeral see AY314-319.
  • London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Passing of
    1957 10 Nov The Hands of the Cause met in London. [TG157]
  • See SDSC191-195 and SDSC430 note 8 for excerpts from the transcript of the talk recorded in shorthand by Rose M Wade and given by Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum to the gathered Hands and other friends.
  • London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Passing of; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum
    1958 1 Nov The monument marking Shoghi Effendi’s resting place was completed. [MC117]
  • Dust from the Shrine of Bahá’u’lláh was placed in the foundations. [MC117] li>For a description of the resting place see BBD194–5 and MC135–6.
  • The monument was paid for from a Memorial Fund established after Shoghi Effendi’s passing. Money in excess of the amount required was spent on the teaching work and on the construction of the Temples. [MC132]
  • Marble for the monument came from Chiampo, Italy as for the Archives Building, the Shine of the Báb, the Seat of the Universal House of Justice, The Terraces project, the Monument Gardens and the Houses of Worship in India and Samoa. [BWNS1223]
  • London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Resting place of; Bahaullah, Shrine of; BWNS
    1961 5 Nov The Hands of the Cause issued a message from their fifth Conclave. [MoC313–23]
  • They called for the election of the Universal House of Justice at a convention to be held in the Holy Land on the first, second and third days of Ridván 1963. [CB392; MoC321]
  • They asked the electors to leave the Hands free to ‘discharge their duties’. [MoC321]
  • The celebration of the Most Great Jubilee, the Centenary of the Declaration of Bahá’u’lláh, was to be held in London rather than Baghdád, owing to the situation in the Middle East. [MoC322]
  • Haifa; Baghdad; Iraq; London; United Kingdom Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Activities; Hands of the Cause, Conclaves; Bahji; Most Great Jubilee; World congresses; Centenaries; Universal House of Justice, Election of; UHJ
    1963 20 Apr The Ten Year Crusade was successfully completed. The achievements of the Ten Year Crusade were celebrated at the Most Great Jubilee in April and May 1963, which commemorated the Centenary of the Declaration of Baha’u’llah’s Mission. Two historic events transpired during that time: the International Convention, convened in Haifa, Israel, to elect the first Universal House of Justice; and the World Congress held in London, England.
  • For a summary of achievements during the Crusade see BW13:459–60.
  • For countries, islands and dependencies opened to the Faith during the Crusade see BW13:461–2. (259)
  • For number of localities in which Bahá’ís reside in different parts of the world see BW13:462. (from 2,000 to more than 11,000)
  • For languages into which Bahá’í literature has been translated see BW13:462–4.
  • For races represented in the Bahá’í world community see BW13:464.
  • For national spiritual assemblies at the end of the plan see BW13:468–9. (from 12 to 56)
  • See The Bahá'í Faith: 1844-1963: Information Statistical and Comparative, Including the Achievements of the Ten Year International Bahá'í Teaching & Consolidation Plan 1953-1963 compiled by the Hands of the Cause Residing in the Holy Land.
  • Worldwide; BWC; London; United Kingdom Ten Year Crusade; Most Great Jubilee; Conventions, International; Growth; Statistics; Teaching Plans; - Basic timeline, Expanded; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline
    1963 28 Apr - 2 May The first Bahá’í World Congress, the ‘Most Great Jubilee’, was held in London to celebrate the centenary of the declaration of Bahá’u’lláh. [BW14:57]
  • For a detailed account and many pictures see BW14:57–80.
  • For the programme of speakers see BW14:60–1.
  • Some 6,000 Bahá’ís attend.
  • London; United Kingdom Most Great Jubilee; World Congresses; Centenaries; Bahaullah, Declaration of; First conferences; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1963 30 Apr The members of the Universal House of Justice were presented to the World Congress and the first statement of the House of Justice was read by David Hofman. [BW14:68]
  • For the text of the statement see BW14:431–2 and WG1–3.
  • London; United Kingdom David Hofman; Universal House of Justice, Members of; World Congresses
    1972 (In the year) The first Bahá’í studies seminar was held in London. For an account of the development of these seminars see BW18:204 and BW19:368. London; United Kingdom Bahai studies; Firsts, Other; Conferences, Other
    1975 5 Feb A strip of land facing the resting place of Shoghi Effendi was purchased by the Universal House of Justice to ensure protection of the site. [BW16:134; BW17:82; VV22] London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Resting place of
    1976 12 Sep His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II of Western Samoa visited the resting place of Shoghi Effendi. [BW17:69; VV22] Samoa; London; United Kingdom Malietoa Tanumafili II of Western Samoa; Shoghi Effendi, Resting place of
    1977 Jun At the behest of the Universal House of Justice, two conferences were held for Persian-speaking Bahá’ís resident in Europe, one in Germany and one in London. [BW17:194] Germany; London; United Kingdom; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, International; Conferences, Persian-speaking Bahais; Persian diaspora
    1980 12 Feb Hasan M. Balyuzi, Hand of the Cause of God, passed away in London. (b. 7 September, 1908, Shiraz, Iran). He was buried at the New Southgate Cemetery London. [BW18:635; VV52, Mess63-86p442]
  • For his obituary see BW18:635–51 and SBBR5:XI–XX.
  • Shoghi Effendi had appointed him among the third contingent on the 2nd of October, 1957. [MoCxxiii]
  • See Bahá'í Chronicles for a biography.
  • For a brief biography see Balyuzi, Hasan M. by Richard Francis.
  • For some essays and excerpts from Hasan Balyuzi's work see Bahá'í Library.
  • Find a grave.
  • London; United Kingdom Hasan Balyuzi; Hands of the Cause; Hands of the Cause, Births and deaths; Births and deaths; In Memoriam; Bahai studies
    1987. 1 Jul The passing of Dr Aziz Navidi (b. 9 September 1913 in Hamadan, Iran) in London. He was buried at the Great Northern Cemetery near the Resting Place of Shoghi Effendi.

    He studied law and started his legal practice in Iran at the age of 24. The National Spiritual Assembly asked him to defend the oppressed Bahá’ís of Sháhrúd, where, on 8 August 1944, three friends had been martyred and 17 Bahá’í homes had been plundered and set on fire. ‘Aziz defended them with great eloquence and undaunted courage, braving the vicious opposition of the clergy. Later he was asked to defend the Bahá'ís of Shiraz and still later those in Yazd. His unceasing endeavours won him the praise of the beloved Guardian who later designated him the “Shield of the Cause of God” and predicted that future historians would study his achievements.

    In 1953 he and his wife Shamsi pioneered to Monte Carlo in Monaco to replace Mrs French who had passed away. While at this post he studied international law at the University of Paris-Sorbonne. In 1955 the Guardian appointed him to the Commission that appealed to the United Nations in Geneva and New York about the Iranian attempt to exterminate the Bahá'í community. In 1962 he became involved with the imprisoned Bahá'ís in Algeria and Morocco.

    In 1968 Dr. Navidi became a representative of the Iranian Oil Company for its operations in the Indian Ocean and the family made their new home in Mauritius from where he worked to secure legal recognition of several of the new National Assemblies in the Indian Ocean region as he did with various African states. He fearlessly visited countries hostile to the Bahá'ís with no protection except his faith and his credentials as official lawyer to the Universal House of Justice with special status at the United Nations. His missions took him to Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Congo, Gabon, the Gambia, Kenya, Madagascar, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Zaire, and many, many other countries throughout the world. He was successful time and again in persuading democratic governments and dictators alike to alter their laws and constitutions and to officially recognize the Bahá'í Faith. [BW20p866; Navidi, Dr. Aziz (1913-1987): Intrepid Pioneer, Knight of Bahá'u'lláh by Graham Walker; KoB341-344]

    London; United Kingdom: In Memoriam; Aziz Navidi; Knight of Baha'u'llah; Shield of the Cause of God
    1988 (In the year) Branches of the Bahá’í International Community’s Office of Public Information were established in Paris and London. [VV54] Paris; London BIC
    1988 (In the year) ‘Arts for Nature’, a fund-raising programme held to benefit the work of the World Wide Fund for Nature, was held in London with the collaboration of the Bahá’í International Community. [AWH61; VV106] London; United Kingdom Bahai International Community; Arts; Nature; World Wide Fund for Nature; Environment
    1988 30 Jun - 3 Jul The Bahá’í Arts Council, Canada, held the first arts festival, ‘Invitation 88: A Festival of the Human Spirit’ at the University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario. [BINS179:2] London; Ontario; Canada Arts; Firsts, Other
    1989 4 – 6 Nov The European Bahá’í Youth Council, comprised of seven youth and appointed by the Universal House of Justice to coordinate those European youth activities that have a continental impact, met for the first time, in London. [BINS213:4; BW93–4:121] London; United Kingdom; Europe European Bahai Youth Council; Youth
    1989 15 Dec A World Forestry Charter Gathering organized by the Offices of Public Information in London and New York took place in London. [AWH75; BINS214:1–2]
  • It commemorated the centenary of the birth of Richard St Barbe Baker, the Bahá’í environmentalist who founded the Gatherings in 1945.
  • London; United Kingdom Richard St Barbe Baker; Environment
    1992 May 29 The Centenary of the Ascension of Bahá'u'lláh was commemorated at the Guardian's Resting Place in London. London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Resting place of; Centenaries; Bahaullah, Ascension of Find ref
    1992 15 Sep Amatu'l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum was officially invited to open the Exhibition of Bahá'í Manuscripts at the British Museum in London. [VV134] London; United Kingdom Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Exhibitions of Bahai manuscripts and relics; British Museum and British Library
    1994 Jul 28 The World Forestry Charter Gatherings, established by Richard St. Barbe Baker in 1945, were re-instituted by the Bahá'í International Community's Office of the Environment at a luncheon at St James's Palace, London. [AWH75; BW94–5:112–13, 142–3; OC6,2:1; VV106]
  • For pictures see BW94–5:143 and OC6,2:1, 12.
  • London; United Kingdom Environment; Richard St Barbe Baker; Baha'i International Community
    1998. 18 Feb World Faiths and Development Dialogue (WFDD) hosted an event that brought together spiritual leaders from nine major religions as well as traditional development experts. This gathering was dedicated to discussing development in the context of how faith and development organizations can cooperate to improve development as a process that encompasses both the spiritual and material aspects of life.The Bahá'í International Community contributed a paper entitled Valuing Spirituality in Development: Initial Considerations Regarding the Creation of Spiritually Based Indicators for Development. [BIC History 1 January 1998] . London; United Kingdom World Faiths Development Dialogue (WFDD); Bahai International Community; BIC statements
    1999 21 Jun The passing of Meherangiz Munsiff in London (b. 23 November, 1923 Bombay, India) Born into a Bahá'í family she travelled in India with Martha Root at the age of 14 years. She was appointed Knight of Bahá'u'lláh for the French Cameroons. In addition she visited more than 150 countries to teach and assist in the development of Bahá'í communities and was know as a lecturer and an activist among the international humanitarian community. [BW99-00p308-309] London; United Kingdom Meherangiz Munsiff; First Bahais by country or area
    2000 Nov Early in 2000 the eagle from the Guardian's Resting Place was stolen and the monument damaged in the process. Its replacement was accompanied by an understandably stricter measure of security.

    When Shoghi Effendi was interred in November 1957 London's Great Northern Cemetery (since renamed New Southgate Cemetery) was larger than it is now. Over the years parts were sold off for development, and it was in response to this process that a sizeable portion around the Guardian's Resting Place was subsequently bought for the Faith so that it could be preserved and developed suitably. The cemetery opened a new entrance and the one through which the Guardian's funeral cortege passed fell into disuse. The gates and pillars of this entrance were purchased by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United Kingdom, acting on behalf of the Universal House of Justice, and a long process to have them reinstalled in a more suitable place came to fruition in 1998. [Reference links no longer in existence.]

    London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Resting place of; Cemeteries and graves; Vandalism; Eagles
    2000 Dec A new eagle was placed atop the column at the Guardian's Resting Place and repair was done to the damage to the site when the previous one was stolen earlier this year. [Reference links no longer in existence.] London; United Kingdom Shoghi Effendi, Resting place of; Cemeteries and graves; Eagles
    2001 4 Jan The passing of Dr. Victor de Araujo of Vista, NY at the age of 78 years. He was born near London, England and spent his childhood and youth in Brazil. He came to the United Stated in 1946 as a vice consul to the Brazilian Consulate in Chicago. From 1967-1990, Dr. de Araujo served as a Representative of the Bahá'í International Community to the United Nations. In his years in this position he represented the Bahá'í International Community both at the United Nations headquarters and at numerous conferences around the world. He also participated in the preparation of Bahá'í statements on human rights, the environment, and the equality of men and women, which were presented to the United Nations. [Bahá'í Announce 5Jan2001; BW00-01p269-270] London; United Kingdom; Brazil; New York; United States Baha'i International Community; United Nations; In Memoriam; Victor de Araujo
    2001. 15 May A tribute to Ruhiyyih Khanum, much in the form of music and drama, was held at Canada House in Trafalgar Square in London. It was attended by some 150 prominent people including Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.

    The main focus of the evening was a theatrical performance entitled A Life So Noble, which had been inspired by Ruhiyyih Khanum's life. Written by Canadian-born actress/writer Beverley Evans and directed by Annabel Knight, the show took four major aspects of Khanum's life and character and personified them in four women actresses, Maria Friedman, Beverley Evans, Sarah Clive and Kerry-Ann Smith, who told her story using words taken from Ruhiyyih Khanum's own lectures and writings.[BWNS124]

    London; United Kingdom: Ruhiyyih Khanum; Prince Philip; A Life So Noble; Annabel Knight; Violette Nakhjavani
    2003 Jul His Royal Highness Prince Andrew became the first member of the Royal Family to visit the National Bahá’í Centre in London. [The referenced web site has since ceased operation.] London; United Kingdom Prince Andrew, HRH
    2004 11 Feb A member of the British Bahá'í community, Lois Hainsworth, received the award of Member of the Order of the British Empire (MBE) at Buckingham Palace.
  • The announcement of the award for services to three organizations that promote the rights of women was made in the United Kingdom's New Year's Honours List. The citation refers to Mrs. Hainsworth's services to the Women's National Commission, the Bahá'í Office for the Advancement of Women, and UNIFEM UK. [BWNS273]
  • Buckingham Palace; London; United Kingdom Lois Hainsworth; Order of the British Empire (MBE); Women; Awards; BWNS
    2009 3 – 4 Jan Regional Conferences were held in London, United Kingdom and Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. [BWNS686] London; United Kingdom; Abidjan; Côte d'Ivoire Regional Conferences; BWNS
    2017 6 Nov - 22 Jan An exhibition of Bahá'u'lláh’s writings opened at the John Addis Gallery in the British Museum.
  • One of the central themes was the power of the Word, which refers to divine revelation, a concept fundamental to the origins of all the world’s great faiths. The exhibition showed original handwriting of Bahá'u'lláh, as well as other archival items associated with His life such as His reed pens and examples of "revelation writing" by His scribe as he tried keep up with Bahá'u'lláh's dictation.
  • The exhibition, timed to commemorate the period of celebration of the 200th anniversary of His birth, was open to the public until the 22nd of January. [BWNS1220]
  • See the British Museum blog entitled Displaying the Bahá'í Faith: the pen is mightier than the sword.
  • London; United Kingdom British Museum and British Library; Exhibitions of Bahai manuscripts and relics; Relics; Bahaullah, Writings of; Exhibitions; Reed pens; Reed (general); Calligraphy; Revelation writing; Mirza Aqa Jan; Tajalliyat (Effulgences); Kalimat-i-Maknunih (Hidden Words); Bahaullah, Pen portraits of; Pen portraits; Edward Granville Browne; Gifts
    2019. 2 Oct The British Library marked the bicentenary of the birth of the Báb with various initiatives alongside the launch of a new website, Discovering Sacred Texts. With the launch of this website there were companion exhibitions which featured examples of the Faith’s original texts.
  • The library displayed three rare and exquisite pieces in its Treasures Gallery: an original of the Báb’s own handwriting, in the shape of a five-pointed star; calligraphic exercises written by Bahá’u’lláh in His childhood; and an example of “Revelation Writing”, the form in which Bahá’u’lláh’s words were recorded at speed by His secretaries as they were revealed. These manuscripts were on display at the library for six months.
  • Coinciding with the launch of the site and the exhibition was the publication of an article by Moojan Momen, specially commissioned by the library for the 200th anniversary of the birth of the Báb. Dr. Momen wrote about the three original works on display at the exhibition, set in the context of a brief historical account of the life of the Bab.
  • To further mark the bicentenary, the library invited actor and comedian Omid Djalili to stage his one-man show A Strange Bit of History written by Annabel Knight. The play recounts events surrounding the appearance of the Báb and Bahá’u’lláh. This performance ran for four days. It was first performed at the 1993 Edinburgh Festival, where it won the Spirit of the Fringe Award. Over the next four years it was performed 109 times in 10 different countries. [BWNS1358]
  • London; United Kingdom Annabel Knight; Omid Djalili; Moojan Momen; Exhibitions of Bahai manuscripts and relics; British Museum and British Library
    2019. 29 Oct The British Library published a blog to commemorate the Bicentenary of the Birth of the Báb. It is a commentary on the Star Tablet of the Báb or the Haykal. London; United Kingdom British Museum and British Library; Bab, Writings of; Talismans; Haykal and daira; Exhibitions of Bahai manuscripts and relics; Moojan Momen
    2020. 22 Sep The Association for Bahá’í Studies UK launched a new website. The core focus was on creating and supporting special interest groups: groups that correlate Bahá’í teachings to discourses in society through activities that range from informal study and discussions to publications and seminars. London; United Kingdom Bahai Studies, Associations for

    from the main catalogue

    1. 'Abdu'l-Bahá in London, by Abdu'l-Bahá (1982). [about]
    2. 'Abdu'l-Bahá's Encounter with Modernity during His Western Travels, by Wendi Momen, in Lights of Irfan, 13 (2012). Abdu'l-Baha's responses to the West's technology and innovations on the one hand, vs. its archaic racist and sexual philosophies on the other. [about]
    3. Bahá'í World, The: Volume 18 (1979-1983), in Bahá'í World (1986). [about]
    4. Bahá'u'lláh and the Fourth Estate, by Roger White, in Bahá'í World, Vol. 18 (1979-1983) (1986). Baha'u'llah's response to the martyrdom of seven Baha'is in Yazd in May, 1891, and his relationship with the media. [about]
    5. Eagle and Pillar over Shoghi Effendi's resting place, and his visits to Scotland, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum (1981). Transcript of Ruhiyyih Khanum talking about Shoghi Effendi's visits to Scotland and how the pillar and eagle came to be over his resting place [about]
    6. Signs of God on Earth, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum (1963). Talk presented at the First Baha'i World Congress in London, 1963, about pioneering, teaching indigenous people, and about her memories of the Guardian. [about]
    7. Speaking in Edinburgh, by Ruhiyyih (Mary Maxwell) Khanum (1981). Address at Edinburgh Baha'i Centre. Includes discussion of Shoghi Effendi in Scotland and the eagle and pillar at his resting place. [about]
    8. Tablet to The Times of London, by Bahá'u'lláh, in Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh, by Adib Taherzadeh, Vol. 4 (1987). Short tablet calling newspapers to investigate the Truth. [about]
     
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