Search for location "Myanmar (Burma)"
|1875 (In the year)
|| Bahá'u'lláh sent Sulaymán Khán Ilyás, Jamál Effendi, to India. [BW4:285; GPB195; MC155]
See EB120–1, 122–8 and MF134–8.
BBRSM90, 193 say he was sent in 1871 and left in 1878. BW18p246 says he arrived in 1872. EB122 says he reached Bombay in 1878 and stayed 11 years on the subcontinent.
His work helped establish Bahá'í communities in Bombay, Calcutta and Madras as well as in Burma. [BBRSM91; GPB225]
See Momen-Jamal Effendi for a map of his travels in India (1876-1879) and South-east Asia (1884-1886) as well as to Central Asia 1888-1896.
Among those he taught was Siyyid Mustafá Rúmí, who later found the Bahá'í community of Burma. [BW10:517] iiiii
||Mumbai (Bombay); Kolkata (Calcutta); Chennai (Madras); India; Myanmar (Burma)
||Sulayman Khan Ilyas; Jamal Effendi; Siyyid Mustafa Rumi
|1878 (In the year)
||Siyyid Mustafá Rúmí arrived in Burma with Jamál Effendi.
He married into a well-to-do Indo-Burman family of traders and settled in Rangoon, remaining in Burma to build up the Burmese community. [BW10:517; PH23]
See BW10:517–18 and MC155 for his conversion of Daidanaw, the first all-Bahá'í village in the world outside Iran.
See BW10:517–20 for an account of his life.
He was named a Hand of the Cause of God by the Guardian after his passing. In the village of Daidanaw, Burma (Rangoon) there is a building they call "the Shrine of Siyyid Mustafa Rumí" in his honour. [CBN253Aug-Sep1971p5]
Mustafá Rúmí and Daidanaw are mentioned in the film Exemplar (18:50-20:20). 'Abdu'l-Bahá called Daidanaw "My village".
See Jamal Effendi and Sayyid Mustafa Rumi in Celebes:
The Context of Early Bahá'í Missionary Activity in Indonesia by Jelle de Vries.
||Daidanaw; Myanmar (Burma)
||Siyyid Mustafa Rumi; Jamal Effendi; Hands of the Cause; Firsts, Other; Exemplar (film)
|1888 (In the year)
||Jamál Effendi, accompanied by Hájí Faraju'lláh-i-Tafrishí, embarked on a long journey to the East visiting Burma, Java (Indonesia), Siam (Thailand), Singapore, Kashmir, Tibet, Yarqand, Khuqand in Chinese Turkistan, and Afghanistan. [EB123–4; PH22]
||Myanmar (Burma); Java; Indonesia; Siam (Thailand); Thailand; Singapore; Kashmir; India; Tibet; Yarqand; Khuqand; Chinese Turkistan; China; Afghanistan
||Jamal Effendi; Haji Farajullah-i-Tafrishi
|1901 (In the year)
||Áqá Siyyid Mustafa [Rumi] sent from Rangoon a sample of the marble that the sarcophagus for the blessed remains of the Primal Point was to be made from. Mishkin-Qalam asked for permission to design a Greatest Name for the sarcophagus, and, as was his custom, he signed the design. In the time of Bahá'u'lláh he signed his work with “The servant of the Threshold of Bahá,
Mishkin-Qalam" but for this work his proposal had the signature, “The servant of `Abdu’l-Bahá, Mishkin-Qalam.” 'Abdu'l-Bahá was furious with him. Throughout His ministry, `Abdu’l-Bahá greatly disapproved of believers composing verses about, or glorifying, His Person in any way. He would admonish them to focus their praise on Bahá’u’lláh. [MBBA155-157]
||Rangoon; Myanmar (Burma); Haifa
||Bab, Shrine of; Mount Carmel; Bab, Remains of; Bab, Sarcophagus for; Mishkin-Qalam; Siyyid Mustafa Rumi; Abdul-Baha, Life of
|1906. 10 Nov
||Harlan Ober and Hooper Harris sailed from Hoboken, New Jersey for Naples and 'Akká on their teaching trip to India at the behest of 'Abdu'l-Bahá. (Tablet 12 March, 1906) Dr. William Moore, brother of Lua Getsinger, had been chosen to accompany Hooper Harris but he died unexpectedly. Harlan did not have the means for such a trip but Lua Getsinger loaned him the necessary funds. [BW13p868]
During their three days stopover in 'Akká 'Abdu'l-Bahá provided no instructions but promised them that "Whenever difficult questions or problems come to you, turn your hearts to the heart of 'Abdu'l-Bahá and you will receive help." They found that they were astonished with some of their own answers to questions put to them during the trip. [BW13p869]
Later 'Abdu'l-Bahá told Harlan, "Serve the people, speak in the meetings, love them in reality not through politeness, embrace them as I have embraced you. Even if you should never speak great good will be accomplished." This was to become Harlan's creed for teaching the Faith. [BW13p869]
They traveled across India, teaching the Faith, with Persian Bahá'ís Ibn-i-Abhar and Mírzá Mahmúd. See BFA266–71 for details of the trip. [Bahaipedia]
"Hooper Harris and Harlan Ober traveled, during no less than seven months, in India and Burma, visiting Bombay, Poona, Lahore, Calcutta, Rangoon and Mandalay." [GPB261]
‘Abdu’l-Bahá sent the “Tablet of Purity” to America with Hooper Harris on his return from Haifa and India. [Highlights of the First 40 Years of the Bahá’í Faith in New York, City of the Covenant, 1892-1932 by Hussein Ahdieh p10]
||Hoboken; New Jersey; India; Pakistan; Myanmar (Burma); Mumbai (Bombay); Pune (Poona); Kolkata (Calcutta); Lahore; Rangoon; Mandalay
||Harlan Ober; Hooper Harris; Travel teaching
|1909 21 Mar
||`Abdu'l-Bahá laid the sacred remains of the Báb in their final resting place at the Shrine in Haifa. [AB126; BBD210; DH138; GBF103; GPB276]
See AB126–30, CT84 and GPB273–8 for details of the occasion and its history.
The Shrine was a simple rectangular structure of six rooms. [DH71, ZK284]
The marble sarcophagus used for the remains of the Báb was a gift from the Bahá'ís of Rangoon. [AB129; MC155]
For details of the sarcophagus see RB3:431.
||BWC; Mount Carmel; Rangoon; Myanmar (Burma); Chicago; United States
||Bab, Shrine of; Bab, Sarcophagus for; Abdul-Baha, Life of; Marble; Gifts; - Bahai World Centre buildings, monuments and gardens; World Centre; - Basic timeline, Expanded
||Charles Mason Remey and Howard Struven left the United States on the first Bahá'í teaching trip to circle the globe. [BFA2:348, GPB261]
They went to Hawaii, Japan, Shanghai, Singapore, Hong Kong and to Burma, India and `Akká. [BFA2:348–50; Video Early history of the Bahá'í Faith in China 2min56sec]
||Hawaii; Japan; Shanghai; China; Singapore; Myanmar (Burma); India; Akka
||Charles Mason Remey; Howard Struven; Travel teaching
|1921. Jan - mid Mar
||Shoghi Effendi at Oxford - The Hilary Term 1921
Permission was issued by the Non-Collegiate Delegacy for the migration of Shoghi Effendi into Balliol. He now had the privilege of living in the college and fully participating in college life. [PG161]
Shoghi Effendi continued his translation work while at Oxford. During the second term (Jan - Easter or, more formally Hilary term — 1 Sunday to 9 Sundays after the feast day of St Hilary). Some examples are: Persian Hidden Words, the Tablet of Visitation, Arabic Hidden Words and the Epistle to Queen Victoria.
He read a paper on the Faith to the Oxford University Asiatic Society. For the full text of the paper see PG227-240. The paper was serialized in "The Dawn", a monthly Bahá'í journal of Burma in 1923 - 1924. [PG168-169, 259]
||Oxford; United Kingdom; Myanmar (Burma)
||Oxford University Asiatic Society; Shoghi Effendi at Oxford; Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Shoghi Effendi, Writings of; Dawn, The (newsletter); Newsletters; Translation
|1922 12 Feb
||Laura and Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney arrived in Haifa from their travel teaching trip in Burma and Bombay. [EJR208]
Between the years of 1920 to 1922 they stayed in many cities in China including Chengdu.
|Haifa; Myanmar (Burma); Mumbai (Bombay); India
||Travel teaching; Laura Clifford Barney; Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney
||The Dawn began publishing in Burma, in Burmese, English, and Persian.
||Dawn, The (newsletter); - Periodicals; Newsletters; First publications; Publications; BWNS
||The National Spiritual Assembly of India and Burma incorporated in Lahore, in the state of Punjab under the provisions of the Societies Registration Act of 1960. [GPB336]
||India; Lahore; Punjab; Pakistan; Myanmar (Burma)
||The National Spiritual Assembly of India, (Pakistan) and Burma launched a Six Year Plan, the Indian Six Year Plan (1938-1944). [Ruhi 8.2 p46, BBRSM158; The Spiritual Conquest of the Planet (Supplement) p2]
Although the plan was not initiated by Shoghi Effendi, it received his commendation and encouragement. Lack of funds prevented the plan from being implemented until 1940. [DND70-71, 96-97, 100-101; SBBH2:160]
||India; Pakistan; Myanmar (Burma)
||Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National; India, Pakistan and Burma Six Year Plan
|1942 (In the year)
||In the village of Daidanaw eleven Bahá'ís were slain. Records, books and documents that had been transferred to Daidanaw from the headquarters in Mandalay and Rangoon were lost when the headquarters building was destroyed by fire. [BW11p33]
||Daidanaw; Mandalay; Rangoon; Myanmar (Burma)
||Persecution, Myanmar (Burma); Persecution, Deaths; Persecution, Destruction; Persecution
|1943. 16 Aug
||The passing of Sydney Sprague (b. Oshkosh WI in 1875) in Los Angeles. He was buried in Inglewood Cemetery. His grave is beside that of Tom Collins, husband of Amelia Collins, and lies just across the road from the grave of Thornton Chase, "First Bahá'í of America." [BW9p633-635]
During a pilgrimage in late 1904 'Abdu'l-Bahá suggested he visit the Bahá'ís of the East. He toured India and Burma from December 1904 until the summer of 1905 becoming the first Western Bahá'í of go to the far Orient fulfilling Bahá'u'lláh's prophecy the "The East and West shall embrace as lovers". [YBIB6] iiiii
See YBIB55-60 For the story of Kai Khosroe, the Zoroastrian Bahá'í from Bombay who gave his life while nursing Sprague in Lahore when he was deathly ill with typhoid fever.
In 1908 he became a resident of Tehran, first teaching in the Bahá'í school and, when he returned the following year, he became principal.
He married a niece of 'Abdul'-Bahá and became a brother-in-law of Ameen Fareed. When Fareed was expelled from the Faith in 1914 Sprague and his wife as well as his father-in-law followed. Fareed's father was Mírzá Asadu'lláh-i-Isfahání, the emissary who had taken the remains of the Báb from Iran to the Holy Land [Efforts to preserve the remains of the Bab]. Sprague applied to be reinstated in 1931 (or 1937) and was finally accepted in 1941, two years before his passing. [BW9p633-635]
He made a teaching trip to South America and died soon after his return to the United States. [AB409]
He was the author of The Story of the Bahai Movement published in London in 1907 and A Year with the Bahá'ís of India and Burma in May of 1908. [YBIBxi] iiiii
- He married Farahangiz Khanum on the 20th of July, 1910, a day selected by 'Abdu'l-Bahá so that Stanwood Cobb could attend. The Bahá'í wedding was performed by 'Abdu'l-Bahá and the legal ceremony was conducted by a mullá four days later. [BN Vol 1 No 12 October 1910 p 7]
|Los Angeles; United States; India; Myanmar (Burma); Lahore; Pakistan
||Sydney Sprague; Covenant-breakers; Ameen Fareed (Amin Farid); Mirza Asadullah-i-Isfahani; Kai Khosroe; Travel teaching; In Memoriam
|1945. 13 Mar
||The murder of Siyyid Mustafá Rúmí. who became a Baha'i in 1875 through the teaching of Jamal Effendi. He was nearly 99 years old at the time of his death.
He was born of a noble family from Iraq who had settled in Madras, India where he encounter Jamal Effendi. Together they journeyed to Burma in 1878 and he married and settle in Rangoon. In 1899 he and some others carried the marble casket made by the Bahá'ís of Mandalay to the Holy Land for the Holy Remains of the Báb. After the loss of his wife and his business interests in 1910 he was free to devote his full time to the Faith. He was instrumental in establishing a new centre in Daidanaw in the township of Kungyangoon.
Among his many services for the Faith he translated the Writing to Urdu and to Burmese.
Shoghi Effendi in a cable dated 10 November, 1945, written on his behalf, described the condition of the Burmese Bahá'ís at the end of World War II. The cable stated:
The Guardian announced his elevation to the rank of Hand of the Cause of God on the 14th of July, 1945 and made a donation for the construction of his tomb. [MoCxxi, BW10p517-520i]
For his obituary see BW10:517–20.
For Shoghi Effendi’s tribute see BW10:519–20 and DND216-217.
Picture of his resting place.
See Lights of Fortitude p123-128,
. . . the Burmese Bahá'ís . . . have lost almost everything, including Bahá'í institutions destroyed and, above all, their wonderful pioneer-teacher, Siyyid Mustafa Roumi, was cruelly murdered by Burmese villagers together with a number of other Bahá'ís. But they have gathered in their ruined village, and with the utmost faith and devotion are seeking to rebuild their Baha' institutions; they have already started their school and elected their Assembly. Such evidences of the deep attachment of Bahá'ís to their religion are, indeed, inspiring! . . .
|Myanmar (Burma); Daidanaw; Thingagyun
||In Memoriam; Hands appointed posthumously by Shoghi Effendi; Siyyid Mustafa Rumi; Jamal Effendi
||India and Burma launched a Four and One-Half Year Plan, Indian 4½ Year Plan. (1946-1951) [Ruhi 8.2 p46; BW11p32; DND141-143; The Spiritual Conquest of the Planet (Supplement) p2]
The goals were:
- To increase the number of Local Assemblies from 21 to 63
- To give special attention to areas marked by sharp cultural and political divisions
As the plan unfolded, the National Assembly added the following additional goals:
- To publish the Esslemont book - ‘Bahá’u’lláh and the New Era’ in eighteen new languages
- To acquire a National Hazíratu’l-Quds in New Delhi
- To carry the Bahá’í message to Sri Lanka, Indonesia and Thailand
|India; Pakistan; Myanmar (Burma)
||Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National; India, Pakistan and Burma Four and a Half Year Teaching Plan
|1946 Oct 11
||The Bahá'ís of Iran launched a Forty-five Month Plan, the Persian 45 Month Plan ( 11 October 1946 to 9 July 1950, The Centenary of the Martyrdom of the Báb). Every province had specific assignments. [BBRSM158; CB316]
The objectives of the plan included;
1. Consolidation of all local Bahá'í communities.
2. Reestablishment of 62 dissolved Assemblies. (93 LSAs formed)
3. Formation of 22 groups. (37 established)
4. Creation of 13 new centres. (24 localities established)
5. Development of Assemblies from groups in three adjoining countries, namely in Kabul, Afghanistan, Mecca, Arabia and Bahrein Island, Persian Gulf.
6. The formation of groups in four localities on the Arabian Peninsula.
7. The sending pioneers to India and 'Iráq to assist in the formation of new groups.
The Bahá'ís of Tehran were called upon to send out 50 families into the pioneer field. (160 arose) Every individual Bahá'í was included in the operation of the Plan-as a volunteer, by deputizing a pioneer, by contributing funds, by circuit teaching or by providing hospitality to students whose parents had become pioneers. [BW4p34-35; BW11p34-36]
Concurrent with the Forty-Five Month Plan the Bahá'ís of Iran made a concerted effort to remove Bahá'í women from the traditional shackles of a lack of education and an inability to participate in public affairs. Women's conferences were held, educational opportunities were created, equality of opportunity, right and privilege was declared to be an essential. [BW11p36].
|Iran; India; Pakistan; Myanmar (Burma)
||Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National; Social and economic development; Women
||The National Spiritual Assembly of India and Burma added the newly formed nation of Pakistan to their unit. As the state of Pakistan was created on the 14th of August 1947 it can be assumed that the National Spiritual Assembly of India, Pakistan and Burma was created after this date. In a letter from the Guardian 24 October 1947 he mentions all three nations as one unit. [MSEIp289]
||India; Myanmar (Burma)
||National Spiritual Assembly, formation; India and Burma
||The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of India, Pakistan and Burma launched the Indian Nineteen Month Plan (1951-1953). [Ruhi 8.2 p46; BBRSM158; DND148–50]
Some goals were:
- To offer Rs 2,500,000 to the Shrine of the Báb Fund
- To enrich Bahá’í literature in local languages
- To send pioneers to Malaysia, Singapore, Nepal, Vietnam, Zanzibar and Madagascar
- To increase the number of Local Spiritual Assemblies in India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka
- To enhance the status of the Bahá’í New Era School in Panchgani
|India; Pakistan; Myanmar (Burma)
||Teaching Plans; Teaching Plans, National
|1957 26 Dec
||The passing of Mirzā Asad-Allāh, known as Fāżel Māzandarāni (b. Bábol, Persia 1881).
He became a Bahá'í in Tehran in 1909. He travelled to Egypt in 1919-1911 where he met with 'Abdu'l-Bahá and was send to India and Burma to promote the Faith.
'Abdu'l-Bahá sent him to North America for the period 1920-1921. He arrived in North America with Manúchihr Khán in time to speak at the National Convention. His purpose was to assist and stimulate the Bahá'í communities. He departed for the Holy Land on the 9th of July, 1921. [AB443; SBR88]
Mírzá Asadu'lláh Fádil-i-Mázandarání visited North America again in 1923-1925 at the request of Shoghi Effendi. [Fádl Mázandarání, Mírzá Asadu'lláh by Moojan Momen]
See Jináb-i-Fádil Mazandarání in the United States by Fadl Mazandarani (published as Jinab-i-Fadil Mazandarani) compiled by Omeed Rameshni for transcripts of his talks.
In about 1924 Shoghi Effendi wrote to the Central Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Persia, asking them to gather materials towards the compilation of a general history of the Bahá'í faith. Initially this work was handed to a committee and Fāżel served as the liaison between this committee and the Assembly, of which he was himself a member at the time. However, after the committee failed to make significant progress, Fāżel took on the responsibility to compile this work himself. His work, Ẓohur-al-Ḥaqq (variously also called Tāriḵ-e Ẓohur-al-Ḥaqq and Ketāb-e Ẓohur-al-Ḥaqq) is said to be the most comprehensive history of the first century of the Bahá'í faith yet written. It records the full biographies of the Báb, Bahá'u'lláh, and ʿAbdu'l-Baháʾ, the Faith’s leading disciples and learned members, poets, martyrs, and other prominent personalities. It covers the history of the persecutions of the Bahá'ís; discusses the internal crises of the faith and, more significantly, contains excerpts from the holy writings and includes documentation and a considerable number of pictures. It was compiled in nine volumes: volumes 1-3 completed in May of 1932, the fourth in February, 1936, and the final volume in 1943. For various reasons it has not been translated into English. [Ẓohur-al-Ḥaqq]
Other works of Fāżel include his dictionary of commonly used proper terms and titles in Bahá'í literature, Asrār al-āṯār, which was published in five volumes (1967-72) of more than 1,600 pages.
Fāżel’s other major work, Amr wa ḵalq, contains hundreds of selections from the Bahá'í holy writings grouped under topics related to philosophical, theological, religious, and administrative matters. The work was published in Iran (1954-74) in four volumes.
The Collected Works of Asadu'llah Fadil Mazandarani.
Note: There is some question about whether Shoghi Effendi considered him a Hand of the Cause. See letter addressed to Dr Peter Smith sent on behalf of the Universal House of Justice 11 August 1998 found on Baha'i Library Online. The message concludes by saying that the Universal House of Justice, in a memorandum dated 1 April 1979, has instructed that additional names should not be included in the list of the Hands of the Cause. The list of Hands of the Cause can be found at BW14p445-466.
|Babol; Iran; Tihran; India; Myanmar (Burma); United States
||Mirza Asadullah Fadil-i-Mazandarani; Amr va Khalq; In Memoriam; Births and deaths; Bahai studies; Bahai history; Zuhur al-Haqq (Zuhurul-Haqq); Translation
||Separate National Spiritual Assemblies were formed for India and Burma. Up until 1957 this group had included Pakistan. [BW13p300]
For the letter of the Custodians to the national convention of Burma see MC155–7.
See a picture of the first National Spiritual Assembly of Burma.
||Myanmar (Burma); India
||National Spiritual Assembly of India; National Spiritual Assembly of Myanmar (Burma); Custodians; National Spiritual Assembly, formation
|1974 May c.
||The first National Youth Conference of Burma took place during the visit of Hand of the Cause Amatu’l-Bahá Rúhíyyih Khánum. [BW16:251]
||Amatul-Baha Ruhiyyih Khanum; Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Youth; First conferences
from the Main Catalogue
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- Additional Tablets, Extracts and Talks, by Abdu'l-Bahá (2018/2023). 167 selections, updated August 2023. [about]
- Bahá'í News Publications Seek to Elevate Thought, Inspire Action, by Bahá'í World News Service, in Bahá'í World (2018-10-12). Brief overview of the histories of various Bahá'í journals: Star of the West, Khurshid-i khavar, Sonne der Wahrheit, Wirklichkeit, The Dawn, Herald of the South, The Bahá'í World, World Order, and Bahá’í World News Service. [about]
- Bahá'í Teachings, Aspects of, by Universal House of Justice (1997-08-06). Authenticity of Statements; Mathnavi; Quranic quotations; Marriage Prayer; 'Sun' and 'Moon'; Hands of the Cause; Night of Power; Khatt-i-Badi; Sarcophagus for Bahá'u'lláh; International Bahá'í Library Building; Lunar Calendar and Holy Days; Leiden; Kings. [about]
- Jamál Effendi and the early history of the Bahá'í Faith in South Asia, by Moojan Momen, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 9 (1999). Includes maps on Jamal Effendi's journeys in India, and journeys in Southeast Asia. [about]
- Myanmar: History of the Bahá'í Faith, by Rose Ong and Chek Woo Foo (2008). Text and photos of the history of Bahá'í activities in Burma and Myanmar, 1878-1995. [about]
- Ridván 1996 (Four Year Plan) - To the Followers of Bahá'u'lláh in Cambodia, Hong Kong, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Macau, Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam: Bahá'í Era 153, by Universal House of Justice (1996). Country-specific portion of the annual message to the Bahá'ís of the world: East Asia. [about]
- Year With the Bahá'ís of India and Burma, A, by Sydney Sprague (1908/1986). An early account of the author's personal experiences in India circa 1904 and 1907, relating his interactions with the Bahá'ís and what the Bahá'í cause was doing in India and Burma. [about]
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