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1913. 16 Jun The Second Balkan War broke out on 16 June 1913 when Bulgaria, dissatisfied with the territorial gains it had made in the Treaty of London (1913), attacked its former allies, Serbia and Greece. Those armies repulsed the Bulgarian offensive and then attacked, penetrating into Bulgaria. Romania and the Ottomans used the opportunity to intervene against Bulgaria to make territorial gains. In the resulting Treaty of Constantinople (29 September 1913) with a redrawing of borders on ethnical lines they recovered Adrianople. [Colonialism, Nationalism and Jewish Immigration to Palestine: Abdu´l-Baha’s Viewpoints Regarding the Middle East by Kamran Ekbal p6] Bulgaria; Romania; Serbia; Greece; Constantinople; Adrianople; Turkey
1926 28 Jan Martha Root sent a note and a copy of Bahá’u’lláh and the New Era to Queen Marie of Romania. [GBF42; GPB390; MR242] Romania Martha Root; Queen Marie of Romania; Esslemont
1926 30 Jan Martha Root met with Queen Marie of Romania for the first time. [BBR59; GBF42; GPB390; PP107, HEC49]
  • For the details of the meeting and the acceptance of the Faith by Queen Marie see GBP389–96, BW6p580 and MR240–6.
  • This was the first of eight meetings between Martha Root and Queen Marie.
  • Bucharest; Romania Martha Root; Queen Marie of Romania; Bahai royalty; Royalty
    1926. 30 Jan Martha Root's first interview with Queen Marie of Romania. The date of the meeting was 10 May 1925 according to his account. [BW14p555]

    See Martha Root: Herald of the Kingdom compiled by Kay Zinky p105-115. This meeting is dated as 30 January 1926 (p105-106)

    See as well Martha Root Lioness at the Threshold by M R Garis p240-247. This meeting is dated as 30 January 1926 (p242)

    Bucharest; Romania
    1926 4 May Queen Marie of Romania wrote three articles as a testimonial to the Bahá’í Faith for a syndicated series entitled ‘Queen’s Counsel’, which appeared in over 200 newspapers in the United States and Canada. [BBR61, HEC57-58, MR245, BW2p174-6]
  • For text of the articles see BBR60–1.
  • For Shoghi Effendi’s response see BA110–13 and UD56–8.
  • United States; Romania Queen Marie of Romania; Newspaper articles
    1934 23 Jan Shoghi Effendi gave Queen Marie of Romania the gift of a Tablet in the handwriting of Bahá’u’lláh. [GBF50; PP116] Romania Shoghi Effendi, Life of; Queen Marie of Romania; Gifts; Manuscripts; Shoghi Effendi, Basic timeline; - Basic timeline, Expanded
    1936 Feb Martha Root met with Queen Marie of Romania for the eighth and last time. [MRHK413] Romania Martha Root; Queen Marie of Romania
    1938 25 Jul The passing of Queen Marie of Romania. [BBD144; GPB395]
  • For her services to the Bahá’í Faith see GPB389–96.
  • For tributes paid by her to the Bahá’í Faith see BW8:269–71.
  • For her relationship with the Bahá’í Faith see BW8:271–6.
  • For tributes to her see BW8276–82.
  • For her biography see Her Eternal Crown - Queen Marie Of Romania And The Baha'i Faith by Della Marcus and published by George Ronald Publisher.
  • In 2018 a film was made about her life titled Maria Inima Romaniei (Maria Heart of Romania) by John Florescu of Chainsaw Film Productions. Trailer.
  • Romania Queen Marie of Romania; In Memoriam; Births and deaths
    1968 Nov Fereidun Khazrai arrived in Romanian and was designated a Knight of Bahá'u'lláh. [Bahaipedia] Romania Knight of Bahaullah; Fereidun Khazrai
    1974. 19 - 30 Aug The 3rd World Population Conference was held in Bucharest, Romania. The Conference was attended by representatives of 135 countries. The debate focused on the relationship between population issues and development. The Conference adopted the World Population Plan of Action, which stated, among other principles, that the essential aim is the social, economic and cultural development of countries, that population variables and development are interdependent and that population policies and objectives are an integral part (constituent elements) of socio-economic development policies. [United Nations site]
  • The Bahá'í International Community delegates to this conference presented the brochure, One World, One People - A Bahá'í View.
  • The paper emphasized that 'effective medium and long-range plans for solving the world food problem must rest on a conviction, by the individual and society, of the organic oneness of humanity, and a commitment to education and work that will be of service not only to one's fellow citizens, but to mankind as a whole', and suggested, among other considerations, that 'agriculture must be acknowledged as a vital human occupation and given a position of prestige in society'.
  • Delegates to the conference included Dr. Victor de Araujo, Miss Anneliese Bopp, Dr. Marco G. Kappenberger, and Mr. André McLaughlin. [BW16p344]
  • Bucharest; Romania United Nations; Bahai International Community; Victor de Araujo; Anneliese Bopp; Marco G. Kappenberger; Andre McLaughlin
    1990 21 Mar The first local spiritual assembly formed in Eastern Europe since the Second World War was elected in Cluj, Romania. [AWH73; BINS221:4; 100 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Europe by Seena Fazel and Graham Hassall] Cluj; Romania; Eastern Europe Local Spiritual Assembly; Firsts, Other
    1990. 21 Mar The first local spiritual assembly since the second world war in Eastern Europe was elected on 21 March 1990 in Cluj, Romania. [100 Years of the Bahá'í Faith in Europe by Seena Fazel and Graham Hassall]
  • Counsellor Don Rogers represented the International Teaching Centre.
  • Cluj; Romania Local Spiritual Assembly, formation
    1990. 12 Nov 12 November 1990:

    To the Followers of Bahá’u’lláh throughout the World


    The Universal House of Justice [Mess86-01p178]

    USSR; Romania; Czechoslovakia; Hungary; Yugoslavia; Albania; Bulgaria; Mongolia; Poland Supplementary Two Year Plan; Plans
    1990 30 Nov - 2 Dec The First National Teaching Conference of the Bahá'ís of Romania was held near Poiana Brasov, in the Carpathian mountains. [CBN Feb 91p14] Poiana Brasov; Romania Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, teaching; First conferences
    1991 Feb The Faith became officially recognized as a "religious association" in Romania. [CBNJun91pg12] Romania Recognition (legal)
    1991 8 - 14 Feb The first Bahá'í Winter School of Romania was held in Felix, attended by 80 Bahá'ís. [BINS241:3] Felix; Romania First summer and winter schools
    1991 Ridván Romania has had a Bahá'í community since 1926, including Marie of Edinburgh, Queen of Romania at that time. After the fall of communism in Romania, which generally had outlawed religion, the Romanian Bahá'í community organized to form its first National Spiritual Assembly. The National Spiritual Assembly of Romania was formed with its seat in Bucharest. About 200 believers were present at the inaugural National Convention. [AWH86; BINS246:1; VV113]
  • Photo of the first National Spiritual Assembly.
  • From the Ridván Message...
      ...the Government has recognized the Bahá'í community as a religious association with the right to spread the teachings of Bahá'u'lláh

    In 2005 the Romanian Bahá'í community numbered some 7000, but in January 2007 a law was passed that had restrictive requirements for religious communities to be recognized, which Bahá'ís and other religions could not meet. Some of the restrictions include waiting twelve years from petitioning for recognition and to have over 22,000 members. [ROMANIA: Too much power for the state and recognised communities?]

  • Bucharest; Romania National Spiritual Assembly, formation; Persecution, Romania
    1991 15 – 21 Jul The first European Bahá'í Youth Conference of Romania was held in Neptune. [BINS253:9; VV74]
  • For picture see VV74.
  • Neptune; Romania; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International
    1992 April The first Bahá'í Youth School of Romania was held in Curtea de Arges, attended by 60 Bahá'ís. [BINS269:5] Curtea de Arges; Romania
    1992 23 – 26 Nov The Second World Congress was held in New York City to commemorate the centenary of the passing of Bahá'u'lláh and the completion of the Six Year Plan. It was attended by some 28,000 Bahá'ís from some 180 countries. [BBD240; VV136-141; BW92-93p95-102, 136]
  • Nine auxiliary conferences were held in Buenos Aires, Sydney, New Delhi, Nairobi, Panama City, Bucharest, Moscow, Apia and Singapore. [BINS283:3-4]
  • For pictures see [BINS283:9-10], [BW92-3p100] and [VV136-141]
  • "New York will become a blessed spot from which the call to steadfastness in the Covenant and Testament of God will go forth to every part of the world." - 'Abdu'l-Bahá [AWH77-8 90-1 105-6]
  • On the 25th of November a concert was held in Carnegie Hall as a birthday tribute to Dizzy Gillespie called "Celebrating the Bahá'í Vision of World Peace". [VV141]
  • On the 26th of November Bahá'ís around the world were linked together by a live satellite broadcast serving the second Bahá'í World Congress, the nine auxiliary conferences and the Bahá'í World Centre and it was received by those with access to satellite dish antennas. [BINS283:1–5, 8; BINS286:10; BINS287:4]
  • For the message of the Universal House of Justice read on the satellite link see BW92–3:37–4.
  • For accounts of personal experiences by some of the attendees see In the Eyes of His Beloved Servants: The Second Bahá'í World Congress and Holy Year by J. Michael Kafes.
  • The film, 'Abdu'l-Bahá: Mission to America, made by Elizabeth Martin, was prepared for the World Congress program and also used in the Theme Pavilion. [HNWE45]
  • New York; United States; Buenos Aires; Argentina; Sydney; Australia; New Delhi; India; Nairobi; Kenya; Panama; Bucharest; Romania; Moscow; Russia; Apia; Samoa; Singapore World Congresses; Carnegie Hall; Centenaries; Bahaullah, Ascension of; Dizzy Gillespie; - Basic timeline, Expanded; film; Abdul-Baha: Mission to America; Elizabeth Martin
    1994 Jul 20 – 25 The European Bahá'í Youth Council sponsored five regional ‘Shaping Europe' conferences, in Berlin, Bucharest, St Petersburg, Barcelona and Wolverhampton, United Kingdom. [BINS323:3–5; BW94–5:177–8, 189] Berlin; Germany; Bucharest; Romania; St Petersburg; Russia; Barcelona; Portugal; Wolverhampton; United Kingdom; Europe Conferences, Bahai; Conferences, Youth; Conferences, International; Youth
    2005. Jan Doris Katzenstein, originally from Germany, pioneered to Lithuania, first to Kalaipeda and finally settling in Palanga where she taught German and English at the Palanga University of the Third Age. [Website]

    She first encountered the Faith on board a ship from fellow passengers, Martin and Gerda Aiff and their children, who where on their way to Windhoek. She retuned to Germany after three years and accepted the Faith in about April of 1963 and after the opening of the Frankfurt Temple in the summer of 1964 she returned to Windhoek, eventually settling in Elizabeth Bay where she served by teaching children's classes. After four years he returned to Germany and locate in Ulm. While preparing to return to Windhoek she received the news of her appointment as an Auxiliary Board Member.

    In 1971 she pioneered to Manaia, Romania where she worked as a tourist guide for 4 1/2 seasons. She did international travel teaching in Korea, Thailand, Rangoon, where she visited Daidanaw, known as Àbdu'l-Bahá's Village. [information from "Thursday Night@7PM" 7 December 2023]

    Kalaipeda; Lithuania; Palanga; Lithuania; Manaia; Romania; Daidanaw; Yangon (Rangoon) Pioneering
    2007 Jan In Romania, a law was passed to supersede the 1948 Communist-era religion laws. It imposed restrictive requirements on religious communities that wished to be recognized by the government, which Bahá'ís and adherents of other minority religions could not meet. [Form 18 News Service; Wikipedia] Romania Persecution, Romania; Persecution
    2018 summer Starting with the summer of 2018, Romania hosted the Seminars of the Institute for Global Prosperity Studies for Eastern European students. Young people from the following countries participated: Albania, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Cyprus, Croatia, Estonia, Greece, Kosovo, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Hungary. [Romanian Bahá'í website] Romania Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity (ISGP)

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    from the Main Catalogue

    1. Encyclopaedia Iranica: Selected articles related to Persian culture, religion, philosophy and history, by Encyclopaedia Iranica, in Encyclopaedia Iranica (1982-2023). Sorted, categorized collection of links to over 170 articles. [about]
    2. Extract from Brochure "One World, One People - A Bahá'í View", by Bahá'í International Community (1974). Short selection from a brochure presented by the Baha’i International Community to delegates attending the United Nations World Population Conference and World Food Conference in 1974. [about]
    3. Her Eternal Crown: Queen Marie of Romania and the Bahá'í Faith, by Della L. Marcus: Review, by Robert Postlethwaite, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 11:1-2 (2000). [about]
    4. In Memoriam: Heshmat Shariary (1934-2018), in Lights of Irfan, 19 (2018). Overview of the life of an active participant in the Irfan Colloquia and Bahá'í studies. [about]
    5. Mission of Bahá'u'lláh, The: And Other Literary Pieces, by George Townshend (1952). Poems, meditations, and essays, including "Nabíl’s history of the Báb," "Abdu’l-Bahá: A study of a Christlike character," "Queen Marie of Rumania and the Bahá’í Faith," "The wellspring of happiness," and "The genius of Ireland." [about]
    6. Queen Marie and the Baha'i Faith, by Robert Postlethwaite, in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 6:2 (1994). On the first monarch to embrace the Bahá'í Faith; the stature and the character of Queen Marie and her unique position in the early 20th century; her identification as a Bahá'í and her plan to visit Haifa in 1929; her relationship with Martha Root. [about]
    7. References to the Bahá'í Faith in the U.S. State Department's Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, by United States Department of State (1991-2001). Excerpts from the State Department's annual compilation of Country Reports on Human Rights Practices on discrimination against the Bahá'í Faith and persecution of its adherents in twenty countries. [about]
    8. Shoghi Effendi in Oxford, by Riaz Khadem, and Her Eternal Crown, Queen Marie of Romania and the Bahá'í Faith, by Della Marcus: Reviews, by Lil Osborn, in Bahá'í Studies Review, 10 (2001). [about]
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